Articles | Volume 12, issue 16
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Steps towards a mechanistic model of global soil nitric oxide emissions: implementation and space based-constraints
R. C. Hudman
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
N. E. Moore
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
now at: Department of Municipal Services, City of Summerside, Summerside, Prince Edward Island, Canada
A. K. Mebust
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
R. V. Martin
Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, USA
A. R. Russell
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
L. C. Valin
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
R. C. Cohen
Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA
Related subject area
Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Temporal and spatial variations in atmospheric unintentional PCB emissions in Chinese mainland from 1960 to 2019Biogenic isoprene emissions, dry deposition velocity, and surface ozone concentration during summer droughts, heatwaves, and normal conditions in southwestern EuropeSatellite-derived constraints on the effect of drought stress on biogenic isoprene emissions in the southeastern USInteractive biogenic emissions and drought stress effects on atmospheric composition in NASA GISS ModelEPlant gross primary production, plant respiration and carbonyl sulfide emissions over the globe inferred by atmospheric inverse modellingEvaluation of interactive and prescribed agricultural ammonia emissions for simulating atmospheric composition in CAM-chemResponses of surface ozone to future agricultural ammonia emissions and subsequent nitrogen deposition through terrestrial ecosystem changesModelling the influence of biotic plant stress on atmospheric aerosol particle processes throughout a growing seasonExamining the competing effects of contemporary land management vs. land cover changes on global air qualityImproved gridded ammonia emission inventory in ChinaThe impact of nitrogen and sulfur emissions from shipping on the exceedance of critical loads in the Baltic Sea regionIndirect contributions of global fires to surface ozone through ozone–vegetation feedbackGlobal and regional impacts of land cover changes on isoprene emissions derived from spaceborne data and the MEGAN modelA long-term estimation of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission in China from 2001–2016: the roles of land cover change and climate variabilityThe regional European atmospheric transport inversion comparison, EUROCOM: first results on European-wide terrestrial carbon fluxes for the period 2006–2015Quantifying the effects of environmental factors on wildfire burned area in the south central US using integrated machine learning techniquesEffects of fertilization and stand age on N2O and NO emissions from tea plantations: a site-scale study in a subtropical region using a modified biogeochemical modelTemperature response measurements from eucalypts give insight into the impact of Australian isoprene emissions on air quality in 2050Data assimilation using an ensemble of models: a hierarchical approachFundamentals of data assimilation applied to biogeochemistryOn what scales can GOSAT flux inversions constrain anomalies in terrestrial ecosystems?Historical (1700–2012) global multi-model estimates of the fire emissions from the Fire Modeling Intercomparison Project (FireMIP)Contrasting effects of CO2 fertilization, land-use change and warming on seasonal amplitude of Northern Hemisphere CO2 exchangeThe 2015–2016 carbon cycle as seen from OCO-2 and the global in situ networkRepresenting sub-grid scale variations in nitrogen deposition associated with land use in a global Earth system model: implications for present and future nitrogen deposition fluxes over North AmericaGlobal climate forcing driven by altered BVOC fluxes from 1990 to 2010 land cover change in maritime Southeast AsiaCoupling between surface ozone and leaf area index in a chemical transport model: strength of feedback and implications for ozone air quality and vegetation healthContrasting interannual atmospheric CO2 variabilities and their terrestrial mechanisms for two types of El NiñosVegetation greenness and land carbon-flux anomalies associated with climate variations: a focus on the year 2015Biomass burning at Cape Grim: exploring photochemistry using multi-scale modellingWildfire air pollution hazard during the 21st centuryOzone and haze pollution weakens net primary productivity in ChinaHow can mountaintop CO2 observations be used to constrain regional carbon fluxes?Effects of ozone–vegetation coupling on surface ozone air quality via biogeochemical and meteorological feedbacksImpact of Siberian observations on the optimization of surface CO2 fluxModelling bidirectional fluxes of methanol and acetaldehyde with the FORCAsT canopy exchange modelThe impact of historical land use change from 1850 to 2000 on secondary particulate matter and ozoneGlobal biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in the ORCHIDEE and MEGAN models and sensitivity to key parametersImpacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast AsiaCurrent estimates of biogenic emissions from eucalypts uncertain for southeast AustraliaAir quality impacts of European wildfire emissions in a changing climateValidation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modellingLand cover change impacts on atmospheric chemistry: simulating projected large-scale tree mortality in the United StatesHigh-resolution ammonia emissions inventories in China from 1980 to 2012Delivery of anthropogenic bioavailable iron from mineral dust and combustion aerosols to the oceanImpact of future land-cover changes on HNO3 and O3 surface dry depositionImpact of climate and land cover changes on tropospheric ozone air quality and public health in East Asia between 1980 and 2010Relationships between photosynthesis and formaldehyde as a probe of isoprene emissionA modified micrometeorological gradient method for estimating O3 dry depositions over a forest canopyBiomass burning related ozone damage on vegetation over the Amazon forest: a model sensitivity study
Ye Li, Ye Huang, Yunshan Zhang, Wei Du, Shanshan Zhang, Tianhao He, Yan Li, Yan Chen, Fangfang Ding, Lin Huang, Haibin Xia, Wenjun Meng, Min Liu, and Shu Tao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1091–1101,Short summary
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed among the 12 initial POPs that should be prohibited or limited under the Stockholm Convention. They are widely present in the environment and pose a threat to human health and ecosystems. Emission estimation for them is essential to understand and evaluate their environment fate and associated health effect. This work developed 12 dioxin-like UP-PCBs from 66 sources from 1960 to 2019 in China.
Antoine Guion, Solène Turquety, Arineh Cholakian, Jan Polcher, Antoine Ehret, and Juliette Lathière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1043–1071,Short summary
At high concentrations, tropospheric ozone (O3) deteriorates air quality. Weather conditions are key to understanding the variability in O3 concentration, especially during extremes. We suggest that identifying the presence of combined heatwaves is essential to the study of droughts in canopy–troposphere interactions and O3 concentration. Even so, they are associated, on average, with an increase in O3, partly explained by an increase in precursor emissions and a decrease in dry deposition.
Yuxuan Wang, Nan Lin, Wei Li, Alex Guenther, Joey C. Y. Lam, Amos P. K. Tai, Mark J. Potosnak, and Roger Seco
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14189–14208,Short summary
Drought can cause large changes in biogenic isoprene emissions. In situ field observations of isoprene emissions during droughts are confined by spatial coverage and, thus, provide limited constraints. We derived a drought stress factor based on satellite HCHO data for MEGAN2.1 in the GEOS-Chem model using water stress and temperature. This factor reduces the overestimation of isoprene emissions during severe droughts and improves the simulated O3 and organic aerosol responses to droughts.
Elizabeth Klovenski, Yuxuan Wang, Susanne E. Bauer, Kostas Tsigaridis, Greg Faluvegi, Igor Aleinov, Nancy Y. Kiang, Alex Guenther, Xiaoyan Jiang, Wei Li, and Nan Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13303–13323,Short summary
Severe drought stresses vegetation and causes reduced emission of isoprene. We study the impact of including a new isoprene drought stress (yd) parameterization in NASA GISS ModelE called DroughtStress_ModelE, which is specifically tuned for ModelE. Inclusion of yd leads to better simulated isoprene emissions at the MOFLUX site during the severe drought of 2012, reduced overestimation of OMI satellite ΩHCHO (formaldehyde column), and improved simulated O3 (ozone) during drought.
Marine Remaud, Frédéric Chevallier, Fabienne Maignan, Sauveur Belviso, Antoine Berchet, Alexandra Parouffe, Camille Abadie, Cédric Bacour, Sinikka Lennartz, and Philippe Peylin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2525–2552,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been recognized as a promising indicator of the plant gross primary production (GPP). Here, we assimilate both COS and CO2 measurements into an atmospheric transport model to obtain information on GPP, plant respiration and COS budget. A possible scenario for the period 2008–2019 leads to a global COS biospheric sink of 800 GgS yr−1 and higher oceanic emissions between 400 and 600 GgS yr−1.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Money Ossohou, and Corinne Galy-Lacaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1883–1904,Short summary
Ammonia is one of the main components of nitrogen deposition. Here we use a new model to assess the ammonia emissions from agriculture, the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia. The model results are consistent with earlier estimates over industrialized regions in agreement with observations. However, the model predicts much higher emissions over sub-Saharan Africa compared to earlier estimates. Available observations from surface stations and satellites support these higher emissions.
Xueying Liu, Amos P. K. Tai, and Ka Ming Fung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17743–17758,Short summary
With the rising food need, more intense agricultural activities will cause substantial perturbations to the nitrogen cycle, aggravating surface air pollution and imposing stress on terrestrial ecosystems. We studied how these ecosystem changes may modify biosphere–atmosphere exchanges, and further exert secondary effects on air quality, and demonstrated a link between agricultural activities and ozone air quality via the modulation of vegetation and soil biogeochemistry by nitrogen deposition.
Ditte Taipale, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Mikael Ehn, Markku Kulmala, and Ülo Niinemets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17389–17431,Short summary
Larval feeding and fungal infections of leaves can greatly change the emission of volatile compounds from plants and thereby influence aerosol processes in the air. We developed a model that considers the dynamics of larvae and fungi and the dependency of the emission on the severity of stress. We show that the infections can be highly atmospherically relevant during long periods of time and at times more important to consider than the parameters that are currently used in emission models.
Anthony Y. H. Wong and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16479–16497,Short summary
Land cover change and land management are considered to have important and distinct impacts on air quality. Here we use remote sensing products and agricultural emission inventories to characterize contemporary global land cover and land management changes for chemical transport model simulations. We find that contemporary land system change has a significant impact on global air quality, with land management dominating the effects on PM and land cover change dominating the impacts on ozone.
Baojie Li, Lei Chen, Weishou Shen, Jianbing Jin, Teng Wang, Pinya Wang, Yang Yang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15883–15900,Short summary
This study focused on improving fertilizer-application-related NH3 emission inventories. We comprehensively evaluated the dates and times of fertilizer application to the major crops in China, improved the spatial allocation methods for NH3 emissions from croplands with different rice types, and established a NH3 emission inventory for mainland China in 2016. The inventory showed a higher level of accuracy than other inventories based on evaluation using the WRF-Chem and observation data.
Sara Jutterström, Filip Moldan, Jana Moldanová, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, and Maximilian Posch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15827–15845,Short summary
For the Baltic Sea countries, shipping emissions are an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the contribution of shipping emissions to the acidification and eutrophication of soils and freshwater within the airshed of the Baltic Sea in the years 2012 and 2040. The implementation of emission control areas and improving energy efficiency significantly reduces the negative impact on ecosystems expressed as a decrease in the exceedance of critical loads for sulfur and nitrogen.
Yadong Lei, Xu Yue, Hong Liao, Lin Zhang, Yang Yang, Hao Zhou, Chenguang Tian, Cheng Gong, Yimian Ma, Lan Gao, and Yang Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11531–11543,Short summary
We present the first estimate of ozone enhancement by fire emissions through ozone–vegetation interactions using a fully coupled chemistry–vegetation model (GC-YIBs). In fire-prone areas, fire-induced ozone causes a positive feedback to surface ozone mainly because of the inhibition effects on stomatal conductance.
Beata Opacka, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Maite Bauwens, Katerina Sindelarova, Jana Markova, and Alex B. Guenther
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8413–8436,Short summary
Isoprene is mainly emitted from plants, and about 80 % of its global emissions occur in the tropics. Current isoprene inventories are usually based on modelled vegetation maps, but high pressure on land use over the last decades has led to severe losses, especially in tropical forests, that are not considered by models. We provide a study on the present-day impact of spaceborne land cover changes on isoprene emissions and the first inventory based on high-resolution Landsat tree cover dataset.
Hui Wang, Qizhong Wu, Alex B. Guenther, Xiaochun Yang, Lanning Wang, Tang Xiao, Jie Li, Jinming Feng, Qi Xu, and Huaqiong Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4825–4848,Short summary
We assessed the influence of the greening trend on BVOC emission in China. The comparison among different scenarios showed that vegetation changes resulting from land cover management are the main driver of BVOC emission change in China. Climate variability contributed significantly to interannual variations but not much to the long-term trend during the study period.
Guillaume Monteil, Grégoire Broquet, Marko Scholze, Matthew Lang, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Naomi E. Smith, Rona L. Thompson, Ingrid T. Luijkx, Emily White, Antoon Meesters, Philippe Ciais, Anita L. Ganesan, Alistair Manning, Michael Mischurow, Wouter Peters, Philippe Peylin, Jerôme Tarniewicz, Matt Rigby, Christian Rödenbeck, Alex Vermeulen, and Evie M. Walton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12063–12091,Short summary
The paper presents the first results from the EUROCOM project, a regional atmospheric inversion intercomparison exercise involving six European research groups. It aims to produce an estimate of the net carbon flux between the European terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere for the period 2006–2015, based on constraints provided by observed CO2 concentrations and using inverse modelling techniques. The use of six different models enables us to investigate the robustness of the results.
Sally S.-C. Wang and Yuxuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11065–11087,Short summary
A model consisting of multiple machine learning algorithms is developed to predict wildfire burned area over the south central US and explains key environmental drivers. The developed model alleviates the issue of unevenly distributed data and predicts burned grids and burned areas with good accuracy. The model reveals climate variability such as relative humidity anomalies and antecedent drought severity contributes the most to the total burned area for winter–spring and summer fire season.
Wei Zhang, Zhisheng Yao, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Rui Wang, Kai Wang, Siqi Li, Shenghui Han, Qiang Zuo, and Jianchu Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6903–6919,Short summary
The CNMM-DNDC model was modified by improving the scientific processes of soil pH reduction due to tea growth and performed well in simulating emissions of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide. Effects of manure fertilization and stand ages on emissions of both gases were well simulated. Simulated annual emission factors correlate positively with urea or manure doses. The overall inhibitory effects on the gases' emissions in the middle to late stages during a full tea plant lifetime were simulated.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Malcolm Possell, Michael J. Aspinwall, Sebastian Pfautsch, and Mark G. Tjoelker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6193–6206,Short summary
Australian cities with a high biogenic influence will see higher pollution levels in a warmer climate. We show that four Eucalyptus species grown in future-climate conditions can emit isoprene at temperatures 9 K above the peak temperatures capping isoprene in biogenic-emission models. With these measurements, we predict up to 2 ppb increases in isoprene in 2050, causing up to 21 ppb of ozone and 0.4 µg m−3 of aerosol in Sydney. The ozone increase is one-fifth of the hourly air quality limit.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3725–3737,Short summary
This work extends previous calculations of carbon dioxide sources and sinks to take account of the varying quality of atmospheric models. It uses an extended version of Bayesian statistics which includes the model as one of the unknowns. I performed the work as an example of including the model in the description of the uncertainty.
Peter J. Rayner, Anna M. Michalak, and Frédéric Chevallier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13911–13932,Short summary
This paper describes the methods for combining models and data to understand how nutrients and pollutants move through natural systems. The methods are analogous to the process of weather forecasting in which previous information is combined with new observations and a model to improve our knowledge of the internal state of the physical system. The methods appear highly diverse but the paper shows that they are all examples of a single underlying formalism.
Brendan Byrne, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Saroja M. Polavarapu, Anna B. Harper, David F. Baker, and Shamil Maksyutov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13017–13035,Short summary
Interannual variations in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) estimated from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) XCO2 measurements are shown to be correlated (P < 0.05) with temperature and FLUXCOM NEE anomalies. Furthermore, the GOSAT-informed NEE anomalies are found to be better correlated with temperature and FLUXCOM anomalies than NEE estimates from most terrestrial biosphere models, suggesting that GOSAT CO2 measurements provide a useful constraint on NEE interannual variability.
Fang Li, Maria Val Martin, Meinrat O. Andreae, Almut Arneth, Stijn Hantson, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gitta Lasslop, Chao Yue, Dominique Bachelet, Matthew Forrest, Erik Kluzek, Xiaohong Liu, Stephane Mangeon, Joe R. Melton, Daniel S. Ward, Anton Darmenov, Thomas Hickler, Charles Ichoku, Brian I. Magi, Stephen Sitch, Guido R. van der Werf, Christine Wiedinmyer, and Sam S. Rabin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12545–12567,Short summary
Fire emissions are critical for atmospheric composition, climate, carbon cycle, and air quality. We provide the first global multi-model fire emission reconstructions for 1700–2012, including carbon and 33 species of trace gases and aerosols, based on the nine state-of-the-art global fire models that participated in FireMIP. We also provide information on the recent status and limitations of the model-based reconstructions and identify the main uncertainty sources in their long-term changes.
Ana Bastos, Philippe Ciais, Frédéric Chevallier, Christian Rödenbeck, Ashley P. Ballantyne, Fabienne Maignan, Yi Yin, Marcos Fernández-Martínez, Pierre Friedlingstein, Josep Peñuelas, Shilong L. Piao, Stephen Sitch, William K. Smith, Xuhui Wang, Zaichun Zhu, Vanessa Haverd, Etsushi Kato, Atul K. Jain, Sebastian Lienert, Danica Lombardozzi, Julia E. M. S. Nabel, Philippe Peylin, Benjamin Poulter, and Dan Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12361–12375,Short summary
Here we show that land-surface models improved their ability to simulate the increase in the amplitude of seasonal CO2-cycle exchange (SCANBP) by ecosystems compared to estimates by two atmospheric inversions. We find a dominant role of vegetation growth over boreal Eurasia to the observed increase in SCANBP, strongly driven by CO2 fertilization, and an overall negative effect of temperature on SCANBP. Biases can be explained by the sensitivity of simulated microbial respiration to temperature.
Sean Crowell, David Baker, Andrew Schuh, Sourish Basu, Andrew R. Jacobson, Frederic Chevallier, Junjie Liu, Feng Deng, Liang Feng, Kathryn McKain, Abhishek Chatterjee, John B. Miller, Britton B. Stephens, Annmarie Eldering, David Crisp, David Schimel, Ray Nassar, Christopher W. O'Dell, Tomohiro Oda, Colm Sweeney, Paul I. Palmer, and Dylan B. A. Jones
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9797–9831,Short summary
Space-based retrievals of carbon dioxide offer the potential to provide dense data in regions that are sparsely observed by the surface network. We find that flux estimates that are informed by the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) show different character from that inferred using surface measurements in tropical land regions, particularly in Africa, with a much larger total emission and larger amplitude seasonal cycle.
Fabien Paulot, Sergey Malyshev, Tran Nguyen, John D. Crounse, Elena Shevliakova, and Larry W. Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17963–17978,
Kandice L. Harper and Nadine Unger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16931–16952,Short summary
Chemistry–climate modeling finds that the induced global-mean ozone forcing for 1990–2010 maritime Southeast Asian land cover change, including expansion of high-isoprene-emitting oil palm plantations, is +9.2 mW m−2. Regional land cover change drove stronger global-mean ozone enhancements in the upper troposphere than in the lower troposphere. The results indicate that this mechanism of ozone forcing may increase in importance in future years if regional oil palm expansion continues unabated.
Shan S. Zhou, Amos P. K. Tai, Shihan Sun, Mehliyar Sadiq, Colette L. Heald, and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14133–14148,Short summary
Surface ozone pollution harms vegetation. As plants play key roles shaping air quality, the plant damage may further worsen air pollution. We use various computer models to examine such feedback effects, and find that ozone-induced decline in leaf density can lead to much higher ozone levels in forested regions, mostly due to the reduced ability of leaves to absorb pollutants. This study highlights the importance of considering the two-way interactions between plants and air pollution.
Jun Wang, Ning Zeng, Meirong Wang, Fei Jiang, Jingming Chen, Pierre Friedlingstein, Atul K. Jain, Ziqiang Jiang, Weimin Ju, Sebastian Lienert, Julia Nabel, Stephen Sitch, Nicolas Viovy, Hengmao Wang, and Andrew J. Wiltshire
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10333–10345,Short summary
Based on the Mauna Loa CO2 records and TRENDY multi-model historical simulations, we investigate the different impacts of EP and CP El Niños on interannual carbon cycle variability. Composite analysis indicates that the evolutions of CO2 growth rate anomalies have three clear differences in terms of precursors (negative and neutral), amplitudes (strong and weak), and durations of peak (Dec–Apr and Oct–Jan) during EP and CP El Niños, respectively. We further discuss their terrestrial mechanisms.
Chao Yue, Philippe Ciais, Ana Bastos, Frederic Chevallier, Yi Yin, Christian Rödenbeck, and Taejin Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13903–13919,Short summary
The year 2015 appeared as a paradox regarding how global carbon cycle has responded to climate variation: it is the greenest year since 2000 according to satellite observation, but the atmospheric CO2 growth rate is also the highest since 1959. We found that this is due to a only moderate land carbon sink, because high growing-season sink in northern lands has been partly offset by autumn and winter release and the late-year El Niño has led to an abrupt transition to land source in the tropics.
Sarah J. Lawson, Martin Cope, Sunhee Lee, Ian E. Galbally, Zoran Ristovski, and Melita D. Keywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11707–11726,Short summary
A high-resolution chemical transport model was used to reproduce observed smoke plumes. The model output was highly sensitive to fire emission factors and meteorology, particularly for secondary pollutant ozone. Aged urban air (age = 2 days) was the major source of ozone observed, with minor contributions from the fire. This work highlights the importance of assessing model sensitivity and the use of modelling to determine the contribution from different sources to atmospheric composition.
Wolfgang Knorr, Frank Dentener, Jean-François Lamarque, Leiwen Jiang, and Almut Arneth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9223–9236,Short summary
Wildfires cause considerable air pollution, and climate change is usually expected to increase both wildfire activity and air pollution from those fires. This study takes a closer look at the problem by examining the role of demographic changes in addition to climate change. It finds that demographics will be the main driver of changes in wildfire activity in many parts of the developing world. Air pollution from wildfires will remain significant, with major implications for air quality policy.
Xu Yue, Nadine Unger, Kandice Harper, Xiangao Xia, Hong Liao, Tong Zhu, Jingfeng Xiao, Zhaozhong Feng, and Jing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6073–6089,Short summary
While it is widely recognized that air pollutants adversely affect human health and climate change, their impacts on the regional carbon balance are less well understood. We apply an Earth system model to quantify the combined effects of ozone and aerosol particles on net primary production in China. Ozone vegetation damage dominates over the aerosol effects, leading to a substantial net suppression of land carbon uptake in the present and future worlds.
John C. Lin, Derek V. Mallia, Dien Wu, and Britton B. Stephens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5561–5581,Short summary
Mountainous areas can potentially serve as regions where the key greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), can be absorbed from the atmosphere by vegetation, through photosynthesis. Variations in atmospheric CO2 can be used to understand the amount of biospheric fluxes in general. However, CO2 measured in mountains can be difficult to interpret due to the impact from complex atmospheric flows. We show how mountaintop CO2 data can be interpreted by carrying out a series of atmospheric simulations.
Mehliyar Sadiq, Amos P. K. Tai, Danica Lombardozzi, and Maria Val Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3055–3066,Short summary
Surface ozone harms vegetation, which can influence not only climate but also ozone air quality itself. We implement a scheme for ozone damage on vegetation into an Earth system model, so that for the first time simulated vegetation and ozone can coevolve in a fully coupled simulation. With ozone–vegetation coupling, simulated ozone is found to be significantly higher by up to 6 ppbv. Reduced dry deposition and enhanced isoprene emission contribute to most of these increases.
Jinwoong Kim, Hyun Mee Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Kyung-On Boo, Andrew R. Jacobson, Motoki Sasakawa, Toshinobu Machida, Mikhail Arshinov, and Nikolay Fedoseev
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2881–2899,Short summary
To investigate the effect of CO2 observations in Siberia on the surface CO2 flux analyses, two experiments using observation data sets with and without Siberian measurements were performed. While the magnitude of the optimized surface CO2 flux uptake in Siberia decreased, that in the other regions of the Northern Hemisphere increased for the experiment with Siberian observations. It is expected that the Siberian observations play an important role in estimating surface CO2 flux in the future.
Kirsti Ashworth, Serena H. Chung, Karena A. McKinney, Ying Liu, J. William Munger, Scot T. Martin, and Allison L. Steiner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15461–15484,
Colette L. Heald and Jeffrey A. Geddes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14997–15010,Short summary
Humans have altered the surface of the Earth since preindustrial times. These changes (largely expansion of croplands and pasturelands) have modified biosphere–atmosphere fluxes. In this study we use a global model to assess the impact of these changes on the formation of secondary particulate matter and troposphere ozone. We find that there are significant air quality and climate impacts associated with these changes.
Palmira Messina, Juliette Lathière, Katerina Sindelarova, Nicolas Vuichard, Claire Granier, Josefine Ghattas, Anne Cozic, and Didier A. Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14169–14202,Short summary
We provide BVOC emissions for the present scenario, employing the updated ORCHIDEE emission module and the MEGAN model. The modelling community still faces the problem of emission model evaluation because of the absence of adequate observations. The accurate analysis performed, employing the two models, allowed the various processes modelled to be investigated, in order to fully understand the origin of the mismatch between the model estimates and to quantify the emission uncertainties.
Sam J. Silva, Colette L. Heald, Jeffrey A. Geddes, Kemen G. Austin, Prasad S. Kasibhatla, and Miriam E. Marlier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10621–10635,Short summary
We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and future (2020) oil palm plantations across Southeast Asia on surface–atmosphere exchange and air quality using satellite data, land maps, and a chemical transport model. These changes lead to increases in surface ozone and particulate matter. Oil palm plantations are likely to continue to degrade regional air quality in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Ian E. Galbally, Alex B. Guenther, Clare Paton-Walsh, Elise-Andree Guerette, Martin E. Cope, Melita D. Keywood, Sarah J. Lawson, Suzie B. Molloy, Erin Dunne, Marcus Thatcher, Thomas Karl, and Simin D. Maleknia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6997–7011,Short summary
We have tested how a model using a global inventory of plant-based emissions compares with four sets of measurements made in southeast Australia. This region is known for its eucalypt species, which dominate the summertime global inventory. The Australian part of the inventory has been produced using measurements made on eucalypt saplings. The model could not match the measurements, and the inventory needs to be improved by taking measurements of a wider range of Australian plant types and ages.
Wolfgang Knorr, Frank Dentener, Stijn Hantson, Leiwen Jiang, Zbigniew Klimont, and Almut Arneth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5685–5703,Short summary
Wildfires are generally expected to increase in frequency and severity due to climate change. For Europe this could mean increased air pollution levels during the summer. Until 2050, predicted changes are moderate, but under a scenario of strong climate change, these may increase considerably during the later part of the current century. In Portugal and several parts of the Mediterranean, emissions may become relevant for meeting WHO concentration targets.
Stephan Henne, Dominik Brunner, Brian Oney, Markus Leuenberger, Werner Eugster, Ines Bamberger, Frank Meinhardt, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3683–3710,Short summary
Greenhouse gas emissions can be assessed by "top-down" methods that combine atmospheric observations, a transport model and a mathematical optimisation framework. Here, we apply such a top-down method to the methane emissions of Switzerland, utilising observations from the recently installed CarboCount-CH network. Our Swiss total emissions largely agree with those of the national "bottom-up" inventory, whereas regional differences suggest lower than reported emissions from manure handling.
Jeffrey A. Geddes, Colette L. Heald, Sam J. Silva, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2323–2340,Short summary
Land use and land cover changes driven by anthropogenic activities or natural causes (e.g., forestry management, agriculture, wildfires) can impact climate and air quality in many complex ways. Using a state-of-the-art chemistry model, we investigate how tree mortality in the US due to insect infestation and disease outbreak may impact atmospheric composition. We find that the surface concentrations of ozone and aerosol can be altered due to changing background emissions and loss processes.
Yaning Kang, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, Xin Huang, Huan Yao, Xuhui Cai, Hongsheng Zhang, Ling Kang, Xuejun Liu, Xiaoyuan Yan, Hong He, Qiang Zhang, Min Shao, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2043–2058,Short summary
The multi-year (1980–2012) comprehensive ammonia emissions inventories were compiled for China on 1 km × 1 km grid. Various realistic parameters (ambient temperature, wind speed, soil acidity, synthetic fertilizer types, etc.) were considered in these inventories to synthetically refine the emission factors of ammonia volatilization according to local agricultural practice. This paper shows the interannual trend and spatial distribution of ammonia emissions in details over recent decades.
A. Ito and Z. Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 85–99,Short summary
A new Fe dissolution scheme is developed and is applied to an atmospheric chemistry transport model to estimate anthropogenic soluble Fe deposition. Our improved model successfully captured an inverse relationship of Fe solubility and total Fe loading. Our model estimated the low end of Fe solubility compared to the previous studies. Our model results suggest that human activities contribute to about half of bioavailable Fe supply to significant portions of the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere.
T. Verbeke, J. Lathière, S. Szopa, and N. de Noblet-Ducoudré
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13555–13568,Short summary
Dry deposition is a key component of surface-atmosphere exchange of compounds, acting as a sink for several chemical species and strongly driven by meteorological factors, chemical properties of the trace gas considered and land surface properties. The objective of our study is to investigate the impact of vegetation distribution change, which is still not very well quantified, on the dry deposition of key atmospheric species: ozone and nitric acid vapor.
Y. Fu and A. P. K. Tai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10093–10106,Short summary
Historical land cover and land use change alone between 1980 and 2010 could lead to reduced summertime surface ozone by up to 4ppbv in East Asia. Climate change alone could lead to an increase in summertime ozone by 2-10ppbv in most of East Asia. Land cover change could offset part of the climate effect and lead to a previously unknown public health benefit. The sensitivity of surface ozone to land cover change is more dependent on dry deposition than isoprene emission in most of East Asia.
Y. Zheng, N. Unger, M. P. Barkley, and X. Yue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8559–8576,Short summary
We apply two global observational data sets, gross primary productivity (GPP) and tropospheric formaldehyde column variability (HCHOv), to probe isoprene emission variability on large spatiotemporal scales. GPP and HCHOv are decoupled or weakly anticorrelated in regions and seasons when isoprene emission is high. Isoprene emission models that include soil moisture dependence demonstrate greater skill in reproducing observed seasonal GPP-HCHOv correlations in the southeast US and the Amazon.
Z. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, X. M. Wang, and J. W. Munger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7487–7496,Short summary
In this study, we have developed a modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM), although based on existing micrometeorological theory, to estimate O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies and is expected to be useful for the scientific community.
F. Pacifico, G. A. Folberth, S. Sitch, J. M. Haywood, L. V. Rizzo, F. F. Malavelle, and P. Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2791–2804,
Acarreta, J. R., De Haan, J. F., and Stamnes, P.: Cloud pressure retrieval using the O2-O2 absorption band at 477 nm, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003915, 2004.
Andreae, M. O. and Crutzen, P. J.: Atmospheric aerosols: Biogeochemical sources and role in atmospheric chemistry, Science, 276, 1052–1058, 1997.
Bertram, T. H., Heckel, A., Richter, A., Burrows, J. P. and Cohen, R. C.: Satellite measurements of daily variations in soil NOx emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L24812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024640, 2005.
Bey, I., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., Logan, J. A., Field, B. D., Fiore, A. M. Li, Q., Liu, H. Y., Mickley, L. J., and Schultz, M. G.: Global modeling of tropospheric chemistry with assimilated meteorology: Model description and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 23073–23095, 2001.
Boersma, K. F., Bucsela, E. J., Brinksma, E. J., and Gleason, J. F: NO2, in: OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. 4, OMI Trace Gas Algorithms, ATBD-OMI-04 (Version 2), 13–36, 2002.
Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., and Brinksma, E. J.: Error analysis for tropospheric NO2 retrieval from space, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04311, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD003962, 2004.
Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., Veefkind, J. P., Brinksma, E. J., van der A, R. J., Sneep, M., van den Oord, G. H. J., Levelt, P. F., Stammes, P., Gleason, J. F., and Bucsela, E. J.: Near-real time retrieval of tropospheric NO2 from OMI, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2103–2118, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-2103-2007, 2007.
Boersma, K. F., Jacob, D. J. , Bucsela, E.J.,. Perring, A. E, Dirksen, R. , van der A, R. J., Yantosca, R. M., Park, R. J., Wenig, M. O., Bertram, T. H. and Cohen, R. C.: Validation of OMI tropospheric NO2 observations during INTEX-B and application to constrain NOx emissions over the eastern United States and Mexico, Atmos. Environ., 42, 4480–4497, 2008.
Bouwman, A. F., L. J. M. Boumans, and Batjes, N. H.: Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: Summary of available measurement data, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 1058, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GB001811, 2002.
Bucsela, E. J., Celarier, E. A., Wenig, M. O., Gleason, J. F., Veefkind, J. P., Boersma, K. F., and Brinksma, E. J.: Algorithm for NO2 vertical column retrieval from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 1245–1258, 2006.
Butterbach-Bahl, K., Kahl, M., Mykhayliv, L., Werner, C., Kiese, R., and Li, C.: A European-wide inventory of soil NO emissions using the biogeochemical models DNDC/Forest-DNDC, Atmos. Environ., 43, 1392–1402, 2009.
Celarier, E. A., Brinksma, E. J., Gleason, J. F., Veefkind, J. P., Cede, A., Herman, J. R., Ionov, D., Goutail, F., Pommereau, J. –P., Lambert, J. –C., van Roozendael, M., Pinardi, G., Wittrock, F., Schönhardt, A., Richter, A., Ibrahim, O. W., Wagner, T., Bojkov, B., Mount, G., Spinei, E., Chen, C. M., Pongetti, T. J., Sander, S. P., Bucsela, E. J., Wenig, M. O., Swart, D. P. J., Volten, H., Kroon, M., and Levelt, P. F.: Validation of Ozone Monitoring Instrument nitrogen dioxide columns, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D15S15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008908, 2008.
Chaparro-Suarez, I. G., Meixner, F. X., and Kesselmeier, J.: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) uptake by vegetation controlled by atmospheric concentrations and plant stomatal aperture, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5742–5750, 2011.
Chen, X., F. Zhang, V. Römheld, D. Horlacher, R. Schulz, M. Böning-Zilkens, P. Wang, and Claupein, W.: N2O and NO production in various Chinese agricultural soils by nitrification, Soil Biol. Biochem., 36, 953–963, 2004.
Clough, T. J., Sherlock, R. R., and Cameron, K. C.: Entrapment and displacement of nitrous oxide in a drained pasture soil, Nutr. Cycl. in Agroecosyst., 57, 191–193, 2000.
Davidson, E. A.: Sources of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following wetting of dry soil, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 56, 95–102, 1992a.
Davidson, E. A.: Pulses of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide flux following the wetting of dry soil: An assessment of probable sources and importance relative to annual fluxes, Ecol. Bull., 42 , 149–155, 1992b.
Davidson, E. A. and Kingerlee, W.: A global inventory of nitric oxide emissions from soils, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 48, 37–50, 1997.
Delon C., Serca, D., Boissard, C., Dupont, R., Dutot, A., Laville, P., de Rosnay, P., and Delmas, R.: Soil NO emissions modeling using artificial neural network, Tellus B, 59B, 502–513, 2007.
Delon, C., Reeves, C. E., Stewart, D. J., Serça, D., Dupont, R., Mari, C., Chaboureau, J.-P., and Tulet, P.: Biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from soils – impact on NOx and ozone over West Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Experiment): modelling study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2351–2363, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2351-2008, 2008.
Dentener, F. J. and Crutzen, P. J.: Reaction of N2O5 on tropospheric aerosols – impact on the global distributions of NOx, O3, and OH, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 98, 7149–7163, 1993.
Dirksen, R. J., Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., Ionov, D. V., Bucsela, E. J., Levelt, P. F., and Kelder, H. M.: Evaluation of stratospheric NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument: Intercomparison, diurnal cycle, and trending, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D08305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014943, 2011.
Emmons, L. K., Walters, S., Hess, P. G., Lamarque, J.-F., Pfister, G. G., Fillmore, D., Granier, C., Guenther, A., Kinnison, D., Laepple, T., Orlando, J., Tie, X., Tyndall, G., Wiedinmyer, C., Baughcum, S. L., and Kloster, S.: Description and evaluation of the Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), Geosci. Model Dev., 3, 43–67, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-3-43-2010, 2010.
Firestone, M. K. and Davidson, E. A.: Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil, in: Exchange of trace gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, edited by: Andreae, M. O. and Schimel, D. S., Wiley, Chichester, 7–21, 1989.
Frost, G. J., McKeen, S. A., Trainer, M., Ryerson, T. B., Neuman, J. A., Roberts, J. M., Swanson, A., Holloway, J. S., Sueper, D. T., Fortin, T., Parrish, D. D., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Flocke, F., Peckham, S. E., Grell, G. A., Kowal, D., Cartwright, J., Auerbach, N., and Habermann, T.: Effects of changing power plant NOx emissions on ozone in the eastern United States: Proof of concept, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006354, 2006.
Galbally, I. E. and Roy, C. R.: Loss of fixed nitrogen from soils by nitric oxide exhalation, Nature, 275, 734–735, 1978.
Galloway, J. N., Dentener, F. J., Capone, D. G., Boyer, E. W., Howarth, R. W., Seitzinger, S. P., Asner, G. P., Cleveland, C. C., Green, P. A., Holland, E. A., Karl, D. M., Michaels, A. F., Porter, J. H., Townsend, A. R., and Vorosmarty, C. J.: Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future, Biogeochemistry, 70, 153–226, 2004.
Ganguly, S., Friedl, M. A., Tan, B., Zhang, X., and Verma, M.: Land surface phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 global land cover dynamics product, Remote Sens. Environ., 114, 1805–1816, 2010.
Ganzeveld, L. N., Lelieveld, J., Dentener, F. J., Krol, M. C., Bouwman, A. J., and Roelofs, G.-J.: Global soil-biogenic NOx emissions and the role of canopy processes, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4298, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD001289, 2002.
Gleick, P. H.: Water in Crisis, Oxford University Press, New York, 1993.
Harris, G. W., Wienhold, F. G., and Zenker, T.: Airborne observations of strong biogenic NOx emissions from the Namibian Savanna at the end of the dry season, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 101, 23707–23711, 1996.
Hart, S. C., Firestone, M. K., Paul, E. A., and Smith, J. L.: Flow and fate of soil nitrogen in an annual grassland and a young mixed-conifer forest, Soil Biol. Biochem., 25, 431–442, 1993.
Holland, E. A., Dentener, F. J., and Braswell, B. H.: Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets, Biogeochemistry, 46, 7–43, https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006148011944, 1999.
Hudman, R. C., Jacob, D. J., Turquety, S., Leibensperger, E. M., Murray, L. T., Wu, S., Gilliland, A. B., Avery, M., Bertram, T. H., Brune, W., Cohen, R. C., Dibb, J. E., Flocke, F. M., Fried, A., Holloway, J., Neuman, J. A., Orville, R., Perring, A., Ren, X., Sachse, G. W., Singh, H. B., Swanson, A., and Wooldridge, P. J.: Surface and lightning sources of nitrogen oxides over the United States: Magnitudes, chemical evolution, and outflow, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D12S05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007912, 2007.
Hudman, R. C., Murray, L. T., Jacob, D. J., Millet, D. B., Turquety, S., Wu, S., Blake, D. R., Goldstein, A. H., Holloway, J., and Sachse, G. W.: Biogenic vs. anthropogenic sources of CO over the United States, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032393, 2008.
Hudman, R. C., Russell, A. R., Valin, L. C., and Cohen, R. C.: Interannual variability in soil nitric oxide emissions over the United States as viewed from space, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9943–9952, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-9943-2010, 2010.
Huxman, T. E., Snyder, K. A., Tissue, D., Leffler, A. J., Ogle, K., Pockman, W. T., Sandquist, D. R., Potts, D. L., and Schwinning, S.: Precipitation pulses and carbon fluxes in semiarid and arid ecosystems, Oecologia, 141, 254–268, 2004.
Jacob, D. J. and Bakwin, P. S.: Cycling of NOx in tropical forest canopies and its implications for the global source of biogenic NOx to the atmosphere, American Society of Microbiology, Washington DC, 1991.
Jaeglé, L., Steinberger, L., Martin, R. V., and Chance, K.: Global partitioning of NOx sources using satellite observations: Relative roles of fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and soil emissions, Faraday Discuss., 130, 407–423, 2005.
Johansson, C. and Sanhueza, E.: Emission of NO from savanna soils during the rainy season, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 14193–14198, 1988.
Kirkman, G. A., Yang, W. X., and Meixner, F. X.: Biogenic nitric oxide emissions upscaling: An approach for Zimbabwe, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 1005–1020, 2001.
Koelemeijer, R. B. A., de Haan, J. F., and Stammes, P.: A database of spectral surface reflectivity in the range 335-772 nm derived from 5.5 years of GOME observations, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4070, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002429, 2003.
Kuhns, H., Knipping, E. M., and Vukovich, J. M.: Development of a United States-Mexico emissions inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study, JAPCA J. Air Waste M., 55, 677–692, 2005.
Lamsal, L. N., Martin, R. V., van Donkelaar, A., Celarier, E. A., Bucsela, E. J., Boersma, K. F., Dirksen, R., Luo, C., and Wang, Y.: Indirect validation of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide retrieved from the OMI satellite instrument: Insight into the seasonal variation of nitrogen oxides at northern midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D05302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013351, 2010.
Levelt, P. F., Gijsbertus, H. J., van den Oord, H. J., Dobber, M. R., Mälkki, A., Visser, H., de Vries, J., Stammes, P., Lundell, J. O. V., and Saari, H.: The Ozone Monitoring Instrument, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 1093–1101, 2006.
Levine, J. S., Winstead, E. L., Parsons, D. A. B., Scholes, M. C., Scholes, R. J., Cofer, W. R. III, Cahoon, D. R. Jr., and Sebacher, D. I.: Biogenic soil emissions of nitric oxide (NO)and nitrous oxide (N2O) from savannas in South Africa: The impact of wetting and burning, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23689–23697, 1996.
Lin, J.-T.: Satellite constraint for emissions of nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic, lightning and soil sources over East China on a high-resolution grid, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2881–2898, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-2881-2012, 2012.
Linn, D. M. and Doran, J. W.: Effect of water-filled pore space on carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide production in tilled and nontilled soils, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 48, 1267–1272, 1984.
Liu, H., Jacob, D. J., Bey, I., and Yantosca, R. M.: Constraints from 210Pb and 7Be on wet deposition and transport in a global three-dimensional chemical tracer model driven by assimilated meteorological fields, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 12109–12128, 2001.
Martin, R. E., Scholes, M. C., Mosier, A. R., Ojima, D. S., Holland, E. A., and Parton, W. J.: Controls on annual emissions of nitric oxide from soils of the Colorado shortgrass steppe, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 12, 81–91, 1998.
Martin, R. V., Jacob, D. J., Yantosca, R. M., Chin, M., and Ginoux, P.: Global and regional decreases in tropospheric oxidants from photochemical effects of aerosols, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4097, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002622, 2003.
Meixner, F. X. and Yang, W. X.: Biogenic emissions of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide from arid and semi-arid land, 233–255, in: Dryland Ecohydrology, edited by: D'Odorico, P. and Porporato, A., 233–255, Dordrecht, Berlin Heidelberg New York (ISBN: 1-4020-4261-2), 2006.
Muller, J.-F.: Geographical Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Surface Emissions and Deposition Velocities of Atmospheric Trace Gases, J. Geophys. Res., 97, D43787, https://doi.org/10.1029/91JD02757, 1992.
Murray, L. T., Jacob, D. J., Logan, J. A., Hudman, R. C., and Koshak, W. J.: Optimized regional and interannual variability of lightning in a global chemical transport model constrained by LIS/OTD satellite data, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2012.
Nadelhoffer, K. J., Downs, M., Fry, B. Aber, J. D., Magill, A. H., and Melillo, J. M.: The fate of 15N-labeled nitrate additions to a northern hardwood forest in eastern Maine, USA, Oecologia, 103, 292–301, 1995.
Olivier, J. G. J., Berdowski, J. J. M., Peters, J. A. H. W., Bakker, J., Visschedijk, A. J. H., and Bloos, J. P. J.: Applications of EDGAR, including a description of EDGAR 3.2: Reference database with trend data for 1970-1995, Tech. Rep., RIVM Bilthovan, RIVM report, 773301001/NRP report 4, 2001.
Olson, J.: World Ecosystems (WEI.4): Digital raster data on a 10 minute geographic $1080\times 2160$ grid, in Global ecosystems database, version 1.0: Disc A, edited by: NOAA Natl. Geophys. Data Center, Boulder, Colorado, 1992.
Ormeci, B., Sanin, S. L., and Pierce, J. J.: Laboratory study of NO flux from agricultural soil: Effects of soil moisture, pH, and temperature, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1621–1629, 1999.
Ott, L. E., Pickering, K. E., Stenchikov, G. L, Allen, D. J., DeCaria, A. J., Ridley, B., Lin, R.-F., Lang, S., and Tao, W.-K.: Production of lightning NOx and its vertical distribution calculated from three-dimensional cloud-scale chemical transport model simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D04301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011880, 2010.
Otter, L. B., Yang, W. X., Scholes, M. C., and Meixner, F. X.: Nitric oxide emissions from a southern African savanna, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20697–20706, 1999.
Park, R. J., Jacob, D. J., Field, B. D., Yantosca, R. M., and Chin, M.: Natural and transboundary pollution influences on sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols in the United States: Implications for policy, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D15204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JD004473, 2004.
Parsons, D. A., Scholes, M. C., Scholes, R. J., and Levine, J. S.: Biogenic NO emissions from savanna soils as a function of fire regime, soil type, soil nitrogen, and water status, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 23683–23688, 1996.
Parton, W. J., Holland, E. A., Del Grosso, S. J., Hartman, M. D., Martin, R. E., Mosier, A. R., Ojima, D. S., and Schimel, D. S.: Generalized model for NOx and N2O emissions from soils, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 17403–17419, 2001.
Phoenix, G. K., Hicks, W. K., Cinderby, S., Kuylenstierna, J. C. I., Stock, W. D., Dentener, F. J., Giller, K. E., Austin, A. T., Lefroy, R. D. B., Gimeno, B. S., Ashmore, M. R., and Ineson, P.: Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in world biodiversity hotspots: the need for a greater global perspective in assessing N deposition impacts, Glob. Change Biol., 12, 470–476, 2006.
Pierce, J. J. and Aneja, V. P.: Nitric oxide emissions from engineered soil systems, J. Environ. Eng., 126, 225–232, 2000.
Price, C. and Rind, D.: A simple lightning parameterization for calculating global lightning distributions, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 9919–9933, https://doi.org/10.1029/92JD00719, 1992.
Potter, C. S., Matson, P. A., Vitousek, P. M., and Davidson, E. A.: Process modeling of controls on nitrogen trace gas emissions from soils worldwide, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1361–1377, 1996.
Potter, P., Ramankutty, N., Bennett, E. M., and Donner, S. D.: Characterizing the spatial patterns of global fertilizer application and manure production, Earth Interact., 14, 1–22, 2010.
Raivonen, M., Vesala, T., Pirjola, L., Altimir, N., Keronen, P., Kulmala, M., and Hari, P.: Compensation point of NOx exchange: Net result of NOx consumption and production, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 149, 1073–1081, 2009.
Randerson, J. T., van der Werf, G. R., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., and Kasibhatla, P. S.: Global Fire Emissions Database, Version 2 (GFEDv2.1), Data set, from Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, https://doi.org/10.3334/ORNLDAAC/849, available at: http://daac.ornl.gov/, 2007.
Russell, A. R., Perring, A. E., Valin, L. C., Bucsela, E. J., Browne, E. C., Wooldridge, P. J., and Cohen, R. C.: A high spatial resolution retrieval of NO$_ 2$ column densities from OMI: method and evaluation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 8543–8554, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-8543-2011, 2011.
Russell, C. A., Dunn, B. W., Batten, G. D., Williams, R. L., and Angus, J. F.: Soil tests to predict optimum fertilizer nitrogen rate for rice, Field Crops Research, 97, 286–301, 2006.
Sauvage, B., Martin, R. V., van Donkelaar, A., Liu, X., Chance, K., Jaeglé, L., Palmer, P. I., Wu, S., and Fu, T.-M.: Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 815–838, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-815-2007, 2007.
Scholes, M. C., Martin, R., Scholes, R. J., Parsons, D., and Winstead, E.: NO and N2O emissions from savanna soils following the first simulated rains of the season, Nutr. Cycling Agroecosyst., 48, 115–122, 1997.
Serça, D., Delmas, R., Le Roux, X., Parsons, D. A. B., Scholes, M. C., Abbadie, L., Lensi, R., Ronce, O., and Labrouc, L.: Comparison of nitrogen monoxide emissions from several African tropical ecosystems and influence of season and fire, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 12, 637–651, 1998.
Sheldrick, W., Syers, J. K., and Lingard, J.: Contribution of livestock excreta to nutrient balances, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 66, 119–131, 2003.
Stehfest, E. and Bouwman, L.: N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst., 74, 207–228, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-006-9000-7, 2006.
Steinkamp, J. and Lawrence, M. G.: Improvement and evaluation of simulated global biogenic soil NO emissions in an AC-GCM, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6063–6082, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-6063-2011, 2011.
Steinkamp, J., Ganzeveld, L. N., Wilcke, W., and Lawrence, M. G.: Influence of modelled soil biogenic NO emissions on related trace gases and the atmospheric oxidizing efficiency, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2663–2677, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2663-2009, 2009.
Stewart, D. J., Taylor, C. M., Reeves, C. E., and McQuaid, J. B.: Biogenic nitrogen oxide emissions from soils: impact on NOx and ozone over west Africa during AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis): observational study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2285–2297, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2285-2008, 2008.
van der A, R. J., Eskes, H. J., Boersma, K. F., van Noije, T. P. C., Van Roozendael, M., De Smedt, I., Peters, D. H. M. U., and Meijer, E. W.: Trends, seasonal variability and dominant NOx source derived from a ten year record of NO2 measured from space, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D04302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009021, 2008.
van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Kasibhatla, P. S., and Arellano Jr., A. F.: Interannual variability in global biomass burning emissions from 1997 to 2004, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3423–3441, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3423-2006, 2006.
van Dijk, S. M. and Meixner, F. X.: Production and consumption of NO in forest and pasture soils from the Amazon basin, Water Air Soil Pollut., 1 , 119–130, 2001.
van Dijk, S. M., Gut, A. , Kirkman, G. A., Meixner, F. X., Andreae, M. O., and Gomes, B. M.: Biogenic NO emissions from forest and pasture soils: Relating laboratory studies to field measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8058, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001JD000358, 2002.
van Donkelaar, A., Martin, R. V., Leaitch, W. R., Macdonald, A. M., Walker, T. W., Streets, D. G., Zhang, Q., Dunlea, E. J., Jimenez, J. L., Dibb, J. E., Huey, L. G., Weber, R., and Andreae, M. O.: Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 2999–3014, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-2999-2008, 2008.
Wang, Y., Jacob, D. J., and Logan, J. A.: Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry: 1. Model formulation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 10713–10725, 1998.
Wang, Y. X., McElroy, M. B., Martin, R. V., Streets, D. G., Zhang, Q., and Fu, T.-M.: Seasonal variability of NOx emissions over east China constrained by satellite observations: Implications for combustion and microbial sources, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D06301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007538, 2007.
Williams, E. J. and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Measurement of nitrogen oxide emissions at three North American ecosystems, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 1033–1042, 1991.
Williams, E. J., Parrish, D. D., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Determination of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Soils: Results From a Grassland Site in Colorado, United States, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 2173–2179, 1987.
Yan, X., Ohara, T., and Akimoto, H.: Statistical modeling of global soil NOx emissions, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 19, GB3019, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002276, 2005.
Yang, W. X. and Meixner, F. X.: Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands, CAB Int., Wallingford, UK, 67–71, 1997.
Yienger, J. J. and Levy II, H.: Empirical model of global soil-biogenic NOx emissions, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 11447–11464, 1995.
Zhang, Q., Streets, D. G., He, K., Wang, Y., Richter, A., Burrows, J. P., Uno, I., Jang, C. J., Chen, D., Yao, Z., and Lei, Y.: NOx emission trends for China, 1995-2004: The view from the ground and the view from space, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22306, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008684, 2007.
Zhang, X., Friedl, M. A., and Schaaf, C. B.: Global vegetation phenology from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS): Evaluation of global patterns and comparison with in situ measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 111, G04017, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JG000217, 2006.
Zhao, C. and Wang, Y. H.: Assimilated inversion of NOx emissions over east Asia using OMI NO2 column measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL037123, 2009.
- Metadata XML