Articles | Volume 23, issue 19
Research article
05 Oct 2023
Research article |  | 05 Oct 2023

The chance of freezing – a conceptional study to parameterize temperature-dependent freezing by including randomness of ice-nucleating particle concentrations

Hannah C. Frostenberg, André Welti, Mikael Luhr, Julien Savre, Erik S. Thomson, and Luisa Ickes

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Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Bertrand, J., Baudet, J., and Dessens, J.: Seasonal Variations and Frequency Distributions of Ice Nuclei Concentrations at Abidjan, West Africa, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 12, 1191–1195,<1191:SVAFDO>2.0.CO;2, 1973. a
Bigg, E. K.: Natural Atmospheric Ice Nuclei, Sci. Prog., 49, 458–475, 1961. a, b
Bulatovic, I., Igel, A. L., Leck, C., Heintzenberg, J., Riipinen, I., and Ekman, A. M.: The Importance of Aitken Mode Aerosol Particles for Cloud Sustenance in the Summertime High Arctic – A Simulation Study Supported by Observational Data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3871–3897,, 2021. a
Burrows, S. M., McCluskey, C. S., Cornwell, G., Steinke, I., Zhang, K., Zhao, B., Zawadowicz, M., Raman, A., Kulkarni, G., China, S., Zelenyuk, A., and DeMott, P. J.: Ice-Nucleating Particles That Impact Clouds and Climate: Observational and Modeling Research Needs, Rev. Geophys., 60, e2021RG000745,, 2022. a
Christiansen, S., Ickes, L., Bulatovic, I., Leck, C., Murray, B. J., Bertram, A. K., Wagner, R., Gorokhova, E., Salter, M. E., Ekman, A. M., and Bilde, M.: Influence of Arctic Microlayers and Algal Cultures on Sea Spray Hygroscopicity and the Possible Implications for Mixed-Phase Clouds, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 125, e2020JD032808,, 2020. a
Short summary
Observations show that ice-nucleating particle concentrations (INPCs) have a large variety and follow lognormal distributions for a given temperature. We introduce a new immersion freezing parameterization that applies this lognormal behavior. INPCs are drawn randomly from a temperature-dependent lognormal distribution. We then show that the ice content of the modeled Arctic stratocumulus cloud is highly sensitive to the probability of drawing large INPCs.
Final-revised paper