Articles | Volume 13, issue 21
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10659–10675, 2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
04 Nov 2013
Research article | 04 Nov 2013
A global tropospheric ozone climatology from trajectory-mapped ozone soundings
G. Liu et al.
J. Liu, D. W. Tarasick, V. E. Fioletov, C. McLinden, T. Zhao, S. Gong, C. Sioris, J. J. Jin, G. Liu, and O. Moeini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11441–11464,
Juseon Bak, Eun-Ji Song, Hyo-Jung Lee, Xiong Liu, Ja-Ho Koo, Joowan Kim, Wonbae Jeon, Jae-Hwan Kim, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Our study investigates the temporal variations of ozone profiles in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at Pohang in Korean Peninsula from multiple ozone products. We discussed the quantitative relationships between daily surface measurements and key meteorological variables, different seasonality of ozone in the lower troposphere from upper troposphere, and interannual changes of the lower tropospheric ozone, linked by the Asian monsoon driven weather pattern.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xiushu Qie, Xugeng Cheng, Yukun Shen, Mengmiao Yang, Rubin Jiang, and Xiangke Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8221–8240,Short summary
A vigorous surface ozone surge event of stratospheric origin occurred in the North China Plain at night. Surface ozone concentrations were 40–50 ppbv higher than the corresponding monthly mean, whereas surface carbon monoxide concentrations declined abruptly, which confirmed the direct stratospheric intrusions to the surface. We further addressed the notion that a combined effect of the dying typhoon and mesoscale convective systems was responsible for this vigorous ozone surge.
Kang Sun, Mahdi Yousefi, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Gonzalo González Abad, Iouli E. Gordon, Xiong Liu, Ewan O'Sullivan, Christopher E. Sioris, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 3721–3745,Short summary
This study of upper atmospheric airglow from oxygen is motivated by the need to measure oxygen simultaneously with methane and CO2 in satellite remote sensing. We provide an accurate understanding of the spatial, temporal, and spectral distribution of airglow emissions, which will help in the satellite remote sensing of greenhouse gases and constraining the chemical and physical processes in the upper atmosphere.
Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, Kleareti Tourpali, John P. Burrows, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6843–6859,Short summary
Long-term trends in column ozone have been determined from five merged total ozone datasets spanning the period 1978–2020. We show that ozone recovery due to the decline in stratospheric halogens after the 1990s (as regulated by the Montreal Protocol) is evident outside the tropical region and amounts to half a percent per decade. The ozone recovery in the Northern Hemisphere is however compensated for by the negative long-term trend contribution from atmospheric dynamics since the year 2000.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Kathy S. Law, Jens Liengaard Hjorth, Henrik Skov, Stephen R. Arnold, Joakim Langner, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Rong-You Chien, Jesper H. Christensen, Makoto Deushi, Xinyi Dong, Gregory Faluvegi, Mark Flanner, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Ulas Im, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, David A. Plummer, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Ragnhild Skeie, Manu A. Thomas, Kostas Tsigaridis, Svetlana Tsyro, Steven T. Turnock, Knut von Salzen, and David W. Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This study summarizes recent research on ozone in the Arctic, a sensitive and rapidly warming region. We find that the seasonal cycles of near-surface atmospheric ozone is variable depending on whether near the coast or in-land. Several global model simulations were evaluated and we found that because models lack some of the ozone chemistry that is important for the coastal Arctic locations, they do not accurate simulate ozone there.
Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Fei Liu, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
Satellite observations provide information on the sources of SO2, an important pollutant that affects both air quality and climate. However, these observations suffer from relatively poor data quality due to weak signals of SO2. Here, we use a machine learning technique to analyse satellite SO2 observations in order to reduce the noise and artifacts over relatively clean areas while keeping the signals near pollution sources. This leads to significant improvement in satellite SO2 data.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nickolay Krotkov, Fei Liu, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4201–4236,Short summary
The COVID-19 lockdown had a large impact on anthropogenic emissions and particularly on nitrogen dioxide (NO2). A new method of isolation of background, urban, and industrial components in NO2 is applied to estimate the lockdown impact on each of them. From 16 March to 15 June 2020, urban NO2 declined by −18 % to −28 % in most regions of the world, while background NO2 typically declined by less than −10 %.
Amir H. Souri, Kelly Chance, Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, and Matthew S. Johnson
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 41–59,Short summary
The central component of satellite and model validation is pointwise measurements. A point is an element of space, whereas satellite (model) pixels represent an averaged area. These two datasets are inherently different. We leveraged some geostatistical tools to transform discrete points to gridded data with quantified uncertainty, comparable to satellite footprint (and response functions). This in part alleviated some complications concerning point–pixel comparisons.
Amir H. Souri, Kelly Chance, Juseon Bak, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Yeonjin Jung, David C. Wong, Jingqiu Mao, and Xiong Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18227–18245,Short summary
The global pandemic is believed to have an impact on emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO). This study quantifies the changes in the amount of NOx and VOC emissions via state-of-the-art inverse modeling technique using satellite observations during the lockdown 2020 with respect to a baseline over Europe, which in turn, it permits unraveling atmospheric processes being responsible for ozone formation in a less cloudy month.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Mengmiao Yang, and Hong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16911–16923,Short summary
Using a large ensemble of typhoons, we investigate the impacts of evolving typhoons on tropospheric ozone and address the linkages between typhoon-affected meteorological conditions and ozone variations. The influences of typhoon-induced stratospheric intrusions on lower-troposphere ozone are also quantified. Thus, the results obtained in this study have important implications for a full understanding of the multifaced roles of typhoons in modulating tropospheric ozone variation.
Nicolas Theys, Vitali Fioletov, Can Li, Isabelle De Smedt, Christophe Lerot, Chris McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Debora Griffin, Lieven Clarisse, Pascal Hedelt, Diego Loyola, Thomas Wagner, Vinod Kumar, Antje Innes, Roberto Ribas, François Hendrick, Jonas Vlietinck, Hugues Brenot, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16727–16744,Short summary
We present a new algorithm to retrieve sulfur dioxide from space UV measurements. We apply the technique to high-resolution TROPOMI measurements and demonstrate the high sensitivity of the approach to weak SO2 emissions worldwide with an unprecedented limit of detection of 8 kt yr−1. This result has broad implications for atmospheric science studies dealing with improving emission inventories and identifying and quantifying missing sources, in the context of air quality and climate.
Catherine Wilka, Susan Solomon, Doug Kinnison, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15771–15781,Short summary
We use satellite and balloon measurements to evaluate modeled ozone loss seen in the unusually cold Arctic of 2020 in the real world and compare it to simulations of a world avoided. We show that extensive denitrification in 2020 provides an important test case for stratospheric model process representations. If the Montreal Protocol had not banned ozone-depleting substances, an Arctic ozone hole would have emerged for the first time in spring 2020 that is comparable to those in the Antarctic.
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11133–11160,Short summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show potential distribution biases of NOx emissions in the National Emissions Inventory 2011 at both 36 and 4 km resolutions, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results.
Carly Staebell, Kang Sun, Jenna Samra, Jonathan Franklin, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Eamon Conway, Kelly Chance, Scott Milligan, and Steven Wofsy
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3737–3753,Short summary
Given the high global warming potential of CH4, the identification and subsequent reduction of anthropogenic CH4 emissions presents a significant opportunity for climate change mitigation. Satellites are an integral piece of this puzzle, providing data to quantify emissions at a variety of spatial scales. This work presents the spectral calibration of MethaneAIR, the airborne instrument used as a test bed for the forthcoming MethaneSAT satellite.
Da Gao, Min Xie, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Haokun Bai, Xing Chen, Mengmeng Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Shu Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5847–5864,Short summary
O3 has been increasing in recent years over the Yangtze River Delta region of China and is closely associated with dominant weather systems. Still, the study on the impact of changes in synoptic weather patterns (SWPs) on O3 variation is quite limited. This work aims to reveal the unique features of changes in each SWP under O3 variation and quantifies the effects of meteorological conditions on O3 variation. Our findings could be helpful in strategy planning for O3 pollution control.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Robert Spurr, Kai Yang, Caroline R. Nowlan, Christopher Chan Miller, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2659–2672,Short summary
We apply a principal component analysis (PCA)-based approach combined with lookup tables (LUTs) of corrections to accelerate the VLIDORT radiative transfer (RT) model used in the retrieval of ozone profiles from backscattered ultraviolet (UV) measurements by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Michael Brohart, Volodya Savastiouk, Ihab Abboud, Akira Ogyu, Jonathan Davies, Reno Sit, Sum Chi Lee, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Debora Griffin, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2261–2283,Short summary
The Brewer spectrophotometer is one of the main instruments for measurements of atmospheric total column ozone. The global Brewer network largely relies on the world reference instruments (the Brewer triad) operated by Environment and Climate Change Canada since the early 1980s. This study provides an updated assessment (1999–2019) of the reference instrument performance, in terms of random uncertainties and long-term stability.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Xin Yang, Anne-M. Blechschmidt, Kristof Bognar, Audra McClure-Begley, Sara Morris, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Andreas Richter, Henrik Skov, Kimberly Strong, David W. Tarasick, Taneil Uttal, Mika Vestenius, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15937–15967,Short summary
This is a modelling-based study on Arctic surface ozone, with a particular focus on spring ozone depletion events (i.e. with concentrations < 10 ppbv). Model experiments show that model runs with blowing-snow-sourced sea salt aerosols implemented as a source of reactive bromine can reproduce well large-scale ozone depletion events observed in the Arctic. This study supplies modelling evidence of the proposed mechanism of reactive-bromine release from blowing snow on sea ice (Yang et al., 2008).
Han Han, Yue Wu, Jane Liu, Tianliang Zhao, Bingliang Zhuang, Honglei Wang, Yichen Li, Huimin Chen, Ye Zhu, Hongnian Liu, Qin'geng Wang, Shu Li, Tijian Wang, Min Xie, and Mengmeng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13591–13610,Short summary
Combining simulations from a global chemical transport model and a trajectory model, we find that black carbon aerosols from South Asia and East Asia contribute 77 % of the surface black carbon in the Tibetan Plateau. The Asian monsoon largely modulates inter-annual transport of black carbon from non-local regions to the Tibetan Plateau surface in most seasons, while inter-annual fire activities in South Asia influence black carbon concentration over the Tibetan Plateau surface mainly in spring.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Manfred Birk, Georg Wagner, Iouli E. Gordon, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5845–5854,Short summary
This paper evaluates different sets of high-resolution ozone absorption cross-section data for use in atmospheric ozone profile measurements in the Hartley and Huggins bands with a particular focus on BDM 1995 (Daumont et al. 1992; Brion et al., 1993; Malicet et al., 1995) currently used in our retrievals and a new laboratory dataset by Birk and Wagner (BW) (2018).
Holger Vömel, Herman G. J. Smit, David Tarasick, Bryan Johnson, Samuel J. Oltmans, Henry Selkirk, Anne M. Thompson, Ryan M. Stauffer, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Jonathan Davies, Roeland van Malderen, Gary A. Morris, Tatsumi Nakano, and Rene Stübi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5667–5680,Short summary
The time response of electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes points to at least two distinct reaction pathways with time constants of approximately 20 s and 25 min. Properly considering these time constants eliminates the need for a poorly defined "background" and allows reducing ad hoc corrections based on laboratory tests. This reduces the uncertainty of ECC ozonesonde measurements throughout the profile and especially in regions of low ozone and strong gradients of ozone.
Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Chelsea R. Thompson, Kenneth C. Aikin, Teresa Campos, Hannah Clark, Róisín Commane, Bruce Daube, Glenn W. Diskin, James W. Elkins, Ru-Shan Gao, Audrey Gaudel, Eric J. Hintsa, Bryan J. Johnson, Rigel Kivi, Kathryn McKain, Fred L. Moore, David D. Parrish, Richard Querel, Eric Ray, Ricardo Sánchez, Colm Sweeney, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Jacquelyn C. Witte, Steve C. Wofsy, and Thomas B. Ryerson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10611–10635,
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Tongwen Wu, Michael S. Long, Jun Wang, Daniel J. Jacob, Fang Zhang, Jie Zhang, Sebastian D. Eastham, Lu Hu, Lei Zhu, Xiong Liu, and Min Wei
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3817–3838,Short summary
This study presents the development and evaluation of a new climate chemistry model, BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0, which couples the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model as an atmospheric chemistry component in the Beijing Climate Center atmospheric general circulation model. A 3-year (2012–2014) simulation of BCC-GEOS-Chem v1.0 shows that the model captures well the spatiotemporal distributions of tropospheric ozone, other gaseous pollutants, and aerosols.
Amir H. Souri, Caroline R. Nowlan, Gonzalo González Abad, Lei Zhu, Donald R. Blake, Alan Fried, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Armin Wisthaler, Jung-Hun Woo, Qiang Zhang, Christopher E. Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9837–9854,Short summary
For the first time, we provide a joint nonlinear optimal estimate of NOx and NMVOC emissions during the KORUS-AQ campaign by simultaneously incorporating SAO's new product of HCHO columns from OMPS and OMI tropospheric NO2 columns into a regional model. Results demonstrate a promising improvement in the performance of the model in terms of HCHO and NO2 concentrations, which in turn enables us to quantify the impact of the emission changes on different pathways of ozone formation and loss.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Nicolas Theys, Diego G. Loyola, Pascal Hedelt, Nickolay A. Krotkov, and Can Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5591–5607,
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, Moritz Müller, Kristof Bognar, Kimberly Strong, Folkert Boersma, Henk Eskes, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, and Sum Chi Lee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2131–2159,Short summary
Pandora NO2 measurements made at three sites located in the Toronto area are used to evaluate the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) NO2 data products, including standard NO2 and research data developed using a high-resolution regional air quality forecast model. TROPOMI pixels located upwind and downwind from the Pandora sites were analyzed by a new wind-based validation method, which revealed the spatial patterns of local and transported emissions and regional air quality changes.
Zoë Y. W. Davis, Udo Frieß, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Monika Aggarwaal, Sabour Baray, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Akshay Lobo, Vitali E. Fioletov, Ihab Abboud, Chris A. McLinden, Jim Whiteway, Megan D. Willis, Alex K. Y. Lee, Jeff Brook, Jason Olfert, Jason O'Brien, Ralf Staebler, Hans D. Osthoff, Cristian Mihele, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1129–1155,Short summary
Here, we evaluate a ground-based remote sensing method (MAX-DOAS) for measuring total pollutant loading and vertical profiles of pollution in the lower atmosphere by comparing our method to a variety of other measurement methods (lidar, sunphotometer, active DOAS, and aircraft measurements). Measurements were made in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Alberta, Canada. The complex dataset provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the performance of MAX-DOAS under varying atmospheric conditions.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Lei Shu, Tijian Wang, and Huiling Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 203–222,Short summary
We statistically assessed the impacts of local and synoptic meteorology on daily surface ozone in eastern China in summer during 2013–2018. The results show that the meteorology described by a multiple linear regression model explains 43 % of variations in surface ozone. The most important local meteorological factors vary with location in eastern China. The maximum impact of the predominant synoptic pattern on surface ozone can reach ± 8 µg m-3 or ± 16 % of the daily mean over some regions.
Daniel H. Cusworth, Daniel J. Jacob, Daniel J. Varon, Christopher Chan Miller, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Andrew K. Thorpe, Riley M. Duren, Charles E. Miller, David R. Thompson, Christian Frankenberg, Luis Guanter, and Cynthia A. Randles
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5655–5668,Short summary
We examine the potential for global detection of methane plumes from individual point sources with the new generation of spaceborne imaging spectrometers scheduled for launch in 2019–2025. We perform methane retrievals on simulated scenes with varying surfaces and atmospheric methane concentrations. Our results suggest that imaging spectrometers in space could play a transformative role in the future for quantifying methane emissions from point sources on a global scale.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Huiling Yuan, Tijian Wang, Bingliang Zhuang, and Xun Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12495–12514,Short summary
In the East Asian middle and upper troposphere, foreign ozone is 0.8–4.8 times more than its native counterpart in all the seasons. At the East Asian surface, the annual mean concentrations of foreign ozone and native ozone are comparable, being approximately 20 ppbv. The seasonal and interannual variations in foreign ozone over East Asia are closely related to the East Asian monsoon.
Katerina Garane, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Tijl Verhoelst, Christophe Lerot, Klaus-Peter Heue, Vitali Fioletov, Dimitrios Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Ariane Bazureau, Angelika Dehn, Florence Goutail, Jose Granville, Debora Griffin, Daan Hubert, Arno Keppens, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Diego Loyola, Chris McLinden, Andrea Pazmino, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, Alberto Redondas, Fabian Romahn, Pieter Valks, Michel Van Roozendael, Jian Xu, Claus Zehner, Christos Zerefos, and Walter Zimmer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5263–5287,Short summary
The Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOMI near real time (NRTI) and offline (OFFL) total ozone column (TOC) products are validated against direct-sun and twilight zenith-sky ground-based TOC measurements and other already known spaceborne sensors. The results show that the TROPOMI TOC measurements are in very good agreement with the ground-based measurements and satellite sensor measurements and that they are well within the product requirements.
Enrico Dammers, Chris A. McLinden, Debora Griffin, Mark W. Shephard, Shelley Van Der Graaf, Erik Lutsch, Martijn Schaap, Yonatan Gainairu-Matz, Vitali Fioletov, Martin Van Damme, Simon Whitburn, Lieven Clarisse, Karen Cady-Pereira, Cathy Clerbaux, Pierre Francois Coheur, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12261–12293,Short summary
Ammonia is an essential molecule in the environment, but at its current levels it is unsustainable. However, the emissions are highly uncertain. We explore the use of satellites to estimate the ammonia lifetime and emissions around point sources to help improve the budget. The same method applied to different satellite instruments shows consistent results. Comparison to the emission inventories shows that those are underestimating emissions of point sources by on average a factor of 2.5.
Juseon Bak, Kang-Hyeon Baek, Jae-Hwan Kim, Xiong Liu, Jhoon Kim, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5201–5215,Short summary
GEMS will be launched in late 2019 on board the GeoKOMPSAT (Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite) to measure O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, CHOCHO, and aerosols in East Asia. To support the development of the GEMS ozone profile algorithm, we perform the cross-evaluation of simulated GEMS ozone profile retrievals based on optimal estimation and ozonesonde measurements within the GEMS domain.
Huiqun Wang, Amir Hossein Souri, Gonzalo González Abad, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5183–5199,Short summary
Total column water vapor (TCWV) is retrieved from the spectra obtained by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Data filtering criteria are recommended. The OMI data generally compare well with reference datasets over both land and the oceans. The data are useful for a variety of applications spanning a range of spatial and temporal scales, such as atmospheric rivers, corn sweat and El Niño.
Kai Yang and Xiong Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4745–4778,Short summary
We constructed total-ozone-dependent and tropopause-dependent climatologies from MERRA-2 ozone data to describe the dynamic variations in the ozone profile in response to changing meteorological conditions. The new climatologies contain the first quantitative characterization of ozone profile covariances, which facilitate a new approach to improve ozone profiles using the most probable patterns of profile adjustments represented by the empirical orthogonal functions of the covariance matrices.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Debora Griffin, Vitali Fioletov, Chris McLinden, Jonathan Davies, Akira Ogyu, Sum Chi Lee, Alexandru Lupu, Michael D. Moran, Alexander Cede, Martin Tiefengraber, and Moritz Müller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10619–10642,Short summary
New nitrogen dioxide (NO2) retrieval algorithms are developed for Pandora zenith-sky measurements. A column-to-surface conversion look-up table was produced for the Pandora instruments; therefore, quick and practical Pandora-based surface NO2 concentration data can be obtained for air quality monitoring purposes. It is demonstrated that the surface NO2 concentration is controlled not only by the planetary boundary layer height but also by both boundary layer dynamics and photochemistry.
Shima Bahramvash Shams, Von P. Walden, Irina Petropavlovskikh, David Tarasick, Rigel Kivi, Samuel Oltmans, Bryan Johnson, Patrick Cullis, Chance W. Sterling, Laura Thölix, and Quentin Errera
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9733–9751,Short summary
The Arctic plays a very important role in the global ozone cycle. We use balloon-borne sampling and satellite data to create a high-quality dataset of the vertical profile of ozone from 2005 to 2017 to analyze ozone variations over four high-latitude Arctic locations. No significant annual trend is found at any of the studied locations. We develop a mathematical model to understand how deseasonalized ozone fluctuations can be influenced by various parameters.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Kang Sun, Kelly Chance, and Jae-Hwan Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3777–3788,Short summary
This work improves OMI ozone profile retrievals by accounting for spectral fit residuals caused by slit function errors as a pseudo absorber in the optimal-estimation-based spectral fitting process.
Lu Shen, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiong Liu, Guanyu Huang, Ke Li, Hong Liao, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6551–6560,
Xiaoyi Zhao, Kristof Bognar, Vitali Fioletov, Andrea Pazmino, Florence Goutail, Luis Millán, Gloria Manney, Cristen Adams, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2463–2483,Short summary
Ozone is one of the most widely monitored trace gases in the atmosphere. It can be measured via its strong absorption bands in the ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis) and infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum. Using multiple ground-based measurements and modeled data, this work provides a measurement-based evaluation of the impact of clouds on UV-visible total column ozone measurements in the high Arctic.
Raid M. Suleiman, Kelly Chance, Xiong Liu, Gonzalo González Abad, Thomas P. Kurosu, Francois Hendrick, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2067–2084,Short summary
This paper presents the retrieval algorithm for the operational OMBRO data product and shows comparisons with correlative measurements and retrieval results. We highlight the physics of the retrieval. We compare the OMBRO products with other satellite and in situ measurements of BrO and illustrate the quality of the product on a global scale. We study OMBRO enhancements in volcanic plumes and over salt lakes. We also discuss the shortcomings and future updates of the OMBRO product.
Omid Moeini, Zahra Vaziri Zanjani, C. Thomas McElroy, David W. Tarasick, Robert D. Evans, Irina Petropavlovskikh, and Keh-Harng Feng
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 327–343,Short summary
This study documents the error caused by the effect of stray light in the Brewer and Dobson total ozone measurements using a mathematical model for each instrument. The errors caused by stray light are particularly significant at high latitudes in the late winter and early spring when measurements are made at large solar zenith angles and large total ozone column. Such errors are of considerable importance if those data are to be used for trend analysis or satellite data validation.
Debora Griffin, Kaley A. Walker, Ingo Wohltmann, Sandip S. Dhomse, Markus Rex, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Wuhu Feng, Gloria L. Manney, Jane Liu, and David Tarasick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 577–601,Short summary
Ozone in the stratosphere is important to protect the Earth from UV radiation. Using measurements taken by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment satellite between 2005 and 2013, we examine different methods to calculate the ozone loss in the high Arctic and establish the altitude at which most of the ozone is destroyed. Our results show that the different methods agree within the uncertainties. Recommendations are made on which methods are most appropriate to use.
Kang Sun, Lei Zhu, Karen Cady-Pereira, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Gonzalo González Abad, Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Martin Van Damme, Kai Yang, and Mark Zondlo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6679–6701,Short summary
An agile, physics-based approach is developed to oversample irregular satellite observations to a high-resolution common grid. Instead of assuming each sounding as a point or a polygon as in previous methods, the proposed physical oversampling represents soundings as distributions of sensitivity on the ground. This sensitivity distribution can be determined by the spatial response function of each satellite sensor, parameterized as generalized 2-D super Gaussian functions.
Fei Liu, Sungyeon Choi, Can Li, Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Joanna Joiner, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Huisheng Bian, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Anton S. Darmenov, and Arlindo M. da Silva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16571–16586,Short summary
Sulfur dioxide measurements from space have been used to detect emissions from large sources. We developed a new emission inventory by combining the satellite-based emission estimates and the conventional bottom-up inventory for smaller sources. The new inventory improves the model agreement with in situ observations and offers the possibility of rapid updates to emissions.
Jun Hu, Yichen Li, Tianliang Zhao, Jane Liu, Xiao-Ming Hu, Duanyang Liu, Yongcheng Jiang, Jianming Xu, and Luyu Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16239–16251,Short summary
Using observational and modeling studies, the importance of the mechanism driving regional O3 transport in the residual layer (RL) with respect to summer smog over the Yangtze River Delta region in eastern China was revealed. This mechanism was also examined in association with diurnal change in the atmospheric boundary layer. Regional O3 transport through the nocturnal RL is believed to have great implications for understanding urban and regional O3 pollution in this area.
Caroline R. Nowlan, Xiong Liu, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Kelly Chance, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Alan Fried, Gonzalo González Abad, Jay R. Herman, Laura M. Judd, Hyeong-Ahn Kwon, Christopher P. Loughner, Kenneth E. Pickering, Dirk Richter, Elena Spinei, James Walega, Petter Weibring, and Andrew J. Weinheimer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5941–5964,Short summary
The GEO-CAPE Airborne Simulator (GCAS) was developed in support of future air quality and ocean color geostationary satellite missions. GCAS flew in its first field campaign on NASA's King Air B-200 aircraft during DISCOVER-AQ Texas in 2013. In this paper, we determine nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde columns over Houston from the GCAS air quality sensor and compare those results with measurements made from ground-based Pandora spectrometers and in situ airborne instruments.
Dejian Fu, Susan S. Kulawik, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Kevin W. Bowman, John R. Worden, Annmarie Eldering, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Joao Teixeira, Fredrick W. Irion, Robert L. Herman, Gregory B. Osterman, Xiong Liu, Pieternel F. Levelt, Anne M. Thompson, and Ming Luo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5587–5605,
Marina Astitha, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ghezae Araya Fisseha, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Jesper H. Christensen, Owen R. Cooper, Stefano Galmarini, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Bryan Johnson, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Efisio Solazzo, David W. Tarasick, and Greg Yarwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13925–13945,Short summary
This work is unique in the detailed analyses of modeled ozone vertical profiles from sites in North America through the collaboration of four research groups from the US and EU. We assess the air quality models' performance and model inter-comparison for ozone vertical profiles and stratospheric ozone intrusions. Lastly, we designate the important role of lateral boundary conditions in the ozone vertical profiles using chemically inert tracers.
Jiali Luo, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, John W. Bergman, William J. Randel, Gene Francis, Cathy Clerbaux, Maya George, Xiong Liu, and Wenshou Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12511–12530,Short summary
We analyze upper tropospheric CO and O3 using satellite data from limb-viewing (MLS) and nadir-viewing (IASI and OMI) sensors, together with dynamical variables, to examine how the two types of data complement each other in representing the chemical variability associated with the day-to-day dynamical variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone. The results provide new observational evidence of eddy shedding in upper tropospheric CO distribution.
Emma L. Mungall, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Daniel Kunkel, Ellen Gute, David W. Tarasick, Sangeeta Sharma, Christopher J. Cox, Taneil Uttal, and John Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10237–10254,Short summary
We measured gas-phase formic and acetic acid at Alert, Nunavut. These acids play an important role in cloud water acidity in remote environments, yet they are not well represented in chemical transport models, particularly in the Arctic. We observed high levels of formic and acetic acid under both cold, wet, and cloudy and warm, sunny, and dry conditions, suggesting that multiple sources significantly contribute to gas-phase concentrations of these species in the summer Arctic.
Matthew S. Johnson, Xiong Liu, Peter Zoogman, John Sullivan, Michael J. Newchurch, Shi Kuang, Thierry Leblanc, and Thomas McGee
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3457–3477,Short summary
This research was conducted to determine the impact of multiple a priori ozone (O3) profile products on Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite retrievals. It was determined that non-climatological model predictions, in particular those from a chemical transport model, when applied as the a priori profile improved the accuracy of TEMPO tropospheric O3 retrievals in comparison to the TB-Clim product that is currently suggested for use in the TEMPO retrieval algorithm.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Huiling Yuan, Bingliang Zhuang, Ye Zhu, Yue Wu, Yuhan Yan, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4251–4276,Short summary
Imported African ozone peaks in the Asian middle and upper troposphere in March. The seasonality of African ozone influence on Asia is mainly driven by the seasonal swing of the ITCZ, the Hadley circulation, and the northern subtropical westerlies. The stronger the ITCZ over Africa in a boreal winter is, the more African ozone is transported to Asia that winter. The convective divergence over the ITCZ and the Somali jet are drivers of interhemispheric transport of African ozone.
Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Meng Gao, Yuanhong Zhao, and Jingyuan Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3101–3118,Short summary
Deteriorating tropospheric ozone pollution over India may not only affect local human health and vegetation but also perturb global ozone distribution. This study analyzes the processes controlling lower tropospheric ozone over India using OMI satellite observations (2006–2014) and model simulations (1990–2010). We show that the South Asian monsoon largely controls the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of Indian lower tropospheric ozone via changes in ozone production and transport.
Mark Weber, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, John P. Burrows, Craig S. Long, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2097–2117,Short summary
This paper commemorates the 30-year anniversary of the initial signing of the Montreal Protocol (MP) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The MP is so far successful in reducing ozone-depleting substances, and total ozone decline was successfully stopped by the late 1990s. Total ozone levels have been mostly stable since then. In some regions, barely significant upward trends are observed that suggest an emergence into the expected ozone recovery phase.
Wanyun Xu, Xiaobin Xu, Meiyun Lin, Weili Lin, David Tarasick, Jie Tang, Jianzhong Ma, and Xiangdong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 773–798,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability on the long-term trends and periodicity of surface ozone measured at Mt Waliguan (WLG) for the period of 1994–2013 is studied. STT ozone and rising emissions in eastern China contribute to spring and autumnal increasing trends, respectively. The 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities in the ozone data are linked to the QBO, EASMI, and sunspot cycle, respectively. An empirical model is obtained for normalised monthly ozone at WLG.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, and Zhaonan Cai
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 17–32,Short summary
In this paper, we focus on the validation of OMI ozone (PROFOZ) product in the stratosphere using MLS ozone observations. This paper, with its companion paper focusing on the validation in the troposphere by using global ozonesonde observations, provides us with a comprehensive understanding of the data quality of OMI PROFOZ product and impacts of the “row anomaly”.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Jae-Hwan Kim, David P. Haffner, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, and Kang Sun
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4373–4388,Short summary
This paper verifies and corrects the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) nadir mapper (NM) level 1B v2.0 measurements to retrieve reliable ozone profile and tropospheric ozone using an optimal estimation inversion with the fitting window of 302.5–340 nm. We apply "soft calibration" and "common mode correction" to OMPS radiances to eliminate systematic errors in the fitting residuals and derive random-noise measurement errors accounting for both OMPS radiances and forward model calculation.
Vitali Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Shailesh K. Kharol, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Michael D. Moran, Robert Vet, Antoon J. H. Visschedijk, and Hugo A. C. Denier van der Gon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12597–12616,
Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Guanyu Huang, Gonzalo González Abad, Zhaonan Cai, Kelly Chance, and Kai Yang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3677–3695,Short summary
This study derives on-orbit slit functions from the OMI irradiance spectra. The results differ from the widely used preflight slit functions. The on-orbit changes of OMI slit functions are insignificant over time after accounting for the solar activity. Applying the derived on-orbit slit functions to ozone-profile retrieval shows substantial improvements over the preflight slit functions based on comparisons with ozonesonde validations.
Guanyu Huang, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Kai Yang, Pawan K. Bhartia, Zhaonan Cai, Marc Allaart, Gérard Ancellet, Bertrand Calpini, Gerrie J. R. Coetzee, Emilio Cuevas-Agulló, Manuel Cupeiro, Hugo De Backer, Manvendra K. Dubey, Henry E. Fuelberg, Masatomo Fujiwara, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Tristan J. Hall, Bryan Johnson, Everette Joseph, Rigel Kivi, Bogumil Kois, Ninong Komala, Gert König-Langlo, Giovanni Laneve, Thierry Leblanc, Marion Marchand, Kenneth R. Minschwaner, Gary Morris, Michael J. Newchurch, Shin-Ya Ogino, Nozomu Ohkawara, Ankie J. M. Piters, Françoise Posny, Richard Querel, Rinus Scheele, Frank J. Schmidlin, Russell C. Schnell, Otto Schrems, Henry Selkirk, Masato Shiotani, Pavla Skrivánková, René Stübi, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Valérie Thouret, Matthew B. Tully, Roeland Van Malderen, Holger Vömel, Peter von der Gathen, Jacquelyn C. Witte, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2455–2475,Short summary
It is essential to understand the data quality of +10-year OMI ozone product and impacts of the “row anomaly” (RA). We validate the OMI Ozone Profile (PROFOZ) product from Oct 2004 to Dec 2014 against ozonesonde observations globally. Generally, OMI has good agreement with ozonesondes. The spatiotemporal variation of retrieval performance suggests the need to improve OMI’s radiometric calibration especially during the post-RA period to maintain the long-term stability.
Hyun-Deok Choi, Hongyu Liu, James H. Crawford, David B. Considine, Dale J. Allen, Bryan N. Duncan, Larry W. Horowitz, Jose M. Rodriguez, Susan E. Strahan, Lin Zhang, Xiong Liu, Megan R. Damon, and Stephen D. Steenrod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8429–8452,Short summary
We evaluate global ozone–carbon monoxide (O3–CO) correlations in a chemistry and transport model during July–August with TES-Aura satellite observations and examine the sensitivity of model simulations to input meteorological data and emissions. Results show that O3–CO correlations may be used effectively to constrain the sources of regional tropospheric O3 in global 3-D models, especially for those regions where convective transport of pollution plays an important role.
Shailesh K. Kharol, Chris A. McLinden, Christopher E. Sioris, Mark W. Shephard, Vitali Fioletov, Aaron van Donkelaar, Sajeev Philip, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5921–5929,
Katrina M. Macdonald, Sangeeta Sharma, Desiree Toom, Alina Chivulescu, Sarah Hanna, Allan K. Bertram, Andrew Platt, Mike Elsasser, Lin Huang, David Tarasick, Nathan Chellman, Joseph R. McConnell, Heiko Bozem, Daniel Kunkel, Ying Duan Lei, Greg J. Evans, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5775–5788,Short summary
Rapid climate changes within the Arctic have highlighted existing uncertainties in the transport of contaminants to Arctic snow. Fresh snow samples collected frequently through the winter season were analyzed for major constituents creating a unique record of Arctic snow. Comparison with simultaneous atmospheric measurements provides insight into the driving processes in the transfer of contaminants from air to snow. The relative importance of deposition mechanisms over the season is proposed.
Yan Zhang, Can Li, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Joanna Joiner, Vitali Fioletov, and Chris McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1495–1509,Short summary
In this study, we demonstrate a very good consistency of the SO2 retrievals from OMI and OMPS using our state-of-the-art principal component analysis technique. Four full years of OMI and OMPS SO2 retrievals, during 2012–2015 have been analyzed over some of the world’s most polluted regions: eastern China, Mexico, and South Africa. The consistency of retrievals between OMI and OMPS make it possible to continue the long-term global SO2 pollution monitoring.
Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Caroline R. Nowlan, Zhaonan Cai, Kelly Chance, Christian Frankenberg, Richard A. M. Lee, Randy Pollock, Robert Rosenberg, and David Crisp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 939–953,Short summary
Accurately characterizing the instrument line shape (ILS) of the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) is challenging and highly important due to its high spectral resolution and requirement for retrieval accuracy. Measured ILS during preflight experiments has been used in the OCO-2 CO2 retrieval. This study derives the on-orbit ILS of OCO-2 using its solar measurements and answers the questions whether on-orbit ILS has changed compared to preflight and whether it varies during the mission.
Christopher E. Sioris, Chris A. McLinden, Mark W. Shephard, Vitali E. Fioletov, and Ihab Abboud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1931–1943,Short summary
The contribution of the oil sands region to the local aerosol optical depth (AOD) is sought. Satellite data are used since they provide spatial coverage over many years. Satellites measure AOD with high correlation and small biases relative to coincident AERONET AODs. Trends are determined using annual mean AODs, and an increasing trend is found near the Shell mines. Spatially variable and high surface albedo is challenging for some sensors. Measuring polarization appears to be an asset.
Christos S. Zerefos, Kostas Eleftheratos, John Kapsomenakis, Stavros Solomos, Antje Inness, Dimitris Balis, Alberto Redondas, Henk Eskes, Marc Allaart, Vassilis Amiridis, Arne Dahlback, Veerle De Bock, Henri Diémoz, Ronny Engelmann, Paul Eriksen, Vitali Fioletov, Julian Gröbner, Anu Heikkilä, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Janusz Jarosławski, Weine Josefsson, Tomi Karppinen, Ulf Köhler, Charoula Meleti, Christos Repapis, John Rimmer, Vladimir Savinykh, Vadim Shirotov, Anna Maria Siani, Andrew R. D. Smedley, Martin Stanek, and René Stübi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 551–574,Short summary
The paper makes a convincing case that the Brewer network is capable of detecting enhanced SO2 columns, as observed, e.g., after volcanic eruptions. For this reason, large volcanic eruptions of the past decade have been used to detect and forecast SO2 plumes of volcanic origin using the Brewer and other ground-based networks, aided by satellite, trajectory analysis calculations and modelling.
Xiaoyi Zhao, Vitali Fioletov, Alexander Cede, Jonathan Davies, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5747–5761,Short summary
This study evaluates the performance of the recently developed Pandora spectrometer by comparing it with the Brewer reference triad. The instrument random uncertainty, total column ozone temperature dependence, and ozone air mass dependence have been determined using two Pandora and six Brewer instruments. In general, Pandora and Brewer instruments both have very low random uncertainty and air mass dependence. However, the Brewer has smaller ozone temperature dependence than Pandora.
Daniel J. Jacob, Alexander J. Turner, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Jianxiong Sheng, Kang Sun, Xiong Liu, Kelly Chance, Ilse Aben, Jason McKeever, and Christian Frankenberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14371–14396,Short summary
Methane is a greenhouse gas emitted by a range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Atmospheric methane has been measured continuously from space since 2003, and new instruments are planned to launch in the near future that will greatly expand the capabilities of space-based observations. We review the value of current, future, and proposed satellite observations to better quantify methane emissions from the global scale down to the scale of point sources.
Gerard Ancellet, Nikos Daskalakis, Jean Christophe Raut, David Tarasick, Jonathan Hair, Boris Quennehen, François Ravetta, Hans Schlager, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Anne M. Thompson, Bryan Johnson, Jennie L. Thomas, and Katharine S. Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13341–13358,Short summary
An integrated analysis of all the ozone observations (lidar, sondes, and airborne in situ measurements) conducted during the 2008 IPY campaigns is performed and the processes that determine summer ozone concentrations over Greenland and Canada are discussed. Combined with a regional model simulation (WRFChem), the analysis of ozone, CO, and PV latitudinal and vertical variability allows the determination of the influence of stratospheric sources and biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Joanna Joiner, Nicolas Theys, Simon Carn, and Mike D. Moran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11497–11519,Short summary
We introduce the first space-based catalogue of SO2 emission sources seen by OMI. The inventory contains about 500 sources. They account for about a half of all SO2 emissions; the remaining half is likely related to sources emitting less than 30 kt yr−1 and not detected by OMI. The sources are grouped by type (volcanoes, power plants, oil- and gas-related sources, and smelters) and country. The catalogue presented herein can be used for verification of available SO2 emission inventories.
Huiqun Wang, Gonzalo Gonzalez Abad, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11379–11393,Short summary
Water vapor is highly important. The OMI total column water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 1.0 algorithm agrees well with other reference products over the land but has a low bias over the ocean. The updated OMI water vapor product retrieved using SAO's version 2.1 algorithm largely eliminates the low bias over the ocean, improving the land/ocean consistency and the overall data quality. This dataset can benefit a variety of scientific studies and practical applications.
Juseon Bak, Xiong Liu, Jae H. Kim, Matthew T. Deland, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4521–4531,Short summary
The main focus of this paper is improving an error of OMI nadir ozone profile retrievals due to the presence of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs), consisting of small light-scattering particles at an altitude of 80–85 km. This error is shown to be systematic bias from ~ −2 at 2 hPa to ~ −20 % at 0.5 hPa and significantly correlated with brightness of PMCs. We reduce this interference of PMCs on ozone retrievals by including the PMC optical depth in the forward-model calculation and retrieval.
Mohammed K. Osman, David W. Tarasick, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Valerie Thouret, Vitali E. Fioletov, Mark Parrington, and Philippe Nédélec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10263–10282,Short summary
A new 3-D gridded climatology of CO has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ aircraft measurements. The dataset is archived monthly from 2001–2012 on a grid of 5 × 5deg × 1 km altitude. The dataset facilitates comparison of different years and seasons and offers insight into the global variation and trends of CO. Major CO sources are clearly visible. The dataset can be used as an a priori data for satellite retrieval and for air quality model validation and initialization.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Alexander Cede, Jonathan Davies, Cristian Mihele, Stoyka Netcheva, Shao-Meng Li, and Jason O'Brien
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2961–2976,
Gonzalo González Abad, Alexander Vasilkov, Colin Seftor, Xiong Liu, and Kelly Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2797–2812,Short summary
The multi-spectral possibilities of the OMPS Nadir Mapper instrument are exploited here to perform formaldehyde retrievals. Orbiting the Earth at 824 km, OMPS observes the atmosphere in a time frame similar to instruments belonging to NASA's A-Train constellation, 01:30. We show that OMPS is well suited to measure formaldehyde despite its spectral resolution of 1nm. The comparison of OMPS retrievals with OMI products show good temporal correlation.
Caroline R. Nowlan, Xiong Liu, James W. Leitch, Kelly Chance, Gonzalo González Abad, Cheng Liu, Peter Zoogman, Joshua Cole, Thomas Delker, William Good, Frank Murcray, Lyle Ruppert, Daniel Soo, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Christopher P. Loughner, Kenneth E. Pickering, Jay R. Herman, Melinda R. Beaver, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Laura M. Judd, Paul Kelley, Winston T. Luke, Xinrong Ren, and Jassim A. Al-Saadi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2647–2668,Short summary
The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a remote sensing airborne instrument developed in support of future air quality satellite missions that will operate from geostationary orbit. GeoTASO flew in its first intensive field campaign during the DISCOVER-AQ 2013 Earth Venture Mission over Houston, Texas. This paper introduces the instrument and data analysis, and presents GeoTASO's first observations of NO2 at 250 m x 250 m spatial resolution.
Daan Hubert, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, José Granville, Arno Keppens, Jean-Luc Baray, Adam E. Bourassa, Ugo Cortesi, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Karl W. Hoppel, Bryan J. Johnson, Erkki Kyrölä, Thierry Leblanc, Günter Lichtenberg, Marion Marchand, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Hideaki Nakane, Thierry Portafaix, Richard Querel, James M. Russell III, Jacobo Salvador, Herman G. J. Smit, Kerstin Stebel, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Kevin B. Strawbridge, René Stübi, Daan P. J. Swart, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Joachim Urban, Joanna A. E. van Gijsel, Roeland Van Malderen, Peter von der Gathen, Kaley A. Walker, Elian Wolfram, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2497–2534,Short summary
A more detailed understanding of satellite O3 profile data records is vital for further progress in O3 research. To this end, we made a comprehensive assessment of 14 limb/occultation profilers using ground-based reference data. The mutual consistency of satellite O3 in terms of bias, short-term variability and decadal stability is generally good over most of the stratosphere. However, we identified some exceptions that impact the quality of recently merged data sets and ozone trend assessments.
Zhe Jiang, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, John R. Worden, Jane J. Liu, Dylan B. A. Jones, and Daven K. Henze
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6537–6546,Short summary
We quantify the impacts of anthropogenic and natural sources on free tropospheric ozone over the Middle East, using the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model with updated NOx emissions estimates from an ensemble Kalman filter. We show that the global total contribution of lightning NOx on free tropospheric O3 over the Middle East is about 2 times larger than that from global anthropogenic sources. The summertime free tropospheric O3 enhancement is primarily due to Asian NOx emissions.
D. W. Tarasick, J. Davies, H. G. J. Smit, and S. J. Oltmans
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 195–214,Short summary
Changes to measurement methods over Canada's 48-year ozonesonde record have been characterized and corrections applied. An estimate of the altitude-dependent uncertainty is added to each profile. The re-evaluated time series show negative trends in the lower stratosphere of up to 5 % per decade for the period 1966–2013. In the troposphere trends for the 48-year period are generally not significant. This suggests that free tropospheric ozone levels over Canada have not changed in nearly 50 years.
U. Jeong, J. Kim, C. Ahn, O. Torres, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, R. J. D. Spurr, D. Haffner, K. Chance, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 177–193,Short summary
An aerosol retrieval and error analysis algorithm using OMI measurements based on an optimal-estimation method was developed in this study. The aerosol retrievals were validated using the DRAGON campaign products. The estimated errors of the retrievals represented the actual biases between retrieval and AERONET measurements well. The retrievals, with their estimated uncertainties, are expected to be valuable for relevant studies, such as trace gas retrieval and data assimilation.
Y. C. Jiang, T. L. Zhao, J. Liu, X. D. Xu, C. H. Tan, X. H. Cheng, X. Y. Bi, J. B. Gan, J. F. You, and S. Z. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13331–13338,Short summary
An O3 episode with high night-time O3 was observed before typhoon landing over southeastern China. Variations in the observed O3, NO2, CO and meteorology during Typhoon Hagibis event clearly suggest a substantial impact of the peripheral downdrafts in the tropical cyclone on the high O3 episode. This study provides observational evidence of typhoon-driven intrusion of O3 from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere to surface air threatening to ambient air quality.
K.-L. Chang, S. Guillas, and V. E. Fioletov
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4487–4505,Short summary
The aim of this article is to analyze the total column ozone data from the World Ozone and Ultraviolet Radiation Data Centre (WOUDC) that consists of around 150 stations irregularly spaced over the globe. Our use of a new statistical spatial technique over the globe can greatly outperform the currently used spatial approximation of the total column ozone in terms of approximation. We feel that this technique could benefit the ozone science community.
Y. Zhou, H. Mao, K. Demerjian, C. Hogrefe, and J. Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) were studied at seven rural sites in the Northeast U.S. during varying periods over 2001 – 2010. Baseline CO at all sites decreased significantly at a rate between -4.3 – -2.3 ppbv yr-1, while baseline O3 was relatively constant. Interannual and seasonal variations of baseline CO and O3 were related to increasing Asian emissions, NOx emissions reduction in urban areas, global biomass burning emissions, and meteorological conditions.
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, M. T. Deland, and K. Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
This work demonstrated the interference of tenuous PMCs on OMI ozone profile retrievals above 6hPa. The presence of PMCs leads to the systematic biases of -2% at 2hPa and -20% at 0.5hPa in OMI retrievals, which are significantly correlated with brightness of PMCs. We perform simultaneous retrievals of PMC optical depth with ozone using optimal estimation technique, to reduce the interference on ozone profile retrievals. As a result, the negative OMI biases are reduced to within ±10%.
S. Hayashida, X. Liu, A. Ono, K. Yang, and K. Chance
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9865–9881,Short summary
The lower tropospheric ozone distribution maps were first obtained from the recent retrieval products of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite. We found significant enhancement of ozone in the lower troposphere over central and eastern China (CEC), with Shandong Province as its center, and most notable in June in any given year. Similar seasonal variations were observed throughout the 9-year OMI measurement period of 2005 to 2013.
L. K. Emmons, S. R. Arnold, S. A. Monks, V. Huijnen, S. Tilmes, K. S. Law, J. L. Thomas, J.-C. Raut, I. Bouarar, S. Turquety, Y. Long, B. Duncan, S. Steenrod, S. Strode, J. Flemming, J. Mao, J. Langner, A. M. Thompson, D. Tarasick, E. C. Apel, D. R. Blake, R. C. Cohen, J. Dibb, G. S. Diskin, A. Fried, S. R. Hall, L. G. Huey, A. J. Weinheimer, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, J. Nowak, J. Peischl, J. M. Roberts, T. Ryerson, C. Warneke, and D. Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6721–6744,Short summary
Eleven 3-D tropospheric chemistry models have been compared and evaluated with observations in the Arctic during the International Polar Year (IPY 2008). Large differences are seen among the models, particularly related to the model chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and reactive nitrogen (NOx, PAN, HNO3) partitioning. Consistency among the models in the underestimation of CO, ethane and propane indicates the emission inventory is too low for these compounds.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
K. Ding, J. Liu, A. Ding, Q. Liu, T. L. Zhao, J. Shi, Y. Han, H. Wang, and F. Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2843–2866,Short summary
1. High CO abundances of 300-550 ppbv is shown in aircraft MOZAIC data between 700 and 300 hPa over East Asia in three episodes. Correspondingly, elevated CO is observed in satellite MOPITT data at similar altitudes. 2. GEOS-Chem and FLEXPART simulations reveal distinct uplifting processes for CO from fires and anthropogenic sources in the cases. 3. Topography in East Asia affects uplifting of CO in different ways. 4. The new version 5 MOPITT data can help diagnose vertical transport of CO.
C. Liu, X. Liu, M. G. Kowalewski, S. J. Janz, G. González Abad, K. E. Pickering, K. Chance, and L. N. Lamsal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 751–759,Short summary
We characterize the wavelengths and slit functions of Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) measurements in ~304--500 nm through the cross-correlation technique. It is necessary to account for atmospheric gas absorption and the ring effect. The derived broadened Gaussian slit functions agree very well with laboratory measurements. Trace gas retrieval comparisons demonstrate that the cross-correlation technique can be reliably used to characterize slit functions.
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, K. Chance, and D. P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 667–683,
G. González Abad, X. Liu, K. Chance, H. Wang, T. P. Kurosu, and R. Suleiman
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 19–32,Short summary
We present and discuss the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) formaldehyde retrieval algorithm for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), which is the operational retrieval for NASA OMI H2CO.
C. Chan Miller, G. Gonzalez Abad, H. Wang, X. Liu, T. Kurosu, D. J. Jacob, and K. Chance
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3891–3907,
E. Hache, J.-L. Attié, C. Tourneur, P. Ricaud, L. Coret, W. A. Lahoz, L. El Amraoui, B. Josse, P. Hamer, J. Warner, X. Liu, K. Chance, M. Höpfner, R. Spurr, V. Natraj, S. Kulawik, A. Eldering, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2185–2201,
H. Wang, X. Liu, K. Chance, G. González Abad, and C. Chan Miller
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1901–1913,
P. Zoogman, D. J. Jacob, K. Chance, X. Liu, M. Lin, A. Fiore, and K. Travis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6261–6271,
E. W. Chiou, P. K. Bhartia, R. D. McPeters, D. G. Loyola, M. Coldewey-Egbers, V. E. Fioletov, M. Van Roozendael, R. Spurr, C. Lerot, and S. M. Frith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1681–1692,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
C. A. McLinden, V. Fioletov, K. F. Boersma, S. K. Kharol, N. Krotkov, L. Lamsal, P. A. Makar, R. V. Martin, J. P. Veefkind, and K. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3637–3656,
C. E. Sioris, C. A. McLinden, V. E. Fioletov, C. Adams, J. M. Zawodny, A. E. Bourassa, C. Z. Roth, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3479–3496,
J. Liu, D. W. Tarasick, V. E. Fioletov, C. McLinden, T. Zhao, S. Gong, C. Sioris, J. J. Jin, G. Liu, and O. Moeini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11441–11464,
G. Bernhard, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, and T. Svendby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10573–10590,
J. Cuesta, M. Eremenko, X. Liu, G. Dufour, Z. Cai, M. Höpfner, T. von Clarmann, P. Sellitto, G. Foret, B. Gaubert, M. Beekmann, J. Orphal, K. Chance, R. Spurr, and J.-M. Flaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9675–9693,
P. S. Kim, D. J. Jacob, X. Liu, J. X. Warner, K. Yang, K. Chance, V. Thouret, and P. Nedelec
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9321–9335,
J. Bak, X. Liu, J. C. Wei, L. L. Pan, K. Chance, and J. H. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2239–2254,
P. I. Palmer, M. Parrington, J. D. Lee, A. C. Lewis, A. R. Rickard, P. F. Bernath, T. J. Duck, D. L. Waugh, D. W. Tarasick, S. Andrews, E. Aruffo, L. J. Bailey, E. Barrett, S. J.-B. Bauguitte, K. R. Curry, P. Di Carlo, L. Chisholm, L. Dan, G. Forster, J. E. Franklin, M. D. Gibson, D. Griffin, D. Helmig, J. R. Hopkins, J. T. Hopper, M. E. Jenkin, D. Kindred, J. Kliever, M. Le Breton, S. Matthiesen, M. Maurice, S. Moller, D. P. Moore, D. E. Oram, S. J. O'Shea, R. C. Owen, C. M. L. S. Pagniello, S. Pawson, C. J. Percival, J. R. Pierce, S. Punjabi, R. M. Purvis, J. J. Remedios, K. M. Rotermund, K. M. Sakamoto, A. M. da Silva, K. B. Strawbridge, K. Strong, J. Taylor, R. Trigwell, K. A. Tereszchuk, K. A. Walker, D. Weaver, C. Whaley, and J. C. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6239–6261,
D. Fu, J. R. Worden, X. Liu, S. S. Kulawik, K. W. Bowman, and V. Natraj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3445–3462,
J. Bak, J. H. Kim, X. Liu, K. Chance, and J. Kim
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 239–249,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Distribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, ChinaLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristics and ozone sensitivityInvestigation of new particle formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaMeasurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North PacificOH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firnAtmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian OceanJoint occurrence of heatwaves and ozone pollution and increased health risks in Beijing, China: role of synoptic weather pattern and urbanizationUsing atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domainAn evaluation of new particle formation events in Helsinki during a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial summer bloomOceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol and their contribution to sulfur dioxide production in the marine atmosphereAn investigation into the chemistry of HONO in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in BermudaTropospheric ozone production and chemical regime analysis during the COVID-19 lockdown over EuropeOverview: On the transport and transformation of pollutants in the outflow of major population centres – observational data from the EMeRGe European intensive operational period in summer 2017Interannual variability of terpenoid emissions in an alpine cityObservations and modelling of glyoxal in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layerTop-down and bottom-up estimates of anthropogenic methyl bromide emissions from eastern ChinaDirect measurements of ozone response to emissions perturbations in CaliforniaGround-based investigation of HOx and ozone chemistry in biomass burning plumes in rural IdahoInsights into the significant increase in ozone during COVID-19 in a typical urban city of ChinaQuantification and assessment of methane emissions from offshore oil and gas facilities on the Norwegian continental shelfTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesFull latitudinal marine atmospheric measurements of iodine monoxideDirect observations indicate photodegradable oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as larger contributors to radicals and ozone production in the atmosphereAssessing vehicle fuel efficiency using a dense network of CO2 observationsOdds and ends of atmospheric mercury in Europe and over the North Atlantic Ocean: temporal trends of 25 years of measurementsSeasonal Variation of Oxygenated Organic Molecules in Urban Beijing and their Contribution to Secondary Organic AerosolInterpretation of NO3–N2O5 observation via steady state in high-aerosol air mass: the impact of equilibrium coefficient in ambient conditionsGlobal emissions of perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) resulting from the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) feedstock to produce polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and related fluorochemicalsSulfuric acid in the Amazon Basin: Measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part I: HONO formation and its role in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layerThe Impacts of Wildfires on Ozone Production and Boundary Layer Dynamics in California’s Central ValleyUrban inland wintertime N2O5 and ClNO2 influenced by snow-covered ground, air turbulence, and precipitationFirst observation of mercury species on an important water vapor channel in the southeastern Tibetan PlateauSwiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observationsMeasurement report: Long-term measurements of aerosol precursor concentrations in the Finnish subarctic boreal forestOxygenated VOCs as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS)Measurement report: Intra-, inter-annual variability and source apportionment of VOCs during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, Central ChinaMeasurement report: Long-term variations in surface NOx and SO2 mixing ratios from 2006 to 2016 at a background site in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part II: HONO budget and radical (ROx + NO3) chemistry in the lower boundary layerExploration of the atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid in a coastal city of southeastern China: results from measurements across four seasonsMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution at urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlFormaldehyde evolution in US wildfire plumes during the Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality experiment (FIREX-AQ)Measurement report: Photochemical production and loss rates of formaldehyde and ozone across EuropeIs the ocean surface a source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the marine boundary layer?
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8935–8949,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarise this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,Short summary
This paper presents the first OH and HO2 radical observations made in the Yangtze River Delta in China, and strong oxidation capacity is discovered based on direct measurements. The impacts of new OH regeneration mechanisms, monoterpene oxidation, and HO2 uptake processes are examined and discussed. The sources and the factors to sustain such strong oxidation are the key to understanding the ozone pollution formed in this area.
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,Short summary
Greenhouse gas methane in the Arctic atmosphere has not been accurately reported for 1900–1980 from either direct observations or ice core reconstructions. By using trace gas data from firn (compacted snow layers above ice sheet), air samples at two Greenland sites, and a firn air transport model, this study suggests a likely range of the Arctic methane reconstruction for the 20th century. Atmospheric scenarios from two previous studies are also evaluated for consistency with the firn data sets.
Susann Tegtmeier, Christa Marandino, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6625–6676,Short summary
In the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean, intense anthropogenic pollution from Southeast Asia mixes with pristine oceanic air. During the winter monsoon, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its impacts on the upper atmosphere, oceanic biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Haiyun Xia, Meng Gao, Zhaobin Sun, Zuofang Zheng, Xianxiang Li, Guicai Ning, Yubin Li, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6523–6538,Short summary
Heatwaves (HWs) paired with higher ozone (O3) concentration at surface level pose a serious threat to human health. Taking Beijing as an example, three unfavorable synoptic weather patterns were identified to dominate the compound HW and O3 pollution events. Under the synergistic stress of HWs and O3 pollution, public mortality risk increased, and synoptic patterns and urbanization enhanced the compound risk of events in Beijing by 33.09 % and 18.95 %, respectively.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Roseline C. Thakur, Lubna Dada, Lisa J. Beck, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Tommy Chan, Marjan Marbouti, Xu-Cheng He, Carlton Xavier, Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Markus Lampimäki, Yee Jun Tham, Nina Sarnela, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alf Norkko, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6365–6391,Short summary
Every year intense cyanobacterial and macroalgal blooms occur in the Baltic Sea and in the coastal areas surrounding Helsinki, yet no studies have addressed the impact of biogenic emissions from these blooms on gas vapor concentrations, which in turn could influence new particle formation. This is the first study of its kind to address the chemistry driving new particle formation (NPF) during a bloom period in this region, highlighting the role of biogenic sulfuric acid and iodic acid.
Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Christopher M. Jernigan, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6309–6325,Short summary
We describe field measurements of the mixing ratio and oceanic emission flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MeSH) from a coastal ocean site. DMS is known to impact aerosol formation and growth in the marine atmosphere, influencing cloud formation and climate. Measurements of MeSH, which is produced by the same oceanic source as DMS, are rare. We show that MeSH emissions are large and must be measured alongside DMS to understand marine sulfur chemistry and aerosol formation.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lisa Kaser, Arianna Peron, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Georg Wohlfahrt, Stanislav Juráň, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5603–5618,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., terpenoids) play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Urban greening activities need to consider the ozone- and aerosol-forming potential of these compounds released from vegetation. NMVOC emissions in urban environments are complex, and the biogenic component remains poorly quantified. For summer conditions biogenic emissions dominate terpene emissions and heat waves can significantly modulate urban biogenic terpenoid emissions.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Shenglun Wu, Hyung Joo Lee, Andrea Anderson, Shang Liu, Toshihiro Kuwayama, John H. Seinfeld, and Michael J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4929–4949,Short summary
An ozone control experiment usually conducted in the laboratory was installed in a trailer and moved to the outdoor environment to directly confirm that we are controlling the right sources in order to lower ambient ozone concentrations. Adding small amounts of precursor oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds to ambient air showed that the highest ozone concentrations are best controlled by reducing concentrations of oxides of nitrogen. The results confirm satellite measurements.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Kun Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qing Li, Andrew Jensen, Wen Tan, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Joost de Gouw, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4853–4866,Short summary
A significant increase in O3 concentrations was found during the lockdown period of COVID-19 in most areas of China. By field measurements coupled with machine learning, an observation-based model (OBM) and sensitivity analysis, we found the changes in the NOx / VOC ratio were a key reason for the significant rise in O3. To restrain O3 pollution, more efforts should be devoted to the control of anthropogenic OVOCs, alkenes and aromatics.
Amy Foulds, Grant Allen, Jacob T. Shaw, Prudence Bateson, Patrick A. Barker, Langwen Huang, Joseph R. Pitt, James D. Lee, Shona E. Wilde, Pamela Dominutti, Ruth M. Purvis, David Lowry, James L. France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Alina Fiehn, Magdalena Pühl, Stéphane J. B. Bauguitte, Stephen A. Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Ignacio Pisso, and Stefan Schwietzke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4303–4322,Short summary
We measured CH4 emissions from 21 offshore oil and gas facilities in the Norwegian Sea in 2019. Measurements compared well with operator-reported emissions but were greatly underestimated when compared with a 2016 global fossil fuel inventory. This study demonstrates the need for up-to-date and accurate inventories for use in research and policy and the important benefits of best-practice reporting methods by operators. Airborne measurements are an effective tool to validate such inventories.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize the average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly-mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across 4 Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Hisahiro Takashima, Yugo Kanaya, Saki Kato, Martina M. Friedrich, Michel Van Roozendael, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Carlos A. Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Takashi Sekiya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4005–4018,Short summary
We have undertaken atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) observations in the global marine boundary layer with a wide latitudinal coverage and sea surface temperature (SST) range. We conclude that atmospheric iodine is abundant over the Western Pacific warm pool, appearing as an iodine fountain, where ozone (O3) minima occur. Our study also found negative correlations between IO and O3 concentrations over IO maxima, which requires reconsideration of the initiation process of halogen activation.
Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Suxia Yang, Caihong Wu, Jipeng Qi, Fengxia Bao, Yibo Huangfu, Chaomin Wang, Chenshuo Ye, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Peng Cheng, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4117–4128,Short summary
From thorough measurements of numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds, we show that their photodissociation can be important for radical production and ozone formation in the atmosphere. This effect was underestimated in previous studies, as measurements of them were lacking.
Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Alexander J. Turner, Jinsol Kim, Katherine Chan, Erin R. Delaria, Catherine Newman, Paul Wooldridge, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3891–3900,Short summary
On-road emissions are thought to vary widely from existing predictions, as the effects of the age of the vehicle fleet, the performance of emission control systems, and variations in speed are difficult to assess under ambient driving conditions. We present an observational approach to characterize on-road emissions and show that the method is consistent with other approaches to within ~ 3 %.
Danilo Custódio, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, T. Gerard Spain, Fidel F. Pankratov, Iana Strigunova, Koketso Molepo, Henrik Skov, Johannes Bieser, and Ralf Ebinghaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3827–3840,Short summary
As a poison in the air that we breathe and the food that we eat, mercury is a human health concern for society as a whole. In that regard, this work deals with monitoring and modelling mercury in the environment, improving wherewithal, identifying the strength of the different components at play, and interpreting information to support the efforts that seek to safeguard public health.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules are able to form atmospheric aerosols, the suspended particles in the air. Those aerosols have significant influence on human health and climate change. Therefore, understanding the basic properties and aerosol formation potential of those organic molecules is of great importance.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3525–3533,Short summary
We use a complete set of simulations to evaluate whether equilibrium and steady state are appropriate for a chemical system involving several reactive nitrogen-containing species (NO2, NO3, and N2O5) under various conditions. A previously neglected bias for the coefficient applied for interpreting their effects is disclosed, and the relevant ambient factors are examined. We therefore provide a good solution to an accurate representation of nighttime chemistry in high-aerosol areas.
Jens Mühle, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Kieran M. Stanley, Matthew Rigby, Luke M. Western, Jooil Kim, Sunyoung Park, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Simon O'Doherty, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3371–3378,Short summary
Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) into the atmosphere have been increasing sharply since the early 2000s. These c-C4F8 emissions are highly correlated with the amount of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 produced to synthesize polytetrafluoroethylene (known for its non-stick properties) and related chemicals. From this process, c-C4F8 by-product is vented to the atmosphere. Avoiding these unnecessary c-C4F8 emissions could reduce the climate impact of this industry.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present the first measurements of gas phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon Basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this under-studied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3149–3167,Short summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit level, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Keming Pan and Ian Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites, meteorological sites, two Ameriflux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during 5 consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate is found to increase by 26 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decrease the heat flux by 30 % and result in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Kathryn D. Kulju, Stephen M. McNamara, Qianjie Chen, Hannah S. Kenagy, Jacinta Edebeli, Jose D. Fuentes, Steven B. Bertman, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2553–2568,Short summary
N2O5 uptake by chloride-containing surfaces produces ClNO2, which photolyzes, producing NO2 and highly reactive Cl radicals that impact air quality. In the inland urban atmosphere, ClNO2 was elevated during lower air turbulence and over snow-covered ground, from snowpack ClNO2 production. N2O5 and ClNO2 levels were lowest, on average, during rainfall and fog because of scavenging, with N2O5 scavenging by fog droplets likely contributing to observed increased particulate nitrate concentrations.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2447–2466,Short summary
Artificial halocarbons contribute to ozone layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster tower, modelled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons, we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest types of halocarbons.
Tuija Jokinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Roseline Cutting Thakur, Ilona Ylivinkka, Kimmo Neitola, Nina Sarnela, Totti Laitinen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2237–2254,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei; however, long-term measurements of aerosol-forming vapors are close to nonexistent in the Arctic. Here, we report 7 months of CI-APi-TOF measurements of sulfuric acid, iodic acid, methane sulfonic acid and the sum of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the SMEAR I station in the Finnish subarctic. The results help us to understand atmospheric chemical processes and aerosol formation in this rapidly changing area.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiaobing Li, Junyu Zheng, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
VOC emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Large differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed, with higher emission factors of most OVOCs and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. We proposed higher aromatics/toluene ratio could potentially provide good indicators for distinguishing emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOCs emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Andrew O. Langford, Christoph J. Senff, Raul J. Alvarez II, Ken C. Aikin, Sunil Baidar, Timothy A. Bonin, W. Alan Brewer, Jerome Brioude, Steven S. Brown, Joel D. Burley, Dani J. Caputi, Stephen A. Conley, Patrick D. Cullis, Zachary C. J. Decker, Stéphanie Evan, Guillaume Kirgis, Meiyun Lin, Mariusz Pagowski, Jeff Peischl, Irina Petropavlovskikh, R. Bradley Pierce, Thomas B. Ryerson, Scott P. Sandberg, Chance W. Sterling, Ann M. Weickmann, and Li Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1707–1737,Short summary
The Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS) combined lidar, aircraft, and in situ measurements with global models to investigate the contributions of stratospheric intrusions, regional and Asian pollution, and wildfires to background ozone in the southwestern US during May and June 2017 and demonstrated that these processes contributed to background ozone levels that exceeded 70 % of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard during the 6-week campaign.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018 to 2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and source among inter-annual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develope control strategies.
Qingqing Yin, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, and Jie Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1015–1033,Short summary
China has been experiencing rapid changes in emissions of air pollutants in recent decades. NOx and SO2 measurements from 2006 to 2016 at the Lin’an World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch station were used to characterize the seasonal and diurnal variations and study the long-term trends. This study reaffirms China’s success in controlling both NOx and SO2 in the Yangtze River Delta but indicates at the same time a necessity to strengthen the NOx emission control.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Wenjin Zhang, Xiaowei He, Pengfei Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Xiaoxi Zhao, Chengtang Liu, Zhuobiao Ma, Junfeng Liu, Jinhe Wang, Keding Lu, Valéry Catoire, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1035–1057,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were measured at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai in the summer of 2018. Based on measurements at the foot station, we utilized a box model to explore the roles of different sources in the HONO budget. We also studied radical chemistry in this high-ozone region.
Baoye Hu, Jun Duan, Youwei Hong, Lingling Xu, Mengren Li, Yahui Bian, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Pinhua Xie, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 371–393,Short summary
There has been a lack of research into HONO in coastal cities with low concentrations of PM2.5, but strong sunlight and high humidity. Insufficient research on coastal cities with good air quality has resulted in certain obstacles to assessing the photochemical processes in these areas. Furthermore, HONO contributes to the atmospheric photochemistry depending on the season. Therefore, observations of HONO across four seasons in the southeastern coastal area of China are urgently needed.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A one-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at an urban site in Beijing during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene and 1-hexene were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust and coal/biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species of toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and styrene.
Jin Liao, Glenn M. Wolfe, Reem A. Hannun, Jason M. St. Clair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Jessica B. Gilman, Aaron Lamplugh, Vanessa Selimovic, Glenn S. Diskin, John B. Nowak, Hannah S. Halliday, Joshua P. DiGangi, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Christopher D. Holmes, Charles H. Fite, Anxhelo Agastra, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Kanako Sekimoto, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Steven S. Brown, Caroline C. Womack, Michael A. Robinson, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Patrick R. Veres, and J. Andrew Neuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18319–18331,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important oxidant precursor and affects the formation of O3 and other secondary pollutants in wildfire plumes. We disentangle the processes controlling HCHO evolution from wildfire plumes sampled by NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that OH abundance rather than normalized OH reactivity is the main driver of fire-to-fire variability in HCHO secondary production and estimate an effective HCHO yield per volatile organic compound molecule oxidized in wildfire plumes.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, John N. Crowley, Jan Schuladen, Jonathan Williams, Sascha Hafermann, Andreas Reiffs, Raoul Axinte, Hartwig Harder, Cheryl Ernest, Anna Novelli, Katrin Sala, Monica Martinez, Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Birger Bohn, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18413–18432,Short summary
HCHO is an important atmospheric trace gas influencing the photochemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the budget of HOx and the abundance of tropospheric O3. This research presents the photochemical calculations of HCHO and O3 based on three field campaigns across Europe. We show that HCHO production via the oxidation of only four volatile organic compound precursors, i.e., CH4, CH3CHO, C5H8 and CH3OH, can balance the observed loss at all sites well.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
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