Articles | Volume 21, issue 19
Research article
12 Oct 2021
Research article |  | 12 Oct 2021

Sensitivity of precipitation formation to secondary ice production in winter orographic mixed-phase clouds

Zane Dedekind, Annika Lauber, Sylvaine Ferrachat, and Ulrike Lohmann

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Cited articles

Armstrong, R. L. and Brun, E.: Snow and Climate: Physical Processes, Surface Energy Exchange and Modeling, available at: (last access: 30 March 2021), 2008. a
Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Förstner, J., Majewski, D., Raschendorfer, M., and Reinhardt, T.: Operational Convective-Scale Numerical Weather Prediction with the COSMO Model: Description and Sensitivities, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 3887–3905,, 2011.  a, b
Beck, A., Henneberger, J., Schöpfer, S., Fugal, J., and Lohmann, U.: HoloGondel: in situ cloud observations on a cable car in the Swiss Alps using a holographic imager, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 459–476,, 2017. a
Beck, A., Henneberger, J., Fugal, J. P., David, R. O., Lacher, L., and Lohmann, U.: Impact of surface and near-surface processes on ice crystal concentrations measured at mountain-top research stations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8909–8927,, 2018. a, b, c, d
Bergeron, T.: On the low-level redistribution of atmospheric water caused by orography, in: Proceedings of the International Conference on Cloud Physics, Tokyo, 96–100, 1965. a
Short summary
The RACLETS campaign combined cloud and snow research to improve the understanding of precipitation formation in clouds. A numerical weather prediction model, COSMO, was used to assess the importance of ice crystal enhancement by ice–ice collisions for cloud properties. We found that the number of ice crystals increased by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude when ice–ice collisions were permitted to occur, reducing localized regions of high precipitation and, thereby, improving the model performance.
Final-revised paper