Articles | Volume 21, issue 5
Research article
15 Mar 2021
Research article |  | 15 Mar 2021

Continuous secondary-ice production initiated by updrafts through the melting layer in mountainous regions

Annika Lauber, Jan Henneberger, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Julie T. Pasquier, Jörg Wieder, Maxime Hervo, and Ulrike Lohmann

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Sensitivity of precipitation formation to secondary ice production in winter orographic mixed-phase clouds
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Cited articles

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Bailey, M. P. and Hallett, J.: A Comprehensive Habit Diagram for Atmospheric Ice Crystals: Confirmation from the Laboratory, AIRS II, and Other Field Studies, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 2888–2899,, 2009. a, b
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Beck, A., Henneberger, J., Schöpfer, S., Fugal, J., and Lohmann, U.: HoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imager, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,, 2017. a, b, c, d
Beck, A., Henneberger, J., Fugal, J. P., David, R. O., Lacher, L., and Lohmann, U.: Impact of surface and near-surface processes on ice crystal concentrations measured at mountain-top research stations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8909–8927,, 2018. a, b
Short summary
An accurate prediction of the ice crystal number concentration (ICNC) is important to determine the radiation budget, lifetime, and precipitation formation of clouds. Even though secondary-ice processes can increase the ICNC by several orders of magnitude, they are poorly constrained and lack a well-founded quantification. During measurements on a mountain slope, a high ICNC of small ice crystals was observed just below 0 °C, attributed to a secondary-ice process and parametrized in this study.
Final-revised paper