Articles | Volume 21, issue 20
22 Oct 2021
Measurement report | 22 Oct 2021
Measurement report: Variability in the composition of biogenic volatile organic compounds in a Southeastern US forest and their role in atmospheric reactivity
Deborah F. McGlynn et al.
No articles found.
Sungwoo Kim, Brian M. Lerner, Donna T. Sueper, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
Atmospheric samples can be complex and current analysis methods often require substantial human interaction and also discard potentially important information. To improve analysis accuracy and computational cost of these large datasets, we developed an automated analysis algorithm that utilizes a factor analysis approach coupled with a decision tree. We demonstrated this algorithm cataloged approximately ten times more analytes compared to a manual analysis and in a quarter of the analysis time.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 805–821,Short summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. CHOCHO concentration was high in large cities, aromatics being the most important precursors. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink, contributing to ~ 20 % of secondary organic aerosol formation. Our work highlights that simple CHOCHO surface uptake approach is valid only for low aerosol conditions and more work is required to understand CHOCHO solubility in high-aerosol conditions.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6835–6850,Short summary
Iodide-adduct chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I-CIMS) has been widely used to analyze airborne organics. In this study, I-CIMS sensitivities of isomers within a formula are found to generally vary by 1 and up to 2 orders of magnitude. Comparisons between measured and predicted moles, obtained using a voltage-scanning calibration approach, show that predictions for individual compounds or formulas might carry high uncertainty, yet the summed moles of analytes agree reasonably well.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6551–6560,Short summary
Calibration techniques have been recently developed to log-linearly correlate analyte sensitivity with CIMS operating conditions particularly for compounds without authentic standards. In this work, we examine the previously ignored bias in the log-linear-based calibration method and estimate an average bias of 30 %, with 1 order of magnitude for less sensitive compounds in some circumstances. A step-by-step guide was provided to reduce and even remove the bias.
Chenyang Bi, Jordan E. Krechmer, Graham O. Frazier, Wen Xu, Andrew T. Lambe, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, John T. Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Manjula R. Canagaratna, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3895–3907,Short summary
Measurement techniques that can achieve molecular characterizations are necessary to understand the differences of fate and transport within isomers produced in the atmospheric oxidation process. In this work, we develop an instrument to conduct isomer-resolved measurements of particle-phase organics. We assess the number of isomers per chemical formula in atmospherically relevant samples and examine the feasibility of extending the use of an existing instrument to a broader range of analytes.
Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6541–6563,Short summary
There are tens of thousands of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere. To tackle this complexity, there are a wide range of different methods to estimate their physical and chemical properties. We use these methods to understand how much the detailed structure of a molecule impacts its properties, and the extent to which properties can be estimated without knowing this level of detail. We find that structure matters, but methods lacking that level of detail still perform reasonably well.
Benjamin Gaubert, Louisa K. Emmons, Kevin Raeder, Simone Tilmes, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Avelino F. Arellano Jr., Nellie Elguindi, Claire Granier, Wenfu Tang, Jérôme Barré, Helen M. Worden, Rebecca R. Buchholz, David P. Edwards, Philipp Franke, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Marielle Saunois, Jason Schroeder, Jung-Hun Woo, Isobel J. Simpson, Donald R. Blake, Simone Meinardi, Paul O. Wennberg, John Crounse, Alex Teng, Michelle Kim, Russell R. Dickerson, Hao He, Xinrong Ren, Sally E. Pusede, and Glenn S. Diskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14617–14647,Short summary
This study investigates carbon monoxide pollution in East Asia during spring using a numerical model, satellite remote sensing, and aircraft measurements. We found an underestimation of emission sources. Correcting the emission bias can improve air quality forecasting of carbon monoxide and other species including ozone. Results also suggest that controlling VOC and CO emissions, in addition to widespread NOx controls, can improve ozone pollution over East Asia.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
James F. Hurley, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Braden Stump, Chenyang Bi, Purushottam Kumar, Susanne V. Hering, Pat Keady, and Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4911–4925,Short summary
The chemical composition of aerosols has implications for human and ecosystem health. Current methods for determining chemical composition are expensive and require highly trained personnel. Our method is promising for moderate-cost, low-maintenance measurements of oxygen / carbon ratios, a key chemical parameter, and other elements may also be studied. In this work, we coupled two commonly used detectors to assess O / C ratios in a variety of compounds and mixtures within an acceptable error.
Felix Piel, Markus Müller, Tomas Mikoviny, Sally E. Pusede, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 5947–5958,Short summary
Herein we report on the first successful airborne deployment of a CHARON PTR–ToF–MS instrument aboard the NASA DC–8 research aircraft. The analyzer is capable of chemically characterizing submicrometer atmospheric particles in a quantitative manner, at the near–molecular level, in real time. This brings a new and unprecedented measurement capability to the airborne atmospheric science community.
Suzane S. de Sá, Luciana V. Rizzo, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Yingjun J. Liu, Arthur Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Allen H. Goldstein, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Paulo Artaxo, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7973–8001,Short summary
This study investigates the impacts of urban and fire emissions on the concentration, composition, and optical properties of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in central Amazonia during the dry season. Biomass-burning and urban emissions appeared to contribute at least 80 % of brown carbon absorption while accounting for 30 % to 40 % of the organic PM1 mass concentration. Only a fraction of the 9-fold increase in mass concentration relative to the wet season was due to biomass burning.
Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Bruce Anderson, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Donald R. Blake, William H. Brune, Yonghoon Choi, Chelsea A. Corr, Joost A. de Gouw, Jack Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, L. Gregory Huey, Michelle J. Kim, Christoph J. Knote, Kara D. Lamb, Taehyoung Lee, Taehyun Park, Sally E. Pusede, Eric Scheuer, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jung-Hun Woo, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17769–17800,Short summary
Aerosol impacts visibility and human health in large cities. Sources of aerosols are still highly uncertain, especially for cities surrounded by numerous other cities. We use observations collected during the Korea–United States Air Quality study to determine sources of organic aerosol (OA). We find that secondary OA (SOA) is rapidly produced over Seoul, South Korea, and that the sources of the SOA originate from short-lived hydrocarbons, which originate from local emissions.
Claire E. Buysse, Jessica A. Munyan, Clara A. Bailey, Alexander Kotsakis, Jessica A. Sagona, Annie Esperanza, and Sally E. Pusede
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17061–17076,Short summary
Sequoia National Park (SNP) experiences high ozone (O3) pollution, which is damaging to human and ecosystem health. We find that the transport of O3 precursors has a greater contribution to high O3 than the transport of O3 concentrations. SNP O3 has therefore been more responsive to precursor emission controls than O3 in an upwind city, but controls have been less effective in the spring when vegetation is most sensitive. This has implications for regulating O3 in downwind polluted ecosystems.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Igor O. Ribeiro, Glauber G. Cirino, Yingjun Liu, Ryan Thalman, Arthur Sedlacek, Aaron Funk, Courtney Schumacher, John E. Shilling, Johannes Schneider, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Jian Wang, Karena A. McKinney, Henrique Barbosa, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12185–12206,Short summary
This study aimed at understanding and quantifying the changes in mass concentration and composition of submicron airborne particulate matter (PM) in Amazonia due to urban pollution. Downwind of Manaus, PM concentrations increased by up to 200 % under polluted compared with background conditions. The observed changes included contributions from both primary and secondary processes. The differences in organic PM composition suggested a shift in the pathways of secondary production with pollution.
Lindsay D. Yee, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Rebecca A. Wernis, Meng Meng, Ventura Rivera, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Susanne V. Hering, Mads S. Bering, Marianne Glasius, Mary Alice Upshur, Ariana Gray Bé, Regan J. Thomson, Franz M. Geiger, John H. Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Ivan Kourtchev, Markus Kalberer, Suzane de Sá, Scot T. Martin, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Brett B. Palm, Weiwei Hu, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jose L. Jimenez, Yingjun Liu, Karena A. McKinney, Paulo Artaxo, Juarez Viegas, Antonio Manzi, Maria B. Oliveira, Rodrigo de Souza, Luiz A. T. Machado, Karla Longo, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10433–10457,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds react in the atmosphere to form secondary organic aerosol, yet the chemical pathways remain unclear. We collected filter samples and deployed a semi-volatile thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph in the central Amazon. We measured 30 sesquiterpenes and 4 diterpenes and find them to be important for reactive ozone loss. We estimate that sesquiterpene oxidation contributes at least 0.4–5 % (median 1 %) of observed submicron organic aerosol mass.
Brett B. Palm, Suzane S. de Sá, Douglas A. Day, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Roger Seco, Steven J. Sjostedt, Jeong-Hoo Park, Alex B. Guenther, Saewung Kim, Joel Brito, Florian Wurm, Paulo Artaxo, Ryan Thalman, Jian Wang, Lindsay D. Yee, Rebecca Wernis, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Allen H. Goldstein, Yingjun Liu, Stephen R. Springston, Rodrigo Souza, Matt K. Newburn, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Scot T. Martin, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 467–493,Short summary
Ambient air was oxidized by OH or O3 in an oxidation flow reactor during both wet and dry seasons in the GoAmazon2014/5 campaign to study secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. We investigated how much biogenic, urban, and biomass burning sources contributed to the ambient concentrations of SOA precursor gases and how their contributions changed diurnally and seasonally. SOA yields and hygroscopicity of organic aerosol in the oxidation flow reactor were also studied.
David H. Hagan, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Jonathan P. Franklin, Lisa M. M. Wallace, Benjamin D. Kocar, Colette L. Heald, and Jesse H. Kroll
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 315–328,Short summary
The use of low-cost sensors for air pollution research has outpaced our understanding of their capabilities and limitations under real-world conditions. Here we describe the deployment, calibration and evaluation of electrochemical sensors on the Island of Hawai‘i. We obtain excellent performance (RMSE < 7 ppb, r2 = 0.997) across a wide dynamic range (1 ppb–2 ppm). We introduce a hybrid regression algorithm which works across a large dynamic range and shows little decay in sensitivity over time.
Havala O. T. Pye, Andreas Zuend, Juliane L. Fry, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Shannon L. Capps, K. Wyat Appel, Hosein Foroutan, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 357–370,Short summary
Thermodynamic modeling revealed that some but not all measurements of ammonium-to-sulfate ratios are consistent with theory. The measurement diversity likely explains the previously reported range of results regarding the suitability of thermodynamic modeling. Despite particles being predominantly phase separated, organic–inorganic interactions resulted in increased aerosol pH and partitioning towards the particle phase for highly oxygenated organic compounds compared to traditional methods.
Suzane S. de Sá, Brett B. Palm, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Matthew K. Newburn, Weiwei Hu, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Lindsay D. Yee, Ryan Thalman, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Allen H. Goldstein, Antonio O. Manzi, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Fan Mei, John E. Shilling, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Jason D. Surratt, M. Lizabeth Alexander, Jose L. Jimenez, and Scot T. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6611–6629,
Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, Kenneth C. Aikin, Elliot L. Atlas, Paul D. Goldan, Martin Graus, Roger Hendershot, Gabriel A. Isaacman-VanWertz, Abigail Koss, William C. Kuster, Richard A. Lueb, Richard J. McLaughlin, Jeff Peischl, Donna Sueper, Thomas B. Ryerson, Travis W. Tokarek, Carsten Warneke, Bin Yuan, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 291–313,Short summary
Whole air sampling followed by analysis by gas chromatography is a common technique for characterization of trace volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. We describe a new automated gas chromatograph–mass spectrograph which uses a Stirling cooler for sample preconcentration at −165 °C without the need for a cryogen such as liquid nitrogen. We also discuss potential sources of artifacts from our electropolished stainless steel sampling system and present results from two field campaigns.
Havala O. T. Pye, Benjamin N. Murphy, Lu Xu, Nga L. Ng, Annmarie G. Carlton, Hongyu Guo, Rodney Weber, Petros Vasilakos, K. Wyat Appel, Sri Hapsari Budisulistiorini, Jason D. Surratt, Athanasios Nenes, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz, Pawel K. Misztal, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 343–369,Short summary
We use a chemical transport model to examine how organic compounds in the atmosphere interact with water present in particles. Organic compounds themselves lead to water uptake, and organic compounds interact with water associated with inorganic compounds in the rural southeast atmosphere. Including interactions of organic compounds with water requires a treatment of nonideality to more accurately represent aerosol observations during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) 2013.
Kennedy T. Vu, Justin H. Dingle, Roya Bahreini, Patrick J. Reddy, Eric C. Apel, Teresa L. Campos, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Alan Fried, Scott C. Herndon, Alan J. Hills, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Greg Huey, Lisa Kaser, Denise D. Montzka, John B. Nowak, Sally E. Pusede, Dirk Richter, Joseph R. Roscioli, Glen W. Sachse, Stephen Shertz, Meghan Stell, David Tanner, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, James Walega, Peter Weibring, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Gabriele Pfister, and Frank Flocke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12039–12058,Short summary
In this manuscript, we report on airborne measurements of non-refractory composition and optical extinction along with relevant trace gases during a unique surface mesoscale circulation event, namely the Denver Cyclone, in Colorado, USA, during in July–August 2014. The focus of this paper is to investigate how meteorological conditions associated with the Denver Cyclone impacted air quality of the Colorado Front Range.
S. E. Pusede, K. C. Duffey, A. A. Shusterman, A. Saleh, J. L. Laughner, P. J. Wooldridge, Q. Zhang, C. L. Parworth, H. Kim, S. L. Capps, L. C. Valin, C. D. Cappa, A. Fried, J. Walega, J. B. Nowak, A. J. Weinheimer, R. M. Hoff, T. A. Berkoff, A. J. Beyersdorf, J. Olson, J. H. Crawford, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2575–2596,
W. W. Hu, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, D. A. Day, A. M. Ortega, P. L. Hayes, J. E. Krechmer, Q. Chen, M. Kuwata, Y. J. Liu, S. S. de Sá, K. McKinney, S. T. Martin, M. Hu, S. H. Budisulistiorini, M. Riva, J. D. Surratt, J. M. St. Clair, G. Isaacman-Van Wertz, L. D. Yee, A. H. Goldstein, S. Carbone, J. Brito, P. Artaxo, J. A. de Gouw, A. Koss, A. Wisthaler, T. Mikoviny, T. Karl, L. Kaser, W. Jud, A. Hansel, K. S. Docherty, M. L. Alexander, N. H. Robinson, H. Coe, J. D. Allan, M. R. Canagaratna, F. Paulot, and J. L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11807–11833,Short summary
This work summarized all the studies reporting isoprene epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) measured globally by aerosol mass spectrometer and compare them with modeled gas-phase IEPOX, with results suggestive of the importance of IEPOX-SOA for regional and global OA budgets. A real-time tracer of IEPOX-SOA is thoroughly evaluated for the first time by combing multiple field and chamber studies. A quick and easy empirical method on IEPOX-SOA estimation is also presented.
B. A. Nault, C. Garland, S. E. Pusede, P. J. Wooldridge, K. Ullmann, S. R. Hall, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 987–997,Short summary
We report the first atmospheric measurement of methyl peroxy nitrate (CH3O2NO2) and describe an experimental strategy to obtain NO2 observations free of methyl peroxy nitrate (CH3O2NO2). The accuracy of the CH3O2NO2 measurements are (+/- 40%) with a LOD of 15 pptv/min. We observe that CH3O2NO2 is ubiquitous in the upper troposphere with median mixing ratios of 100 to 200 pptv, and its composition to the total NOy budget is comparable to HNO3.
G. Isaacman, N. M. Kreisberg, L. D. Yee, D. R. Worton, A. W. H. Chan, J. A. Moss, S. V. Hering, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4417–4429,Short summary
We present here a new in situ instrument for ambient measurements of highly polar organic semi-volatile and low-volatility compounds in both the gas and particle phase by gas chromatography. Compounds previously measured only through filter collection and offline analysis can now be measured hourly with, in most cases, less than 20% uncertainty. This instrument provides unprecedented time resolution and the first ever observations of gas-particle partitioning for most of these compounds.
N. M. Kreisberg, D. R. Worton, Y. Zhao, G. Isaacman, A. H. Goldstein, and S. V. Hering
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 4431–4444,
K.-E. Min, S. E. Pusede, E. C. Browne, B. W. LaFranchi, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5495–5512,
S. E. Pusede, D. R. Gentner, P. J. Wooldridge, E. C. Browne, A. W. Rollins, K.-E. Min, A. R. Russell, J. Thomas, L. Zhang, W. H. Brune, S. B. Henry, J. P. DiGangi, F. N. Keutsch, S. A. Harrold, J. A. Thornton, M. R. Beaver, J. M. St. Clair, P. O. Wennberg, J. Sanders, X. Ren, T. C. VandenBoer, M. Z. Markovic, A. Guha, R. Weber, A. H. Goldstein, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3373–3395,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North PacificOH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firnAtmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian OceanJoint occurrence of heatwaves and ozone pollution and increased health risks in Beijing, China: role of synoptic weather pattern and urbanizationUsing atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domainAn evaluation of new particle formation events in Helsinki during a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial summer bloomOceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol and their contribution to sulfur dioxide production in the marine atmosphereAn investigation into the chemistry of HONO in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in BermudaTropospheric ozone production and chemical regime analysis during the COVID-19 lockdown over EuropeOverview: On the transport and transformation of pollutants in the outflow of major population centres – observational data from the EMeRGe European intensive operational period in summer 2017Interannual variability of terpenoid emissions in an alpine cityObservations and modelling of glyoxal in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layerTop-down and bottom-up estimates of anthropogenic methyl bromide emissions from eastern ChinaDirect measurements of ozone response to emissions perturbations in CaliforniaGround-based investigation of HOx and ozone chemistry in biomass burning plumes in rural IdahoInsights into the significant increase in ozone during COVID-19 in a typical urban city of ChinaQuantification and assessment of methane emissions from offshore oil and gas facilities on the Norwegian continental shelfFull latitudinal marine atmospheric measurements of iodine monoxideDirect observations indicate photodegradable oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as larger contributors to radicals and ozone production in the atmosphereAssessing vehicle fuel efficiency using a dense network of CO2 observationsOdds and ends of atmospheric mercury in Europe and over the North Atlantic Ocean: temporal trends of 25 years of measurementsInterpretation of NO3–N2O5 observation via steady state in high-aerosol air mass: the impact of equilibrium coefficient in ambient conditionsGlobal emissions of perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) resulting from the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) feedstock to produce polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and related fluorochemicalsAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part I: HONO formation and its role in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layerLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristicsUrban inland wintertime N2O5 and ClNO2 influenced by snow-covered ground, air turbulence, and precipitationFirst observation of mercury species on an important water vapor channel in the southeastern Tibetan PlateauSwiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observationsMeasurement report: Long-term measurements of aerosol precursor concentrations in the Finnish subarctic boreal forestThe Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS)Measurement report: Long-term variations in surface NOx and SO2 mixing ratios from 2006 to 2016 at a background site in the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part II: HONO budget and radical (ROx + NO3) chemistry in the lower boundary layerInvestigation of New Particle Formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at the Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaExploration of the atmospheric chemistry of nitrous acid in a coastal city of southeastern China: results from measurements across four seasonsEddy Covariance Measurements Highlight Sources of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions Missing from Inventories for Central LondonMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution at urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlFormaldehyde evolution in US wildfire plumes during the Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality experiment (FIREX-AQ)Measurement report: Photochemical production and loss rates of formaldehyde and ozone across EuropeIs the ocean surface a source of nitrous acid (HONO) in the marine boundary layer?Measurement report: High contributions of halocarbon and aromatic compounds to atmospheric volatile organic compounds in an industrial areaMeasurement report: Fast photochemical production of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) over the rural North China Plain during haze events in autumnLong-term atmospheric emissions for the Coal Oil Point natural marine hydrocarbon seep field, offshore CaliforniaMeasurement report: Observation-based formaldehyde production rates and their relation to OH reactivity around the Arabian PeninsulaComment on “Isotopic evidence for dominant secondary production of HONO in near-ground wildfire plumes” by Chai et al. (2021)Measurement report: Regional characteristics of seasonal and long-term variations in greenhouse gases at Nainital, India, and Comilla, BangladeshNighttime and daytime dark oxidation chemistry in wildfire plumes: an observation and model analysis of FIREX-AQ aircraft dataThe effects of the COVID-19 lockdowns on the composition of the troposphere as seen by In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) at Frankfurt
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,Short summary
This paper presents the first OH and HO2 radical observations made in the Yangtze River Delta in China, and strong oxidation capacity is discovered based on direct measurements. The impacts of new OH regeneration mechanisms, monoterpene oxidation, and HO2 uptake processes are examined and discussed. The sources and the factors to sustain such strong oxidation are the key to understanding the ozone pollution formed in this area.
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,Short summary
Greenhouse gas methane in the Arctic atmosphere has not been accurately reported for 1900–1980 from either direct observations or ice core reconstructions. By using trace gas data from firn (compacted snow layers above ice sheet), air samples at two Greenland sites, and a firn air transport model, this study suggests a likely range of the Arctic methane reconstruction for the 20th century. Atmospheric scenarios from two previous studies are also evaluated for consistency with the firn data sets.
Susann Tegtmeier, Christa Marandino, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6625–6676,Short summary
In the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean, intense anthropogenic pollution from Southeast Asia mixes with pristine oceanic air. During the winter monsoon, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its impacts on the upper atmosphere, oceanic biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Haiyun Xia, Meng Gao, Zhaobin Sun, Zuofang Zheng, Xianxiang Li, Guicai Ning, Yubin Li, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6523–6538,Short summary
Heatwaves (HWs) paired with higher ozone (O3) concentration at surface level pose a serious threat to human health. Taking Beijing as an example, three unfavorable synoptic weather patterns were identified to dominate the compound HW and O3 pollution events. Under the synergistic stress of HWs and O3 pollution, public mortality risk increased, and synoptic patterns and urbanization enhanced the compound risk of events in Beijing by 33.09 % and 18.95 %, respectively.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Roseline C. Thakur, Lubna Dada, Lisa J. Beck, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Tommy Chan, Marjan Marbouti, Xu-Cheng He, Carlton Xavier, Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Markus Lampimäki, Yee Jun Tham, Nina Sarnela, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alf Norkko, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6365–6391,Short summary
Every year intense cyanobacterial and macroalgal blooms occur in the Baltic Sea and in the coastal areas surrounding Helsinki, yet no studies have addressed the impact of biogenic emissions from these blooms on gas vapor concentrations, which in turn could influence new particle formation. This is the first study of its kind to address the chemistry driving new particle formation (NPF) during a bloom period in this region, highlighting the role of biogenic sulfuric acid and iodic acid.
Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Christopher M. Jernigan, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6309–6325,Short summary
We describe field measurements of the mixing ratio and oceanic emission flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MeSH) from a coastal ocean site. DMS is known to impact aerosol formation and growth in the marine atmosphere, influencing cloud formation and climate. Measurements of MeSH, which is produced by the same oceanic source as DMS, are rare. We show that MeSH emissions are large and must be measured alongside DMS to understand marine sulfur chemistry and aerosol formation.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lisa Kaser, Arianna Peron, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Georg Wohlfahrt, Stanislav Juráň, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5603–5618,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., terpenoids) play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Urban greening activities need to consider the ozone- and aerosol-forming potential of these compounds released from vegetation. NMVOC emissions in urban environments are complex, and the biogenic component remains poorly quantified. For summer conditions biogenic emissions dominate terpene emissions and heat waves can significantly modulate urban biogenic terpenoid emissions.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Shenglun Wu, Hyung Joo Lee, Andrea Anderson, Shang Liu, Toshihiro Kuwayama, John H. Seinfeld, and Michael J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4929–4949,Short summary
An ozone control experiment usually conducted in the laboratory was installed in a trailer and moved to the outdoor environment to directly confirm that we are controlling the right sources in order to lower ambient ozone concentrations. Adding small amounts of precursor oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds to ambient air showed that the highest ozone concentrations are best controlled by reducing concentrations of oxides of nitrogen. The results confirm satellite measurements.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Kun Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qing Li, Andrew Jensen, Wen Tan, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Joost de Gouw, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4853–4866,Short summary
A significant increase in O3 concentrations was found during the lockdown period of COVID-19 in most areas of China. By field measurements coupled with machine learning, an observation-based model (OBM) and sensitivity analysis, we found the changes in the NOx / VOC ratio were a key reason for the significant rise in O3. To restrain O3 pollution, more efforts should be devoted to the control of anthropogenic OVOCs, alkenes and aromatics.
Amy Foulds, Grant Allen, Jacob T. Shaw, Prudence Bateson, Patrick A. Barker, Langwen Huang, Joseph R. Pitt, James D. Lee, Shona E. Wilde, Pamela Dominutti, Ruth M. Purvis, David Lowry, James L. France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Alina Fiehn, Magdalena Pühl, Stéphane J. B. Bauguitte, Stephen A. Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Ignacio Pisso, and Stefan Schwietzke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4303–4322,Short summary
We measured CH4 emissions from 21 offshore oil and gas facilities in the Norwegian Sea in 2019. Measurements compared well with operator-reported emissions but were greatly underestimated when compared with a 2016 global fossil fuel inventory. This study demonstrates the need for up-to-date and accurate inventories for use in research and policy and the important benefits of best-practice reporting methods by operators. Airborne measurements are an effective tool to validate such inventories.
Hisahiro Takashima, Yugo Kanaya, Saki Kato, Martina M. Friedrich, Michel Van Roozendael, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Carlos A. Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Takashi Sekiya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4005–4018,Short summary
We have undertaken atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) observations in the global marine boundary layer with a wide latitudinal coverage and sea surface temperature (SST) range. We conclude that atmospheric iodine is abundant over the Western Pacific warm pool, appearing as an iodine fountain, where ozone (O3) minima occur. Our study also found negative correlations between IO and O3 concentrations over IO maxima, which requires reconsideration of the initiation process of halogen activation.
Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Suxia Yang, Caihong Wu, Jipeng Qi, Fengxia Bao, Yibo Huangfu, Chaomin Wang, Chenshuo Ye, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Peng Cheng, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4117–4128,Short summary
From thorough measurements of numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds, we show that their photodissociation can be important for radical production and ozone formation in the atmosphere. This effect was underestimated in previous studies, as measurements of them were lacking.
Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Alexander J. Turner, Jinsol Kim, Katherine Chan, Erin R. Delaria, Catherine Newman, Paul Wooldridge, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3891–3900,Short summary
On-road emissions are thought to vary widely from existing predictions, as the effects of the age of the vehicle fleet, the performance of emission control systems, and variations in speed are difficult to assess under ambient driving conditions. We present an observational approach to characterize on-road emissions and show that the method is consistent with other approaches to within ~ 3 %.
Danilo Custódio, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, T. Gerard Spain, Fidel F. Pankratov, Iana Strigunova, Koketso Molepo, Henrik Skov, Johannes Bieser, and Ralf Ebinghaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3827–3840,Short summary
As a poison in the air that we breathe and the food that we eat, mercury is a human health concern for society as a whole. In that regard, this work deals with monitoring and modelling mercury in the environment, improving wherewithal, identifying the strength of the different components at play, and interpreting information to support the efforts that seek to safeguard public health.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3525–3533,Short summary
We use a complete set of simulations to evaluate whether equilibrium and steady state are appropriate for a chemical system involving several reactive nitrogen-containing species (NO2, NO3, and N2O5) under various conditions. A previously neglected bias for the coefficient applied for interpreting their effects is disclosed, and the relevant ambient factors are examined. We therefore provide a good solution to an accurate representation of nighttime chemistry in high-aerosol areas.
Jens Mühle, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Kieran M. Stanley, Matthew Rigby, Luke M. Western, Jooil Kim, Sunyoung Park, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Simon O'Doherty, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3371–3378,Short summary
Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) into the atmosphere have been increasing sharply since the early 2000s. These c-C4F8 emissions are highly correlated with the amount of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 produced to synthesize polytetrafluoroethylene (known for its non-stick properties) and related chemicals. From this process, c-C4F8 by-product is vented to the atmosphere. Avoiding these unnecessary c-C4F8 emissions could reduce the climate impact of this industry.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3149–3167,Short summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit level, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Wenjie Wang, David Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterization of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarize this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Kathryn D. Kulju, Stephen M. McNamara, Qianjie Chen, Hannah S. Kenagy, Jacinta Edebeli, Jose D. Fuentes, Steven B. Bertman, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2553–2568,Short summary
N2O5 uptake by chloride-containing surfaces produces ClNO2, which photolyzes, producing NO2 and highly reactive Cl radicals that impact air quality. In the inland urban atmosphere, ClNO2 was elevated during lower air turbulence and over snow-covered ground, from snowpack ClNO2 production. N2O5 and ClNO2 levels were lowest, on average, during rainfall and fog because of scavenging, with N2O5 scavenging by fog droplets likely contributing to observed increased particulate nitrate concentrations.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2447–2466,Short summary
Artificial halocarbons contribute to ozone layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster tower, modelled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons, we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest types of halocarbons.
Tuija Jokinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Roseline Cutting Thakur, Ilona Ylivinkka, Kimmo Neitola, Nina Sarnela, Totti Laitinen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2237–2254,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei; however, long-term measurements of aerosol-forming vapors are close to nonexistent in the Arctic. Here, we report 7 months of CI-APi-TOF measurements of sulfuric acid, iodic acid, methane sulfonic acid and the sum of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the SMEAR I station in the Finnish subarctic. The results help us to understand atmospheric chemical processes and aerosol formation in this rapidly changing area.
Andrew O. Langford, Christoph J. Senff, Raul J. Alvarez II, Ken C. Aikin, Sunil Baidar, Timothy A. Bonin, W. Alan Brewer, Jerome Brioude, Steven S. Brown, Joel D. Burley, Dani J. Caputi, Stephen A. Conley, Patrick D. Cullis, Zachary C. J. Decker, Stéphanie Evan, Guillaume Kirgis, Meiyun Lin, Mariusz Pagowski, Jeff Peischl, Irina Petropavlovskikh, R. Bradley Pierce, Thomas B. Ryerson, Scott P. Sandberg, Chance W. Sterling, Ann M. Weickmann, and Li Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1707–1737,Short summary
The Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS) combined lidar, aircraft, and in situ measurements with global models to investigate the contributions of stratospheric intrusions, regional and Asian pollution, and wildfires to background ozone in the southwestern US during May and June 2017 and demonstrated that these processes contributed to background ozone levels that exceeded 70 % of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard during the 6-week campaign.
Qingqing Yin, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, and Jie Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1015–1033,Short summary
China has been experiencing rapid changes in emissions of air pollutants in recent decades. NOx and SO2 measurements from 2006 to 2016 at the Lin’an World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch station were used to characterize the seasonal and diurnal variations and study the long-term trends. This study reaffirms China’s success in controlling both NOx and SO2 in the Yangtze River Delta but indicates at the same time a necessity to strengthen the NOx emission control.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Wenjin Zhang, Xiaowei He, Pengfei Liu, Chenglong Zhang, Xiaoxi Zhao, Chengtang Liu, Zhuobiao Ma, Junfeng Liu, Jinhe Wang, Keding Lu, Valéry Catoire, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1035–1057,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were measured at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai in the summer of 2018. Based on measurements at the foot station, we utilized a box model to explore the roles of different sources in the HONO budget. We also studied radical chemistry in this high-ozone region.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipila
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Understanding how aerosol form is crucial to correctly model the climate and improve future predictions. This work provides an extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at the Marambio research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that Sulfuric Acid, Ammonia and Dimethyl amine are key contributors for the frequent new particle formation events observed at site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need of targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Baoye Hu, Jun Duan, Youwei Hong, Lingling Xu, Mengren Li, Yahui Bian, Min Qin, Wu Fang, Pinhua Xie, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 371–393,Short summary
There has been a lack of research into HONO in coastal cities with low concentrations of PM2.5, but strong sunlight and high humidity. Insufficient research on coastal cities with good air quality has resulted in certain obstacles to assessing the photochemical processes in these areas. Furthermore, HONO contributes to the atmospheric photochemistry depending on the season. Therefore, observations of HONO across four seasons in the southeastern coastal area of China are urgently needed.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Measurements of nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NOx) emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints to emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017, and compares them with inventories, finding they underestimate by ~1.48 x.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A one-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at an urban site in Beijing during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene and 1-hexene were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust and coal/biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species of toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and styrene.
Jin Liao, Glenn M. Wolfe, Reem A. Hannun, Jason M. St. Clair, Thomas F. Hanisco, Jessica B. Gilman, Aaron Lamplugh, Vanessa Selimovic, Glenn S. Diskin, John B. Nowak, Hannah S. Halliday, Joshua P. DiGangi, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, Christopher D. Holmes, Charles H. Fite, Anxhelo Agastra, Thomas B. Ryerson, Jeff Peischl, Ilann Bourgeois, Carsten Warneke, Matthew M. Coggon, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Kanako Sekimoto, Alan Fried, Dirk Richter, Petter Weibring, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Steven S. Brown, Caroline C. Womack, Michael A. Robinson, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Patrick R. Veres, and J. Andrew Neuman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18319–18331,Short summary
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important oxidant precursor and affects the formation of O3 and other secondary pollutants in wildfire plumes. We disentangle the processes controlling HCHO evolution from wildfire plumes sampled by NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that OH abundance rather than normalized OH reactivity is the main driver of fire-to-fire variability in HCHO secondary production and estimate an effective HCHO yield per volatile organic compound molecule oxidized in wildfire plumes.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, John N. Crowley, Jan Schuladen, Jonathan Williams, Sascha Hafermann, Andreas Reiffs, Raoul Axinte, Hartwig Harder, Cheryl Ernest, Anna Novelli, Katrin Sala, Monica Martinez, Chinmay Mallik, Laura Tomsche, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Birger Bohn, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18413–18432,Short summary
HCHO is an important atmospheric trace gas influencing the photochemical processes in the Earth’s atmosphere, including the budget of HOx and the abundance of tropospheric O3. This research presents the photochemical calculations of HCHO and O3 based on three field campaigns across Europe. We show that HCHO production via the oxidation of only four volatile organic compound precursors, i.e., CH4, CH3CHO, C5H8 and CH3OH, can balance the observed loss at all sites well.
Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, Francis D. Pope, Chris Reed, James D. Lee, Lucy J. Carpenter, Lloyd D. J. Hollis, Stephen M. Ball, and William J. Bloss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18213–18225,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO) is a key source of atmospheric oxidants. We evaluate if the ocean surface is a source of HONO for the marine boundary layer, using measurements from two contrasting coastal locations. We observed no evidence for a night-time ocean surface source, in contrast to previous work. This points to significant geographical variation in the predominant HONO formation mechanisms in marine environments, reflecting possible variability in the sea-surface microlayer composition.
Ahsan Mozaffar, Yan-Lin Zhang, Yu-Chi Lin, Feng Xie, Mei-Yi Fan, and Fang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18087–18099,Short summary
We performed a long-term investigation of ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an industrial area in Nanjing, China. Followed by alkanes, halocarbons and aromatics were the most abundant VOC groups. Vehicle-related emissions were the major VOC sources in the study area. Aromatic and alkene VOCs were responsible for most of the atmospheric reactions.
Yulu Qiu, Zhiqiang Ma, Ke Li, Mengyu Huang, Jiujiang Sheng, Ping Tian, Jia Zhu, Weiwei Pu, Yingxiao Tang, Tingting Han, Huaigang Zhou, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17995–18010,Short summary
Photochemical pollution over the North China Plain (NCP) is attracting much concern. Our observations at a rural site in the NCP identified high peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations, even on cold days. Increased acetaldehyde concentration and hydroxyl radical production rates drive fast PAN formation. Moreover, our study emphasizes the importance of formaldehyde photolysis in PAN formation and calls for implementing strict volatile organic compound controls after summer over the NCP.
Ira Leifer, Christopher Melton, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17607–17629,Short summary
We demonstrate a novel application using air quality station data to derive 3-decade-averaged emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, a highly spatially and temporally variable geological migration system. Emissions were 19 Gg per year, suggesting that the COP seep field contributes 0.27 % of the global marine seep budget based on a recent estimate. This provides an advance over snapshot survey values by accounting for seasonal and interannual variations.
Dirk Dienhart, John N. Crowley, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Achim Edtbauer, Philipp G. Eger, Lisa Ernle, Hartwig Harder, Bettina Hottmann, Monica Martinez, Uwe Parchatka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Christof Stönner, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Nijing Wang, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17373–17388,Short summary
We present the first ship-based in situ measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO), hydroxyl radicals (OH) and the OH reactivity around the Arabian Peninsula. Regression analysis of the HCHO production rate and the related OH chemistry revealed the regional HCHO yield αeff, which represents the different chemical regimes encountered. Highest values were found for the Arabian Gulf (also known as the Persian Gulf), which highlights this region as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution.
James M. Roberts
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16793–16795,Short summary
This comment provides evidence that recently reported measurements of the isotope composition of wildfire-derived oxides of nitrogen have a significant interference from other nitrogen compounds. In addition, the conceptual model used to interpret the results was missing several key reactions.
Shohei Nomura, Manish Naja, M. Kawser Ahmed, Hitoshi Mukai, Yukio Terao, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, and Prabir K. Patra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16427–16452,Short summary
Long-term measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in India and Bangladesh unveiled specific characteristics in their variations in these regions. Plants including rice cultivated in winter and summer strongly affected seasonal variations and levels in CO2 and CH4. Long-term variability of GHGs showed quite different features in their growth rates from those in Mauna Loa. GHG trends in this region seemed to be hardly affected by El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Zachary C. J. Decker, Michael A. Robinson, Kelley C. Barsanti, Ilann Bourgeois, Matthew M. Coggon, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Frank M. Flocke, Alessandro Franchin, Carley D. Fredrickson, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah Halliday, Christopher D. Holmes, L. Gregory Huey, Young Ro Lee, Jakob Lindaas, Ann M. Middlebrook, Denise D. Montzka, Richard Moore, J. Andrew Neuman, John B. Nowak, Brett B. Palm, Jeff Peischl, Felix Piel, Pamela S. Rickly, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Kanako Sekimoto, Lee Thornhill, Joel A. Thornton, Geoffrey S. Tyndall, Kirk Ullmann, Paul Van Rooy, Patrick R. Veres, Carsten Warneke, Rebecca A. Washenfelder, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elizabeth Wiggins, Edward Winstead, Armin Wisthaler, Caroline Womack, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16293–16317,Short summary
To understand air quality impacts from wildfires, we need an accurate picture of how wildfire smoke changes chemically both day and night as sunlight changes the chemistry of smoke. We present a chemical analysis of wildfire smoke as it changes from midday through the night. We use aircraft observations from the FIREX-AQ field campaign with a chemical box model. We find that even under sunlight typical
nighttimechemistry thrives and controls the fate of key smoke plume chemical processes.
Hannah Clark, Yasmine Bennouna, Maria Tsivlidou, Pawel Wolff, Bastien Sauvage, Brice Barret, Eric Le Flochmoën, Romain Blot, Damien Boulanger, Jean-Marc Cousin, Philippe Nédélec, Andreas Petzold, and Valérie Thouret
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16237–16256,Short summary
We examined 27 years of IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) profiles at Frankfurt to see if there were unusual features during the spring of 2020 related to COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe. Increased ozone near the surface was partly linked to the reduction in emissions. Carbon monoxide decreased near the surface, but the impact of the lockdowns was offset by polluted air masses from elsewhere. There were small reductions in ozone and carbon monoxide in the free troposphere.
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We present 1 year of hourly measurements of chemically resolved Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) between 15 September 2019 and 15 September 2020, collected at a research tower in central Virginia. Concentrations of a range of BVOCs are described and examined for their impact on atmospheric reactivity. The majority of reactivity comes from α-pinene and limonene, highlighting the importance of both concentration and structure in assessing atmospheric impacts of emissions.
We present 1 year of hourly measurements of chemically resolved Biogenic volatile organic...