Articles | Volume 17, issue 24
Research article 20 Dec 2017
Research article | 20 Dec 2017
How long do satellites need to overlap? Evaluation of climate data stability from overlapping satellite records
Elizabeth C. Weatherhead et al.
No articles found.
Lily N. Zhang, Susan Solomon, Kane A. Stone, Jonathan D. Shanklin, Joshua D. Eveson, Steve Colwell, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Pieternel F. Levelt, Natalya A. Kramarova, and David P. Haffner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
In the 1980s, measurements at the British Antarctic Survey station in Halley, Antarctica led to the discovery of the ozone hole. The Halley total ozone record continues to be uniquely valuable for studies of long-term changes in Antarctic ozone. Environmental conditions in 2017 forced a temporary cessation of operations, leading to a gap in the historic record. We develop and test a method for filling in the Halley record using satellite data and find evidence to further support ozone recovery.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Sabrina P. Cochrane, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, Peter Pilewskie, Scott Kittelman, Jens Redemann, Samuel LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Connor Flynn, Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Sarah Doherty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 567–593,Short summary
Based on observations from the 2016 and 2017 field campaigns of ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS), this work establishes an observationally driven link from mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) and other scene parameters to broadband shortwave irradiance (and by extension the direct aerosol radiative effect, DARE). The majority of the case-to-case DARE variability within the ORACLES dataset is attributable to the dependence on AOD and scene albedo.
Brian Nathan, Stefanie Kremser, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, Greg Bodeker, Leroy Bird, Ethan Dale, Dongqi Lin, Gustavo Olivares, and Elizabeth Somervell
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The MAPM project showcases a method to improve estimates of PM2.5 emissions through an advanced statistical technique that is still new to the aerosol community. Using Christchurch, NZ as a testbed, the robustness and limitations of this approach are first demonstrated with pseudo-data experiments. Then, measurements from a field campaign in winter 2019 are incorporated. An overestimation from local inventory estimates is identified. This technique may be exported to other urban areas in need.
Greg E. Bodeker and Stefanie Kremser
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This paper presents measures of the severity of the Antarctic ozone hole covering the period 1979 to 2019. The paper shows that while the severity of Antarctic ozone depletion grew rapidly through the last two decades of the 20th century, the severity declined thereafter, and faster than expected from declines in stratospheric concentrations of the chlorine and bromine containing chemical compounds that destroy ozone.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Erkki Kyrölä, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Alexei Rozanov, Carlo Arosio, John P. Burrows, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Gabriele Stiller, Thomas von Clarmann, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Michel van Roozendael, and Christian Retscher
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The MErged GRIdded Dataset of Ozone Profiles is the long-term (2001–2018) stratospheric ozone profile climate data record with the resolved longitudinal structure, which combines the data from six limb satellite instruments. The dataset can be used various analyses, some of them are discussed in the paper. In particular, regional and vertically resolved ozone trends are evaluated, including the trends in polar regions.
Ethan R. Dale, Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Greg E. Bodeker, Leroy J. Bird, Gustavo Olivares, Guy Coulson, Elizabeth Somervell, Woodrow Pattinson, Jonathan Barte, Jan-Niklas Schmidt, Nariefa Abrahim, Adrian J. McDonald, and Peter Kuma
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ESSDShort summary
MAPM is a project whose goal is to develop a method to infer particulate matter (PM) emissions maps from PM concentration measurements. In support of MAPM, we conducted a winter field campaign in New Zealand. In addition to two types of instruments measuring PM, an array of other meteorological sensors were deployed, measuring temperature and wind speed, as well as probing the vertical structure of the lower atmosphere. In this article, we present the measurements taken during this campaign.
Greg E. Bodeker, Jan Nitzbon, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Stefanie Kremser, Alexander Schwertheim, and Jared Lewis
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
Ozone in Earth's atmosphere has undergone significant changes since first measured systematically from space in the late 1970s. The purpose of the paper is to present a new, spatially filled, global total column ozone climate data record spanning October 1978 to December 2016. The database is compiled from measurements from 17 different satellite-based instruments where offsets and drifts between the instruments have been corrected using ground-based measurements.
Ruud J. Dirksen, Greg E. Bodeker, Peter W. Thorne, Andrea Merlone, Tony Reale, Junhong Wang, Dale F. Hurst, Belay B. Demoz, Tom D. Gardiner, Bruce Ingleby, Michael Sommer, Christoph von Rohden, and Thierry Leblanc
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 9, 337–355,Short summary
This paper describes GRUAN's strategy for a network-wide change of the operational radiosonde from Vaisala RS92 to RS41. GRUAN's main goal is to provide long-term data records that are free of inhomogeneities due to instrumental effects, which requires proper change management. The approach is to fully characterize differences between the two radiosonde types using laboratory tests, twin soundings, and ancillary data, as well as by drawing from the various fields of expertise available in GRUAN.
Tina Hilbig, Klaus Bramstedt, Mark Weber, John P. Burrows, and Matthijs Krijger
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3893–3907,Short summary
One of the main limitations for long-term space-based measurements is instrument degradation. We present an optimisation of the degradation correction approach (Krijger et al. 2014) for SCIAMACHY on-board Envisat, focusing on the improvement of the solar spectral irradiance data. The main achievement of this study is the successful integration of SCIAMACHY’s internal white light source (WLS) into the existing degradation model and the characterisation of WLS ageing in space.
Stacey M. Frith, Pawan K. Bhartia, Luke D. Oman, Natalya A. Kramarova, Richard D. McPeters, and Gordon J. Labow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2733–2749,Short summary
We use the NASA GEOS-GMI chemistry climate model to construct a climatology of stratospheric ozone diurnal variations as a function of latitude, pressure and month, which can be used in a variety of data analysis tasks involving ozone observations made at different times of the day. The climatology compares well with previous modeling simulations and available observations, and to the authors' knowledge is the first characterization of the diurnal cycle available for general ozone data analyses.
Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Diego G. Loyola, Gordon Labow, and Stacey M. Frith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1633–1654,Short summary
We compare total ozone columns from the satellite-based GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable record and the adjusted Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications version 2 reanalysis during their overlap period from 1995 to 2018. Ozone columns and anomalies show a very good agreement in terms of spatial and temporal patterns. In the tropics the interannual variability is assessed by means of an EOF analysis and both data records show a remarkable consistency.
James Keeble, Birgit Hassler, Antara Banerjee, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Gabriel Chiodo, Sean Davis, Veronika Eyring, Paul T. Griffiths, Olaf Morgenstern, Peer Nowack, Guang Zeng, Jiankai Zhang, Greg Bodeker, David Cugnet, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Makoto Deushi, Larry W. Horowitz, Lijuan Li, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Pierre Nabat, Sungsu Park, and Tongwen Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Stratospheric ozone and water vapour are key components of the Earth system, and changes to both have important impacts on global and regional climate. We evaluate changes to these species from 1850-2100 in the new generation of CMIP6 models. There is good agreement between the multi-model mean and observations, although there is substantial variation between the individual models. The future evolution of both ozone and water vapour is strongly dependent on the assumed future emissions scenario.
Sabrina P. Cochrane, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, Peter Pilewskie, Scott Kittelman, Jens Redemann, Samuel LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Connor Flynn, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Rich Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Chris Hostetler, Steven Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, and Sarah Doherty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6505–6528,Short summary
For two cases from the NASA ORACLES experiments, we retrieve aerosol and cloud properties and calculate a direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE). We investigate the relationship between DARE and the cloud albedo by specifying the albedo for which DARE transitions from a cooling to warming radiative effect. Our new aerosol retrieval algorithm is successful despite complexities associated with scenes that contain aerosols above clouds and decreases the uncertainty on retrieved aerosol parameters.
Steffen Mauceri, Bruce Kindel, Steven Massie, and Peter Pilewskie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6017–6036,Short summary
Aerosols are fine particles that are suspended in Earth’s atmosphere. A better understanding of aerosols is important to lower uncertainties in climate predictions. We propose measuring aerosols from satellites and airplanes equipped with hyperspectral cameras using an artificial neural network, a form of machine learning. We applied our neural network to hyperspectral observations from a recent airplane flight over India and find general agreement with independent aerosol measurements.
Hong Chen, Sebastian Schmidt, Michael D. King, Galina Wind, Anthony Bucholtz, Elizabeth A. Reid, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, William L. Smith, Patrick C. Taylor, Seiji Kato, and Peter Pilewskie
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for AMTShort summary
In this paper, we accessed the shortwave irradiance derived from MODIS cloud optical properties by using aircraft measurements. We developed a data aggregation technique to parameterize spectral surface albedo by snow fraction in the Arctic. We found that undetected clouds have the most significant impact on the imagery-derived irradiance. This study suggests that passive imagery cloud detection could be improved through a multi-pixel approach, that would make it more dependable in the Arctic.
Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Elizaveta Malinina, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2423–2444,Short summary
The aim of this study is the merging of stratospheric ozone profiles from three satellite data sets. The merged time series is used to compute long-term changes as a function of altitude, latitude and longitude to study the evolution of the ozone layer over 1985–2018. During the last 16 years we found positive trends in the upper stratosphere at mid latitudes, a large variability of the ozone changes as a function of longitude and a fluctuation in the tropical middle stratospheric trend.
Corinna Kloss, Marc von Hobe, Michael Höpfner, Kaley A. Walker, Martin Riese, Jörn Ungermann, Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2129–2138,Short summary
Are regional and seasonal averages from only a few satellite measurements, all aligned along a specific path, representative? Probably not. We present a method to adjust for the so-called
sampling biasand investigate its influence on derived long-term trends. The method is illustrated and validated for a long-lived trace gas (carbonyl sulfide), and it is shown that the influence of the sampling bias is too small to change scientific conclusions on long-term trends.
Jerry R. Ziemke, Luke D. Oman, Sarah A. Strode, Anne R. Douglass, Mark A. Olsen, Richard D. McPeters, Pawan K. Bhartia, Lucien Froidevaux, Gordon J. Labow, Jacquie C. Witte, Anne M. Thompson, David P. Haffner, Natalya A. Kramarova, Stacey M. Frith, Liang-Kang Huang, Glen R. Jaross, Colin J. Seftor, Mathew T. Deland, and Steven L. Taylor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3257–3269,Short summary
Both a 38-year merged satellite record of tropospheric ozone from TOMS/OMI/MLS/OMPS and a MERRA-2 GMI model simulation show large increases of 6–7 Dobson units from the Near East to India–East Asia and eastward over the Pacific. These increases in tropospheric ozone are attributed to increases in pollution over the region over the last several decades. Secondary 38-year increases of 4–5 Dobson units with both GMI model and satellite measurements occur over central African–tropical Atlantic.
Richard McPeters, Stacey Frith, Natalya Kramarova, Jerry Ziemke, and Gordon Labow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 977–985,Short summary
A version 2 processing of data from the OMPS nadir ozone mapper and nadir ozone profiler on Suomi NPP has now been completed. Total column ozone data from the OMPS nadir mapper now agree with data from the SBUV/2 instrument on NOAA 19, with a zonal average bias of −0.2 % over the 60° S to 60° N latitude zone. For the profile retrieval, zonal average ozone in the upper stratosphere (between 2.5 and 4 hPa) agrees with that from NOAA 19 within ±3 % and an average bias of −1.1 %.
Kostas Eleftheratos, Christos S. Zerefos, Dimitris S. Balis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, John Kapsomenakis, Diego G. Loyola, Pieter Valks, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Christophe Lerot, Stacey M. Frith, Amund S. Haslerud, Ivar S. A. Isaksen, and Seppo Hassinen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 987–1011,Short summary
We examine the ability of GOME-2A total ozone data to capture variability related to known natural oscillations, such as the QBO, ENSO and NAO, with respect to other satellite datasets, ground-based data, and chemical transport model simulations. The analysis is based on the GOME-2 satellite total ozone columns for the period 2007–2016 which form part of the operational EUMETSAT AC SAF GOME-2 MetOp A GDP4.8 latest data product.
Evgenia Galytska, Alexey Rozanov, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip. S. Dhomse, Mark Weber, Carlo Arosio, Wuhu Feng, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 767–783,Short summary
In this study we analysed ozone changes in the tropical mid-stratosphere as observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument during 2004–2012. We used simulations from TOMCAT model with different chemical and dynamical forcings to reveal primary causes of ozone changes. We also considered measured NO2 and modelled NOx, NOx, and N2O data. With modelled AoA data we identified seasonal changes in the upwelling speed and explained how those changes affect N2O chemistry which leads to observed ozone changes.
Jordis S. Tradowsky, Gregory E. Bodeker, Richard R. Querel, Peter J. H. Builtjes, and Jürgen Fischer
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2195–2211,Short summary
A best-estimate data set of the temperature profile above the atmospheric measurement facility at Lauder, New Zealand, has been developed. This site atmospheric state best estimate (SASBE) combines atmospheric measurements made at two locations and includes an estimate of uncertainty on every data point. The SASBE enhances the value of measurements made by a reference-quality climate observing network and may be used for a variety of purposes in research and education.
Birgit Hassler, Stefanie Kremser, Greg E. Bodeker, Jared Lewis, Kage Nesbit, Sean M. Davis, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Sandip S. Dhomse, and Martin Dameris
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 1473–1490,
Jonathan Conway, Greg Bodeker, and Chris Cameron
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8065–8077,Short summary
Strong westerly winds occur in the stratosphere during winter and spring. These winds, the polar vortex, limit how much air is mixed between mid- and high-latitudes. We present a new view of the polar vortex mixing barrier in the Southern Hemisphere, revealing a frequent double-walled barrier with two distinct regions of weak mixing. This double-walled structure is expected to alter the spatial and temporal variation of trace gas concentrations (e.g. ozone) across the polar vortex.
Stefanie Kremser, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Henning W. Rust, and Greg E. Bodeker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3021–3029,Short summary
We investigate the feasibility of quantifying the difference in biases of two instrument types (i.e. radiosondes) by flying the old and new instruments on alternating days, so-called interlacing, to statistically derive the systematic biases between the instruments. While it is in principle possible to estimate the difference between two instrument biases from interlaced measurements, the number of required interlaced flights is very large for reasonable autocorrelation coefficient values.
Christos Zerefos, John Kapsomenakis, Kostas Eleftheratos, Kleareti Tourpali, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Daan Hubert, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Stacey Frith, Viktoria Sofieva, and Birgit Hassler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 6427–6440,Short summary
We point out the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations in the middle/upper stratosphere. We examine the contribution of chemistry and natural proxies to ozone profile trends. Above 10 hPa an “inflection point” between 1997–99 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period of positive ozone change in 1998–2015. Below 15 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become insignificant as we move to 2015.
Mark Weber, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Vitali E. Fioletov, Stacey M. Frith, Jeannette D. Wild, John P. Burrows, Craig S. Long, and Diego Loyola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2097–2117,Short summary
This paper commemorates the 30-year anniversary of the initial signing of the Montreal Protocol (MP) on substances that deplete the ozone layer. The MP is so far successful in reducing ozone-depleting substances, and total ozone decline was successfully stopped by the late 1990s. Total ozone levels have been mostly stable since then. In some regions, barely significant upward trends are observed that suggest an emergence into the expected ozone recovery phase.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Johannes Staehelin, Joanna D. Haigh, Thomas Peter, Fiona Tummon, Rene Stübi, Andrea Stenke, John Anderson, Adam Bourassa, Sean M. Davis, Doug Degenstein, Stacey Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Chris Roth, Viktoria Sofieva, Ray Wang, Jeannette Wild, Pengfei Yu, Jerald R. Ziemke, and Eugene V. Rozanov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1379–1394,Short summary
Using a robust analysis, with artefact-corrected ozone data, we confirm upper stratospheric ozone is recovering following the Montreal Protocol, but that lower stratospheric ozone (50° S–50° N) has continued to decrease since 1998, and the ozone layer as a whole (60° S–60° N) may be lower today than in 1998. No change in total column ozone may be due to increasing tropospheric ozone. State-of-the-art models do not reproduce lower stratospheric ozone decreases.
Jared Lewis, Greg E. Bodeker, Stefanie Kremser, and Andrew Tait
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4563–4575,Short summary
The Ensemble Projections Incorporating Climate model uncertainty (EPIC) method uses climate pattern scaling to expand a small number of daily maximum and minimum surface temperature projections into an ensemble that captures the structural uncertainty between climate models. The method is useful for providing projections of changes in climate to users wishing to investigate the impacts of climate change in a probabilistic and computationally efficient way.
Stacey M. Frith, Richard S. Stolarski, Natalya A. Kramarova, and Richard D. McPeters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14695–14707,Short summary
We have combined measurements from a series of SBUV instruments to create the longest continuous satellite-based profile ozone record from a single instrument type (1979–2016). We assess the consistency of the profile ozone measurements across instruments to assign an uncertainty to the merged record. Time-series analysis shows that upper-stratospheric ozone since 2001 is increasing, but the results are not yet statistically significant when the merged record uncertainties are included.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary
We present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and OMPS. For merging, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Olga V. Tweedy, Natalya A. Kramarova, Susan E. Strahan, Paul A. Newman, Lawrence Coy, William J. Randel, Mijeong Park, Darryn W. Waugh, and Stacey M. Frith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6813–6823,Short summary
In this study we examined the impact of unprecedented disruption in the wind pattern (the quasi-biennial oscillation, or QBO) in the tropical stratosphere (16–48 km above the ground) on chemicals very important to the stratospheric climate such as ozone (O3). During the 2016 boreal summer, total O3 is lower in the extratropics than during previous QBO cycles due to lifting forced from the disruption. This decrease in O3 led to the increase in surface UV index by 8.5 % compared to the 36 yr mean.
Leon S. Friedrich, Adrian J. McDonald, Gregory E. Bodeker, Kathy E. Cooper, Jared Lewis, and Alexander J. Paterson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 855–866,Short summary
Information from long-duration balloons flying in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere during 2014 as part of X Project Loon are used to assess the quality of a number of different reanalyses. This work assesses the potential of the X Project Loon observations to validate outputs from the reanalysis models. In particular, we examined how the model winds compared with those derived from the balloon GPS information. We also examined simulated trajectories compared with the true trajectories.
Ulrike Langematz, Franziska Schmidt, Markus Kunze, Gregory E. Bodeker, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15619–15627,Short summary
The extent of anthropogenically driven Antarctic ozone depletion prior to 1980 is examined using transient chemistry–climate model simulations from 1960 to 2000 with prescribed changes of ozone depleting substances in conjunction with observations. All models show a long-term, halogen-induced negative trend in Antarctic ozone from 1960 to 1980, ranging between 26 and 50 % of the total anthropogenic ozone depletion from 1960 to 2000. A stronger ozone decline of 56 % was estimated from observation.
Shi Song, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Michael D. King, Andrew K. Heidinger, Andi Walther, Hironobu Iwabuchi, Gala Wind, and Odele M. Coddington
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13791–13806,Short summary
The radiative effects of spatially complex cloud fields are notoriously difficult to estimate and are afflicted with errors up to ±50 % of the incident solar radiation. We find that horizontal photon transport, the leading cause for these three-dimensional effects, manifests itself through a spectral fingerprint – a new observable that holds promise for reducing the errors associated with spatial complexity by moving the problem to the spectral dimension.
Christoph Jacobi, Norbert Jakowski, Gerhard Schmidtke, and Thomas N. Woods
Adv. Radio Sci., 14, 175–180,Short summary
The ionospheric response to solar extreme ultraviolet variability is shown by simple proxies based on Solar Dynamics Observatory/Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment solar spectra. The daily proxies are compared with global mean total electron content. At time scales of the solar rotation up to about 40 days there is a time lag between EUV and TEC variability of about one day, with a tendency to increase for longer time scales.
Mark Weber, Victor Gorshelev, and Anna Serdyuchenko
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4459–4470,Short summary
Ozone absorption cross sections measured in the laboratory using spectroscopic means can be a major source of uncertainty in atmospheric ozone retrievals. In this paper we assess the overall uncertainty in three published UV ozone cross-section datasets that are most popular in the remote sensing community. The overall uncertainties were estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. They are important for traceability of atmospheric ozone measuring instruments to common metrological standards.
Elpida Leventidou, Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Mark Weber, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3407–3427,Short summary
Here, we present a 17 years tropical tropospheric ozone columns dataset (1996–2012) using GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2 data, developed as part of the verification algorithm for TROPOMI on S5p mission.The uncertainty is less than 2 DU. Validation with SHADOZ ozonesonde data showed biases within 5 DU and RMS errors less than 10 DU. Comparisons with tropospheric ozone columns derived from limb–nadir matching showed that the bias and RMS are within the range of the CCD_IUP comparison with the sondes.
A.-M. Blechschmidt, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, L. Kaleschke, K. Strong, N. Theys, M. Weber, X. Zhao, and A. Zien
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1773–1788,Short summary
A comprehensive case study of a comma-shaped bromine monoxide plume in the Arctic, which was transported by a polar cyclone and was observed by the GOME-2 satellite sensor over several days, is presented. By making combined use of different kinds of satellite data and numerical models, we demonstrate the important role of the frontal weather system in favouring the bromine activation cycle and blowing snow production, which may have acted as a bromine source during the bromine explosion event.
F. Ebojie, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, C. von Savigny, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 417–436,Short summary
The goal of this study is to determine the global and zonal changes in the tropospheric ozone data product derived from SCIAMACHY limb-nadir-matching (LNM) observations during the period 2003–2011. Tropospheric O3 shows statistically significant increases over some regions of South Asia, the South American continent, Alaska, around Congo in Africa and over some continental outflows. Significant decrease in TOC is observed over some continents and oceans.
K. Weigel, A. Rozanov, F. Azam, K. Bramstedt, R. Damadeo, K.-U. Eichmann, C. Gebhardt, D. Hurst, M. Kraemer, S. Lossow, W. Read, N. Spelten, G. P. Stiller, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 133–158,Short summary
The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard the Envisat satellite provided measurements between 2002 and 2012 with different viewing geometries. The limb viewing geometry allows the retrieval of water vapour profiles in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) from the near-infrared spectral range (1353–1410 nm). Here, we present data version 3.01 and compare it to other water vapour data.
R. D. McPeters, S. Frith, and G. J. Labow
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4845–4850,Short summary
Comparisons show that ozone measured by OMI varied less than 1% relative to other NASA and European satellite instruments or relative to ground-based instruments. This means that OMI data can be used to reliably track global changes in ozone during the expected ozone recovery period and can be used to look for ozone signatures related to climate change.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
M. Coldewey-Egbers, D. G. Loyola, M. Koukouli, D. Balis, J.-C. Lambert, T. Verhoelst, J. Granville, M. van Roozendael, C. Lerot, R. Spurr, S. M. Frith, and C. Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3923–3940,
N. R. P. Harris, B. Hassler, F. Tummon, G. E. Bodeker, D. Hubert, I. Petropavlovskikh, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, P. K. Bhartia, C. D. Boone, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, A. Delcloo, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, N. Jones, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, S. T. Leblanc, J.-C. Lambert, B. Liley, E. Mahieu, A. Maycock, M. de Mazière, A. Parrish, R. Querel, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, C. Sioris, J. Staehelin, R. S. Stolarski, R. Stübi, J. Tamminen, C. Vigouroux, K. A. Walker, H. J. Wang, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9965–9982,Short summary
Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported for new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere peaked in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the trends before and after that peak to see if any change in trend is discernible. The previously reported decreases are confirmed. Furthermore, the downward trend in upper stratospheric ozone has not continued. The possible significance of any increase is discussed in detail.
K. Kreher, G. E. Bodeker, and M. Sigmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7653–7665,Short summary
This manuscript aims to answer the following question: which of the existing sites engaged in upper-air temperature measurements are best located to detect expected future trends within the shortest time possible? To do so, we explore one objective method for selecting the optimal locations for detecting projected 21st century trends and then demonstrate a similar technique for objectively selecting optimal locations for detecting expected future trends in total column ozone.
G. E. Bodeker and S. Kremser
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1673–1684,Short summary
This paper discusses, and demonstrates, the methodology for reliably determining long-term trends in upper air climate data records and how measurement uncertainties should be used in trend analyses. A pedagogical approach is taken whereby numerical recipes for key parts of the trend analysis process are explored. The paper describes the construction of linear least squares regression models for trend analysis and the boot-strapping approach to determine the uncertainty on the derived trends.
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
B. C. Kindel, P. Pilewskie, K. S. Schmidt, T. Thornberry, A. Rollins, and T. Bui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1147–1156,Short summary
Measurements of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric water vapor amounts in the tropics were made using the 1400 and 1900nm water vapor bands present in airborne solar spectral irradiance data. These were validated with radiative transfer modeling using in situ profiles of water vapor, temperature, and pressure. An approach to extending these types of measurements from aircraft altitudes to the top of the atmosphere to infer stratospheric water vapor amount is outlined.
A. A. Penckwitt, G. E. Bodeker, P. Stoll, J. Lewis, T. von Clarmann, and A. Jones
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
J. Aschmann, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12803–12814,Short summary
This study compares observations and simulation results of ozone in the lower tropical stratosphere. It shows that ozone in this region decreased from 1985 up to about 2002, which is consistent with an increase in tropical upwelling predicted by climate models. However, the decrease effectively stops after 2002, indicating that significant changes in tropical upwelling have occurred. The most important factor appears to be that the vertical ascent in the tropics is no longer accelerating.
A. Laeng, U. Grabowski, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, N. Glatthor, M. Höpfner, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, V. Sofieva, I. Petropavlovskikh, D. Hubert, T. Bathgate, P. Bernath, C. D. Boone, C. Clerbaux, P. Coheur, R. Damadeo, D. Degenstein, S. Frith, L. Froidevaux, J. Gille, K. Hoppel, M. McHugh, Y. Kasai, J. Lumpe, N. Rahpoe, G. Toon, T. Sano, M. Suzuki, J. Tamminen, J. Urban, K. Walker, M. Weber, and J. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3971–3987,
A. Parrish, I. S. Boyd, G. E. Nedoluha, P. K. Bhartia, S. M. Frith, N. A. Kramarova, B. J. Connor, G. E. Bodeker, L. Froidevaux, M. Shiotani, and T. Sakazaki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7255–7272,
W. Chehade, M. Weber, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7059–7074,
M. Rex, S. Kremser, P. Huck, G. Bodeker, I. Wohltmann, M. L. Santee, and P. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6545–6555,
E. W. Chiou, P. K. Bhartia, R. D. McPeters, D. G. Loyola, M. Coldewey-Egbers, V. E. Fioletov, M. Van Roozendael, R. Spurr, C. Lerot, and S. M. Frith
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1681–1692,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
A. C. Kren, D. R. Marsh, A. K. Smith, and P. Pilewskie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4843–4856,
R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, J. Aschmann, K. Bramstedt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, F. Wittrock, F. Khosrawi, R. Bauer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3247–3276,
A. Redondas, R. Evans, R. Stuebi, U. Köhler, and M. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1635–1648,
S. Kremser, G. E. Bodeker, and J. Lewis
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 249–266,
L. K. Huang, M. T. DeLand, S. L. Taylor, and L. E. Flynn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 267–278,
C. Gebhardt, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, M. Weber, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, D. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, and A. M. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 831–846,
V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, T. Mielonen, P. Veefkind, B. Hassler, and G.E. Bodeker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 283–299,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Rahpoe, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, N. Kalakoski, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, C. von Savigny, A. Laeng, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Lossow, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Adams, C. Roth, N. Lloyd, P. Bernath, R. J. Hargreaves, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, M. van Roozendael, N. Kalb, and C. Zehner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 349–363,
W. Chehade, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3055–3065,
N. Rahpoe, C. von Savigny, M. Weber, A.V. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2825–2837,
P. K. Bhartia, R. D. McPeters, L. E. Flynn, S. Taylor, N. A. Kramarova, S. Frith, B. Fisher, and M. DeLand
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2533–2548,
S. Brönnimann, J. Bhend, J. Franke, S. Flückiger, A. M. Fischer, R. Bleisch, G. Bodeker, B. Hassler, E. Rozanov, and M. Schraner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9623–9639,
N. A. Kramarova, P. K. Bhartia, S. M. Frith, R. D. McPeters, and R. S. Stolarski
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2089–2099,
H. Garny, G. E. Bodeker, D. Smale, M. Dameris, and V. Grewe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7279–7300,
N. A. Kramarova, S. M. Frith, P. K. Bhartia, R. D. McPeters, S. L. Taylor, B. L. Fisher, G. J. Labow, and M. T. DeLand
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6887–6905,
W. Chehade, B. Gür, P. Spietz, V. Gorshelev, A. Serdyuchenko, J. P. Burrows, and M. Weber
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1623–1632,
G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, G. Berthet, A. Bracher, C. Cornacchia, D. G. Feist, H. Fischer, A. Fix, M. Iarlori, A. Kleinert, A. Lengel, M. Milz, L. Mona, S. C. Müller, J. Ovarlez, G. Pappalardo, C. Piccolo, P. Raspollini, J.-B. Renard, V. Rizi, S. Rohs, C. Schiller, G. Stiller, M. Weber, and G. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5791–5811,
B. Hassler, P. J. Young, R. W. Portmann, G. E. Bodeker, J. S. Daniel, K. H. Rosenlof, and S. Solomon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5533–5550,
I. Ermolli, K. Matthes, T. Dudok de Wit, N. A. Krivova, K. Tourpali, M. Weber, Y. C. Unruh, L. Gray, U. Langematz, P. Pilewskie, E. Rozanov, W. Schmutz, A. Shapiro, S. K. Solanki, and T. N. Woods
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3945–3977,
P. E. Huck, G. E. Bodeker, S. Kremser, A. J. McDonald, M. Rex, and H. Struthers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3237–3243,
Y. L. Roberts, P. Pilewskie, B. C. Kindel, D. R. Feldman, and W. D. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3133–3147,
G. E. Bodeker, B. Hassler, P. J. Young, and R. W. Portmann
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 31–43,
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Analysis of 24 years of mesopause region OH rotational temperature observations at Davis, Antarctica – Part 1: long-term trendsOH level populations and accuracies of Einstein-A coefficients from hundreds of measured linesGlobal nighttime atomic oxygen abundances from GOMOS hydroxyl airglow measurements in the mesopause regionTechnical note: Bimodality in mesospheric OH rotational population distributions and implications for temperature measurementsResolving the mesospheric nighttime 4.3 µm emission puzzle: comparison of the CO2(ν3) and OH(ν) emission modelsTEMIS UV product validation using NILU-UV ground-based measurements in Thessaloniki, GreeceComparison of VLT/X-shooter OH and O2 rotational temperatures with consideration of TIMED/SABER emission and temperature profilesOH populations and temperatures from simultaneous spectroscopic observations of 25 bandsCO2(ν2)-O quenching rate coefficient derived from coincidental SABER/TIMED and Fort Collins lidar observations of the mesosphere and lower thermosphereRelativistic electron beams above thundercloudsExperimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thundercloudsStability of temperatures from TIMED/SABER v1.07 (2002–2009) and Aura/MLS v2.2 (2004–2009) compared with OH(6-2) temperatures observed at Davis Station, Antarctica
W. John R. French, Frank J. Mulligan, and Andrew R. Klekociuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6379–6394,Short summary
In this study, we analyse 24 years of atmospheric temperatures from the mesopause region (~87 km altitude) derived from ground-based spectrometer observations of hydroxyl airglow at Davis station, Antarctica (68° S, 78° E). These data are used to quantify the effect of the solar cycle and the long-term trend due to increasing greenhouse gas emissions on the atmosphere at this level. A record-low winter-average temperature is reported for 2018 and comparisons are made with satellite observations.
Stefan Noll, Holger Winkler, Oleg Goussev, and Bastian Proxauf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5269–5292,Short summary
Line emission from hydroxyl (OH) molecules at altitudes of about 90 km strongly contributes to the Earth's night-sky brightness and is therefore used as an important indicator of atmospheric chemistry and dynamics. However, interpreting the measurements can be ambiguous since necessary molecular parameters and the internal state of OH are not well known. Based on high-quality spectral data, we investigated these issues and found solutions for a better understanding of the OH line intensities.
Qiuyu Chen, Martin Kaufmann, Yajun Zhu, Jilin Liu, Ralf Koppmann, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13891–13910,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is one of the most important trace species in the mesopause region. A common technique to derive it from satellite measurements is to measure airglow emissions involved in the photochemistry of oxygen. In this work, hydroxyl nightglow measured by the GOMOS instrument on Envisat is used to derive a 10-year dataset of atomic oxygen in the middle and upper atmosphere. Annual and semiannual oscillations are observed in the data. The new data are consistent with various other datasets.
Konstantinos S. Kalogerakis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2629–2634,Short summary
Light emission from energetic hydroxyl radical, OH*, is a prominent feature in spectra of the night sky. It is routinely used to determine the temperature of the atmosphere near 90 km. This note shows that the common practice of using only a few emission features from low rotational excitation to determine rotational temperatures does not account for the bimodality of the OH population distributions and can lead to large systematic errors.
Peter A. Panka, Alexander A. Kutepov, Konstantinos S. Kalogerakis, Diego Janches, James M. Russell, Ladislav Rezac, Artem G. Feofilov, Martin G. Mlynczak, and Erdal Yiğit
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9751–9760,Short summary
Recently, theoretical and laboratory studies have suggested an additional nighttime channel of transfer of vibrational energy of OH molecules to CO2 in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). We show that new mechanism brings modelled 4.3 μm emissions very close to the SABER/TIMED measurements. This renders new opportunities for the application of the CO2 4.3 μm observations in the study of the energetics and dynamics of the nighttime MLT.
Melina-Maria Zempila, Jos H. G. M. van Geffen, Michael Taylor, Ilias Fountoulakis, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Michiel van Weele, Ronald J. van der A, Alkiviadis Bais, Charikleia Meleti, and Dimitrios Balis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7157–7174,Short summary
NILU irradiances at five UV channels were used to produce CIE, vitamin D, and DNA- damage daily doses via a neural network (NN) model. The NN was trained with collocated weighted Brewer spectra and uncertainty in the NILU-derived UV effective doses was 7.5 %. TEMIS UV products were found to be ~ 12.5 % higher than the NILU estimates. The results improve for cloud-free days with differences of 0.57 % for CIE, 1.22 % for vitamin D, and 1.18 % for DNA damage, with standard deviations of ~ 11–13 %.
Stefan Noll, Wolfgang Kausch, Stefan Kimeswenger, Stefanie Unterguggenberger, and Amy M. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5021–5042,Short summary
We compare temperatures derived from simultaneous observations of 25 OH and two O2 mesospheric airglow bands taken with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile. Considering emission and temperature profile data from the radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite, we find significant time-dependent non-thermal contributions to the OH-based temperatures, especially for bands originating from high vibrational levels. Many studies of the mesopause region are affected.
S. Noll, W. Kausch, S. Kimeswenger, S. Unterguggenberger, and A. M. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3647–3669,Short summary
We discuss a high-quality data set of simultaneous observations of 25 OH bands with an astronomical echelle spectrograph. These data allowed us to analyse band-dependent OH populations and temperatures. In particular, we could find different non-LTE contributions to OH rotational temperatures depending on band, line set, and observing time. This is critical for mesopause studies that use these temperatures as a proxy of the true temperatures.
A. G. Feofilov, A. A. Kutepov, C.-Y. She, A. K. Smith, W. D. Pesnell, and R. A. Goldberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9013–9023,
M. Füllekrug, R. Roussel-Dupré, E. M. D. Symbalisty, J. J. Colman, O. Chanrion, S. Soula, O. van der Velde, A. Odzimek, A. J. Bennett, V. P. Pasko, and T. Neubert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7747–7754,
M. Füllekrug, C. Hanuise, and M. Parrot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 667–673,
W. J. R. French and F. J. Mulligan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11439–11446,
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Satellite overlap is often carried out as a check on the stability of the data collected. We looked at how length of overlap influences how much information can be derived from the overlap period. Several results surprised us: the confidence we could have in the matchup of two records was independent of the offset, and understanding of the relative drift between the two satellite data sets improved significantly with 2–3 years of overlap. Sudden jumps could easily be confused with drift.
Satellite overlap is often carried out as a check on the stability of the data collected. We...