Articles | Volume 17, issue 2
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 855–866, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 19 Jan 2017
Research article | 19 Jan 2017
A comparison of Loon balloon observations and stratospheric reanalysis products
Leon S. Friedrich et al.
No articles found.
Brian Nathan, Stefanie Kremser, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Greg Bodeker, Leroy Bird, Ethan Dale, Dongqi Lin, Gustavo Olivares, and Elizabeth Somervell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14089–14108,Short summary
The MAPM project showcases a method to improve estimates of PM2.5 emissions through an advanced statistical technique that is still new to the aerosol community. Using Christchurch, NZ, as a test bed, measurements from a field campaign in winter 2019 are incorporated into this new approach. An overestimation from local inventory estimates is identified. This technique may be exported to other urban areas in need.
Greg E. Bodeker, Jan Nitzbon, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Stefanie Kremser, Alexander Schwertheim, and Jared Lewis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3885–3906,Short summary
Ozone in Earth's atmosphere has undergone significant changes since first measured systematically from space in the late 1970s. The purpose of the paper is to present a new, spatially filled, global total column ozone climate data record spanning from October 1978 to December 2016. The database is compiled from measurements from 17 different satellite-based instruments where offsets and drifts between the instruments have been corrected using ground-based measurements.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Ethan R. Dale, Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Greg E. Bodeker, Leroy J. Bird, Gustavo Olivares, Guy Coulson, Elizabeth Somervell, Woodrow Pattinson, Jonathan Barte, Jan-Niklas Schmidt, Nariefa Abrahim, Adrian J. McDonald, and Peter Kuma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 2053–2075,Short summary
MAPM is a project whose goal is to develop a method to infer particulate matter (PM) emissions maps from PM concentration measurements. In support of MAPM, we conducted a winter field campaign in New Zealand. In addition to two types of instruments measuring PM, an array of other meteorological sensors were deployed, measuring temperature and wind speed as well as probing the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere. In this article, we present the measurements taken during this campaign.
Greg E. Bodeker and Stefanie Kremser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5289–5300,Short summary
This paper presents measures of the severity of the Antarctic ozone hole covering the period 1979 to 2019. The paper shows that while the severity of Antarctic ozone depletion grew rapidly through the last two decades of the 20th century, the severity declined thereafter and faster than expected from declines in stratospheric concentrations of the chlorine- and bromine-containing chemical compounds that destroy ozone.
James Keeble, Birgit Hassler, Antara Banerjee, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Gabriel Chiodo, Sean Davis, Veronika Eyring, Paul T. Griffiths, Olaf Morgenstern, Peer Nowack, Guang Zeng, Jiankai Zhang, Greg Bodeker, Susannah Burrows, Philip Cameron-Smith, David Cugnet, Christopher Danek, Makoto Deushi, Larry W. Horowitz, Anne Kubin, Lijuan Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Dirk Olivié, Sungsu Park, Øyvind Seland, Jens Stoll, Karl-Hermann Wieners, and Tongwen Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5015–5061,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system; changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. We evaluate changes to these species from 1850 to 2100 in the new generation of CMIP6 models. There is good agreement between the multi-model mean and observations, although there is substantial variation between the individual models. The future evolution of both ozone and water vapour is strongly dependent on the assumed future emissions scenario.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Ruud J. Dirksen, Greg E. Bodeker, Peter W. Thorne, Andrea Merlone, Tony Reale, Junhong Wang, Dale F. Hurst, Belay B. Demoz, Tom D. Gardiner, Bruce Ingleby, Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, and Thierry Leblanc
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 337–355,Short summary
This paper describes GRUAN's strategy for a network-wide change of the operational radiosonde from Vaisala RS92 to RS41. GRUAN's main goal is to provide long-term data records that are free of inhomogeneities due to instrumental effects, which requires proper change management. The approach is to fully characterize differences between the two radiosonde types using laboratory tests, twin soundings, and ancillary data, as well as by drawing from the various fields of expertise available in GRUAN.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Simon P. Alexander, John J. Cassano, Sally Garrett, Jamie Halla, Sean Hartery, Mike J. Harvey, Simon Parsons, Graeme Plank, Vidya Varma, and Jonny Williams
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6607–6630,Short summary
We evaluate clouds over the Southern Ocean in the climate model HadGEM3 and reanalysis MERRA-2 using ship-based ceilometer and radiosonde observations. We find the models underestimate cloud cover by 18–25 %, with clouds below 2 km dominant in reality but lacking in the models. We find a strong link between clouds, atmospheric stability and sea surface temperature in observations but not in the models, implying that sub-grid processes do not generate enough cloud in response to these conditions.
Laura E. Revell, Stefanie Kremser, Sean Hartery, Mike Harvey, Jane P. Mulcahy, Jonny Williams, Olaf Morgenstern, Adrian J. McDonald, Vidya Varma, Leroy Bird, and Alex Schuddeboom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15447–15466,Short summary
Aerosols over the Southern Ocean consist primarily of sea salt and sulfate, yet are seasonally biased in our model. We test three sulfate chemistry schemes to investigate DMS oxidation, which forms sulfate aerosol. Simulated cloud droplet number concentrations improve using more complex sulfate chemistry. We also show that a new sea spray aerosol source function, developed from measurements made on a recent Southern Ocean research voyage, improves the model's simulation of aerosol optical depth.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Jordis S. Tradowsky, Gregory E. Bodeker, Richard R. Querel, Peter J. H. Builtjes, and Jürgen Fischer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2195–2211,Short summary
A best-estimate data set of the temperature profile above the atmospheric measurement facility at Lauder, New Zealand, has been developed. This site atmospheric state best estimate (SASBE) combines atmospheric measurements made at two locations and includes an estimate of uncertainty on every data point. The SASBE enhances the value of measurements made by a reference-quality climate observing network and may be used for a variety of purposes in research and education.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
Ben Jolly, Peter Kuma, Adrian McDonald, and Simon Parsons
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9723–9739,Short summary
Clouds in the Ross Sea and Ross Ice Shelf regions are examined using a combination of satellite observations from the CloudSat and CALIPSO satellite datasets. We show that previous studies may have included an artefact at high altitudes which under-estimated cloud occurrence. We also find that the meteorological regime is a stronger control of cloud occurrence, cloud type and cloud top than season over this region, though season is a strong control on the phase of cloud.
Sandip S. Dhomse, Douglas Kinnison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Ross J. Salawitch, Irene Cionni, Michaela I. Hegglin, N. Luke Abraham, Hideharu Akiyoshi, Alex T. Archibald, Ewa M. Bednarz, Slimane Bekki, Peter Braesicke, Neal Butchart, Martin Dameris, Makoto Deushi, Stacey Frith, Steven C. Hardiman, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, Rong-Ming Hu, Patrick Jöckel, Beatrice Josse, Oliver Kirner, Stefanie Kremser, Ulrike Langematz, Jared Lewis, Marion Marchand, Meiyun Lin, Eva Mancini, Virginie Marécal, Martine Michou, Olaf Morgenstern, Fiona M. O'Connor, Luke Oman, Giovanni Pitari, David A. Plummer, John A. Pyle, Laura E. Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Robyn Schofield, Andrea Stenke, Kane Stone, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Daniele Visioni, Yousuke Yamashita, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8409–8438,Short summary
We analyse simulations from the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) to estimate the return dates of the stratospheric ozone layer from depletion by anthropogenic chlorine and bromine. The simulations from 20 models project that global column ozone will return to 1980 values in 2047 (uncertainty range 2042–2052). Return dates in other regions vary depending on factors related to climate change and importance of chlorine and bromine. Column ozone in the tropics may continue to decline.
Jonathan Conway, Greg Bodeker, and Chris Cameron
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8065–8077,Short summary
Strong westerly winds occur in the stratosphere during winter and spring. These winds, the polar vortex, limit how much air is mixed between mid- and high-latitudes. We present a new view of the polar vortex mixing barrier in the Southern Hemisphere, revealing a frequent double-walled barrier with two distinct regions of weak mixing. This double-walled structure is expected to alter the spatial and temporal variation of trace gas concentrations (e.g. ozone) across the polar vortex.
Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Henning W. Rust, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3021–3029,Short summary
We investigate the feasibility of quantifying the difference in biases of two instrument types (i.e. radiosondes) by flying the old and new instruments on alternating days, so-called interlacing, to statistically derive the systematic biases between the instruments. While it is in principle possible to estimate the difference between two instrument biases from interlaced measurements, the number of required interlaced flights is very large for reasonable autocorrelation coefficient values.
Geoffrey K. Vallis, Greg Colyer, Ruth Geen, Edwin Gerber, Martin Jucker, Penelope Maher, Alexander Paterson, Marianne Pietschnig, James Penn, and Stephen I. Thomson
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 843–859,Short summary
The models that are used to describe the atmospheres of Earth and other planets are often very complicated. Although this is necessary for such things as weather prediction, it does not help in understanding. Furthermore, when studying other planets, there are insufficient data to warrant the use of complicated models. We have developed a framework that allows the construction of models of appropriate complexity for the problem at hand, and thus helps to actually model these atmospheres.
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead, Jerald Harder, Eduardo A. Araujo-Pradere, Greg Bodeker, Jason M. English, Lawrence E. Flynn, Stacey M. Frith, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Peter Pilewskie, Mark Weber, and Thomas N. Woods
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15069–15093,Short summary
Satellite overlap is often carried out as a check on the stability of the data collected. We looked at how length of overlap influences how much information can be derived from the overlap period. Several results surprised us: the confidence we could have in the matchup of two records was independent of the offset, and understanding of the relative drift between the two satellite data sets improved significantly with 2–3 years of overlap. Sudden jumps could easily be confused with drift.
Jared Lewis, Greg E. Bodeker, Stefanie Kremser, and Andrew Tait
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4563–4575,Short summary
The Ensemble Projections Incorporating Climate model uncertainty (EPIC) method uses climate pattern scaling to expand a small number of daily maximum and minimum surface temperature projections into an ensemble that captures the structural uncertainty between climate models. The method is useful for providing projections of changes in climate to users wishing to investigate the impacts of climate change in a probabilistic and computationally efficient way.
Fraser Dennison, Adrian McDonald, and Olaf Morgenstern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14075–14084,Short summary
The Antarctic ozone is not centred directly over the pole. In this research we examine how the position and shape of the ozone hole changes using a chemistry–climate model. As ozone becomes increasingly depleted during the late 20th century the centre of the ozone hole moves toward the west and becomes more circular. As the ozone hole recovers over the course of the 21st century the ozone hole moves back towards the east.
Ethan R. Dale, Adrian J. McDonald, Jack H. J. Coggins, and Wolfgang Rack
The Cryosphere, 11, 267–280,Short summary
This work studies the affects of strong winds on sea ice within the Ross Sea polynya. We compare both automatic weather station (AWS) and reanalysis wind data with sea ice concentration (SIC) measurements based on satellite images. Due to its low resolution, the reanalysis data were unable to reproduce several relationships found between the AWS and SIC data. We find that the strongest third of wind speeds had the most significant affect on SIC and resulting sea ice production.
Ulrike Langematz, Franziska Schmidt, Markus Kunze, Gregory E. Bodeker, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15619–15627,Short summary
The extent of anthropogenically driven Antarctic ozone depletion prior to 1980 is examined using transient chemistry–climate model simulations from 1960 to 2000 with prescribed changes of ozone depleting substances in conjunction with observations. All models show a long-term, halogen-induced negative trend in Antarctic ozone from 1960 to 1980, ranging between 26 and 50 % of the total anthropogenic ozone depletion from 1960 to 2000. A stronger ozone decline of 56 % was estimated from observation.
N. R. P. Harris, B. Hassler, F. Tummon, G. E. Bodeker, D. Hubert, I. Petropavlovskikh, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, P. K. Bhartia, C. D. Boone, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, A. Delcloo, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, N. Jones, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, S. T. Leblanc, J.-C. Lambert, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, A. Maycock, M. de Mazière, A. Parrish, R. Querel, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, C. Sioris, J. Staehelin, R. S. Stolarski, R. Stübi, J. Tamminen, C. Vigouroux, K. A. Walker, H. J. Wang, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9965–9982,Short summary
Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported for new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere peaked in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the trends before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible. The previously reported decreases are confirmed. Furthermore, the downward trend in upper stratospheric ozone has not continued. The possible significance of any increase is discussed in detail.
K. Kreher, G. E. Bodeker, and M. Sigmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7653–7665,Short summary
This manuscript aims to answer the following question: which of the existing sites engaged in upper-air temperature measurements are best located to detect expected future trends within the shortest time possible? To do so, we explore one objective method for selecting the optimal locations for detecting projected 21st century trends and then demonstrate a similar technique for objectively selecting optimal locations for detecting expected future trends in total column ozone.
G. E. Bodeker and S. Kremser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1673–1684,Short summary
This paper discusses, and demonstrates, the methodology for reliably determining long-term trends in upper air climate data records and how measurement uncertainties should be used in trend analyses. A pedagogical approach is taken whereby numerical recipes for key parts of the trend analysis process are explored. The paper describes the construction of linear least squares regression models for trend analysis and the boot-strapping approach to determine the uncertainty on the derived trends.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
A. A. Penckwitt, G. E. Bodeker, P. Stoll, J. Lewis, T. von Clarmann, and A. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
A. Parrish, I. S. Boyd, G. E. Nedoluha, P. K. Bhartia, S. M. Frith, N. A. Kramarova, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, L. Froidevaux, M. Shiotani, and T. Sakazaki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7255–7272,
M. Rex, S. Kremser, P. Huck, G. Bodeker, I. Wohltmann, M. L. Santee, and P. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6545–6555,
S. Kremser, G. E. Bodeker, and J. Lewis
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 249–266,
V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, T. Mielonen, P. Veefkind, B. Hassler, and G.E. Bodeker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 283–299,
S. Brönnimann, J. Bhend, J. Franke, S. Flückiger, A. M. Fischer, R. Bleisch, G. Bodeker, B. Hassler, E. Rozanov, and M. Schraner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9623–9639,
H. Garny, G. E. Bodeker, D. Smale, M. Dameris, and V. Grewe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7279–7300,
B. Hassler, P. J. Young, R. W. Portmann, G. E. Bodeker, J. S. Daniel, K. H. Rosenlof, and S. Solomon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5533–5550,
P. E. Huck, G. E. Bodeker, S. Kremser, A. J. McDonald, M. Rex, and H. Struthers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3237–3243,
G. E. Bodeker, B. Hassler, P. J. Young, and R. W. Portmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 31–43,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)A case study on the impact of severe convective storms on the water vapor mixing ratio in the lower mid-latitude stratosphere observed in 2019 over EuropeUpward transport into and within the Asian monsoon anticyclone as inferred from StratoClim trace gas observationsSeasonal characteristics of trace gas transport into the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphereGravity waves excited during a minor sudden stratospheric warmingMixing and ageing in the polar lower stratosphere in winter 2015–2016Age and gravitational separation of the stratospheric air over IndonesiaIntercomparison of meteorological analyses and trajectories in the Antarctic lower stratosphere with Concordiasi superpressure balloon observationsCase study of wave breaking with high-resolution turbulence measurements with LITOS and WRF simulationsStratospheric tropical warming event and its impact on the polar and tropical troposphereGravity-wave effects on tracer gases and stratospheric aerosol concentrations during the 2013 ChArMEx campaignTransport of Antarctic stratospheric strongly dehydrated air into the troposphere observed during the HALO-ESMVal campaign 2012Aircraft measurements of gravity waves in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the START08 field experimentComparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurementsNorthern Hemisphere stratospheric winds in higher midlatitudes: longitudinal distribution and long-term trendsOn the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000Temperature variability and trends in the UT-LS over a subtropical site: Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E)Diagnostics of the Tropical Tropopause Layer from in-situ observations and CCM dataIncrease of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere wave baroclinicity during the second half of the 20th century
Dina Khordakova, Christian Rolf, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Rolf Müller, Paul Konopka, Andreas Wieser, Martina Krämer, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Extreme storms transport humidity from the troposphere to the stratophere. Here it has a strong impact on the climate. With ongoing global worming we expect more storms and hence an enhancement of this effect. A case study was performed in order to measure the impact of the direct injection of water vapor into the lower stratosphere. The measurements displayed a significant transport of water vapor into the lower stratosohere and this was supported by satellite and reanalysis data.
Marc von Hobe, Felix Ploeger, Paul Konopka, Corinna Kloss, Alexey Ulanowski, Vladimir Yushkov, Fabrizio Ravegnani, C. Michael Volk, Laura L. Pan, Shawn B. Honomichl, Simone Tilmes, Douglas E. Kinnison, Rolando R. Garcia, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1267–1285,Short summary
The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is known to foster transport of polluted tropospheric air into the stratosphere. To test and amend our picture of ASM vertical transport, we analyse distributions of airborne trace gas observations up to 20 km altitude near the main ASM vertical conduit south of the Himalayas. We also show that a new high-resolution version of the global chemistry climate model WACCM is able to reproduce the observations well.
Yoichi Inai, Ryo Fujita, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Yousuke Sawa, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Keiichi Katsumata, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7073–7103,
Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Natalie Kaifler, Tanja Christina Portele, Martina Bramberger, Markus Rapp, Michael Gerding, Jens Söder, Nedjeljka Žagar, and Damjan Jelić
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12915–12931,Short summary
A deep upper-air sounding stimulated the current investigation of internal gravity waves excited during a minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in the Arctic winter 2015/16. The analysis of the radiosonde profile revealed large kinetic and potential energies in the upper stratosphere without any simultaneous enhancement of upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric values. In combination with high-resolution meteorological analyses we identified an elevated source of gravity wave excitation.
Jens Krause, Peter Hoor, Andreas Engel, Felix Plöger, Jens-Uwe Grooß, Harald Bönisch, Timo Keber, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Hermann Oelhaf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6057–6073,Short summary
We present tracer measurements of CO and N2O measured during the POLSTRACC aircraft campaign in winter 2015–2016. We found enhanced CO values relative to N2O in the polar lower stratosphere in addition to the ageing of this region during winter. By using model simulations it was possible to link this enhancement to an increased mixing of the tropical tropopause. We thus conclude that the polar lower stratosphere in late winter is strongly influenced by quasi-isentropic mixing from the tropics.
Satoshi Sugawara, Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Shuji Aoki, Shinji Morimoto, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Sakae Toyoda, Yoichi Inai, Fumio Hasebe, Chusaku Ikeda, Hideyuki Honda, Daisuke Goto, and Fanny A. Putri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1819–1833,Short summary
This is the first research that shows concrete evidence of gravitational separation in the tropical stratosphere. This implies that gravitational separation occurs within the entire stratosphere, which gives us new insight into atmospheric dynamics.
Lars Hoffmann, Albert Hertzog, Thomas Rößler, Olaf Stein, and Xue Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8045–8061,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of temperatures and horizontal winds of five meteorological data sets (ECMWF operational analysis, ERA-Interim, MERRA, MERRA-2, and NCEP/NCAR) in the Antarctic lower stratosphere. The assessment is based on 19 superpressure balloon flights during the Concordiasi field campaign in September 2010 to January 2011. The balloon data are used to successfully validate trajectory calculations with the new Lagrangian particle dispersion model MPTRAC.
Andreas Schneider, Johannes Wagner, Jens Söder, Michael Gerding, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7941–7954,Short summary
Wave breaking is studied with a combination of high-resolution turbulence observations with the balloon-borne instrument LITOS and mesoscale simulations with the WRF model. A relation between observed turbulent energy dissipation rates and the occurrence of wave patterns in modelled vertical winds is found, which is interpreted as the effect of wave saturation. The change of stability plays less of a role for mean dissipation for the flights examined.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Hitoshi Mukougawa, Tomoe Nasuno, and Toshihiko Hirooka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 615–625,Short summary
An exceptional strengthening of the middle atmospheric subtropical jet occurred without an apparent relationship with the tropospheric circulation. The analysis of this event demonstrated downward penetration of stratospheric influence to the troposphere: in the north polar region amplification of planetary wave occurred due to a deflection by the strong middle atmospheric subtropical jet, whereas in the tropics, increased tropopause temperature suppressed equatorial convective activity.
Fabrice Chane Ming, Damien Vignelles, Fabrice Jegou, Gwenael Berthet, Jean-Baptiste Renard, François Gheusi, and Yuriy Kuleshov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8023–8042,Short summary
Coupled balloon-borne observations of Light Optical Aerosol Counter (LOAC), M10 meteorological GPS sondes, ozonesondes, and GPS radio occultation data are examined to identify gravity-wave (GW)-induced fluctuations on tracer gases and on the vertical distribution of stratospheric aerosol concentrations during the 2013 ChArMEx campaign. Observed mesoscale GWs induce a strong modulation of the amplitude of tracer gases and the stratospheric aerosol background.
C. Rolf, A. Afchine, H. Bozem, B. Buchholz, V. Ebert, T. Guggenmoser, P. Hoor, P. Konopka, E. Kretschmer, S. Müller, H. Schlager, N. Spelten, O. Sumińska-Ebersoldt, J. Ungermann, A. Zahn, and M. Krämer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9143–9158,
Fuqing Zhang, Junhong Wei, Meng Zhang, K. P. Bowman, L. L. Pan, E. Atlas, and S. C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7667–7684,Short summary
Based on spectral and wavelet analyses, along with a diagnosis of the polarization relations, this study analyzes in situ airborne measurements from the 2008 Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START08) experiment to characterize gravity waves in the extratropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (ExUTLS) region. The focus is on the second research flight (RF02), which was dedicated to probing gravity waves associated with strong upper-tropospheric jet-front systems.
A. Schneider, M. Gerding, and F.-J. Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2159–2166,Short summary
Stratospheric turbulence is essential for the atmospheric energy budget. We compare in situ observations with our LITOS method based on spectral analysis of mm-scale wind fluctuations with the Thorpe method applied to standard radiosondes. Energy dissipations rates from both methods differ by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, mean values are in good agreement. We present case studies on both methods and examine the applicability of the Thorpe method for calculation of dissipation rates.
M. Kozubek, P. Krizan, and J. Lastovicka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2203–2213,Short summary
The main goal of this paper is to show the geographical distribution of meridional wind for several reanalyses and to analyse the wind trends in different areas. We show two areas (100°E-160°E and 140°W-80°W) where the meridional wind is as strong as zonal wind (which is normally dominant in the stratosphere). The trends of meridional wind are significant mostly at 99% level in these areas and insignificant outside. The problem with zonal averages could affect the results.
H. Bönisch, A. Engel, Th. Birner, P. Hoor, D. W. Tarasick, and E. A. Ray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3937–3948,
N. Bègue, H. Bencherif, V. Sivakumar, G. Kirgis, N. Mze, and J. Leclair de Bellevue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8563–8574,
E. Palazzi, F. Fierli, F. Cairo, C. Cagnazzo, G. Di Donfrancesco, E. Manzini, F. Ravegnani, C. Schiller, F. D'Amato, and C. M. Volk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 9349–9367,
J. M. Castanheira, J. A. Añel, C. A. F. Marques, J. C. Antuña, M. L. R. Liberato, L. de la Torre, and L. Gimeno
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Information from long-duration balloons flying in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during 2014 as part of X Project Loon are used to assess the quality of a number of different reanalyses. This work assesses the potential of the X Project Loon observations to validate outputs from the reanalysis models. In particular, we examined how the model winds compared with those derived from the balloon GPS information. We also examined simulated trajectories compared with the true trajectories.
Information from long-duration balloons flying in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during...