Articles | Volume 21, issue 14
Measurement report 28 Jul 2021
Measurement report | 28 Jul 2021
Measurement report: Long-emission-wavelength chromophores dominate the light absorption of brown carbon in aerosols over Bangkok: impact from biomass burning
Jiao Tang et al.
No articles found.
Xuewu Fu, Chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Yue Xu, Hui Zhang, Jun Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Gan Zhang, Hai Guo, Xun Wang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6721–6734,Short summary
TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions in 10 Chinese cities showed strong seasonality with higher TGM concentrations and Δ199Hg and lower δ202Hg in summer. We found the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions were highly related to regional surface Hg(0) emissions, suggesting land surface Hg(0) emissions are an important source of atmospheric TGM that contribute dominantly to the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions.
Jianzhong Sun, Yuzhe Zhang, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Wenjing Jin, Yingjun Chen, Lei Wang, Chongguo Tian, Zhengying Li, Rong Chen, Wen Xiao, Yuan Cheng, Wei Yang, Liying Yao, Yang Cao, Duo Huang, Yueyuan Qiu, Jiali Xu, Xiaofei Xia, Xin Yang, Xi Zhang, Zheng Zong, Yuchun Song, and Changdong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2329–2341,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) emission factors from household biomass fuels were measured with an integrating sphere optics approach supported by iterative calculations. A novel algorithm to directly estimate the absorption contribution of BrC relative to that of BrC + black carbon (FBrC) was proposed based purely on the absorption exponent (AAE) (FBrC = 0.5519 lnAAE + 0.0067). The FBrC for household biomass fuels was as high as 50.8 % across the strongest solar spectral range of 350−850 nm.
Shichao Tian, Birgit Gaye, Jianhui Tang, Yongming Luo, Wenguo Li, Niko Lahajnar, Kirstin Dähnke, Tina Sanders, Tianqi Xiong, Weidong Zhai, and Kay-Christian Emeis
Revised manuscript under review for BGShort summary
We constraint the nitrogen budget and in particular the internal sources and sinks of nitrate in the Bohai Sea by using a mass-based and dual stable-isotope approach based on δ15N and δ18O of nitrate. Based on the available mass fluxes and isotope data an updated nitrogen budget is proposed. Compared to previous estimates, it is more complete and includes the impact of interior cycling (nitrification) on the nitrate pool. The main external nitrogen sources are rivers contributing 17.5 %–20.6 %.
Qingcai Chen, Haoyao Sun, Wenhuai Song, Fang Cao, Chongguo Tian, and Yan-Lin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14407–14417,Short summary
This study found environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are widely present in atmospheric particles of different particle sizes and exhibit significant particle size distribution characteristics. EPFR concentrations are higher in coarse particles than in fine particles in summer and vice versa in winter. The potential toxicity caused by EPFRs may also vary with particle size and season. Combustion is the most important source of EPFRs (>70 %).
Jiao Tang, Jun Li, Tao Su, Yong Han, Yangzhi Mo, Hongxing Jiang, Min Cui, Bin Jiang, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Jianzhong Song, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2513–2532,Short summary
We investigated the light absorption, fluorescence, and molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon from the simulated combustion of biomass and coal and vehicle emissions with UV–vis spectra, EEM-PARAFAC, and FT-ICR MS. We observed high light absorption capacity from source emissions, and fluorescence spectra and molecular structures varied by source. We concluded that an EEM- and molecular-composition-based methodology could be helpful in the source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols.
Fan Zhang, Hai Guo, Yingjun Chen, Volker Matthias, Yan Zhang, Xin Yang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1549–1564,Short summary
Particulate matter (PM) emitted from ships has gained more attention in recent decades. Organic matter, elemental carbon, water-soluble ions and heavy metals in PM and particle numbers are the main points. However, studies of detailed chemical compositions in particles with different size ranges emitted from ships are in shortage. This study could bring new and detailed measurement data into the field of size-segregated particles from ships and be of great source emission interest.
Yu-Qing Zhang, Duo-Hong Chen, Xiang Ding, Jun Li, Tao Zhang, Jun-Qi Wang, Qian Cheng, Hao Jiang, Wei Song, Yu-Bo Ou, Peng-Lin Ye, Gan Zhang, and Xin-Ming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14403–14415,Short summary
BSOA formation is affected by human activities, which are not well understood in polluted areas. In the polluted PRD region, we find that monoterpene SOA is aged, which probably results from high Ox and sulfate levels. NOx levels significantly affect isoprene SOA formation pathways. An unexpected increase of β-caryophyllene SOA in winter is also highly associated with enhanced biomass burning, Ox, and sulfate. Our results indicate that BSOA could be reduced by lowering anthropogenic emissions.
Min Cui, Cheng Li, Yingjun Chen, Fan Zhang, Jun Li, Bin Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Jia Li, Caiqing Yan, Mei Zheng, Zhiyong Xie, Gan Zhang, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13945–13956,Short summary
Refined source apportionment is urgently needed but hard to achieve due to a lack of specific biomarkers. Recently, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has been used to analyse the probable chemical structure of polar organic matter emitted from off-road engines. We found more condensed aromatic rings in S-containing compounds for HFO-fueled vessels, while more abundant aliphatic chains were observed in emissions from diesel equipment.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Jiarong Li, Chongguo Tian, Linlin Song, Xiaoyao Zhai, Wenqi Zhang, Tong Huang, Yu-Chi Lin, Chao Zhu, Yunting Fang, Moritz F. Lehmann, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12221–12234,Short summary
The present work underscores the value of cloud water dissolved inorganic nitrogen isotopes as carriers of quantitative information on regional NOx and NH3 emissions. It sheds light on the origin and production pathways of nitrogenous species in clouds and emphasizes the importance of biomass-burning-derived nitrogenous species as cloud condensation nuclei in China’s troposphere. Moreover, it highlights the rapid evolution of NOx emissions in China.
Kangning Li, Xingnan Ye, Hongwei Pang, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Xiaofei Wang, Xin Yang, Jianmin Chen, and Yingjun Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15201–15218,Short summary
Temporal variation in the hygroscopicity and its correlation with the mixing state of ambient BC particles were studied using a HTDMA–SP2 system. Secondary organic carbon formation and condensation of nitrates were mainly responsible for the changes of hygroscopicity of BC particles during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Different atmospheric aging processes led to the change of BC particles' mixing states, which play a fundamental role in determining their hygroscopicity.
Yunhua Chang, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Shichun Zhang, Xiaoyan Ma, Fang Cao, Xiaoyan Liu, Wenqi Zhang, Thomas Kuhn, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11647–11661,Short summary
We demonstrate that it is imperative that future studies, making use of isotope mixing models to gain conclusive constraints on the source partitioning of atmospheric NOx, consider this N isotope fractionation. Future assessments of NOx emissions in China (and elsewhere) should involve simultaneous δ15N and δ18O measurements of atmospheric nitrate and NOx at high spatiotemporal resolution, allowing former N-isotope-based NOx source partitioning estimates to be reevaluated more quantitatively.
Di Liu, Matthias Vonwiller, Jun Li, Junwen Liu, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Chongguo Tian, Yinjun Chen, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Pingqing Fu, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Di Liu, Jun Li, Zhineng Cheng, Guangcai Zhong, Sanyuan Zhu, Ping Ding, Chengde Shen, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Guorui Zhi, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11491–11502,Short summary
To elucidate the carbon sources of air pollution, source apportionment was conducted using radiocarbon and unique molecular organic tracers during the beginning of winter 2013 in 10 Chinese cities. The results indicated that non-fossil-fuel (NF) emissions were predominant. During haze episodes, there were no dramatic changes in the carbon source or composition in the cities under study, but the contribution of primary OC from both fossil fuel and NF increased significantly.
Yunhua Chang, Congrui Deng, Fang Cao, Chang Cao, Zhong Zou, Shoudong Liu, Xuhui Lee, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Yanlin Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9945–9964,Short summary
This paper presents the results from a 5-year and near-real-time measurement study of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 conducted at an urban site in Shanghai. Moreover, we integrated the results from historical field measurements and satellite observations, concluding that carbonaceous aerosol pollution in Shanghai has gradually reduced since 2006. This can be largely explained by the introduction of air-cleaning measures such as controlling vehicular emissions.
Min Cui, Yingjun Chen, Yanli Feng, Cheng Li, Junyu Zheng, Chongguo Tian, Caiqing Yan, and Mei Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6779–6795,Short summary
PM emitted from diesel vehicles has a severe impact on air quality and human health. However, characteristics of PM from diesel vehicles, particularly measured under real-world condition, are scarce. In this study, 6 excavators and 5 trucks were tested to characterize constituents of PM. PM emission factor (EFPM) and compositions were affected by fuel quality, operating modes and emission standards. Moreover, EFPM and risk of carcinogenic for excavators were 1.7 and 31 fold of those for trucks.
Jianzhong Sun, Guorui Zhi, Regina Hitzenberger, Yingjun Chen, Chongguo Tian, Yayun Zhang, Yanli Feng, Miaomiao Cheng, Yuzhe Zhang, Jing Cai, Feng Chen, Yiqin Qiu, Zhiming Jiang, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Yangzhi Mo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4769–4780,Short summary
This paper investigates the emission factors and the light absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) from China’s household coal burning. Seven coals of various ranks were burned in four typical stoves as both chunk and briquette styles. The optical integrating sphere (IS) method was employed to quantify BrC and black carbon (BC). We conclude that, in the scenario of current household coal burning in China, solar light absorption by BrC accounts for 26.5 % of the total absorption.
Zheng Zong, Xiaoping Wang, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Lin Qu, Ling Ji, Guorui Zhi, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11249–11265,Short summary
We explore the source apportionment of PM2.5 in North China in winter using an original combination method, and coal combustion, biomass burning and vehicle emissions are identified as the largest contributors of PM2.5, accounting for 29.6, 19.3 and 15.8 %, respectively. Biomass burning emission was highlighted in the present study because of its dominant contribution to the PM2.5 burden in the Shandong Peninsula and because it is neglected in the air pollution control program.
Fan Zhang, Yingjun Chen, Chongguo Tian, Diming Lou, Jun Li, Gan Zhang, and Volker Matthias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6319–6334,Short summary
In this study, on-board tests of three offshore vessels in China have been carried out for the first time. Emission factors for gaseous species, PM, and relevant chemical components (OC, EC, metal elements, and water soluble ions) in different operating modes are given, which means a lot for estimating contributions of ships to atmosphere and calculating emission inventories of ships. Additionally, impacts of engine speed on NOx emission factors are discussed for the first time.
Junwen Liu, Jun Li, Di Liu, Ping Ding, Chengde Shen, Yangzhi Mo, Xinming Wang, Chunling Luo, Zhineng Cheng, Sönke Szidat, Yanlin Zhang, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2985–2996,Short summary
Many Chinese cities now are suffering the high loadings of fine particular matters, which can bring a lot of negative impacts on air quality, human health, and the climate system. The Chinese government generally focuses on the control of the emissions from vehicles and industry. Our results evidently show that the burning of biomass materials such as wood and agricultural residues can lead to the urban air pollution in China. The characteristic of haze covering China is distinct from regions.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Dramatic changes in Harbin aerosol during 2018–2020: the roles of open burning policy and secondary aerosol formationTime-dependent source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol for a rural site in an alpine valley using a rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) windowCharacterization of non-refractory (NR) PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, PolandSources of black carbon at residential and traffic environments obtained by two source apportionment methodsReduced volatility of aerosols from surface emissions to the top of the planetary boundary layerMeasurement report: Receptor modeling for source identification of urban fine and coarse particulate matter using hourly elemental compositionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the Arctic boundary layer: seasonal trends and local anthropogenic influenceMeasurement report: The chemical composition of and temporal variability in aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada, during the Year of Polar Prediction Second Special Observing PeriodAmmonium nitrate promotes sulfate formation through uptake kinetic regimeMeasurement report: Indirect evidence for the controlling influence of acidity on the speciation of iodine in Atlantic aerosolsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 1: Impact of agricultural and industrial ammonia emissionsMeasurement report: Vertical distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in the urban boundary layer over Beijing during late summerSource-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurementsVariability in black carbon mass concentration in surface snow at SvalbardRapid mass growth and enhanced light extinction of atmospheric aerosols during the heating season haze episodes in Beijing revealed by aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer interactionMeasurement report: Saccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter during spring at the remote sites of southwest China and estimates of source contributionsGas–particle partitioning of polyol tracers at a suburban site in Nanjing, east China: increased partitioning to the particle phaseMeasurement report: Source characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in PM2.5 at two sites in Japan, as assessed by long-term observation and stable carbon isotope ratioThe importance of sesquiterpene oxidation products for secondary organic aerosol formation in a springtime hemiboreal forestPM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasonsIncrease of nitrooxy organosulfates in firework-related urban aerosols during Chinese New Year's EveDifferentiation of coarse-mode anthropogenic, marine and dust particles in the High Arctic islands of SvalbardSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 oxidative potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceSecondary organic aerosols from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds contribute substantially to air pollution mortalityMediterranean nascent sea spray organic aerosol and relationships with seawater biogeochemistrySeasonal analysis of submicron aerosol in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry: chemical characterisation, source apportionment and new marker identificationEight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approachQuantification of solid fuel combustion and aqueous chemistry contributions to secondary organic aerosol during wintertime haze events in BeijingLarge seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9° N, 11.9° E)Disparities in particulate matter (PM10) origins and oxidative potential at a city scale (Grenoble, France) – Part 2: Sources of PM10 oxidative potential using multiple linear regression analysis and the predictive applicability of multilayer perceptron neural network analysisContribution of combustion Fe in marine aerosols over the northwestern Pacific estimated by Fe stable isotope ratiosInter-annual variations of wet deposition in Beijing from 2014–2017: implications of below-cloud scavenging of inorganic aerosolsSources and nature of ice-nucleating particles in the free troposphere at Jungfraujoch in winter 2017Urban organic aerosol composition in eastern China differs from north to south: molecular insight from a liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (Orbitrap) studyCultivable halotolerant ice-nucleating bacteria and fungi in coastal precipitationDetermination of free amino acids, saccharides, and selected microbes in biogenic atmospheric aerosols – seasonal variations, particle size distribution, chemical and microbial relationsPhysical and chemical properties of urban aerosols in São Paulo, Brazil: links between composition and size distribution of submicron particlesSubstantial changes in gaseous pollutants and chemical compositions in fine particles in the North China Plain during the COVID-19 lockdown period: anthropogenic vs. meteorological influencesMeasurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 compositions and sources during 2015–2019 at multisite of a Chinese megacityMeasurement report: Molecular composition, optical properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in snowpack samples from northern Xinjiang, ChinaSpatiotemporal Variability in the Oxidative Potential of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter in Midwestern United StatesSignificant contrasts in aerosol acidity between China and the United StatesIncrease in secondary organic aerosol in an urban environmentCarbonaceous aerosol composition in air masses influenced by large-scale biomass burning: a case study in northwestern VietnamThe role of coarse aerosol particles as a sink of HNO3 in wintertime pollution events in the Salt Lake ValleyMolecular characterization of gaseous and particulate oxygenated compounds at a remote site in Cape Corsica in the western Mediterranean BasinAircraft measurements of aerosol and trace gas chemistry in the eastern North AtlanticImpacts of the COVID-19 lockdown on air pollution at regional and urban background sites in northern ItalyMeasurement report: Fourteen months of real-time characterisation of the submicronic aerosol and its atmospheric dynamics at the Marseille–Longchamp supersiteTrends, composition, and sources of carbonaceous aerosol at the Birkenes Observatory, northern Europe, 2001–2018
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15199–15211,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition and suggested that neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in northeast China deserves more attention.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15081–15101,Short summary
A novel, advanced source apportionment technique was applied to a dataset measured in Magadino. Rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) allows for retrieving more realistic, time-dependent, and detailed information on organic aerosol sources. The strength of the rolling PMF mechanism is highlighted by comparing it with results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this comprehensive interpretation of aerosol chemical speciation monitor data could be a role model for similar work.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906,Short summary
Kraków is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time-resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our results elucidate that traffic and residential heating (biomass burning and coal combustion) as well as oxygenated organic aerosol are the key PM sources in Kraków.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14851–14869,Short summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) in the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Shaofei Kong, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14749–14760,Short summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that, from surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation of these evaporated gases.
Magdalena Reizer, Giulia Calzolai, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José A. G. Orza, Luca Carraresi, Franco Lucarelli, and Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14471–14492,Short summary
The elemental composition of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was measured during wintertime, with 1 h resolution, using a streaker sampler for the first time at a Central European urban background site. A set of multivariate and wind- and trajectory-based receptor models identified the main sources of ambient aerosol. Fine PM fraction was mainly comprised of regionally transported aged secondary sulfate from residential solid fuel combustion, while the coarse mode showed traffic-related origins.
Tatiana Drotikova, Alena Dekhtyareva, Roland Kallenborn, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14351–14370,Short summary
A total of 86 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), toxic compounds mainly emitted after fossil fuel combustion, were measured during 8 months in the urban air of Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E), the most populated settlement in Svalbard. Contrary to a stereotype of pristine Arctic conditions with very low human activity, considerable PAC concentrations were detected, with spring levels comparable to European levels. Air pollution was caused by local snowmobiles in spring and shipping in summer.
John MacInnis, Jai Prakash Chaubey, Crystal Weagle, David Atkinson, and Rachel Ying-Wen Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14199–14213,Short summary
This study measured particulate matter in the western Canadian Arctic during 2018 as part of the Year of Polar Prediction. It was found that the particles were likely from the ocean, soil, road dust, and combustion. The concentrations of small aerosol particles, which can affect human health, were low, suggesting they had little impact on local air quality. These results can be used to understand future changes in local aerosol particle sources and concentrations.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Alex R. Baker and Chan Yodle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13067–13076,Short summary
Iodine is emitted from the ocean and helps to destroy ozone in the lower atmosphere before being taken up into aerosol particles. We measured the chemical forms of iodine in aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, because some of these forms can return to the gas phase and destroy more ozone. Our results indicate that aerosol acidity exerts a strong control on iodine speciation and therefore on its recycling behaviour and impact on ozone concentrations.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chao Qin, Yafeng Gou, Yuhang Wang, Yuhao Mao, Hong Liao, Qin'geng Wang, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12141–12153,Short summary
In this study, we found that the aqueous solution in aerosols is an important absorbing phase for gaseous polyols in the atmosphere, indicating that the dissolution in aerosol liquid water should not be ignored when investigating gas–particle partitioning of water-soluble organics. The exponential increase in effective partitioning coefficients of polyol tracers with sulfate ion concentrations could be attributed to organic–inorganic interactions in the particle phase.
Nana Suto and Hiroto Kawashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11815–11828,Short summary
The sources and seasonal trends of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 on long-term trends at two sites in Japan are investigated by carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of WSOC. At the rural site, the δ13C of WSOC from autumn to spring was concluded to reflect mainly the biomass burning of rice straw. The heaviest δ13C of WSOC from February to April 2019 might reflect long-range transport of particles resulting from the overseas burning of C4 plants such as corn.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, Zijun Li, Helina Lipp, Heikki Junninen, Urmas Hõrrak, Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitrii Krasnov, Kaia Kask, Eero Talts, Ülo Niinemets, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11781–11800,Short summary
We present results from PM1 atmospheric composition and concentration measurements performed in a springtime hemiboreal forest. Sesquiterpene mixing ratios and particle-phase concentrations of corresponding oxidation products were rapidly increasing on some early mornings. The particle volatility suggested that condensable sesquiterpene oxidation products are rapidly formed in the atmosphere. The results revealed the importance of sesquiterpenes for secondary organic aerosol particulate mass.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11353–11378,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OPs at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and OP measured by both ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contributions of the sources to the given metrics raises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Benjamin A. Nault, Duseong S. Jo, Brian C. McDonald, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Weiwei Hu, Jason C. Schroder, James Allan, Donald R. Blake, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Hugh Coe, Matthew M. Coggon, Peter F. DeCarlo, Glenn S. Diskin, Rachel Dunmore, Frank Flocke, Alan Fried, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios Gkatzelis, Jacqui F. Hamilton, Thomas F. Hanisco, Patrick L. Hayes, Daven K. Henze, Alma Hodzic, James Hopkins, Min Hu, L. Greggory Huey, B. Thomas Jobson, William C. Kuster, Alastair Lewis, Meng Li, Jin Liao, M. Omar Nawaz, Ilana B. Pollack, Jeffrey Peischl, Bernhard Rappenglück, Claire E. Reeves, Dirk Richter, James M. Roberts, Thomas B. Ryerson, Min Shao, Jacob M. Sommers, James Walega, Carsten Warneke, Petter Weibring, Glenn M. Wolfe, Dominique E. Young, Bin Yuan, Qiang Zhang, Joost A. de Gouw, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11201–11224,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is an important aspect of poor air quality for urban regions around the world, where a large fraction of the population lives. However, there is still large uncertainty in predicting SOA in urban regions. Here, we used data from 11 urban campaigns and show that the variability in SOA production in these regions is predictable and is explained by key emissions. These results are used to estimate the premature mortality associated with SOA in urban regions.
Evelyn Freney, Karine Sellegri, Alessia Nicosia, Leah R. Williams, Matteo Rinaldi, Jonathan T. Trueblood, André S. H. Prévôt, Melilotus Thyssen, Gérald Grégori, Nils Haëntjens, Julie Dinasquet, Ingrid Obernosterer, France Van Wambeke, Anja Engel, Birthe Zäncker, Karine Desboeufs, Eija Asmi, Hilkka Timonen, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10625–10641,Short summary
In this work, we present observations of the organic aerosol content in primary sea spray aerosols (SSAs) continuously generated along a 5-week cruise in the Mediterranean. This information is combined with seawater biogeochemical properties also measured continuously along the ship track to develop a number of parametrizations that can be used in models to determine SSA organic content in oligotrophic waters that represent 60 % of the oceans from commonly measured seawater variables.
James M. Cash, Ben Langford, Chiara Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, James Allan, Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Ruthambara Joshi, Mathew R. Heal, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Pawel K. Misztal, Will Drysdale, Tuhin K. Mandal, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Bhola Ram Gurjar, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10133–10158,Short summary
We present the first real-time composition of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Old Delhi using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry. Seasonal analysis shows peak concentrations occur during the post-monsoon, and novel-tracers reveal the largest sources are a combination of local open and regional crop residue burning. Strong links between increased chloride aerosol concentrations and burning sources of PM1 suggest burning sources are responsible for the post-monsoon chloride peak.
Liine Heikkinen, Mikko Äijälä, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Gang Chen, Olga Garmash, Diego Aliaga, Frans Graeffe, Meri Räty, Krista Luoma, Pasi Aalto, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Douglas Worsnop, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10081–10109,Short summary
In many locations worldwide aerosol particles have been shown to be made up of organic aerosol (OA). The boreal forest is a region where aerosol particles possess a high OA mass fraction. Here, we studied OA composition using the longest time series of OA composition ever obtained from a boreal environment. For this purpose, we tested a new analysis framework and discovered that most of the OA was highly oxidized, with strong seasonal behaviour reflecting different sources in summer and winter.
Yandong Tong, Veronika Pospisilova, Lu Qi, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Varun Kumar, Pragati Rai, Giulia Stefenelli, Liwei Wang, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Urs Baltensperger, Junji Cao, Ru-Jin Huang, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9859–9886,Short summary
We investigate SOA sources and formation processes by a field deployment of the EESI-TOF-MS and L-TOF AMS in Beijing in late autumn and early winter. Our study shows that the sources and processes giving rise to haze events in Beijing are variable and seasonally dependent: (1) in the heating season, SOA formation is driven by oxidation of aromatics from solid fuel combustion; and (2) under high-NOx and RH conditions, aqueous-phase chemistry can be a major contributor to SOA formation.
Sehyun Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Kitack Lee, Young Jun Yoon, Kitae Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Eunho Jang, Silvia Becagli, Bang Yong Lee, Rita Traversi, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Radovan Krejci, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9761–9777,Short summary
This study provides comprehensive datasets encompassing seasonal and interannual variations in sulfate and MSA concentration in aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere. As oxidation products of DMS have important roles in new particle formation and growth, we focused on factors affecting their variability and the branching ratio of DMS oxidation. We found a strong correlation between the ratio and the light condition, chemical properties of particles, and biological activities near Svalbard.
Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Stephan Houdier, Rémy Slama, Camille Rieux, Alexandre Albinet, Steve Micallef, Cécile Trébluchon, and Gaëlle Uzu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9719–9739,Short summary
With an enhanced source apportionment obtained in a companion paper, this paper acquires more understanding of the spatiotemporal associations of the sources of PM to oxidative potential (OP), an emerging health-based metric. Multilayer perceptron neural network analysis was used to apportion OP from PM sources. Results showed that such a methodology is as robust as the linear classical inversion and permits an improvement in the OP prediction when local features or non-linear effects occur.
Minako Kurisu, Kohei Sakata, Mitsuo Uematsu, Akinori Ito, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Aerosol iron (Fe) input can enhance oceanic primary production. We analyzed Fe isotope ratios of size fractionated aerosols over the northwestern Pacific to evaluate the contribution of natural and combustion Fe. It was found that combustion Fe was an important soluble Fe source in marine aerosols and possibly in surface seawater when air masses were from East Asia. This study showed the applicability of Fe isotope ratios for a more quantitative understanding of Fe cycle in the surface ocean.
Baozhu Ge, Danhui Xu, Oliver Wild, Xuefeng Yao, Junhua Wang, Xueshun Chen, Qixin Tan, Xiaole Pan, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9441–9454,Short summary
In this study, an improved sequential sampling method is developed and implemented to estimate the contribution of below-cloud and in-cloud wet deposition over four years of measurements in Beijing. We find that the contribution of below-cloud scavenging for Ca2+, SO4 2–, and NH4+ decreases from above 50 % in 2014 to below 40 % in 2017. This suggests that the Action Plan has mitigated particulate matter pollution in the surface layer and hence decreased scavenging due to the washout process.
Larissa Lacher, Hans-Christian Clemen, Xiaoli Shen, Stephan Mertes, Martin Gysel-Beer, Alireza Moallemi, Martin Steinbacher, Stephan Henne, Harald Saathoff, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Thea Schiebel, Daniel Weber, Jann Schrod, Johannes Schneider, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We investigate ice-nucleating particle properties at Jungfraujoch during the joint INUIT/CLACE 2017 field campaign, to improve the knowledge about those rare particles in a cloud-relevant environment. By quantifying ice-nucleating particles in parallel to single-particle mass spectrometry measurements, we find that mineral dust and aged sea spray particles are potential candidates for ice-nucleating particles. Our findings are supported by ice residual analysis and source region modelling.
Kai Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Martin Brüggemann, Yun Zhang, Lu Yang, Haiyan Ni, Jie Guo, Meng Wang, Jiajun Han, Merete Bilde, Marianne Glasius, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9089–9104,Short summary
Here we present the detailed molecular composition of the organic aerosol collected in three eastern Chinese cities from north to south, Changchun, Shanghai and Guangzhou, by applying LC–Orbitrap analysis. Accordingly, the aromaticity degree of chemical compounds decreases from north to south, while the oxidation degree increases from north to south, which can be explained by the different anthropogenic emissions and photochemical oxidation processes.
Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Meredith A. Fish, Julie Dinasquet, Gavin C. Cornwell, M. Dale Stokes, Michael D. Burkart, Thomas C. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, and Kimberly A. Prather
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9031–9045,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) can influence multiple climate-relevant cloud properties by triggering droplet freezing at relative humidities below or temperatures above the freezing point of water. The ocean is a significant INP source; however, the specific identities of marine INPs remain largely unknown. Here, we identify 14 ice-nucleating microbes from aerosol and precipitation samples collected at a coastal site in southern California, two or more of which are likely marine.
Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, Magdalena Okuljar, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Giorgia Demaria, Thanaporn Liangsupree, Elisa Zagatti, Juho Aalto, Kari Hartonen, Jussi Heinonsalo, Jaana Bäck, Tuukka Petäjä, and Marja-Liisa Riekkola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8775–8790,Short summary
Altogether, 84 size-segregated aerosol samples from four particle size fractions were collected at the Station for Measuring Forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations, Hyytiälä, Finland, in autumn 2017 for the clarification of the complex interrelationships between airborne and particulate chemical traces, amino acids and saccharides, gene copy numbers (16S and 18S for bacteria and fungi, respectively), gas-phase chemistry, and the particle size distribution.
Djacinto Monteiro dos Santos, Luciana Varanda Rizzo, Samara Carbone, Patrick Schlag, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8761–8773,Short summary
The metropolitan area of São Paulo (MASP), with very extensive biofuel use, has unique atmospheric chemistry among world megacities. In this study, we examine the complex relationships between aerosol chemical composition and particle size distribution. Our findings provide a better understanding of the dynamics of the physicochemical properties of submicron particles and highlight the key role of secondary organic aerosol formation in the pollution levels in São Paulo.
Rui Li, Yilong Zhao, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, Meng Peng, and Chunying Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8677–8692,Short summary
Based on a random forest model, the strict lockdown measures significantly decreased primary components such as Cr (−67 %) and Fe (−61 %) in PM2.5 (p < 0.01), whereas the higher relative humidity (RH) and NH3 level and the lower air temperature (T) remarkably enhanced the production of secondary aerosol including SO42− (29 %), NO3− (29 %), and NH4+ (21 %) (p < 0.05). The natural experiment suggested that the NH3 emission should be strictly controlled.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources, and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for outer-most zone in 2019 were similar to that for core zone two or three years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in core zone, while traffic source showed an increasing trend.
Yue Zhou, Christopher P. West, Anusha P. S. Hettiyadura, Xiaoying Niu, Hui Wen, Jiecan Cui, Tenglong Shi, Wei Pu, Xin Wang, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8531–8555,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in seasonal snow of northwestern China. We applied complementary multimodal analytical techniques to investigate bulk and molecular-level composition, optical properties, and sources of WSOC. For the first time, we estimated the extent of radiative forcing due to WSOC in snow using a model simulation and showed the profound influences of WSOC on the energy budget of midlatitude seasonal snowpack.
Haoran Yu, Joseph Varghese Puthussery, Yixiang Wang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We assessed the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient PM2.5 collected from five sites in the Midwest US. Compared to the homogeneously distributed PM2.5 mass, OP showed high spatiotemporal variation. Weak correlations for the regression between mass and OP indicated a limited role of mass in determining the OP. Moreover, the intercorrelations among different OP endpoints were not strong, justifying the need for using multiple assays for determining the oxidative levels of the particles.
Bingqing Zhang, Huizhong Shen, Pengfei Liu, Hongyu Guo, Yongtao Hu, Yilin Chen, Shaodong Xie, Ziyan Xi, T. Nash Skipper, and Armistead G. Russell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8341–8356,Short summary
Extended ground-level measurements are coupled with model simulations to comprehensively compare the aerosol acidity in China and the United States. Aerosols in China are significantly less acidic than those in the United States, with pH values 1–2 units higher. Higher aerosol mass concentrations and the abundance of ammonia and ammonium in China, compared to the United States, are leading causes of the pH difference between these two countries.
Marta Via, María Cruz Minguillón, Cristina Reche, Xavier Querol, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8323–8339,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants have been measured in an urban environment by means of state-of-the-art techniques, allowing the origin and the sources of pollution to be identified. Recent years are shown to be increasingly dominated by non-directly emitted particulate matter. Knowledge about the sources of atmospheric pollutants is necessary to design effective mitigation policies.
Dac-Loc Nguyen, Hendryk Czech, Simone M. Pieber, Jürgen Schnelle-Kreis, Martin Steinbacher, Jürgen Orasche, Stephan Henne, Olga B. Popovicheva, Gülcin Abbaszade, Guenter Engling, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Nhat-Anh Nguyen, Xuan-Anh Nguyen, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8293–8312,Short summary
Southeast Asia is well-known for emission-intense and recurring wildfires and after-harvest crop residue burning during the pre-monsoon season from February to April. We describe a biomass burning (BB) plume arriving at remote Pha Din meteorological station, outline its carbonaceous particulate matter (PM) constituents based on more than 50 target compounds and discuss possible BB sources. This study adds valuable information on chemical PM composition for a region with scarce data availability.
Amy Hrdina, Jennifer G. Murphy, Anna Gannet Hallar, John C. Lin, Alexander Moravek, Ryan Bares, Ross C. Petersen, Alessandro Franchin, Ann M. Middlebrook, Lexie Goldberger, Ben H. Lee, Munkh Baasandorj, and Steven S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8111–8126,Short summary
Wintertime air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley is primarily composed of ammonium nitrate, which is formed when gas-phase ammonia and nitric acid react. The major point in this work is that the chemical composition of snow tells a very different story to what we measured in the atmosphere. With the dust–sea salt cations observed in PM2.5 and particle sizing data, we can estimate how much nitric acid may be lost to dust–sea salt that is not accounted for and how much more PM2.5 this could form.
Vincent Michoud, Elise Hallemans, Laura Chiappini, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, Aurélie Colomb, Sébastien Dusanter, Isabelle Fronval, François Gheusi, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Nicolas Marchand, Stéphane Sauvage, Jean Sciare, and Jean-François Doussin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8067–8088,Short summary
A multiphasic molecular characterization of oxygenated compounds has been carried out during the ChArMEx field campaign using offline analysis. It leads to the identification of 97 different compounds in the gas and aerosol phases and reveals the important contribution of organic acids to organic aerosol. In addition, comparison between experimental and theoretical partitioning coefficients revealed in most cases a large underestimation by the theory reaching 1 to 7 orders of magnitude.
Maria A. Zawadowicz, Kaitlyn Suski, Jiumeng Liu, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome Fast, Fan Mei, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Stephen Springston, Yang Wang, Rahul A. Zaveri, Robert Wood, Jian Wang, and John E. Shilling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7983–8002,Short summary
This paper describes the results of a recent field campaign in the eastern North Atlantic, where two mass spectrometers were deployed aboard a research aircraft to measure the chemistry of aerosols and trace gases. Very clean conditions were found, dominated by local sulfate-rich acidic aerosol and very aged organics. Evidence of long-range transport of aerosols from the continents was also identified.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Luca Pozzoli, Enrico Pisoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Friedrich Lagler, Guido Lanzani, Umberto Dal Santo, and Augustin Colette
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7597–7609,Short summary
To determine the impact of the COVID lockdown on air quality in northern Italy, measurements of atmospheric pollutants (NO2, PM10, O3, NO, SO2 ) were compared to the output of a model ignoring the lockdown. We found that NO2 decreased on average by −30 % to −40 %. Unlike NO2, PM10 was not significantly affected due to the compensation of decreased emissions from traffic by increased emissions from domestic heating and/or by changes in atmospheric chemistry enhancing secondary aerosol formation.
Benjamin Chazeau, Brice Temime-Roussel, Grégory Gille, Boualem Mesbah, Barbara D'Anna, Henri Wortham, and Nicolas Marchand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7293–7319,Short summary
The temporal trends in the chemical composition and particle number of the submicron aerosols in a Mediterranean city, Marseille, are investigated over 14 months. Fifteen days were found to exceed the WHO PM2.5 daily limit (25 µg m−3) only during the cold period, with two distinct origins: local pollution events with an increased fraction of the carbonaceous fraction due to domestic wood burning and long-range pollution events with a high level of oxygenated organic aerosol and ammonium nitrate.
Karl Espen Yttri, Francesco Canonaco, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Hans Gundersen, Anne-Gunn Hjellbrekke, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Stephen Matthew Platt, André S. H. Prévôt, David Simpson, Sverre Solberg, Jason Surratt, Kjetil Tørseth, Hilde Uggerud, Marit Vadset, Xin Wan, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7149–7170,Short summary
Carbonaceous aerosol sources and trends were studied at the Birkenes Observatory. A large decrease in elemental carbon (EC; 2001–2018) and a smaller decline in levoglucosan (2008–2018) suggest that organic carbon (OC)/EC from traffic/industry is decreasing, whereas the abatement of OC/EC from biomass burning has been less successful. Positive matrix factorization apportioned 72 % of EC to fossil fuel sources and 53 % (PM2.5) and 78 % (PM10–2.5) of OC to biogenic sources.
Adam, M. G., Chiang, A. W. J., and Balasubramanian, R.: Insights into characteristics of light absorbing carbonaceous aerosols over an urban location in Southeast Asia, Environ. Pollut., 257, 113425, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113425, 2020.
Alexander, D. T. L., Crozier, P. A., and Anderson, J. R.: Brown carbon spheres in East Asian outflow and their optical properties, Science, 321, 833–836, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155296, 2008.
Andersson, C. A. and Bro, R.: The N-way Toolbox for MATLAB, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 52, 1–4, https://doi.org/10.1016/s0169-7439(00)00071-x, 2000.
Babar, Z. B., Park, J.-H., and Lim, H.-J.: Influence of NH 3 on secondary organic aerosols from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of α-pinene in a flow reactor, Atmos. Environ., 164, 71–84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.05.034, 2017.
Bahram, M., Bro, R., Stedmon, C., and Afkhami, A.: Handling of Rayleigh and Raman scatter for PARAFAC modeling of fluorescence data using interpolation, J. Chemom., 20, 99–105, https://doi.org/10.1002/cem.978, 2006.
Barnard, J. C., Volkamer, R., and Kassianov, E. I.: Estimation of the mass absorption cross section of the organic carbon component of aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 6665–6679, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-6665-2008, 2008.
Bianco, A., Minella, M., De Laurentiis, E., Maurino, V., Minero, C., and Vione, D.: Photochemical generation of photoactive compounds with fulvic-like and humic-like fluorescence in aqueous solution, Chemosphere, 111, 529–536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.035, 2014.
Bianco, A., Passananti, M., Deguillaume, L., Mailhot, G., and Brigante, M.: Tryptophan and tryptophan-like substances in cloud water: Occurrence and photochemical fate, Atmos. Environ., 137, 53–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.034, 2016.
Bikkina, P., Bikkina, S., Kawamura, K., Sudheer, A. K., Mahesh, G., and Kumar, S. K.: Evidence for brown carbon absorption over the Bay of Bengal during the southwest monsoon season: a possible oceanic source, Environ. Sci. Process Impacts, 22, 1743–1758, https://doi.org/10.1039/d0em00111b, 2020.
Birdwell, J. E. and Engel, A. S.: Characterization of dissolved organic matter in cave and spring waters using UV–Vis absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy, Org. Geochem., 41, 270–280, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.11.002, 2010.
Birdwell, J. E. and Valsaraj, K. T.: Characterization of dissolved organic matter in fogwater by excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, Atmos. Environ., 44, 3246–3253, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.05.055, 2010.
Chen, H., Liao, Z. L., Gu, X. Y., Xie, J. Q., Li, H. Z., and Zhang, J.: Anthropogenic Influences of Paved Runoff and Sanitary Sewage on the Dissolved Organic Matter Quality of Wet Weather Overflows: An Excitation-Emission Matrix Parallel Factor Analysis Assessment, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 1157–1167, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03727, 2017.
Chen, Q., Ikemori, F., and Mochida, M.: Light Absorption and Excitation-Emission Fluorescence of Urban Organic Aerosol Components and Their Relationship to Chemical Structure, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 10859–10868, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b02541, 2016a.
Chen, Q., Miyazaki, Y., Kawamura, K., Matsumoto, K., Coburn, S., Volkamer, R., Iwamoto, Y., Kagami, S., Deng, Y., Ogawa, S., Ramasamy, S., Kato, S., Ida, A., Kajii, Y., and Mochida, M.: Characterization of Chromophoric Water-Soluble Organic Matter in Urban, Forest, and Marine Aerosols by HR-ToF-AMS Analysis and Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 10351–10360, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01643, 2016b.
Chen, Q., Ikemori, F., Nakamura, Y., Vodicka, P., Kawamura, K., and Mochida, M.: Structural and Light-Absorption Characteristics of Complex Water-Insoluble Organic Mixtures in Urban Submicrometer Aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 8293–8303, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01630, 2017.
Chen, Q., Wang, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Li, Y., and Han, Y.: Oxidative Potential of Water-Soluble Matter Associated with Chromophoric Substances in PM2.5 over Xi'an, China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 8574–8584, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01976, 2019b.
Chen, W., Westerhoff, P., Leenheer, J. A., and Booksh, K.: Fluorescence excitation - Emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 5701–5710, https://doi.org/10.1021/es034354c, 2003.
Chen, Y. and Bond, T. C.: Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1773–1787, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-1773-2010, 2010.
Chen, Y., Ge, X., Chen, H., Xie, X., Chen, Y., Wang, J., Ye, Z., Bao, M., Zhang, Y., and Chen, M.: Seasonal light absorption properties of water-soluble brown carbon in atmospheric fine particles in Nanjing, China, Atmos. Environ., 187, 230–240, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.06.002, 2018.
Cory, R. M. and McKnight, D. M.: Fluorescence spectroscopy reveals ubiquitous presence of oxidized and reduced quinones in dissolved organic matter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 8142–8149, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0506962, 2005.
Dasari, S., Andersson, A., Bikkina, S., Holmstrand, H., Budhavant, K., Satheesh, S., Asmi, E., Kesti, J., Backman, J., Salam, A., Bisht, D. S., Tiwari, S., Hameed, Z., and Gustafsson, O.: Photochemical degradation affects the light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon in the South Asian outflow, Sci. Adv., 5, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau8066, 2019.
Del Vecchio, R. and Blough, N. V.: On the Origin of the Optical Properties of Humic Substances, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 3885–3891, https://doi.org/10.1021/es049912h, 2004.
Di Lorenzo, R. A., Washenfelder, R. A., Attwood, A. R., Guo, H., Xu, L., Ng, N. L., Weber, R. J., Baumann, K., Edgerton, E., and Young, C. J.: Molecular-Size-Separated Brown Carbon Absorption for Biomass-Burning Aerosol at Multiple Field Sites, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 3128–3137, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b06160, 2017.
Fan, X., Li, M., Cao, T., Cheng, C., Li, F., Xie, Y., Wei, S., Song, J., and Peng, P. a.: Optical properties and oxidative potential of water- and alkaline-soluble brown carbon in smoke particles emitted from laboratory simulated biomass burning, Atmos. Environ., 194, 48–57, https://10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.09.025, 2018.
Fan, X., Cao, T., Yu, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, X., Li, F., Xie, Y., Ji, W., Song, J., and Peng, P.: The evolutionary behavior of chromophoric brown carbon during ozone aging of fine particles from biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4593–4605, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-4593-2020, 2020.
Fu, P., Kawamura, K., Chen, J., Qin, M., Ren, L., Sun, Y., Wang, Z., Barrie, L. A., Tachibana, E., Ding, A., and Yamashita, Y.: Fluorescent water-soluble organic aerosols in the High Arctic atmosphere, Sci. Rep., 5, 9845, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep09845, 2015.
Fujii, Y., Iriana, W., Oda, M., Puriwigati, A., Tohno, S., Lestari, P., Mizohata, A., and Huboyo, H. S.: Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia, Atmos. Environ., 87, 164–169, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.01.037, 2014.
Gabor, R. S., Baker, A., McKnight, D. M., and Miller, M. P.: Fluorescence Indices and Their Interpretation, in: Aquatic Organic Matter Fluorescence, edited by: Baker, A., Reynolds, D. M., Lead, J., Coble, P. G., and Spencer, R. G. M., Cambridge Environmental Chemistry Series, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 303–338, 2014.
Gao, Y. and Zhang, Y.: Formation and photochemical investigation of brown carbon by hydroxyacetone reactions with glycine and ammonium sulfate, RSC Advances, 8, 20719–20725, https://doi.org/10.1039/c8ra02019a, 2018.
Graber, E. R. and Rudich, Y.: Atmospheric HULIS: How humic-like are they? A comprehensive and critical review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 729–753, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-729-2006, 2006.
Gu, Q. and Kenny, J. E.: Improvement of Inner Filter Effect Correction Based on Determination of Effective Geometric Parameters Using a Conventional Fluorimeter, Anal. Chem., 81, 420–426, https://doi.org/10.1021/ac801676j, 2009.
Han, H., Kim, G., Seo, H., Shin, K.-H., and Lee, D.-H.: Significant seasonal changes in optical properties of brown carbon in the midlatitude atmosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2709–2718, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-2709-2020, 2020.
Hawkes, J. A., Patriarca, C., Sjöberg, P. J. R., Tranvik, L. J., and Bergquist, J.: Extreme isomeric complexity of dissolved organic matter found across aquatic environments, Limnol. Oceanogr. Lett., 3, 21–30, https://doi.org/10.1002/lol2.10064, 2018.
Hecobian, A., Zhang, X., Zheng, M., Frank, N., Edgerton, E. S., and Weber, R. J.: Water-Soluble Organic Aerosol material and the light-absorption characteristics of aqueous extracts measured over the Southeastern United States, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5965–5977, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5965-2010, 2010.
Hoffer, A., Gelencsér, A., Guyon, P., Kiss, G., Schmid, O., Frank, G. P., Artaxo, P., and Andreae, M. O.: Optical properties of humic-like substances (HULIS) in biomass-burning aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3563–3570, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3563-2006, 2006.
Hopkins, R. J., Lewis, K., Desyaterik, Y., Wang, Z., Tivanski, A. V., Arnott, W. P., Laskin, A., and Gilles, M. K.: Correlations between optical, chemical and physical properties of biomass burn aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L18806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007gl030502, 2007.
Huang, K., Fu, J. S., Hsu, N. C., Gao, Y., Dong, X., Tsay, S.-C., and Lam, Y. F.: Impact assessment of biomass burning on air quality in Southeast and East Asia during BASE-ASIA, Atmos. Environ., 78, 291–302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.03.048, 2013.
Huguet, A., Vacher, L., Relexans, S., Saubusse, S., Froidefond, J. M., and Parlanti, E.: Properties of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the Gironde Estuary, Org. Geochem., 40, 706–719, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2009.03.002, 2009.
Huo, Y., Li, M., Jiang, M., and Qi, W.: Light absorption properties of HULIS in primary particulate matter produced by crop straw combustion under different moisture contents and stacking modes, Atmos. Environ., 191, 490–499, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.08.038, 2018.
Ishii, S. K. and Boyer, T. H.: Behavior of reoccurring PARAFAC components in fluorescent dissolved organic matter in natural and engineered systems: a critical review, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 2006–2017, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2043504, 2012.
Jiang, H., Li, J., Chen, D., Tang, J., Cheng, Z., Mo, Y., Su, T., Tian, C., Jiang, B., Liao, Y., and Zhang, G.: Biomass burning organic aerosols significantly influence the light absorption properties of polarity-dependent organic compounds in the Pearl River Delta Region, China, Environ. Int., 144, 106079, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106079, 2020.
Jiang, H., Li, J., Sun, R., Liu, G., Tian, C., Tang, J., Cheng, Z., Zhu, S., Zhong, G., Ding, X., and Zhang, G.: Determining the Sources and Transport of Brown Carbon Using Radionuclide Tracers and Modeling, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 126, e2021JD034616, https://doi.org/10.1029/2021jd034616, 2021.
Kasthuriarachchi, N. Y., Rivellini, L.-H., Chen, X., Li, Y. J., and Lee, A. K. Y.: Effect of relative humidity on secondary brown carbon formation in aqueous droplets, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 13207–13216, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01239, 2020.
Kirchstetter, T. W. and Thatcher, T. L.: Contribution of organic carbon to wood smoke particulate matter absorption of solar radiation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6067–6072, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-6067-2012, 2012.
Kirchstetter, T. W., Novakov, T., and Hobbs, P. V.: Evidence that the spectral dependence of light absorption by aerosols is affected by organic carbon, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 109, D21208, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd004999, 2004.
Lack, D. A., Bahreini, R., Langridge, J. M., Gilman, J. B., and Middlebrook, A. M.: Brown carbon absorption linked to organic mass tracers in biomass burning particles, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2415–2422, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-2415-2013, 2013.
Laskin, A., Laskin, J., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Chemistry of atmospheric brown carbon, Chem. Rev., 115, 4335–4382, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr5006167, 2015.
Laskin, J., Laskin, A., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Mass Spectrometry Analysis in Atmospheric Chemistry, Anal. Chem., 90, 166–189, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04249, 2018.
Lawrence, M. G. and Lelieveld, J.: Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11017–11096, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11017-2010, 2010.
Lee, H.-H., Bar-Or, R. Z., and Wang, C.: Biomass burning aerosols and the low-visibility events in Southeast Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 965–980, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-965-2017, 2017.
Lin, P., Laskin, J., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Laskin, A.: Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 14257–14266, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03608, 2015.
Lin, P., Aiona, P. K., Li, Y., Shiraiwa, M., Laskin, J., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Laskin, A.: Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 11815–11824, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03024, 2016.
Lin, P., Bluvshtein, N., Rudich, Y., Nizkorodov, S. A., Laskin, J., and Laskin, A.: Molecular Chemistry of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Inferred from a Nationwide Biomass Burning Event, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 11561–11570, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02276, 2017.
Lin, P., Fleming, L. T., Nizkorodov, S. A., Laskin, J., and Laskin, A.: Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Atmospheric Brown Carbon by High Resolution Mass Spectrometry with Electrospray and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization, Anal. Chem., 90, 12493–12502, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.8b02177, 2018.
Liu, J., Bergin, M., Guo, H., King, L., Kotra, N., Edgerton, E., and Weber, R. J.: Size-resolved measurements of brown carbon in water and methanol extracts and estimates of their contribution to ambient fine-particle light absorption, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12389–12404, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-12389-2013, 2013.
Liu, J., Mo, Y., Ding, P., Li, J., Shen, C., and Zhang, G.: Dual carbon isotopes ((14)C and (13)C) and optical properties of WSOC and HULIS-C during winter in Guangzhou, China, Sci. Total Environ., 633, 1571–1578, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.293, 2018.
Luciani, X., Mounier, S., Redon, R., and Bois, A.: A simple correction method of inner filter effects affecting FEEM and its application to the PARAFAC decomposition, Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst., 96, 227–238, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemolab.2009.02.008, 2009.
Marrero-Ortiz, W., Hu, M., Du, Z., Ji, Y., Wang, Y., Guo, S., Lin, Y., Gomez-Hermandez, M., Peng, J., Li, Y., Secrest, J., Levy Zamora, M., Wang, Y., An, T., and Zhang, R.: Formation and optical properties of brown carbon from small alpha-dicarbonyls and amines, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 117–126, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b03995, 2018.
Matos, J. T. V., Freire, S. M. S. C., Duarte, R. M. B. O., and Duarte, A. C.: Natural organic matter in urban aerosols: Comparison between water and alkaline soluble components using excitation–emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and multiway data analysis, Atmos. Environ., 102, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.042, 2015.
Mcknight, D. M., Boyer, E. W., Westerhoff, P., Doran, P. T., Kulbe, T., and Andersen, D. T.: Spectrofluorometric characterization of dissolved organic matter for indication of precursor organic material and aromaticity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 46, 38–48, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2001.46.1.0038, 2001.
Mo, Y., Li, J., Jiang, B., Su, T., Geng, X., Liu, J., Jiang, H., Shen, C., Ding, P., Zhong, G., Cheng, Z., Liao, Y., Tian, C., Chen, Y., and Zhang, G.: Sources, compositions, and optical properties of humic-like substances in Beijing during the 2014 APEC summit: Results from dual carbon isotope and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analyses, Environ. Pollut., 239, 322–331, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.041, 2018.
Mo, Y. Z., Li, J., Liu, J. W., Zhong, G. C., Cheng, Z. N., Tian, C. G., Chen, Y. J., and Zhang, G.: The influence of solvent and pH on determination of the light absorption properties of water-soluble brown carbon, Atmos. Environ., 161, 90–98, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.04.037, 2017.
Mounier, S., Patel, N., Quilici, L., Benaim, J. Y., and Benamou, C.: Fluorescence 3D de la matière organique dissoute du fleuve amazone: (Three-dimensional fluorescence of the dissolved organic carbon in the Amazon river), Water Res., 33, 1523–1533, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(98)00347-9, 1999.
Murphy, K. R., Butler, K. D., Spencer, R. G., Stedmon, C. A., Boehme, J. R., and Aiken, G. R.: Measurement of dissolved organic matter fluorescence in aquatic environments: an interlaboratory comparison, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 9405–9412, https://doi.org/10.1021/es102362t, 2010.
Murphy, K. R., Stedmon, C. A., Graeber, D., and Bro, R.: Fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way techniques. PARAFAC, Anal. Methods, 5, 6557–6566, https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ay41160e, 2013.
Murphy, K. R., Timko, S. A., Gonsior, M., Powers, L. C., Wunsch, U. J., and Stedmon, C. A.: Photochemistry Illuminates Ubiquitous Organic Matter Fluorescence Spectra, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 11243–11250, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b02648, 2018.
Park, S. S. and Yu, J.: Chemical and light absorption properties of humic-like substances from biomass burning emissions under controlled combustion experiments, Atmos. Environ., 136, 114–122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.022, 2016.
Permadi, D. A., Kim Oanh, N. T., and Vautard, R.: Assessment of emission scenarios for 2030 and impacts of black carbon emission reduction measures on air quality and radiative forcing in Southeast Asia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3321–3334, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3321-2018, 2018.
Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., and Pöschl, U.: Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols – fluorescent biomolecules and potential interferences, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 37–71, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-5-37-2012, 2012.
Qin, J., Zhang, L., Zhou, X., Duan, J., Mu, S., Xiao, K., Hu, J., and Tan, J.: Fluorescence fingerprinting properties for exploring water-soluble organic compounds in PM2.5 in an industrial city of northwest China, Atmos. Environ., 184, 203–211, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.049, 2018.
Ramanathan, V., Li, F., Ramana, M. V., Praveen, P. S., Kim, D., Corrigan, C. E., Van Nguyen, H., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., and Carmichael, G. R.: Atmospheric brown clouds: Hemispherical and regional variations in long-range transport, absorption, and radiative forcing, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22S21, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD008124, 2007.
See, S. W., Balasubramanian, R., and Wang, W.: A study of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of ambient aerosol particles in Southeast Asia during hazy and nonhazy days, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 111, D10S08, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006180, 2006.
Song, J., Li, M., Jiang, B., Wei, S., Fan, X., and Peng, P.: Molecular Characterization of Water-Soluble Humic like Substances in Smoke Particles Emitted from Combustion of Biomass Materials and Coal Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 2575–2585, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b06126, 2018.
Song, J. Z., Li, M. J., Fan, X. J., Zou, C. L., Zhu, M. B., Jiang, B., Yu, Z. Q., Jia, W. L., Liao, Y. H., and Peng, P. A.: Molecular Characterization of Water- and Methanol-Soluble Organic Compounds Emitted from Residential Coal Combustion Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 13607–13617, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b04331, 2019.
Stedmon, C. A. and Markager, S.: Resolving the variability in dissolved organic matter fluorescence in a temperate estuary and its catchment using PARAFAC analysis, Limnol. Oceanogr., 50, 686–697, https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2005.50.2.0686, 2005.
Tang, J.: Data for TJ, Harvard Dataverse [data set], https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/GQ04LG, 2021,
Tang, J., Li, J., Mo, Y., Safaei Khorram, M., Chen, Y., Tang, J., Zhang, Y., Song, J., and Zhang, G.: Light absorption and emissions inventory of humic-like substances from simulated rainforest biomass burning in Southeast Asia, Environ. Pollut., 262, 114266, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114266, 2020a.
Tang, J., Li, J., Su, T., Han, Y., Mo, Y., Jiang, H., Cui, M., Jiang, B., Chen, Y., Tang, J., Song, J., Peng, P., and Zhang, G.: Molecular compositions and optical properties of dissolved brown carbon in biomass burning, coal combustion, and vehicle emission aerosols illuminated by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2513–2532, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-2513-2020, 2020b.
Wang, J., Jiang, H., Jiang, H., Mo, Y., Geng, X., Li, J., Mao, S., Bualert, S., Ma, S., Li, J., and Zhang, G.: Source apportionment of water-soluble oxidative potential in ambient total suspended particulate from Bangkok: Biomass burning versus fossil fuel combustion, Atmos. Environ., 235, 117624, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117624, 2020.
Wang, K., Pang, Y., He, C., Li, P., Xiao, S., Sun, Y., Pan, Q., Zhang, Y., Shi, Q., and He, D.: Optical and molecular signatures of dissolved organic matter in Xiangxi Bay and mainstream of Three Gorges Reservoir, China: Spatial variations and environmental implications, Sci. Total Environ., 657, 1274–1284, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.117, 2019.
Wang, X., Hayeck, N., Brüggemann, M., Abis, L., Riva, M., Lu, Y., Wang, B., Chen, J., George, C., and Wang, L.: Chemical Characteristics and Brown Carbon Chromophores of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols Over the Yangtze River Channel: A Cruise Campaign, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 125, e2020JD032497, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jd032497, 2020.
Wong, J. P. S., Nenes, A., and Weber, R. J.: Changes in Light Absorptivity of Molecular Weight Separated Brown Carbon Due to Photolytic Aging, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 8414–8421, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01739, 2017.
Wu, C., Wang, G., Li, J., Li, J., Cao, C., Ge, S., Xie, Y., Chen, J., Li, X., Xue, G., Wang, X., Zhao, Z., and Cao, F.: The characteristics of atmospheric brown carbon in Xi'an, inland China: sources, size distributions and optical properties, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2017–2030, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-2017-2020, 2020.
Wu, F. C., Evans, R. D., and Dillon, P. J.: Separation and Characterization of NOM by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and On-Line Three-Dimensional Excitation Emission Matrix Fluorescence Detection, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 3687–3693, https://doi.org/10.1021/es020244e, 2003.
Wu, G., Wan, X., Gao, S., Fu, P., Yin, Y., Li, G., Zhang, G., Kang, S., Ram, K., and Cong, Z.: Humic-Like Substances (HULIS) in Aerosols of Central Tibetan Plateau (Nam Co, 4730 m asl): Abundance, Light Absorption Properties, and Sources, Environ. Sci. Technol., 52, 7203–7211, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b01251, 2018.
Wu, G., Ram, K., Fu, P., Wang, W., Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Stone, E. A., Pradhan, B. B., Dangol, P. M., Panday, A. K., Wan, X., Bai, Z., Kang, S., Zhang, Q., and Cong, Z.: Water-Soluble Brown Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols from Godavari (Nepal), a Regional Representative of South Asia, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 3471–3479, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00596, 2019.
Wu, G., Wan, X., Ram, K., Li, P., Liu, B., Yin, Y., Fu, P., Loewen, M., Gao, S., Kang, S., Kawamura, K., Wang, Y., and Cong, Z.: Light absorption, fluorescence properties and sources of brown carbon aerosols in the Southeast Tibetan Plateau, Environ. Pollut., 257, 113616, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113616, 2020.
Wu, G., Fu, P., Ram, K., Song, J., Chen, Q., Kawamura, K., Wan, X., Kang, S., Wang, X., Laskin, A., and Cong, Z.: Fluorescence characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in atmospheric aerosol, Environ. Pollut., 268, 115906, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115906, 2021.
Xie, M., Chen, X., Holder, A. L., Hays, M. D., Lewandowski, M., Offenberg, J. H., Kleindienst, T. E., Jaoui, M., and Hannigan, M. P.: Light absorption of organic carbon and its sources at a southeastern U.S. location in summer, Environ. Pollut., 244, 38–46, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.125, 2019.
Yan, C., Zheng, M., Sullivan, A. P., Bosch, C., Desyaterik, Y., Andersson, A., Li, X., Guo, X., Zhou, T., Gustafsson, Ö., and Collett, J. L.: Chemical characteristics and light-absorbing property of water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing: Biomass burning contributions, Atmos. Environ., 121, 4–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.005, 2015.
Yan, C., Zheng, M., Desyaterik, Y., Sullivan, A. P., Wu, Y., and Collett Jr., J. L.: Molecular Characterization of Water-Soluble Brown Carbon Chromophores in Beijing, China, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 125, e2019JD032018, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019jd032018, 2020.
Yan, G. and Kim, G.: Speciation and Sources of Brown Carbon in Precipitation at Seoul, Korea: Insights from Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy and Carbon Isotopic Analysis, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 11580–11587, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b02892, 2017.
Yue, S., Ren, L., Song, T., Li, L., Xie, Q., Li, W., Kang, M., Zhao, W., Wei, L., Ren, H., Sun, Y., Wang, Z., Ellam, R. M., Liu, C. Q., Kawamura, K., and Fu, P.: Abundance and Diurnal Trends of Fluorescent Bioaerosols in the Troposphere over Mt. Tai, China, in Spring, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 124, 4158–4173, https://doi.org/10.1029/2018jd029486, 2019.
Zhou, Y., Wen, H., Liu, J., Pu, W., Chen, Q., and Wang, X.: The optical characteristics and sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in seasonal snow of northwestern China, The Cryosphere, 13, 157–175, https://doi.org/10.5194/tc-13-157-2019, 2019.
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how...