Articles | Volume 20, issue 20
26 Oct 2020
Research article | 26 Oct 2020
Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) fingerprints of major urban and agricultural emission sources for use in source apportionment studies
Ashish Kumar et al.
No articles found.
Valérie Gros, Bernard Bonsang, Roland Sarda-Estève, Anna Nikolopoulos, Katja Metfies, Matthias Wietz, and Ilka Peeken
Preprint under review for BGShort summary
The oceans are both source and sink for trace gases important for atmospheric chemistry and marine ecology. Here, we quantified selected trace gases (including the biological metabolites DMS, methanethiol and isoprene) along a 2500 km transect from the north Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. In context of phytoplankton and bacterial communities, our study suggests that methanethiol (rarely measured before) might substantially influence ocean-atmosphere cycling.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Gaurav Govardhan, Prodip Acharja, Rachana Kulkarni, Rajesh Kumar, Baerbel Sinha, Vinayak Sinha, Chinmay Jena, Preeti Gunwani, Tapan Kumar Adhya, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In this study, wintertime measurements of atmospheric ammonia (NH3), ammonium, and total ammonia are compared with the ground-based measurements (MARGA) and WRF-Chem model in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region. Our observations and model indicate high concentrations of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the ambient air are found to dominate the gas-to-particle partitioning of NH3. Addition of HCl emissions in the model, we report improvements found in the gas-to-particle conversion of NH3.
Benjamin Loubet, Pauline Buysse, Lais Gonzaga-Gomez, Florence Lafouge, Raluca Ciuraru, Céline Decuq, Julien Kammer, Sandy Bsaibes, Christophe Boissard, Brigitte Durand, Jean-Christophe Gueudet, Olivier Fanucci, Olivier Zurfluh, Letizia Abis, Nora Zannoni, François Truong, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Michael Staudt, and Valérie Gros
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2817–2842,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors of tropospheric pollutants like ozone or aerosols. Emission by agricultural land was still poorly characterized. We report experimental measurements of ecosystem-scale VOC fluxes above a wheat field with a highly sensitive proton transfer mass spectrometer. We report the fluxes of 123 compounds and confirm that methanol is the most emitted VOC by wheat. The second most emitted compound was C6H4O. Around 75 % of the compounds were deposited.
Christophe Lerot, François Hendrick, Michel Van Roozendael, Leonardo M. A. Alvarado, Andreas Richter, Isabelle De Smedt, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Huan Yu, Jeroen Van Gent, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Pieter Valks, Diego Loyola, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Thomas Wagner, Stefan F. Schreier, Vinayak Sinha, Ting Wang, Pucai Wang, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7775–7807,Short summary
Global measurements of glyoxal tropospheric columns from the satellite instrument TROPOMI are presented. Such measurements can contribute to the estimation of atmospheric emissions of volatile organic compounds. This new glyoxal product has been fully characterized with a comprehensive error budget, with comparison with other satellite data sets as well as with validation based on independent ground-based remote sensing glyoxal observations.
Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean-Charles Dupont, Olivier Favez, Valérie Gros, Yunjiang Zhang, Jean Sciare, Leila Simon, François Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Tanguy Amodeo, Robert Vautard, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17167–17183,Short summary
The COVID-19 outbreak led to lockdowns at national scales in spring 2020. Large cuts in emissions occurred, but the quantitative assessment of their role from observations is hindered by weather and interannual variability. That is why we developed an innovative methodology in order to best characterize the impact of lockdown on atmospheric chemistry. We find that a local decrease in traffic-related pollutants triggered a decrease of secondary aerosols and an increase in ozone.
Alexandre Kukui, Michel Chartier, Jinhe Wang, Hui Chen, Sébastien Dusanter, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Nadine Locoge, Valérie Gros, Thierry Bourrianne, Karine Sellegri, and Jean-Marc Pichon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13333–13351,Short summary
Sulfuric acid, H2SO4, plays a key role in formation of secondary atmospheric aerosol particles. It is generally accepted that the major atmospheric source of H2SO4 is the reaction of OH radicals with SO2. In this study, importance of an additional H2SO4 source via oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediates was estimated based on measurements at a remote site on Cape Corsica. It was found that the oxidation of SO2 by SCI may be an important source of H2SO4, especially during nighttime.
Isabelle De Smedt, Gaia Pinardi, Corinne Vigouroux, Steven Compernolle, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Folkert Boersma, Ka-Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Pascal Hedelt, François Hendrick, Hitoshi Irie, Vinod Kumar, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Bavo Langerock, Christophe Lerot, Cheng Liu, Diego Loyola, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Claudia Rivera Cárdenas, Fabian Romahn, Robert George Ryan, Vinayak Sinha, Nicolas Theys, Jonas Vlietinck, Thomas Wagner, Ting Wang, Huan Yu, and Michel Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12561–12593,Short summary
This paper assess the performances of the TROPOMI formaldehyde observations compared to its predecessor OMI at different spatial and temporal scales. We also use a global network of MAX-DOAS instruments to validate both satellite datasets for a large range of HCHO columns. The precision obtained with daily TROPOMI observations is comparable to monthly OMI observations. We present clear detection of weak HCHO column enhancements related to shipping emissions in the Indian Ocean.
Sara M. Defratyka, Jean-Daniel Paris, Camille Yver-Kwok, Daniel Loeb, James France, Jon Helmore, Nigel Yarrow, Valérie Gros, and Philippe Bousquet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5049–5069,Short summary
We consider the possibility of using the CRDS Picarro G2201-i instrument, originally designed for isotopic CH4 and CO2, for measurements of ethane : methane in near-source conditions. The work involved laboratory tests, a controlled release experiment and mobile measurements. We show the potential of determining ethane : methane with 50 ppb ethane uncertainty. The instrument can correctly estimate the ratio in CH4 enhancements of 1 ppm and more, as can be found at strongly emitting sites.
Wenjie Wang, Jipeng Qi, Jun Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Sihang Wang, Suxia Yang, Jonathan Williams, Vinayak Sinha, and Min Shao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2285–2298,Short summary
We designed a new reactor for measurements of OH reactivity (i.e., OH radical loss frequency) based on the comparative reactivity method under high-NOx conditions, such as in cities. We performed a series of laboratory tests to evaluate the new reactor. The new reactor was used in the field and performed well in measuring OH reactivity in air influenced by upwind cities.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Thérèse Salameh, Jean Sciare, François Dulac, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1449–1484,Short summary
This study provides a better characterization of the seasonal variations in VOC sources impacting the western Mediterranean region, based on a comprehensive chemical composition measured over 25 months at a representative receptor site (Ersa) and by determining factors controlling their temporal variations. Some insights into dominant drivers for VOC concentration variations in Europe are also provided, built on comparisons of Ersa observations with the concomitant ones of 17 European sites.
Vinod Kumar, Steffen Beirle, Steffen Dörner, Abhishek Kumar Mishra, Sebastian Donner, Yang Wang, Vinayak Sinha, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14183–14235,Short summary
We present the first long-term MAX-DOAS measurements of aerosols, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde tropospheric columns, vertical distributions, and temporal variation from Mohali in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. We investigate the effect of various emission sources and meteorological conditions on the measured pollutants and how they control ozone formation. These measurements are also used to validate the corresponding satellite observations and are also compared against in situ observations.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Sandy Bsaibes, Mohamad Al Ajami, Kenneth Mermet, François Truong, Sébastien Batut, Christophe Hecquet, Sébastien Dusanter, Thierry Léornadis, Stéphane Sauvage, Julien Kammer, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Nadine Locoge, Valérie Gros, and Coralie Schoemaecker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1277–1300,
Lejish Vettikkat, Vinayak Sinha, Savita Datta, Ashish Kumar, Haseeb Hakkim, Priya Yadav, and Baerbel Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 375–389,Short summary
There are several widely grown tree species whose BVOC emission potentials are still unknown. Studies over the Amazon rainforest have reported presence of terrestrial dimethyl sulfide sources. Here, we show that mahogany, which is grown widely in several regions of the world, is a high emitter of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes. With future land use and land cover changes promoting plantations of this tree for economic purposes, its impact on air quality could be quite significant.
Pallavi, Baerbel Sinha, and Vinayak Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15467–15482,Short summary
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in Mohali in the northwestern Indo-Gangetic Plain. Combining in situ data and model analyses, we show that residential biofuel use and waste disposal emissions as well as the VOC burden associated with solvent use and industrial sources are overestimated by all emission inventories.
Yunjiang Zhang, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Francesco Canonaco, Francois Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Vincent Crenn, Tanguy Amodeo, Andre S. H. Prévôt, Jean Sciare, Valerie Gros, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14755–14776,Short summary
We present 6-year source apportionment of organic aerosol (OA) achieved with near-continuous online measurements and subsequent receptor model analysis in the Paris region, France. The OA factors presented distinct seasonal patterns, associated with different atmospheric formation processes and roles in air pollution. Limited year-round trends for two primary anthropogenic factors and a biogenic-like secondary factor were observed, while a more oxidized secondary OA showed a decreasing feature.
Rupert Holzinger, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Martin Breitenlechner, Leigh R. Crilley, Sébastien Dusanter, Marc Gonin, Valerie Gros, Frank N. Keutsch, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Louisa J. Kramer, Jordan E. Krechmer, Baptiste Languille, Nadine Locoge, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Dušan Materić, Sergi Moreno, Eiko Nemitz, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Roland Sarda Esteve, Stéphane Sauvage, Simon Schallhart, Roberto Sommariva, Ralf Tillmann, Sergej Wedel, David R. Worton, Kangming Xu, and Alexander Zaytsev
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6193–6208,
Anastasia Panopoulou, Eleni Liakakou, Valérie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Bernard Bonsang, Basil E. Psiloglou, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, and Nikolaos Mihalopoulos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16139–16154,Short summary
This work presents time-resolved data of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from automatic chromatographs, measured over a period of 5 months in the greater Athens area. The measured concentrations are higher relative to other recent studies for the majority of NMHCs. A remarkable day-to-day variability is also observed. The contributions from traffic and residential heating to NMHCs are investigated, as they were the major sources impacting the air quality during the study period.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Karine Sellegri, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14297–14325,Short summary
This work focuses on the study of the sources and fates of BVOCs and new particle formation (NPF) events in the eastern Mediterranean. NPF events were found on 14 out of 20 days of the campaign. NPF occurred at various condensational sinks and both under polluted and clean atmospheric conditions. Analysis of specific NPF periods of the mixed influence type highlighted that BVOC interactions with anthropogenic compounds enhanced nucleation formation and growth of new particles.
Arineh Cholakian, Matthias Beekmann, Augustin Colette, Isabelle Coll, Guillaume Siour, Jean Sciare, Nicolas Marchand, Florian Couvidat, Jorge Pey, Valerie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Vincent Michoud, Karine Sellegri, Aurélie Colomb, Karine Sartelet, Helen Langley DeWitt, Miriam Elser, André S. H. Prévot, Sonke Szidat, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7287–7312,Short summary
In this work, four schemes for the simulation of organic aerosols in the western Mediterranean basin are added to the CHIMERE chemistry–transport model; the resulting simulations are then compared to measurements obtained from ChArMEx. It is concluded that the scheme taking into account the fragmentation and the formation of nonvolatile organic aerosols corresponds better to measurements; the major source of this aerosol in the western Mediterranean is found to be of biogenic origin.
Ben Langford, James Cash, W. Joe F. Acton, Amy C. Valach, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Silvano Fares, Ignacio Goded, Carsten Gruening, Emily House, Athina-Cerise Kalogridis, Valérie Gros, Richard Schafers, Rick Thomas, Mark Broadmeadow, and Eiko Nemitz
Biogeosciences, 14, 5571–5594,Short summary
Isoprene flux measurements made above five European oak forests were reviewed to generate new emission potentials. Six variations of the Guenther algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an “average” emission potential was determined using one of four commonly used approaches. Our results show that emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 and highlight the need for the community to now harmonize their approach to reduce uncertainty.
Hendrik Fuchs, Anna Novelli, Michael Rolletter, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Stephan Kessel, Achim Edtbauer, Jonathan Williams, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Nadine Locoge, Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Francois Truong, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Danny R. Cryer, Charlotte A. Brumby, Lisa K. Whalley, Daniel Stone, Paul W. Seakins, Dwayne E. Heard, Coralie Schoemaecker, Marion Blocquet, Sebastien Coudert, Sebastien Batut, Christa Fittschen, Alexander B. Thames, William H. Brune, Cheryl Ernest, Hartwig Harder, Jennifer B. A. Muller, Thomas Elste, Dagmar Kubistin, Stefanie Andres, Birger Bohn, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Xin Li, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ralf Tillmann, Robert Wegener, Zhujun Yu, Qi Zou, and Andreas Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4023–4053,Short summary
Hydroxyl radical reactivity (k(OH)) is closely related to processes that lead to the formation of oxidised, secondary pollutants such as ozone and aerosol. In order to compare the performances of instruments measuring k(OH), experiments were conducted in the simulation chamber SAPHIR. Chemical conditions were chosen either to be representative of the atmosphere or to test potential limitations of instruments. Overall, the results show that instruments are capable of measuring k(OH).
Nora Zannoni, Valerie Gros, Roland Sarda Esteve, Cerise Kalogridis, Vincent Michoud, Sebastien Dusanter, Stephane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Aurelie Colomb, and Bernard Bonsang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12645–12658,Short summary
Our paper presents results of hydroxyl radical (OH) reactivity from a field study conducted during summer 2013 in a western Mediterranean coastal site (Corsica, France). Here, the total OH reactivity, measured with the comparative reactivity method, is compared with the summed OH reactivity from the reactive gases measured with a multitude of different technologies. Our results demonstrate the relatively high observed reactivity and the large impact of biogenic compounds.
Cécile Debevec, Stéphane Sauvage, Valérie Gros, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Iasonas Stavroulas, Thérèse Salameh, Thierry Leonardis, Vincent Gaudion, Laurence Depelchin, Isabelle Fronval, Roland Sarda-Esteve, Dominique Baisnée, Bernard Bonsang, Chrysanthos Savvides, Mihalis Vrekoussis, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11355–11388,Short summary
An intensive field campaign was conducted in March 2015 in the Eastern Mediterranean region, at a background site of Cyprus. We performed a detailed analysis of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase, and we applied a source apportionment analysis in order to identify the various origins of VOCs. The results suggest that VOCs are mainly of biogenic and regional background origins.
Vincent Michoud, Jean Sciare, Stéphane Sauvage, Sébastien Dusanter, Thierry Léonardis, Valérie Gros, Cerise Kalogridis, Nora Zannoni, Anaïs Féron, Jean-Eudes Petit, Vincent Crenn, Dominique Baisnée, Roland Sarda-Estève, Nicolas Bonnaire, Nicolas Marchand, H. Langley DeWitt, Jorge Pey, Aurélie Colomb, François Gheusi, Sonke Szidat, Iasonas Stavroulas, Agnès Borbon, and Nadine Locoge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8837–8865,Short summary
The ChArMEx SOP2 field campaign took place from 15 July to 5 August 2013 in the western Mediterranean Basin at Ersa, a remote site in Cape Corse. Exhaustive descriptions of the chemical composition of air masses in gas and aerosol phase were performed. An analysis of these measurements was performed using various source-receptor approaches. This led to the identification of several factors linked to primary sources but also to secondary processes of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Baerbel Sinha, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8129–8156,Short summary
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in the Kathmandu Valley. Combining high-resolution in situ NMVOC data and model analyses, we show that REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. Furthermore, REAS v2.1 overestimates the contribution of residential biofuel use and industries.
Anna Novelli, Korbinian Hens, Cheryl Tatum Ernest, Monica Martinez, Anke C. Nölscher, Vinayak Sinha, Pauli Paasonen, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Thomas Elste, Christian Plass-Dülmer, Gavin J. Phillips, Dagmar Kubistin, Jonathan Williams, Luc Vereecken, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7807–7826,Short summary
The ambient concentration of stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs) was estimated for two environments using field data. The low concentrations predicted indicate that SCIs are unlikely to have a large impact on atmospheric chemistry. Concurrent measurements of an OH background signal using the Mainz IPI-LIF-FAGE instrument were found to be consistent with the chemistry of SCIs during the measurement campaigns.
Sabina Assan, Alexia Baudic, Ali Guemri, Philippe Ciais, Valerie Gros, and Felix R. Vogel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2077–2091,Short summary
This study is dedicated to improving measurement methods when using a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy instrument to measure methane at sites with elevated ethane concentrations such as Oil and Gas sites. The research was undertaken after measurements of natural gas samples suggested biased δ13CH4 results. Two instruments were extensively tested to characterize the cross sensitivities to ethane and δ13CH4 and propose corrections. Results indicate that it is imperative to account for the biases.
Lamia Ammoura, Irène Xueref-Remy, Felix Vogel, Valérie Gros, Alexia Baudic, Bernard Bonsang, Marc Delmotte, Yao Té, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15653–15664,Short summary
We propose a new approach to estimate urban emission ratios that takes advantage of the enhanced local urban signal in the atmosphere at low wind speed. We apply it to estimate monthly ratios between CO2, CO and some VOCs from atmospheric measurement datasets acquired in the centre of Paris between 2010 and 2014. We find that this approach is little sensitive to the regional background level definition. With this new method, we may reveal spatial and seasonal variability in the ratios in Paris.
Sauveur Belviso, Ilja Marco Reiter, Benjamin Loubet, Valérie Gros, Juliette Lathière, David Montagne, Marc Delmotte, Michel Ramonet, Cerise Kalogridis, Benjamin Lebegue, Nicolas Bonnaire, Victor Kazan, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez, and Bernard Genty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14909–14923,Short summary
The role that soil, foliage, and atmospheric dynamics have on surface OCS exchange in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in southern France (O3HP) was investigated in June of 2012 and 2013 with essentially a top-down approach. Atmospheric data suggest that the site is appropriate for estimating GPP directly from eddy covariance measurements of OCS fluxes, but it is less adequate for scaling NEE to GPP from observations of vertical gradients of OCS relative to CO2 during the daytime.
Alexia Baudic, Valérie Gros, Stéphane Sauvage, Nadine Locoge, Olivier Sanchez, Roland Sarda-Estève, Cerise Kalogridis, Jean-Eudes Petit, Nicolas Bonnaire, Dominique Baisnée, Olivier Favez, Alexandre Albinet, Jean Sciare, and Bernard Bonsang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11961–11989,Short summary
This article presents ambient air VOC measurements performed in Paris during the MEGAPOLI and FRANCIPOL campaigns (2010). For the first time, we report (O)VOC concentration levels, their temporal variations and their main emission sources. The originality of this study stands in using near-field observations to help strengthen the identification of apportioned sources derived from PMF. An important finding of this work is the high contribution of the wood burning source (50 %) in winter.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, E. Bourtsoukidis, B. Derstroff, N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, J. Brito, S. M. Noe, E. House, C. N. Hewitt, B. Langford, E. Nemitz, T. Behrendt, J. Williams, P. Artaxo, M. O. Andreae, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10965–10984,Short summary
This paper provides a general overview of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) ambient observations in different ecosystems around the world in order to provide insights into the sources, sink and role of MEK in the atmosphere.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Vinod Kumar, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Panday, Khadak S. Mahata, Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhogendra Kathayat, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3979–4003,Short summary
First deployment of PTR-TOF-MS in South Asia. High acetaldehyde and biogenic isoprene concentrations detected even in winter in the Kathmandu Valley. Isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane were detected for the first time in South Asian air. Oxygenated VOCs and isoprene-dominated OH reactivity and ozone production potentials (> 68 % OPP). Regulation of emissions from biomass co-fired brick kilns' by cleaner technology would improve air quality of the valley.
N. Zannoni, V. Gros, M. Lanza, R. Sarda, B. Bonsang, C. Kalogridis, S. Preunkert, M. Legrand, C. Jambert, C. Boissard, and J. Lathiere
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1619–1636,Short summary
Our manuscript shows results of OH reactivity and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) concentration during a field experiment conducted in late spring 2014 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP) site. We found that OH reactivity is among the highest measured in forests globally (69 s−1) and it is mainly due to isoprene. No missing reactivity was present during daytime inside or above the canopy, while 50 % missing reactivity was found by night at both heights.
R. F. Hansen, M. Blocquet, C. Schoemaecker, T. Léonardis, N. Locoge, C. Fittschen, B. Hanoune, P. S. Stevens, V. Sinha, and S. Dusanter
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4243–4264,Short summary
This paper describes and presents results from a intercomparison, in an environment rich in NOx (i.e., NO+NO2), of two OH reactivity instruments: one based on the comparative reactivity method, and one based on the pump-probe method. Co-located measurements were made of both ambient air and standard mixtures. Ambient OH reactivity values measured by both instruments were found to be in good agreement for ambient NOx mixing ratios as high as 100 ppbv.
N. Zannoni, S. Dusanter, V. Gros, R. Sarda Esteve, V. Michoud, V. Sinha, N. Locoge, and B. Bonsang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3851–3865,Short summary
Our manuscript shows results of an intercomparison exercise conducted on two home-built comparative reactivity method (CRM) instruments operating under the same settings for measuring total OH reactivity. Despite the corrections of the raw data sets for instrumental artifacts having different weights on the two CRMs, we found very consistent results for the final processed data of ambient OH reactivity. Furthermore, we present in detail how to validate the instruments and process the raw data.
B. Sinha, K. Singh Sangwan, Y. Maurya, V. Kumar, C. Sarkar, B. P. Chandra, and V. Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9555–9576,Short summary
We use ozone measurements at a suburban site in Punjab to estimate ozone-related crop yield losses for wheat, rice, cotton and maize in Punjab and Haryana for the years 2011-2013. Crop production losses amount to 10.3-20.8 Mt yr-1 for wheat and 3.2-5.4 Mt yr-1 for rice, enough to feed 225-437 million of India’s poor. The lower limit for the ozone-related economic losses is 3.7-6.5 billion USD (Punjab and Haryana), while the upper limit amounts to 3.5-20% of Indian GDP (all of India).
L. Ammoura, I. Xueref-Remy, V. Gros, A. Baudic, B. Bonsang, J.-E. Petit, O. Perrussel, N. Bonnaire, J. Sciare, and F. Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12871–12882,Short summary
We present the first study of CO2, VOCs and NOx measured all together in a road tunnel around the Paris megacity with the aim to quantify the ratios of these species co-emitted within traffic emissions. It allows us to independently assess some of the ratios provided in the latest Paris emission inventory. It also reveals a large variability of the ratios to CO2, implying that traffic does not have a unique imprint in the urban plume, but rather leaves various signatures.
C. Kalogridis, V. Gros, R. Sarda-Esteve, B. Langford, B. Loubet, B. Bonsang, N. Bonnaire, E. Nemitz, A.-C. Genard, C. Boissard, C. Fernandez, E. Ormeño, D. Baisnée, I. Reiter, and J. Lathière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10085–10102,
V. Sinha, V. Kumar, and C. Sarkar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5921–5941,
J. A. Adame, M. Martínez, M. Sorribas, P. J. Hidalgo, H. Harder, J.-M. Diesch, F. Drewnick, W. Song, J. Williams, V. Sinha, M. A. Hernández-Ceballos, J. Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, R. Sander, Z. Hosaynali-Beygi, H. Fischer, J. Lelieveld, and B. De la Morena
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2325–2342,
M. D. Andrés-Hernández, D. Kartal, J. N. Crowley, V. Sinha, E. Regelin, M. Martínez-Harder, V. Nenakhov, J. Williams, H. Harder, H. Bozem, W. Song, J. Thieser, M. J. Tang, Z. Hosaynali Beigi, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5731–5749,
A. C. Nölscher, V. Sinha, S. Bockisch, T. Klüpfel, and J. Williams
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 2981–2992,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Measurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe impacts of wildfires on ozone production and boundary layer dynamics in California's Central ValleyDistribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, ChinaLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristics and ozone sensitivityInvestigation of new particle formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaMeasurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North PacificOH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firnAtmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian OceanJoint occurrence of heatwaves and ozone pollution and increased health risks in Beijing, China: role of synoptic weather pattern and urbanizationUsing atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domainAn evaluation of new particle formation events in Helsinki during a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial summer bloomOceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol and their contribution to sulfur dioxide production in the marine atmosphereAn investigation into the chemistry of HONO in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in BermudaTropospheric ozone production and chemical regime analysis during the COVID-19 lockdown over EuropeOverview: On the transport and transformation of pollutants in the outflow of major population centres – observational data from the EMeRGe European intensive operational period in summer 2017Interannual variability of terpenoid emissions in an alpine cityObservations and modelling of glyoxal in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layerMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignTop-down and bottom-up estimates of anthropogenic methyl bromide emissions from eastern ChinaDirect measurements of ozone response to emissions perturbations in CaliforniaReconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsGround-based investigation of HOx and ozone chemistry in biomass burning plumes in rural IdahoInsights into the significant increase in ozone during COVID-19 in a typical urban city of ChinaQuantification and assessment of methane emissions from offshore oil and gas facilities on the Norwegian continental shelfFull latitudinal marine atmospheric measurements of iodine monoxideDirect observations indicate photodegradable oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) as larger contributors to radicals and ozone production in the atmosphereAssessing vehicle fuel efficiency using a dense network of CO2 observationsOdds and ends of atmospheric mercury in Europe and over the North Atlantic Ocean: temporal trends of 25 years of measurementsInterpretation of NO3–N2O5 observation via steady state in high-aerosol air mass: the impact of equilibrium coefficient in ambient conditionsGlobal emissions of perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) resulting from the use of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) feedstock to produce polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and related fluorochemicalsAtmospheric measurements at Mt. Tai – Part I: HONO formation and its role in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layerUrban inland wintertime N2O5 and ClNO2 influenced by snow-covered ground, air turbulence, and precipitationFirst observation of mercury species on an important water vapor channel in the southeastern Tibetan PlateauSwiss halocarbon emissions for 2019 to 2020 assessed from regional atmospheric observationsRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen 2018Measurement report: Long-term measurements of aerosol precursor concentrations in the Finnish subarctic boreal forestThe Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS)Measurement report: Intra-, inter-annual variability and source apportionment of VOCs during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, Central China
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Keming Pan and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9681–9702,Short summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites and meteorological sites, two AmeriFlux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during five consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate increases by ~ 50 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decreases the heat flux by 30 % and results in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8935–8949,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarise this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,Short summary
This paper presents the first OH and HO2 radical observations made in the Yangtze River Delta in China, and strong oxidation capacity is discovered based on direct measurements. The impacts of new OH regeneration mechanisms, monoterpene oxidation, and HO2 uptake processes are examined and discussed. The sources and the factors to sustain such strong oxidation are the key to understanding the ozone pollution formed in this area.
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,Short summary
Greenhouse gas methane in the Arctic atmosphere has not been accurately reported for 1900–1980 from either direct observations or ice core reconstructions. By using trace gas data from firn (compacted snow layers above ice sheet), air samples at two Greenland sites, and a firn air transport model, this study suggests a likely range of the Arctic methane reconstruction for the 20th century. Atmospheric scenarios from two previous studies are also evaluated for consistency with the firn data sets.
Susann Tegtmeier, Christa Marandino, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6625–6676,Short summary
In the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean, intense anthropogenic pollution from Southeast Asia mixes with pristine oceanic air. During the winter monsoon, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its impacts on the upper atmosphere, oceanic biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Haiyun Xia, Meng Gao, Zhaobin Sun, Zuofang Zheng, Xianxiang Li, Guicai Ning, Yubin Li, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6523–6538,Short summary
Heatwaves (HWs) paired with higher ozone (O3) concentration at surface level pose a serious threat to human health. Taking Beijing as an example, three unfavorable synoptic weather patterns were identified to dominate the compound HW and O3 pollution events. Under the synergistic stress of HWs and O3 pollution, public mortality risk increased, and synoptic patterns and urbanization enhanced the compound risk of events in Beijing by 33.09 % and 18.95 %, respectively.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Roseline C. Thakur, Lubna Dada, Lisa J. Beck, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Tommy Chan, Marjan Marbouti, Xu-Cheng He, Carlton Xavier, Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Markus Lampimäki, Yee Jun Tham, Nina Sarnela, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alf Norkko, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6365–6391,Short summary
Every year intense cyanobacterial and macroalgal blooms occur in the Baltic Sea and in the coastal areas surrounding Helsinki, yet no studies have addressed the impact of biogenic emissions from these blooms on gas vapor concentrations, which in turn could influence new particle formation. This is the first study of its kind to address the chemistry driving new particle formation (NPF) during a bloom period in this region, highlighting the role of biogenic sulfuric acid and iodic acid.
Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Christopher M. Jernigan, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6309–6325,Short summary
We describe field measurements of the mixing ratio and oceanic emission flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MeSH) from a coastal ocean site. DMS is known to impact aerosol formation and growth in the marine atmosphere, influencing cloud formation and climate. Measurements of MeSH, which is produced by the same oceanic source as DMS, are rare. We show that MeSH emissions are large and must be measured alongside DMS to understand marine sulfur chemistry and aerosol formation.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lisa Kaser, Arianna Peron, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Georg Wohlfahrt, Stanislav Juráň, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5603–5618,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., terpenoids) play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Urban greening activities need to consider the ozone- and aerosol-forming potential of these compounds released from vegetation. NMVOC emissions in urban environments are complex, and the biogenic component remains poorly quantified. For summer conditions biogenic emissions dominate terpene emissions and heat waves can significantly modulate urban biogenic terpenoid emissions.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.8 to 9.1E5 cm–3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
Shenglun Wu, Hyung Joo Lee, Andrea Anderson, Shang Liu, Toshihiro Kuwayama, John H. Seinfeld, and Michael J. Kleeman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4929–4949,Short summary
An ozone control experiment usually conducted in the laboratory was installed in a trailer and moved to the outdoor environment to directly confirm that we are controlling the right sources in order to lower ambient ozone concentrations. Adding small amounts of precursor oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds to ambient air showed that the highest ozone concentrations are best controlled by reducing concentrations of oxides of nitrogen. The results confirm satellite measurements.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael Wheeler, Jeremy Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cris Mihele, Ralf Staebler, Samar Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Alexandra Steffen, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna Ditto, Megan He, and Drew Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Andrew J. Lindsay, Daniel C. Anderson, Rebecca A. Wernis, Yutong Liang, Allen H. Goldstein, Scott C. Herndon, Joseph R. Roscioli, Christoph Dyroff, Ed C. Fortner, Philip L. Croteau, Francesca Majluf, Jordan E. Krechmer, Tara I. Yacovitch, Walter B. Knighton, and Ezra C. Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4909–4928,Short summary
Wildfire smoke dramatically impacts air quality and often has elevated concentrations of ozone. We present measurements of ozone and its precursors at a rural site periodically impacted by wildfire smoke. Measurements of total peroxy radicals, key ozone precursors that have been studied little within wildfires, compare well with chemical box model predictions. Our results indicate no serious issues with using current chemistry mechanisms to model chemistry in aged wildfire plumes.
Kun Zhang, Zhiqiang Liu, Xiaojuan Zhang, Qing Li, Andrew Jensen, Wen Tan, Ling Huang, Yangjun Wang, Joost de Gouw, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4853–4866,Short summary
A significant increase in O3 concentrations was found during the lockdown period of COVID-19 in most areas of China. By field measurements coupled with machine learning, an observation-based model (OBM) and sensitivity analysis, we found the changes in the NOx / VOC ratio were a key reason for the significant rise in O3. To restrain O3 pollution, more efforts should be devoted to the control of anthropogenic OVOCs, alkenes and aromatics.
Amy Foulds, Grant Allen, Jacob T. Shaw, Prudence Bateson, Patrick A. Barker, Langwen Huang, Joseph R. Pitt, James D. Lee, Shona E. Wilde, Pamela Dominutti, Ruth M. Purvis, David Lowry, James L. France, Rebecca E. Fisher, Alina Fiehn, Magdalena Pühl, Stéphane J. B. Bauguitte, Stephen A. Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Tom Lachlan-Cope, Ignacio Pisso, and Stefan Schwietzke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4303–4322,Short summary
We measured CH4 emissions from 21 offshore oil and gas facilities in the Norwegian Sea in 2019. Measurements compared well with operator-reported emissions but were greatly underestimated when compared with a 2016 global fossil fuel inventory. This study demonstrates the need for up-to-date and accurate inventories for use in research and policy and the important benefits of best-practice reporting methods by operators. Airborne measurements are an effective tool to validate such inventories.
Hisahiro Takashima, Yugo Kanaya, Saki Kato, Martina M. Friedrich, Michel Van Roozendael, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, Yuichi Komazaki, Carlos A. Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Takashi Sekiya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4005–4018,Short summary
We have undertaken atmospheric iodine monoxide (IO) observations in the global marine boundary layer with a wide latitudinal coverage and sea surface temperature (SST) range. We conclude that atmospheric iodine is abundant over the Western Pacific warm pool, appearing as an iodine fountain, where ozone (O3) minima occur. Our study also found negative correlations between IO and O3 concentrations over IO maxima, which requires reconsideration of the initiation process of halogen activation.
Wenjie Wang, Bin Yuan, Yuwen Peng, Hang Su, Yafang Cheng, Suxia Yang, Caihong Wu, Jipeng Qi, Fengxia Bao, Yibo Huangfu, Chaomin Wang, Chenshuo Ye, Zelong Wang, Baolin Wang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Peng Cheng, Manni Zhu, Junyu Zheng, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4117–4128,Short summary
From thorough measurements of numerous oxygenated volatile organic compounds, we show that their photodissociation can be important for radical production and ozone formation in the atmosphere. This effect was underestimated in previous studies, as measurements of them were lacking.
Helen L. Fitzmaurice, Alexander J. Turner, Jinsol Kim, Katherine Chan, Erin R. Delaria, Catherine Newman, Paul Wooldridge, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3891–3900,Short summary
On-road emissions are thought to vary widely from existing predictions, as the effects of the age of the vehicle fleet, the performance of emission control systems, and variations in speed are difficult to assess under ambient driving conditions. We present an observational approach to characterize on-road emissions and show that the method is consistent with other approaches to within ~ 3 %.
Danilo Custódio, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, T. Gerard Spain, Fidel F. Pankratov, Iana Strigunova, Koketso Molepo, Henrik Skov, Johannes Bieser, and Ralf Ebinghaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3827–3840,Short summary
As a poison in the air that we breathe and the food that we eat, mercury is a human health concern for society as a whole. In that regard, this work deals with monitoring and modelling mercury in the environment, improving wherewithal, identifying the strength of the different components at play, and interpreting information to support the efforts that seek to safeguard public health.
Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, and Keding Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3525–3533,Short summary
We use a complete set of simulations to evaluate whether equilibrium and steady state are appropriate for a chemical system involving several reactive nitrogen-containing species (NO2, NO3, and N2O5) under various conditions. A previously neglected bias for the coefficient applied for interpreting their effects is disclosed, and the relevant ambient factors are examined. We therefore provide a good solution to an accurate representation of nighttime chemistry in high-aerosol areas.
Jens Mühle, Lambert J. M. Kuijpers, Kieran M. Stanley, Matthew Rigby, Luke M. Western, Jooil Kim, Sunyoung Park, Christina M. Harth, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Simon O'Doherty, Peter K. Salameh, Roland Schmidt, Dickon Young, Ronald G. Prinn, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ray F. Weiss
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3371–3378,Short summary
Emissions of the strong greenhouse gas perfluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) into the atmosphere have been increasing sharply since the early 2000s. These c-C4F8 emissions are highly correlated with the amount of hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 produced to synthesize polytetrafluoroethylene (known for its non-stick properties) and related chemicals. From this process, c-C4F8 by-product is vented to the atmosphere. Avoiding these unnecessary c-C4F8 emissions could reduce the climate impact of this industry.
Chaoyang Xue, Can Ye, Jörg Kleffmann, Chenglong Zhang, Valéry Catoire, Fengxia Bao, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Likun Xue, Jianmin Chen, Keding Lu, Yong Zhao, Hengde Liu, Zhaoxin Guo, and Yujing Mu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3149–3167,Short summary
Summertime measurements of nitrous acid (HONO) and related parameters were conducted at the foot and the summit of Mt. Tai (1534 m above sea level). We proposed a rapid vertical air mass exchange between the foot and the summit level, which enhances the role of HONO in the oxidizing capacity of the upper boundary layer. Kinetics for aerosol-derived HONO sources were constrained. HONO formation from different paths was quantified and discussed.
Kathryn D. Kulju, Stephen M. McNamara, Qianjie Chen, Hannah S. Kenagy, Jacinta Edebeli, Jose D. Fuentes, Steven B. Bertman, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2553–2568,Short summary
N2O5 uptake by chloride-containing surfaces produces ClNO2, which photolyzes, producing NO2 and highly reactive Cl radicals that impact air quality. In the inland urban atmosphere, ClNO2 was elevated during lower air turbulence and over snow-covered ground, from snowpack ClNO2 production. N2O5 and ClNO2 levels were lowest, on average, during rainfall and fog because of scavenging, with N2O5 scavenging by fog droplets likely contributing to observed increased particulate nitrate concentrations.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Chenghao Yu, Long Chen, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Lun Luo, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2651–2668,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau is known as
The Third Poleand is generally considered to be a clean area owing to its high altitude. However, it may receive be impacted by air pollutants transported from the Indian subcontinent. Pollutants generally enter the Tibetan Plateau in several ways. Among them is the Yarlung Zangbu–Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. In this study, we identified the influence of the Indian summer monsoon on the origin, transport, and behavior of mercury in this area.
Dominique Rust, Ioannis Katharopoulos, Martin K. Vollmer, Stephan Henne, Simon O'Doherty, Daniel Say, Lukas Emmenegger, Renato Zenobi, and Stefan Reimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2447–2466,Short summary
Artificial halocarbons contribute to ozone layer depletion and to global warming. We measured the atmospheric concentrations of halocarbons at the Beromünster tower, modelled the Swiss emissions, and compared the results to the internationally reported Swiss emissions inventory. For most of the halocarbons, we found good agreement, whereas one refrigerant might be overestimated in the inventory. In addition, we present first emission estimates of the newest types of halocarbons.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The STORM campaign was carried out at Shenzhen site in autumn 2018. The maximum diurnal OH and HO2 concentrations were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 and 4.5 × 108 cm−3, respectively. The unclassical OH recycling was identified again. AOC exhibited well-defined diurnal patterns, and OH was the dominant oxidant as expected. The strong positive correlation between F(O3) and AOC makes the quantification of F(O3) achieved, indicating AOC is the core driving force for the generation of secondary pollutants.
Tuija Jokinen, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Roseline Cutting Thakur, Ilona Ylivinkka, Kimmo Neitola, Nina Sarnela, Totti Laitinen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2237–2254,Short summary
New particle formation is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei; however, long-term measurements of aerosol-forming vapors are close to nonexistent in the Arctic. Here, we report 7 months of CI-APi-TOF measurements of sulfuric acid, iodic acid, methane sulfonic acid and the sum of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the SMEAR I station in the Finnish subarctic. The results help us to understand atmospheric chemical processes and aerosol formation in this rapidly changing area.
Andrew O. Langford, Christoph J. Senff, Raul J. Alvarez II, Ken C. Aikin, Sunil Baidar, Timothy A. Bonin, W. Alan Brewer, Jerome Brioude, Steven S. Brown, Joel D. Burley, Dani J. Caputi, Stephen A. Conley, Patrick D. Cullis, Zachary C. J. Decker, Stéphanie Evan, Guillaume Kirgis, Meiyun Lin, Mariusz Pagowski, Jeff Peischl, Irina Petropavlovskikh, R. Bradley Pierce, Thomas B. Ryerson, Scott P. Sandberg, Chance W. Sterling, Ann M. Weickmann, and Li Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1707–1737,Short summary
The Fires, Asian, and Stratospheric Transport–Las Vegas Ozone Study (FAST-LVOS) combined lidar, aircraft, and in situ measurements with global models to investigate the contributions of stratospheric intrusions, regional and Asian pollution, and wildfires to background ozone in the southwestern US during May and June 2017 and demonstrated that these processes contributed to background ozone levels that exceeded 70 % of the US National Ambient Air Quality Standard during the 6-week campaign.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018 to 2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and source among inter-annual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develope control strategies.
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Source apportionment studies require information on the chemical fingerprints of pollution sources to correctly quantify source contributions to ambient composition. These chemical fingerprints vary from region to region, depending on fuel composition and combustion conditions, and are poorly constrained over developing regions such as South Asia. This work characterises the chemical fingerprints of urban and agricultural sources using 49 non-methane hydrocarbons and their environmental impacts.
Source apportionment studies require information on the chemical fingerprints of pollution...