Articles | Volume 21, issue 6
23 Mar 2021
Research article | 23 Mar 2021
Aerosol impacts on warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle in a moderately polluted environment
Ying-Chieh Chen et al.
No articles found.
Ki-Hong Min, Kao-Shen Chung, Ji-Won Lee, Cheng-Rong You, and Gyuwon Lee
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for GMDShort summary
LETKF underestimated the water vapor mixing ratio and temperature compared to 3DVAR due to a lack of a water vapor mixing ratio and temperature observation operator. Snowfall in GWD was less simulated in LETKF. The results signify that water vapor assimilation is important in radar DA and significantly impacts precipitation forecasts, regardless of the DA method used. Therefore, it is necessary to apply observation operators for water vapor mixing ratio and temperature in radar DA.
Ukkyo Jeong, Si-Chee Tsay, Nai-Yung Christina Hsu, David M. Giles, John W. Cooper, Jaehwa Lee, Robert J. Swap, Brent N. Holben, James J. Butler, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Somporn Chantara, Hyunkee Hong, Donghee Kim, and Jhoon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
The ultraviolet (UV) measurements from satellite and ground are important for deriving information on several atmospheric trace and aerosol characteristics. Simultaneous retrievals of aerosol and trace gases in this study suggest that water uptake by aerosols is one of the important phenomena affecting aerosol properties over Northern Thailand, which is important for regional air quality and climate. Obtained aerosol properties covering the UV are also important for various satellite algorithms.
Dustin Francis Phillip Grogan, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Shih-Wei Wei, and Sheng-Po Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2385–2398,Short summary
This study shows that incorporating aerosols into satellite radiance calculations affects the representation of African easterly waves (AEWs), and their environment, over North Africa and the eastern Atlantic in a numerical weather model. These changes are driven by radiative effects of Saharan dust captured by the aerosol-affected radiances, which modify the initial fields and can improve the forecasting of AEWs.
Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Quanhua Liu, Shih-Wei Wei, Benjamin T. Johnson, Cheng Dang, Patrick G. Stegmann, Dustin Grogan, Guoqing Ge, Ming Hu, and Michael Lueken
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 1317–1329,Short summary
This article is a technical note on the aerosol absorption and scattering calculations of the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) v2.2 and v2.3. It also provides guidance for prospective users of the CRTM aerosol option and Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) aerosol-aware radiance assimilation. Scientific aspects of aerosol-affected BT in atmospheric data assimilation are also briefly discussed.
Clémence Rose, Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Yong Lin, Isaline Bossert, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markus Fiebig, Pasi Aalto, Andrés Alastuey, Elisabeth Alonso-Blanco, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Todor Arsov, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Sébastien Conil, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Francisco Javier Gómez-Moreno, Martin Gysel-Beer, Anna Gannet Hallar, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Adam Kristensson, Markku Kulmala, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Jakub Ondracek, Marco Pandolfi, Noemi Pérez, Tuukka Petäjä, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Junying Sun, Pierre Tulet, Ville Vakkari, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Villani, Stergios Vratolis, Zdenek Wagner, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Vladimir Zdimal, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17185–17223,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a complex component of the atmospheric system the effects of which are among the most uncertain in climate change projections. Using data collected at 62 stations, this study provides the most up-to-date picture of the spatial distribution of particle number concentration and size distribution worldwide, with the aim of contributing to better representation of aerosols and their interactions with clouds in models and, therefore, better evaluation of their impact on climate.
Maggie Chel-Gee Ooi, Ming-Tung Chuang, Joshua S. Fu, Steven S. Kong, Wei-Syun Huang, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Sittichai Pimonsree, Andy Chan, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12521–12541,Short summary
There is very limited local modeling effort in Southeast Asia, where haze is an annually recurring threat. In this work, the accuracy of haze prediction is improved not only at the burning source but also at the downwind site in northern Southeast Asia to highlight the influence of trans-boundary haze, which is often regional. The burning haze is carried to the populated west of Taiwan via several mechanisms, with the most severe conditions related to the boreal winter pressure system.
Jayalakshmi Janapati, Balaji Kumar Seela, Pay-Liam Lin, Meng-Tze Lee, and Everette Joseph
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 4025–4040,Short summary
Typhoon (TY) and non-typhoon (NTY) rainy days in northern Taiwan summer seasons showed more large drops on NTY than TY rainy days. Relatively higher convective activity and drier conditions in NTY than TY lead to variations in microphysical characteristics between TY and NTY rainy days. The raindrop size distribution and kinetic energy relations assessed for TY and NTY rainfall can be useful for evaluating the radar rainfall estimation algorithms, cloud modeling, and rainfall erosivity studies.
Saginela Ravindra Babu, Madineni Venkat Ratnam, Ghouse Basha, Shantanu Kumar Pani, and Neng-Huei Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5533–5547,Short summary
The present study explores the detailed structure, dynamics, and trace gas variability in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone (ASMA) in the extreme El Niño of 2015/16. The results find the structure of the ASMA shows strong spatial variability between July and August. A West Pacific mode of the anticyclone is noticed in August. A significant lowering of tropospheric tracers and strong increase in stratospheric tracers are found. The tropopause temperatures also exhibit a warming in the ASMA.
Youhua Tang, Huisheng Bian, Zhining Tao, Luke D. Oman, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Li Pan, Jun Wang, Jeffery McQueen, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2527–2550,Short summary
Chemical lateral boundary condition (CLBC) impact is essential for regional air quality prediction during intrusion events. We present a model mapping Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) to Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) CB05–AERO6 (Carbon Bond 5; version 6 of the aerosol module) species. Influence depends on distance from the inflow boundary and species and their regional characteristics. We use aerosol optical thickness to derive CLBCs, achieving reasonable prediction.
Ming-Tung Chuang, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Neng-Huei Lin, Joshua S. Fu, Chung-Te Lee, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Wei-Syun Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14947–14967,Short summary
This study evaluated the impact of Asian haze from the three biggest industrial regions on Taiwan and analyzed the process during transport. The production and removal process revealed the mechanisms of long-range transport. This is the first time that the brute force method and process analysis technique has been applied in a Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. Also, this study simulated the interesting transboundary transport of pollutants from southern mainland China to Taiwan.
Bangsheng Yin, Qilong Min, Emily Morgan, Yuekui Yang, Alexander Marshak, and Anthony B. Davis
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5259–5275,Short summary
Cloud-top pressure (CTP) is an important cloud property for climate and weather studies. Based on differential oxygen absorption, both oxygen A-band and B-band pairs can be used to retrieve CTP. However, it is currently very challenging to perform a CTP retrieval accurately due to the complicated in-cloud penetration effect. To address this issue, we propose an analytic transfer inverse model for DSCOVR EPIC observations to retrieve CTP considering in-cloud photon penetration.
Paolo Laj, Alessandro Bigi, Clémence Rose, Elisabeth Andrews, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Martine Collaud Coen, Yong Lin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Michael Schulz, John A. Ogren, Markus Fiebig, Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Marco Pandolfi, Tuukka Petäja, Sang-Woo Kim, Wenche Aas, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Olga Mayol-Bracero, Melita Keywood, Lorenzo Labrador, Pasi Aalto, Erik Ahlberg, Lucas Alados Arboledas, Andrés Alastuey, Marcos Andrade, Begoña Artíñano, Stina Ausmeel, Todor Arsov, Eija Asmi, John Backman, Urs Baltensperger, Susanne Bastian, Olaf Bath, Johan Paul Beukes, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Sébastien Conil, Cedric Couret, Derek Day, Wan Dayantolis, Anna Degorska, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Prodromos Fetfatzis, Olivier Favez, Harald Flentje, Maria I. Gini, Asta Gregorič, Martin Gysel-Beer, A. Gannet Hallar, Jenny Hand, Andras Hoffer, Christoph Hueglin, Rakesh K. Hooda, Antti Hyvärinen, Ivo Kalapov, Nikos Kalivitis, Anne Kasper-Giebl, Jeong Eun Kim, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Irena Kranjc, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Casper Labuschagne, Hae-Jung Lee, Heikki Lihavainen, Neng-Huei Lin, Gunter Löschau, Krista Luoma, Angela Marinoni, Sebastiao Martins Dos Santos, Frank Meinhardt, Maik Merkel, Jean-Marc Metzger, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Jakub Ondracek, Noemi Pérez, Maria Rita Perrone, Jean-Eudes Petit, David Picard, Jean-Marc Pichon, Veronique Pont, Natalia Prats, Anthony Prenni, Fabienne Reisen, Salvatore Romano, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Gerhard Schauer, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Maik Schütze, Andreas Schwerin, Ralf Sohmer, Mar Sorribas, Martin Steinbacher, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Barbara Toczko, Thomas Tuch, Pierre Tulet, Peter Tunved, Ville Vakkari, Fernando Velarde, Patricio Velasquez, Paolo Villani, Sterios Vratolis, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Kay Weinhold, Rolf Weller, Margarita Yela, Jesus Yus-Diez, Vladimir Zdimal, Paul Zieger, and Nadezda Zikova
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4353–4392,Short summary
The paper establishes the fiducial reference of the GAW aerosol network providing the fully characterized value chain to the provision of four climate-relevant aerosol properties from ground-based sites. Data from almost 90 stations worldwide are reported for a reference year, 2017, providing a unique and very robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. Current gaps in the GAW network are analysed and requirements for the Global Climate Monitoring System are proposed.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Andrés Alastuey, Todor Petkov Arsov, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Cédric Couret, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Harald Flentje, Markus Fiebig, Martin Gysel-Beer, Jenny L. Hand, András Hoffer, Rakesh Hooda, Christoph Hueglin, Warren Joubert, Melita Keywood, Jeong Eun Kim, Sang-Woo Kim, Casper Labuschagne, Neng-Huei Lin, Yong Lin, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Krista Luoma, Hassan Lyamani, Angela Marinoni, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Marco Pandolfi, Natalia Prats, Anthony J. Prenni, Jean-Philippe Putaud, Ludwig Ries, Fabienne Reisen, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Patrick Sheridan, James Patrick Sherman, Junying Sun, Gloria Titos, Elvis Torres, Thomas Tuch, Rolf Weller, Alfred Wiedensohler, Paul Zieger, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8867–8908,Short summary
Long-term trends of aerosol radiative properties (52 stations) prove that aerosol load has significantly decreased over the last 20 years. Scattering trends are negative in Europe (EU) and North America (NA), not ss in Asia, and show a mix of positive and negative trends at polar stations. Absorption has mainly negative trends. The single scattering albedo has positive trends in Asia and eastern EU and negative in western EU and NA, leading to a global positive median trend of 0.02 % per year.
Yuekui Yang, Kerry Meyer, Galina Wind, Yaping Zhou, Alexander Marshak, Steven Platnick, Qilong Min, Anthony B. Davis, Joanna Joiner, Alexander Vasilkov, David Duda, and Wenying Su
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2019–2031,Short summary
The physical basis of the EPIC cloud product algorithms and an initial evaluation of their performance are presented. EPIC cloud products include cloud mask, effective height, and optical depth. Comparison with co-located retrievals from geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) satellites shows that the algorithms are performing well and are consistent with theoretical expectations. These products are publicly available at the NASA Langley Atmospheric Sciences Data Center.
Martine Collaud Coen, Elisabeth Andrews, Diego Aliaga, Marcos Andrade, Hristo Angelov, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Marina Ealo, Paulo Fialho, Harald Flentje, A. Gannet Hallar, Rakesh Hooda, Ivo Kalapov, Radovan Krejci, Neng-Huei Lin, Angela Marinoni, Jing Ming, Nhat Anh Nguyen, Marco Pandolfi, Véronique Pont, Ludwig Ries, Sergio Rodríguez, Gerhard Schauer, Karine Sellegri, Sangeeta Sharma, Junying Sun, Peter Tunved, Patricio Velasquez, and Dominique Ruffieux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12289–12313,Short summary
High altitude stations are often emphasized as free tropospheric measuring sites but they remain influenced by atmospheric boundary layer. An ABL-TopoIndex is defined from a topography analysis around the stations. This new index allows ranking stations as a function of the ABL influence due to topography or help to choose a new site to sample FT. The ABL-TopoIndex is validated by aerosol optical properties and number concentration measured at 29 high altitude stations of five continents.
Matthew Gibbons, Qilong Min, and Jiwen Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12161–12184,Short summary
The effects of dust aerosols on ice formation within a tropical Atlantic thunderstorm system were investigated using a 3-D weather model and compared with observations. Updated ice formation mechanisms directly connect available dust particles with ice particle formation. The resulting clouds were lower and narrower and produced less rain at the surface compared to cleaner conditions, due to ice formation occurring at warmer temperatures. These results agree well with observed changes.
Partha Sarathi Bhattacharjee, Jun Wang, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, and Vijay Tallapragada
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2333–2351,Short summary
National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) at NOAA recently upgraded their operational global aerosol forecast model from dust-only in version 1 to five species (dust, sea salt, black and organic carbon) of aerosols in version 2. In this work, we have validated the newly implemented aerosol model (NGACv2) which forecast at every 3 h up to 5 days against ground and satellite observations and other available model simulations.
Jun Wang, Partha S. Bhattacharjee, Vijay Tallapragada, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Shobha Kondragunta, Arlindo da Silva, Xiaoyang Zhang, Sheng-Po Chen, Shih-Wei Wei, Anton S. Darmenov, Jeff McQueen, Pius Lee, Prabhat Koner, and Andy Harris
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2315–2332,Short summary
The NEMS GFS Aerosol Component (NGAC) version 2.0 for global multispecies aerosol forecast was developed at NCEP. Additional sea salt, sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosol species were included. This implementation advanced the global aerosol forecast capability and made a step forward toward developing a global aerosol data assimilation system. The aerosol products from this system have been provided to meet the stakeholder's needs.
Lauren Schmeisser, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, Patrick Sheridan, Anne Jefferson, Sangeeta Sharma, Jeong Eun Kim, James P. Sherman, Mar Sorribas, Ivo Kalapov, Todor Arsov, Christo Angelov, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Casper Labuschagne, Sang-Woo Kim, András Hoffer, Neng-Huei Lin, Hao-Ping Chia, Michael Bergin, Junying Sun, Peng Liu, and Hao Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12097–12120,Short summary
Three methods are used to classify aerosol type from aerosol optical properties measured in situ at 24 surface sites. Classification methods work best at sites with stable, homogenous aerosol at particularly polluted and dust-prone continental and marine sites. Classification methods are poor at remote marine and Arctic sites. Using these methods to extrapolate aerosol type from optical properties can help determine aerosol radiative forcing and improve aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms.
David E. Oram, Matthew J. Ashfold, Johannes C. Laube, Lauren J. Gooch, Stephen Humphrey, William T. Sturges, Emma Leedham-Elvidge, Grant L. Forster, Neil R. P. Harris, Mohammed Iqbal Mead, Azizan Abu Samah, Siew Moi Phang, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Neng-Huei Lin, Jia-Lin Wang, Angela K. Baker, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, and David Sherry
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11929–11941,Short summary
We have observed large amounts of man-made chlorine compounds in E and SE Asia and in the upper tropical troposphere. These relatively short-lived compounds are not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, but if significant quantities were able to reach the stratosphere, the long-term recovery of stratospheric ozone would be delayed. We have also identified an important atmospheric transport mechanism that can rapidly transport these chemicals from E Asia to the upper troposphere via the tropics.
Siwei Li, Everette Joseph, Qilong Min, Bangsheng Yin, Ricardo Sakai, and Megan K. Payne
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2093–2104,Short summary
Monitoring fine aerosol concentration is important because of the adverse impacts of high fine-particle concentration on human health. However, monitoring fine aerosols is difficult during cloudy and nighttime periods. In this study, an empirical model using measurements from ceilometers was developed to measure fine aerosol mass concentration even under cloudy or nighttime conditions. The findings of this study illustrate the strong need for ceilometer data in air quality monitoring.
Jun Yang, Qilong Min, Weitao Lu, Ying Ma, Wen Yao, and Tianshu Lu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1191–1201,Short summary
A big challenge for accurate cloud detection is the inhomogeneous brightness distribution of sky background, which mainly caused by the difference in atmospheric scattering angles. In this manuscript, we report a new RGB channel operation aiming to remove this inhomogeneous sky background in the total sky images, and then a cloud detection algorithm based on this new channel is proposed which combined the merits of the threshold and differencing methods.
Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Arlindo da Silva, Jun Wang, Shrinivas Moorthi, Mian Chin, Peter Colarco, Youhua Tang, Partha S. Bhattacharjee, Shen-Po Chen, Hui-Ya Chuang, Hann-Ming Henry Juang, Jeffery McQueen, and Mark Iredell
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1905–1919,Short summary
Aerosols have an important effect on the Earth's climate and implications for public health. NASA has partnered with NOAA to transfer GOCART aerosol model to NCEP, enabling the first global aerosol forecasting system at NOAA/NCEP. This collaboration reflects an effective research-to-operation transition, paving the way for NCEP to provide global aerosol products serving a wide range of stakeholders and to allow the effects of aerosols on weather and climate prediction to be considered.
Matthew Gibbons, Qilong Min, and Jiwen Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Observations suggest cloud systems evolve differently under dusty conditions compared to other aerosols. We have used numerical modeling to study one such case. Dust increases the formation of small sized ice in the mid-troposphere. This enhanced convective intensity, shifted precipitation top height to higher altitudes, and glaciated clouds at lower altitudes. Consistent with observations, average cloud height was lowered due to a greater number of heavy particles forming near the cloud tops.
Jun Yang, Qilong Min, Weitao Lu, Ying Ma, Wen Yao, Tianshu Lu, Juan Du, and Guangyi Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 587–597,
J. Yang, Q. Min, W. Lu, W. Yao, Y. Ma, J. Du, T. Lu, and G. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4671–4679,
S. Li, E. Joseph, Q. Min, and B. Yin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Q. Min, B. Yin, S. Li, J. Berndt, L. Harrison, E. Joseph, M. Duan, and P. Kiedron
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1711–1722,
J. Fan, L. R. Leung, P. J. DeMott, J. M. Comstock, B. Singh, D. Rosenfeld, J. M. Tomlinson, A. White, K. A. Prather, P. Minnis, J. K. Ayers, and Q. Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 81–101,
C. T. Chang, S. P. Hamburg, J. L. Hwong, N. H. Lin, M. L. Hsueh, M. C. Chen, and T. C. Lin
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 3815–3826,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Zonal variations in the vertical distribution of atmospheric aerosols over the Indian region and the consequent radiative effectsGlobal maps of aerosol single scattering albedo using combined CERES-MODIS retrievalThe characterization of long-range transported North American biomass burning plumes: what can a multi-wavelength Mie–Raman-polarization-fluorescence lidar provide?Fluorescence lidar observations of wildfire smoke inside cirrus: a contribution to smoke–cirrus interaction researchA novel method of identifying and analysing oil smoke plumes based on MODIS and CALIPSO satellite dataPollen observations at four EARLINET stations during the ACTRIS-COVID-19 campaignIdentifying chemical aerosol signatures using optical suborbital observations: how much can optical properties tell us about aerosol composition?Quantification of the dust optical depth across spatiotemporal scales with the MIDAS global dataset (2003–2017)Evaluation of aerosol number concentrations from CALIPSO with ATom airborne in-situ measurementsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 2: Long-wave and net dust direct radiative effectWintertime Saharan dust transport towards the Caribbean: airborne lidar observations during EUREC4AComment on “Short-cut transport path for Asian dust directly to the Arctic: a case Study” by Huang et al. (2015) in Environ. Res. Lett.Statistical validation of Aeolus L2A particle backscatter coefficient retrievals over ACTRIS/EARLINET stations on the Iberian PeninsulaInferring iron-oxide species content in atmospheric mineral dust from DSCOVR EPIC observationsMesoscale spatio-temporal variability of airborne lidar-derived aerosol properties in the Barbados region during EUREC4ALong-term characterisation of the vertical structure of the Saharan Air Layer over the Canary Islands using lidar and radiosonde profiles: implications for radiative and cloud processes over the subtropical Atlantic OceanObserved slump of sea land breeze in Brisbane under the effect of aerosols from remote transport during 2019 Australian mega fire eventsMeasurement report: Vehicle-based multi-lidar observational study of the effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution of particles in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay AreaMarine aerosol properties over the Southern Ocean in relation to the wintertime meteorological conditionsThe spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and aerosol optical depth in China: influencing factors and implications for satellite PM2.5 estimations using MAIAC aerosol optical depthMeasurement report: Characterization of the vertical distribution of airborne Pinus pollen in the atmosphere with lidar-derived profiles – a modeling case study in the region of Barcelona, NE SpainInvestigation of near-global daytime boundary layer height using high-resolution radiosondes: first results and comparison with ERA5, MERRA-2, JRA-55, and NCEP-2 reanalysesEstimation of the vertical distribution of particle matter (PM2.5) concentration and its transport flux from lidar measurements based on machine learning algorithmsRelating geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia to fine particulate matter (PM2.5): insights from the KORUS-AQ aircraft campaign and GEOS-Chem model simulationsCanadian and Alaskan wildfire smoke particle properties, their evolution, and controlling factors, from satellite observationsThree-dimensional climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of global and regional tropospheric type-dependent aerosols: insights from 13 years (2007–2019) of CALIOP observationsAerosol properties and aerosol–radiation interactions in clear-sky conditions over GermanyGlobal dust optical depth climatology derived from CALIOP and MODIS aerosol retrievals on decadal timescales: regional and interannual variabilityAerosol optical properties derived from POLDER-3/PARASOL (2005–2013) over the Western Mediterranean Sea – Part 2: Spatial distribution and temporal variabilityObservation and modeling of the historic “Godzilla” African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin and the southern US in June 2020Multi-dimensional satellite observations of aerosol properties and aerosol types over three major urban clusters in eastern ChinaGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 1: MethodologyGeometric estimation of volcanic eruption column height from GOES-R near-limb imagery – Part 2: Case studiesSpatiotemporal changes in aerosol properties by hygroscopic growth and impacts on radiative forcing and heating rates during DISCOVER-AQ 2011Estimating radiative forcing efficiency of dust aerosol based on direct satellite observations: case studies over the Sahara and Taklimakan DesertSatellite-based estimation of the impacts of summertime wildfires on PM2.5 concentration in the United StatesAirborne and ground-based measurements of aerosol optical depth of freshly emitted anthropogenic plumes in the Athabasca Oil Sands RegionCloud drop number concentrations over the western North Atlantic Ocean: seasonal cycle, aerosol interrelationships, and other influential factorsSeparating emission and meteorological contributions to long-term PM2.5 trends over eastern China during 2000–2018Overview of the SLOPE I and II campaigns: aerosol properties retrieved with lidar and sun–sky photometer measurementsRestoring the top-of-atmosphere reflectance during solar eclipses: a proof of concept with the UV absorbing aerosol index measured by TROPOMIAssessing the contribution of the ENSO and MJO to Australian dust activity based on satellite- and ground-based observationsAerosol above-cloud direct radiative effect and properties in the Namibian region during the AErosol, RadiatiOn, and CLOuds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) field campaign – Multi-Viewing, Multi-Channel, Multi-Polarization (3MI) airborne simulator and sun photometer measurementsHimawari-8-derived diurnal variations in ground-level PM2.5 pollution across China using the fast space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (LightGBM)Lidar depolarization ratio of atmospheric pollen at multiple wavelengthsLidar vertical observation network and data assimilation reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations over the North China PlainAEROCOM and AEROSAT AAOD and SSA study – Part 1: Evaluation and intercomparison of satellite measurementsAerosol radiative impact during the summer 2019 heatwave produced partly by an inter-continental Saharan dust outbreak – Part 1: Short-wave dust direct radiative effectImpact of smoke and non-smoke aerosols on radiation and low-level clouds over the southeast Atlantic from co-located satellite observationsAerosol particle depolarization ratio at 1565 nm measured with a Halo Doppler lidar
Nair K. Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6067–6085,Short summary
We present the 3-D distribution of atmospheric aerosols and highlight its variation with respect to longitudes over the Indian mainland and the surrounding oceans using long-term satellite observations and realistic synthesised data. The atmospheric heating due to the 3-D distribution of aerosols is estimated using radiative transfer calculations. We believe that our findings will have strong implications for aerosol–radiation interactions in regional climate simulations.
Archana Devi and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5365–5376,Short summary
Global maps of aerosol absorption were generated using a multi-satellite retrieval algorithm. The retrieved values were validated with available aircraft-based measurements and compared with other global datasets. Seasonal and spatial distributions of aerosol absorption over various regions are also presented. The global maps of single scattering albedo with improved accuracy provide important input to climate models for assessing the climatic impact of aerosols on regional and global scales.
Qiaoyun Hu, Philippe Goloub, Igor Veselovskii, and Thierry Podvin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5399–5414,Short summary
Our lidar observations show that the optical properties of wildfire smoke particles are highly varied after long-range transport. The variabilities are probably relevant to vegetation type, combustion condition and the aging process, which alter the smoke particle properties, as well as their impact on cloud processes and properties. The lidar fluorescence channel provides a good opportunity for smoke characterization and heterogenous ice crystal formation.
Igor Veselovskii, Qiaoyun Hu, Albert Ansmann, Philippe Goloub, Thierry Podvin, and Mikhail Korenskiy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5209–5221,Short summary
A remote sensing method based on fluorescence lidar measurements can detect and quantify the smoke content in the upper troposphere and inside cirrus clouds. Based on two case studies, we demonstrate that the fluorescence lidar technique provides the possibility to estimate the smoke surface area concentration within freshly formed cirrus layers. This value was used in a smoke ice nucleating particle parameterization scheme to predict ice crystal number concentrations in cirrus generation cells.
Alexandru Mereuţă, Nicolae Ajtai, Andrei T. Radovici, Nikolaos Papagiannopoulos, Lucia T. Deaconu, Camelia S. Botezan, Horaţiu I. Ştefănie, Doina Nicolae, and Alexandru Ozunu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5071–5098,Short summary
In this study we analysed oil smoke plumes from 30 major industrial events within a 12-year timeframe. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind that uses a synergetic approach based on satellite remote sensing techniques. Satellite data offer access to these events, which are mainly located in war-prone or hazardous areas. Our study highlights the need for improved aerosol models and algorithms for these types of aerosols with implications on air quality and climate change.
Xiaoxia Shang, Holger Baars, Iwona S. Stachlewska, Ina Mattis, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3931–3944,Short summary
This study reports pollen observations at four lidar stations (Hohenpeißenberg, Germany; Kuopio, Finland; Leipzig, Germany; and Warsaw, Poland) during the intensive observation campaign organized in May 2020. A novel simple method for the characterization of the pure pollen is proposed, based on lidar measurements. It was applied to evaluate the pollen depolarization ratio and for the aerosol classifications.
Meloë S. F. Kacenelenbogen, Qian Tan, Sharon P. Burton, Otto P. Hasekamp, Karl D. Froyd, Yohei Shinozuka, Andreas J. Beyersdorf, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jack E. Dibb, Taylor Shingler, Armin Sorooshian, Reed W. Espinosa, Vanderlei Martins, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Joshua P. Schwarz, Matthew S. Johnson, Jens Redemann, and Gregory L. Schuster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3713–3742,Short summary
The impact of aerosols on Earth's radiation budget and human health is important and strongly depends on their composition. One desire of our scientific community is to derive the composition of the aerosol from satellite sensors. However, satellites observe aerosol optical properties (and not aerosol composition) based on remote sensing instrumentation. This study assesses how much aerosol optical properties can tell us about aerosol composition.
Antonis Gkikas, Emmanouil Proestakis, Vassilis Amiridis, Stelios Kazadzis, Enza Di Tomaso, Eleni Marinou, Nikos Hatzianastassiou, Jasper F. Kok, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3553–3578,Short summary
We present a comprehensive climatological analysis of dust optical depth (DOD) relying on the MIDAS dataset. MIDAS provides columnar mid-visible (550 nm) DOD at fine spatial resolution (0.1° × 0.1°) over a 15-year period (2003–2017). In the current study, the analysis is performed at various spatial (from regional to global) and temporal (from months to years) scales. More specifically, focus is given to specific regions hosting the major dust sources as well as downwind areas of the planet.
Goutam Choudhury, Albert Ansmann, and Matthias Tesche
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Lidars provide height-resolved type-specific aerosol properties and are key in studying vertically collocated aerosols and clouds. In this study, we compare the aerosol number concentrations derived from spaceborne lidar with the in-situ flight measurements. Our results show a reasonable agreement between both datasets. Such an agreement has not been achieved yet. It shows the potential of spaceborne lidar in studying aerosol-cloud interactions much needed to improve our model forecasts.
Michaël Sicard, Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1921–1937,Short summary
This paper completes the companion paper of Córdoba-Jabonero et al. (2021). We estimate the total direct radiative effect produced by mineral dust particles during the June 2019 mega-heatwave at two sites in Spain and Germany. The results show that the dust particles in the atmosphere contribute to cooling the surface (less radiation reaches the surface) and that the heatwave (parametrized by high surface and air temperatures) contributes to reducing this cooling.
Manuel Gutleben, Silke Groß, Christian Heske, and Martin Wirth
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The main transportation route of Saharan mineral dust particles leads over the subtropical Atlantic Ocean and is subject to a seasonal variation. This study investigates the characteristics of wintertime transatlantic dust transport towards the Caribbean by means of airborne lidar measurements. It is found that dust particles are transported at low atmospheric altitudes (< 3.5 km) embedded in a relatively moist mixture with two other particle types, namely marine and biomass burning particles.
Keyvan Ranjbar, Norm T. O'Neill, and Yasmin Aboel-Fetouh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1757–1760,Short summary
We argue that the illustration employed by Huang et al. (2015) to demonstrate the transport of Asian dust to the high Arctic was, in fact, largely a cloud event and that the actual impact of Asian dust was measurable but much weaker than what they proposed and had occurred a day earlier (in agreement with the transport model they had employed to predict the transport path to the high Arctic).
Jesús Abril-Gago, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Maria João Costa, Juan Antonio Bravo-Aranda, Michaël Sicard, Diego Bermejo-Pantaleón, Daniele Bortoli, María José Granados-Muñoz, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Adolfo Comerón, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Vanda Salgueiro, Marta María Jiménez-Martín, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1425–1451,Short summary
A validation of Aeolus reprocessed optical products is carried out via an intercomparison with ground-based measurements taken at several ACTRIS/EARLINET stations in western Europe. Case studies and a statistical analysis are presented. The stations are located in a hot spot between Africa and the rest of Europe, which guarantees a variety of aerosol types, from mineral dust layers to continental/anthropogenic aerosol, and allows us to test Aeolus performance under different scenarios.
Sujung Go, Alexei Lyapustin, Gregory L. Schuster, Myungje Choi, Paul Ginoux, Mian Chin, Olga Kalashnikova, Oleg Dubovik, Jhoon Kim, Arlindo da Silva, Brent Holben, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1395–1423,Short summary
This paper presents a retrieval algorithm of iron-oxide species (hematite, goethite) content in the atmosphere from DSCOVR EPIC observations. Our results display variations within the published range of hematite and goethite over the main dust-source regions but show significant seasonal and spatial variability. This implies a single-viewing satellite instrument with UV–visible channels may provide essential information on shortwave dust direct radiative effects for climate modeling.
Patrick Chazette, Alexandre Baron, and Cyrille Flamant
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1271–1292,Short summary
Within the framework of the international EUREC4A project, horizontal lidar measurements were carried out over Barbados from the French research aircraft ATR-42. These measurements highlighted the strong heterogeneity of the aerosol field (mainly dust and biomass burning aerosols) and therefore of the associated optical properties. This heterogeneity varies according to meteorological conditions and could significantly modulate the climatic impact of aerosols trapped over the tropical Atlantic.
África Barreto, Emilio Cuevas, Rosa D. García, Judit Carrillo, Joseph M. Prospero, Luka Ilić, Sara Basart, Alberto J. Berjón, Carlos L. Marrero, Yballa Hernández, Juan José Bustos, Slobodan Ničković, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 739–763,Short summary
In this study, we categorise the different patterns of dust transport over the subtropical North Atlantic and for the first time robustly describe the dust vertical distribution in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over this region. Our results revealed the important role that both dust and water vapour play in the radiative balance in summer and winter and confirm the role of the SAL in the formation of mid-level clouds as a result of the activation of heterogeneous ice nucleation processes.
Lixing Shen, Chuanfeng Zhao, Xingchuan Yang, Yikun Yang, and Ping Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 419–439,Short summary
Using multi-year data, this study reveals the slump of sea land breeze (SLB) at Brisbane during mega fires and investigates the impact of fire-induced aerosols on SLB. Different aerosols have different impacts on sea wind (SW) and land wind (LW). Aerosols cause the decrease of SW, partially offset by the warming effect of black carbon (BC). The large-scale cooling effect of aerosols on sea surface temperature (SST) and the burst of BC contribute to the slump of LW.
Xinqi Xu, Jielan Xie, Yuman Li, Shengjie Miao, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 139–153,Short summary
The effect of meteorological elements on the three-dimensional distribution structure of particles was studied by making vehicle-based multi-lidar observations in the western Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area of China. Results showed that distribution of particles was closely related to horizontal wind speed and direction, vertical wind speed, and temperature. A model for meteorological elements affecting the vertical distribution of urban particles was offered in this study.
Manu Anna Thomas, Abhay Devasthale, and Michael Kahnert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 119–137,Short summary
The Southern Ocean (SO) covers a large area of our planet and its boundary layer is dominated by sea salt aerosols during winter. These aerosols have large implications for the regional climate through their direct and indirect effects. Using satellite and reanalysis data, we document if and how the aerosol properties over the SO are dependent on different local meteorological parameters. Such an observational assessment is necessary to improve the understanding of atmospheric aerosol processes.
Qingqing He, Mengya Wang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18375–18391,Short summary
We explore the spatiotemporal relationship between PM2.5 and AOD over China using a multi-scale analysis with MODIS MAIAC 1 km aerosol observations and ground measurements. The impact factors (vertical distribution, relative humidity and terrain) on the relationship are quantitatively studied. Our results provide significant information on PM2.5 and AOD, which is informative for mapping high-resolution PM2.5 and furthering the understanding of aerosol properties and the PM2.5 pollution status.
Michaël Sicard, Oriol Jorba, Jiang Ji Ho, Rebeca Izquierdo, Concepción De Linares, Marta Alarcón, Adolfo Comerón, and Jordina Belmonte
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17807–17832,Short summary
This paper investigates the mechanisms involved in the dispersion, structure, and mixing in the vertical column of atmospheric pollen, using observations of pollen concentration obtained at the ground and its stratification in the atmosphere measured by a lidar (laser radar), as well as an atmospheric transport model and a simplified pollen module developed especially for this study. The largest pollen concentration difference between the ground and the layers above is observed during nighttime.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Yingying Ma, Yang Zhu, Boming Liu, Hui Li, Shikuan Jin, Yiqun Zhang, Ruonan Fan, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17003–17016,Short summary
The vertical distribution of the aerosol extinction coefficient (EC) measured by lidar systems has been used to retrieve the profile of particle matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). However, the traditional linear model cannot consider the influence of multiple meteorological variables sufficiently, which then causes low inversion accuracy. In this study, the machine learning algorithms which can input multiple features are used to solve this constraint.
Shixian Zhai, Daniel J. Jacob, Jared F. Brewer, Ke Li, Jonathan M. Moch, Jhoon Kim, Seoyoung Lee, Hyunkwang Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Su Keun Kuk, Rokjin J. Park, Jaein I. Jeong, Xuan Wang, Pengfei Liu, Gan Luo, Fangqun Yu, Jun Meng, Randall V. Martin, Katherine R. Travis, Johnathan W. Hair, Bruce E. Anderson, Jack E. Dibb, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jung-Hun Woo, Younha Kim, Qiang Zhang, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16775–16791,Short summary
Geostationary satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) has tremendous potential for monitoring surface fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our study explored the physical relationship between AOD and PM2.5 by integrating data from surface networks, aircraft, and satellites with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We quantitatively showed that accurate simulation of aerosol size distributions, boundary layer depths, relative humidity, coarse particles, and diurnal variations in PM2.5 are essential.
Katherine T. Junghenn Noyes, Ralph A. Kahn, James A. Limbacher, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We compare retrievals on wildfire smoke particle size, shape, and light-absorption from the MISR satellite instrument to modeling and other satellite data on land cover type, drought conditions, meteorology, and estimates of fire intensity (fire radiative power, or FRP). We find statistically significant differences in the particle properties based on burning conditions and land cover type, and interpret how changes in these properties point to specific aerosol aging mechanisms.
Ke Gui, Huizheng Che, Yu Zheng, Hujia Zhao, Wenrui Yao, Lei Li, Lei Zhang, Hong Wang, Yaqiang Wang, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15309–15336,Short summary
This study utilized the globally gridded aerosol extinction data from CALIOP during 2007–2019 to investigate the 3D climatology, trends, and meteorological drivers of tropospheric type-dependent aerosols. Results revealed that the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere contribute 62.08 % and 37.92 %, respectively, of the global tropospheric TAOD. Trends in CALIOP-derived aerosol loading, in particular those partitioned in the PBL, can be explained to a large extent by meteorology.
Jonas Witthuhn, Anja Hünerbein, Florian Filipitsch, Stefan Wacker, Stefanie Meilinger, and Hartwig Deneke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14591–14630,Short summary
Knowledge of aerosol–radiation interactions is important for understanding the climate system and for the renewable energy sector. Here, two complementary approaches are used to assess the consistency of the underlying aerosol properties and the resulting radiative effect in clear-sky conditions over Germany in 2015. An approach based on clear-sky models and broadband irradiance observations is contrasted to the use of explicit radiative transfer simulations using CAMS reanalysis data.
Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Hongbin Yu, Paul Ginoux, and Jerry Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13369–13395,Short summary
We present a satellite-derived global dust climatological record over the last two decades, including the monthly mean visible dust optical depth (DAOD) and vertical distribution of dust extinction coefficient at a 2º × 5º spatial resolution derived from CALIOP and MODIS. In addition, the CALIOP climatological dataset also includes dust vertical extinction profiles. Based on these two datasets, we carried out a comprehensive comparative study of the spatial and temporal climatology of dust.
Isabelle Chiapello, Paola Formenti, Lydie Mbemba Kabuiku, Fabrice Ducos, Didier Tanré, and François Dulac
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12715–12737,Short summary
The Mediterranean atmosphere is impacted by a variety of particle pollution, which exerts a complex pressure on climate and air quality. We analyze the 2005–2013 POLDER-3 satellite advanced aerosol data set over the Western Mediterranean Sea. Aerosols' spatial distribution and temporal evolution suggests a large-scale improvement of air quality related to the fine aerosol component, most probably resulting from reduction of anthropogenic particle emissions in the surrounding European countries.
Hongbin Yu, Qian Tan, Lillian Zhou, Yaping Zhou, Huisheng Bian, Mian Chin, Claire L. Ryder, Robert C. Levy, Yaswant Pradhan, Yingxi Shi, Qianqian Song, Zhibo Zhang, Peter R. Colarco, Dongchul Kim, Lorraine A. Remer, Tianle Yuan, Olga Mayol-Bracero, and Brent N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12359–12383,Short summary
This study characterizes a historic African dust intrusion into the Caribbean Basin in June 2020 using satellites and NASA GEOS. Dust emissions in West Africa were large albeit not extreme. However, a unique synoptic system accumulated the dust near the coast for about 4 d before it was ventilated. Although GEOS reproduced satellite-observed plume tracks well, it substantially underestimated dust emissions and did not lift up dust high enough for ensuing long-range transport.
Yuqin Liu, Tao Lin, Juan Hong, Yonghong Wang, Lamei Shi, Yiyi Huang, Xian Wu, Hao Zhou, Jiahua Zhang, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12331–12358,Short summary
The four-dimensional variation of aerosol properties over the BTH, YRD and PRD (east China) were investigated using satellite observations from 2007 to 2020. Distinct differences between the aerosol optical depth and vertical distribution of the occurrence of aerosol types over these regions depend on season, aerosol loading and meteorological conditions. Day–night differences between the vertical distribution of aerosol types suggest effects of boundary layer dynamics and aerosol transport.
Ákos Horváth, James L. Carr, Olga A. Girina, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12189–12206,Short summary
We give a detailed description of a new technique to estimate the height of volcanic eruption columns from near-limb geostationary imagery. Such oblique angle observations offer spectacular side views of eruption columns protruding from the Earth ellipsoid and thereby facilitate a height-by-angle estimation method. Due to its purely geometric nature, the new technique is unaffected by the limitations of traditional brightness-temperature-based height retrievals.
Ákos Horváth, Olga A. Girina, James L. Carr, Dong L. Wu, Alexey A. Bril, Alexey A. Mazurov, Dmitry V. Melnikov, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, and Stefan A. Buehler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12207–12226,Short summary
We demonstrate the side view plume height estimation technique described in Part 1 on seven volcanic eruptions from 2019 and 2020, including the 2019 Raikoke eruption. We explore the strengths and limitations of the new technique in comparison to height estimation from brightness temperatures, stereo observations, and ground-based video footage.
Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, David N. Whiteman, Igor Veselovskii, Richard Ferrare, Gloria Titos, María José Granados-Muñoz, Guadalupe Sánchez-Hernández, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12021–12048,Short summary
This paper shows how aerosol hygroscopicity enhances the vertical profile of aerosol backscattering and extinction. The study is possible thanks to the large set of remote sensing instruments and focuses on the the Baltimore–Washington DC metropolitan area during hot and humid summer days with very relevant anthropogenic emission aerosol sources. The results illustrate how the combination of aerosol emissions and meteorological conditions ultimately alters the aerosol radiative forcing.
Lin Tian, Lin Chen, Peng Zhang, and Lei Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11669–11687,Short summary
The result shows dust aerosols from the Taklimakan Desert have higher aerosol scattering during dust storm cases of this paper, and this caused higher negative direct radiative forcing efficiency (DRFEdust) than aerosols from the Sahara. The microphysical properties and particle shapes of dust aerosol significantly influence DRFEdust. The satellite-based equi-albedo method has a unique advantage in DRFEdust estimation: it could validate the results derived from the numerical model directly.
Zhixin Xue, Pawan Gupta, and Sundar Christopher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11243–11256,Short summary
Frequent and widespread wildfires in the northwestern United States and Canada have become the
new normalduring the Northern Hemisphere summer months, which degrades particulate matter air quality in the United States significantly. Using satellite data, we show that smoke aerosols caused significant pollution changes over half of the United States. We estimate that nearly 29 states have increased PM2.5 during the fire-active year when compared to fire-inactive years.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Hossein Dadashazar, David Painemal, Majid Alipanah, Michael Brunke, Seethala Chellappan, Andrea F. Corral, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Claire Robinson, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, Kenneth Sinclair, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Xubin Zeng, Luke Ziemba, Paquita Zuidema, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10499–10526,Short summary
This study investigates the seasonal cycle of cloud drop number concentration (Nd) over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO) using multiple datasets. Reasons for the puzzling discrepancy between the seasonal cycles of Nd and aerosol concentration were identified. Results indicate that Nd is highest in winter (when aerosol proxy values are often lowest) due to conditions both linked to cold-air outbreaks and that promote greater droplet activation.
Qingyang Xiao, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Cuihong Chen, Xiaomeng Huang, Huizheng Che, Xiaoye Zhang, Kebin He, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9475–9496,Short summary
We used both statistical methods and a chemical transport model to assess the contribution of meteorology and emissions to PM2.5 during 2000–2018. Both methods revealed that emissions dominated the long-term PM2.5 trend with notable meteorological effects ranged up to 37.9 % of regional annual average PM2.5. The meteorological contribution became more beneficial to PM2.5 control in southern China but more unfavorable in northern China during the studied period.
Jose Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Roberto Román, Hassan Lyamani, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, María José Granados-Muñoz, Milagros Herrera, Alberto Cazorla, Gloria Titos, Pablo Ortiz-Amezcua, Andrés Esteban Bedoya-Velásquez, Gregori de Arruda Moreira, Noemí Pérez, Andrés Alastuey, Oleg Dubovik, Juan Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Francisco José Olmo-Reyes, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9269–9287,Short summary
In this paper, we use the GRASP algorithm combining different remote sensing measurements to obtain the aerosol vertical and column properties during the SLOPE I and II campaigns. We show an overview of aerosol properties retrieved by GRASP during these campaigns and evaluate the retrievals of aerosol properties using the in situ measurements performed at a high-altitude station and airborne flights. For the first time we present an evaluation of the absorption coefficient by GRASP.
Victor Trees, Ping Wang, and Piet Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8593–8614,Short summary
Given the time and location of a point on the Earth's surface, we explain how to compute the wavelength-dependent obscuration during solar eclipses. We restore the top-of-atmosphere reflectances and the absorbing aerosol index in the partial Moon shadow during the solar eclipses on 26 December 2019 and 21 June 2020 measured by TROPOMI. This correction method resolves eclipse anomalies and allows for study of the effect of solar eclipses on the composition of the Earth's atmosphere from space.
Yan Yu and Paul Ginoux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8511–8530,Short summary
Despite Australian dust’s critical role in the regional climate and surrounding marine ecosystems, the controlling factors of its spatiotemporal variations are not fully understood. This study establishes the connection between large-scale climate variability and regional dust emission, leading to a better understanding of the spatiotemporal variation in dust activity and improved prediction of dust's climate and ecological influences.
Aurélien Chauvigné, Fabien Waquet, Frédérique Auriol, Luc Blarel, Cyril Delegove, Oleg Dubovik, Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Philippe Goloub, Rodrigue Loisil, Marc Mallet, Jean-Marc Nicolas, Frédéric Parol, Fanny Peers, Benjamin Torres, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8233–8253,Short summary
This work presents aerosol above-cloud properties close to the Namibian coast from a combination of airborne passive remote sensing. The complete analysis of aerosol and cloud optical properties and their microphysical and radiative properties allows us to better identify the impacts of biomass burning emissions. This work also gives a complete overview of the key parameters for constraining climate models in case aerosol and cloud coexist in the troposphere.
Jing Wei, Zhanqing Li, Rachel T. Pinker, Jun Wang, Lin Sun, Wenhao Xue, Runze Li, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7863–7880,Short summary
This study developed a space-time Light Gradient Boosting Machine (STLG) model to derive the high-temporal-resolution (1 h) and high-quality PM2.5 dataset in China (i.e., ChinaHighPM2.5) at a 5 km spatial resolution from the Himawari-8 Advanced Himawari Imager aerosol products. Our model outperforms most previous related studies with a much lower computation burden in terms of speed and memory, making it most suitable for real-time air pollution monitoring in China.
Stephanie Bohlmann, Xiaoxia Shang, Ville Vakkari, Elina Giannakaki, Ari Leskinen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Sanna Pätsi, and Mika Komppula
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7083–7097,Short summary
Measurements of the multi-wavelength Raman polarization lidar PollyXT and a Halo Photonics StreamLine Doppler lidar have been combined with measurements of pollen type and concentration using a traditional pollen trap at the rural forest site in Vehmasmäki, Finland. Depolarization ratios were measured at three wavelengths. High depolarization ratios were detected during an event with high birch and spruce pollen concentrations and a wavelength dependence of the depolarization ratio was observed.
Yan Xiang, Tianshu Zhang, Chaoqun Ma, Lihui Lv, Jianguo Liu, Wenqing Liu, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7023–7037,Short summary
For the first time, a vertical observation network consisting of 13 aerosol lidars and more than 1000 ground observation stations were combined with a data assimilation technique to reveal key processes driving the 3-D dynamic evolution of PM2.5 concentrations during extreme heavy aerosol pollution on the North China Plain.
Nick Schutgens, Oleg Dubovik, Otto Hasekamp, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Peter J. T. Leonard, Pavel Litvinov, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Gerrit de Leeuw, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6895–6917,Short summary
Absorptive aerosol has a potentially large impact on climate change. We evaluate and intercompare four global satellite datasets of absorptive aerosol optical depth (AAOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). We show that these datasets show reasonable correlations with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) reference, although significant biases remain. In a follow-up paper we show that these observations nevertheless can be used for model evaluation.
Carmen Córdoba-Jabonero, Michaël Sicard, María-Ángeles López-Cayuela, Albert Ansmann, Adolfo Comerón, María-Paz Zorzano, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Constantino Muñoz-Porcar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6455–6479,Short summary
The particular pathway of dust outbreaks defines the aerosol scenario and short-wave (SW) dust direct radiative effect (DRE). The synergetic use of POLIPHON method with continuous P-MPL measurements allows SW DRE of coarse (Dc) and fine (Df) dust particles to be evaluated separately. A dust-induced cooling effect is found, and despite Dc usually being dominant in intense dust events, the Df contribution to the total DRE can be significant, being higher at the top of atmosphere than on surface.
Alejandro Baró Pérez, Abhay Devasthale, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6053–6077,Short summary
We study the impacts of above-cloud biomass burning plumes on radiation and clouds over the southeast Atlantic using data derived from satellite observations and data-constrained model simulations. A substantial amount of the aerosol within the plumes is not classified as smoke by the satellite. The atmosphere warms more with increasing smoke aerosol loading. No clear influence of aerosol type, loading, or moisture within the overlying aerosol plumes is detected on the cloud top cooling rates.
Ville Vakkari, Holger Baars, Stephanie Bohlmann, Johannes Bühl, Mika Komppula, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, and Ewan James O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5807–5820,Short summary
The depolarization ratio is a valuable parameter for aerosol categorization from remote sensing measurements. Here, we introduce particle depolarization ratio measurements at the 1565 nm wavelength, which is substantially longer than previously utilized wavelengths and enhances our capabilities to study the wavelength dependency of the particle depolarization ratio.
Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M. P., Stevens, D. E., and Toon, O. B.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, 2004.
Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1231, 1989.
Albrecht, B. A., Bretherton, C. S., Johnson, D., Scubert, W. H., and Frisch, A. S.: The Atlantic stratocumulus transition experiment–ASTEX, B. Am. Meteor. Soc., 76, 889–904, 1995.
Andreae, M. O., Rosenfeld, D., Artaxo, P., Costa, A., Frank, G., Longo, K., and Silva-Dias, M.: Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon, Science, 303, 1337–1342, 2004.
Bellouin, N., Quaas, J., Gryspeerdt, E., Kinne, S., Stier, P., Watson-Parris, D., Boucher, O., Carslaw, K., Christensen, M., Daniau, A.-L., Dufresne, J.-L., Feingold, G., Fiedler, S., Forster, P., Gettelman, A., Haywood, J., Lohmann, U., Malavelle, F., Mauritsen, T., McCoy, D., Myhre, G., Mülmenstädt, J., Neubauer, D., Possner, A., Rugenstein, M., Sato, Y., Schulz, M., Schwartz, S., Sourdeval, O., Storelvmo, T., Toll, V., Winker, D., and Stevens, B.: Bounding global aerosol radiative forcing of climate change. Reviews of Geophysics, 58, e2019RG000660, https://doi.org/10.1029/2019RG000660, 2020.
Bréon, F.-M., Tanré, D., and Generoso, S.: Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite, Science, 295, 834–838, 2002.
Bretherton, C. S., Wood, R., George, R. C., Leon, D., Allen, G., and Zheng, X.: Southeast Pacific stratocumulus clouds, precipitation and boundary layer structure sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10639–10654, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10639-2010, 2010.
Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S., Hales, J., Cess, R. D., Coakley, J. J., Hansen, J., and Hofmann, D.: Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, Science, 255, 423–430, 1992.
Christensen, M. W., Neubauer, D., Poulsen, C. A., Thomas, G. E., McGarragh, G. R., Povey, A. C., Proud, S. R., and Grainger, R. G.: Unveiling aerosol–cloud interactions – Part 1: Cloud contamination in satellite products enhances the aerosol indirect forcing estimate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13151–13164, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-13151-2017, 2017.
Comstock, K. K., Wood, R., Yuter, S. E., and Bretherton, C. S.: Reflectivity and rain rate in and below drizzling stratocumulus, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 130, 2891–2918, 2004.
Costantino, L. and Bréon, F. M.: Analysis of aerosol-cloud interaction from multi-sensor satellite observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1287, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016633, 2010.
Feingold, G., Remer, L. A., Ramaprasad, J., and Kaufman, Y. J.: Analysis of smoke impact on clouds in Brazilian biomass burning regions: An extension of Twomey's approach, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 106, 22907–22922, 2001.
Feingold, G., Eberhard, W. L., Veron, D. E., and Previdi, M.: First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, L11801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL041828, 2003.
Ghan, S. J., Guzman, G., and Abdul-Razzak, H.: Competition between sea salt and sulfate particles as cloud condensation nuclei, J. Atmos. Sci., 55, 3340–3347, 1998.
Giorgi, F., Bi, X., and Qian, Y.: Indirect vs. direct effects of anthropogenic sulfate on the climate of East Asia as simulated with a regional coupled climate-chemistry/aerosol model, Clim. Change, 58, 345–376, 2003.
Grandey, B. S. and Stier, P.: A critical look at spatial scale choices in satellite-based aerosol indirect effect studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11459–11470, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11459-2010, 2010.
Greenberg, S.: Ground Based Rainfall Measurements at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Pennsylvania State University, 2001.
Guo, H., Golaz, J. C., and Donner, L.: Aerosol effects on stratocumulus water paths in a PDF-based parameterization, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L17808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048611, 2011.
Huang, Y., Chameides, W. L., and Dickinson, R. E.: Direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosols on regional precipitation over east Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D03212, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007114, 2007.
Huschke, R. E.: Glossary of Meteorology, American Meteorological Society, Boston, MA, 638 pp., 1959.
Jones, T. A., Christopher, S. A., and Quaas, J.: A six year satellite-based assessment of the regional variations in aerosol indirect effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4091–4114, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-4091-2009, 2009.
Kiehl, J. and Briegleb, B.: The relative roles of sulfate aerosols and greenhouse gases in climate forcing, Science, 260, 311–314, 1993.
Kim, B. G., Miller, M. A., Schwartz, S. E., Liu, Y., and Min, Q.: The role of adiabaticity in the aerosol first indirect effect, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D05210, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008961, 2008.
Krüger, O. and Graßl, H.: The indirect aerosol effect over Europe, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1925, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001GL014081, 2002.
Levy, R. and Hsu, C.: MODIS Atmosphere L2 Aerosol Product, NASA MODIS Adaptive Processing System, Goddard Space Flight Center, USA, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MYD04_L2.061, 2015 (data available at: https://ladsweb.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/search/, last access: 22 February 2021).
Lohmann, U. and Feichter, J.: Global indirect aerosol effects: a review, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 715–737, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-5-715-2005, 2005.
Lu, M. L., Conant, W. C., Jonsson, H. H., Varutbangkul, V., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: The Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE): Aerosol-cloud relationships in marine stratocumulus, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 112, D10209, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007985, 2007.
Lu, M. L., Sorooshian, A., Jonsson, H. H., Feingold, G., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Marine stratocumulus aerosol-cloud relationships in the MASE-II experiment: Precipitation susceptibility in eastern Pacific marine stratocumulus, J. Geophys.Res.-Atmos., 114, D24203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012774, 2009.
Maletto, A., McKendry, I., and Strawbridge, K.: Profiles of particulate matter size distributions using a balloon-borne lightweight aerosol spectrometer in the planetary boundary layer, Atmos. Environ., 37, 661–670, 2003.
McComiskey, A., Feingold, G., Frisch, A. S., Turner, D. D., Miller, M. A., Chiu, J. C., Min, Q., and Ogren, J. A.: An assessment of aerosol-cloud interactions in marine stratus clouds based on surface remote sensing, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D09203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011006, 2009.
Menon, S., Hansen, J., Nazarenko, L., and Luo, Y.: Climate effects of black carbon aerosols in China and India, Science, 297, 2250–2253, 2002.
Menon, S., Del Genio, A. D., Kaufman, Y., Bennartz, R., Koch, D., Loeb, N., and Orlikowski, D.: Analyzing signatures of aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite retrievals and the GISS GCM to constrain the aerosol indirect effect, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 113, D14S22, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009442, 2008.
Myhre, G., Stordal, F., Johnsrud, M., Kaufman, Y. J., Rosenfeld, D., Storelvmo, T., Kristjansson, J. E., Berntsen, T. K., Myhre, A., and Isaksen, I. S. A.: Aerosol-cloud interaction inferred from MODIS satellite data and global aerosol models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 3081–3101, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-3081-2007, 2007.
Nakajima, T., Higurashi, A., Kawamoto, K., and Penner, J. E.: A possible correlation between satellite-derived cloud and aerosol microphysical parameters, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1171–1174, 2001.
Ou, S., Liou, K., Hsu, N., and Tsay, S.: Satellite remote sensing of dust aerosol indirect effects on cloud formation over Eastern Asia, Int. J. Remote Sens., 33, 7257–7272, 2012.
Penner, J. E., Andreae, M., Annegarn, H., Barrie, L., Feichter, J., Hegg, D., Jayaraman, A., Leaitch, R., Murphy, D., and Nganga, J.: Aerosols, their direct and indirect effects, in: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 289–348, 2001.
Pincus, R. and Baker, M. B.: Effect of precipitation on the albedo susceptibility of clouds in the marine boundary layer, Nature, 372, 250–252, 1994.
Planetary Boundary Layer and Air Pollution Lab of the Department of Atmospheric Sciences (PBLAP), National Central University, Taiwan: http://pblap.atm.ncu.edu.tw/weather10.asp, last access: 22 February 2021.
Platnick, S., Ackerman, S., King, M., et al.: MODIS Atmosphere L2 Cloud Product (06_L2). NASA MODIS Adaptive Processing System, Goddard Space Flight Center, USA, https://doi.org/10.5067/MODIS/MYD06_L2.061, 2015 (data available at: https://ladsweb.modaps.eosdis.nasa.gov/search/, last access: 22 February 2021).
Ramanathan, V., Crutzen, P., Kiehl, J., and Rosenfeld, D.: Aerosols, climate, and the hydrological cycle, Science, 294, 2119–2124, 2001.
Ramaswamy, V., Boucher, O., Haigh, J., Hauglustaine, D., Hay-wood, J., Myhre, G., Nakajima, T., Shi, G. Y., and Solomon, S.: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change, in: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of working group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, edited by: Houghton, J. T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D.J., Noguer, M., Van der Linden, P. J., Dai, X., Maskell, K., and Johnson, C. A., 349–416, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 2001.
Rosenfeld, D.: TRMM observed first direct evidence of smoke from forest fires inhibiting rainfall, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3105–3108, 1999.
Rosenfeld, D., Sherwood, S., Wood, R., and Donner, L.: Climate effects of aerosol-cloud interactions, Science, 343, 379–380, 2014.
Saito, M., Yang, P., Hu, Y., Liu, X., Loeb, N., Smith Jr, W. L., and Minnis, P.: An Efficient Method for Microphysical Property Retrievals in Vertically Inhomogeneous Marine Water Clouds Using MODIS-CloudSat Measurements, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 124, 2174–2193, 2019.
Saponaro, G., Kolmonen, P., Sogacheva, L., Rodriguez, E., Virtanen, T., and de Leeuw, G.: Estimates of the aerosol indirect effect over the Baltic Sea region derived from 12 years of MODIS observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3133–3143, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-3133-2017, 2017.
Seela, B. K., Janapati, J., Lin, P. L., Reddy, K. K., Shirooka, R., and Wang, P. K.: A comparison study of summer season raindrop size distribution between Palau and Taiwan, two islands in western Pacific, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 122, 11787–11805, 2017.
Sekiguchi, M., Nakajima, T., Suzuki, K., Kawamoto, K., Higurashi, A., Rosenfeld, D., Sano, I., and Mukai, S.: A study of the direct and indirect effects of aerosols using global satellite data sets of aerosol and cloud parameters, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 108, 4699, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD003359, 2003.
Shen, Z., Cao, J., Arimoto, R., Han, Z., Zhang, R., Han, Y., Liu, S., Okuda, T., Nakao, S., and Tanaka, S.: Ionic composition of TSP and PM2. 5 during dust storms and air pollution episodes at Xi'an, China, Atmos. Environ., 43, 2911–2918, 2009.
Small, J. D., Chuang, P. Y., Feingold, G., and Jiang, H.: Can aerosol decrease cloud lifetime?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L16806, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038888, 2009.
Sporre, M. K., Swietlicki, E., Glantz, P., and Kulmala, M.: A long-term satellite study of aerosol effects on convective clouds in Nordic background air, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2203–2217, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2203-2014, 2014.
Stephens, G. L., L'Ecuyer, T., Forbes, R., Gettelmen, A., Golaz, J. C., Bodas-Salcedo, A., Suzuki, K., Gabriel, P., and Haynes, J.: Dreary state of precipitation in global models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D24211, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD014532, 2010.
Stevens, B., Lenschow, D. H., Vali, G., Gerber, H., Bandy, A., Blomquist, B., Brenguier, J.-L., Bretherton, C., Burnet, F., and Campos, T.: Dynamics and chemistry of marine stratocumulus–DYCOMS-II, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 84, 579–594, 2003.
Stocker, T.: Climate change 2013: the physical science basis: Working Group I contribution to the Fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2014.
Taiwan EPA (Environmental Protection Administration): https://data.epa.gov.tw/dataset/aqx_p_02, last access: 2 March 2021.
Textor, C., Schulz, M., Guibert, S., Kinne, S., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T., Berglen, T., Boucher, O., Chin, M., Dentener, F., Diehl, T., Easter, R., Feichter, H., Fillmore, D., Ghan, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Grini, A., Hendricks, J., Horowitz, L., Huang, P., Isaksen, I., Iversen, I., Kloster, S., Koch, D., Kirkevåg, A., Kristjansson, J. E., Krol, M., Lauer, A., Lamarque, J. F., Liu, X., Montanaro, V., Myhre, G., Penner, J., Pitari, G., Reddy, S., Seland, Ø., Stier, P., Takemura, T., and Tie, X.: Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1777–1813, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006, 2006.
Twohy, C. H., Coakley Jr, J. A., and Tahnk, W. R.: Effect of changes in relative humidity on aerosol scattering near clouds, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 114, D05205, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010991, 2009.
Twomey, S.: Pollution and the planetary albedo, Atmos. Environ., 8, 1251–1256, 1974.
VanZanten, M., Stevens, B., Vali, G., and Lenschow, D.: Observations of drizzle in nocturnal marine stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 88–106, 2005.
Wang, H., Rasch, P. J., and Feingold, G.: Manipulating marine stratocumulus cloud amount and albedo: a process-modelling study of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in response to injection of cloud condensation nuclei, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 4237–4249, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-4237-2011, 2011.
Wang, M., Ghan, S., Ovchinnikov, M., Liu, X., Easter, R., Kassianov, E., Qian, Y., and Morrison, H.: Aerosol indirect effects in a multi-scale aerosol-climate model PNNL-MMF, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5431–5455, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-5431-2011, 2011.
Wang, S. H., Lin, N. H., Chou, M. D., Tsay, S. C., Welton, E. J., Hsu, N. C., Giles, D. M., Liu, G. R., and Holben, B. N.: Profiling transboundary aerosols over Taiwan and assessing their radiative effects, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D00K31, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD013798, 2010.
Warner, J. and Twomey, S.: The production of cloud nuclei by cane fires and the effect on cloud droplet concentration, J. Atmos. Sci., 24, 704–706, 1967.
Wood, R.: Drizzle in stratiform boundary layer clouds. Part I: Vertical and horizontal structure, J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 3011–3033, 2005.
Wood, R., Mechoso, C. R., Bretherton, C. S., Weller, R. A., Huebert, B., Straneo, F., Albrecht, B. A., Coe, H., Allen, G., Vaughan, G., Daum, P., Fairall, C., Chand, D., Gallardo Klenner, L., Garreaud, R., Grados, C., Covert, D. S., Bates, T. S., Krejci, R., Russell, L. M., de Szoeke, S., Brewer, A., Yuter, S. E., Springston, S. R., Chaigneau, A., Toniazzo, T., Minnis, P., Palikonda, R., Abel, S. J., Brown, W. O. J., Williams, S., Fochesatto, J., Brioude, J., and Bower, K. N.: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx): goals, platforms, and field operations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 627–654, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-627-2011, 2011.
In this study, we integrate satellite and surface observations to statistically quantify aerosol impacts on low-level warm-cloud microphysics and drizzle over northern Taiwan. Our result provides observational evidence for aerosol indirect effects. The frequency of drizzle is reduced under polluted conditions. For light-precipitation events (≤ 1 mm h-1), however, higher aerosol concentrations drive raindrops toward smaller sizes and thus increase the appearance of the drizzle drops.
In this study, we integrate satellite and surface observations to statistically quantify aerosol...