Articles | Volume 19, issue 20
Research article 18 Oct 2019
Research article | 18 Oct 2019
Nepal emission inventory – Part I: Technologies and combustion sources (NEEMI-Tech) for 2001–2016
Pankaj Sadavarte et al.
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
Yifan Zhou, Benjamin F. Zaitchik, Sujay V. Kumar, Kristi R. Arsenault, Mir A. Matin, Faisal M. Qamer, Ryan A. Zamora, and Kiran Shakya
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 25, 41–61,Short summary
South and Southeast Asia face significant food insecurity and hydrological hazards. Here we introduce a South and Southeast Asia hydrological monitoring and sub-seasonal to seasonal forecasting system (SAHFS-S2S) to help local governments and decision-makers prepare for extreme hydroclimatic events. The monitoring system captures soil moisture variability well in most regions, and the forecasting system offers skillful prediction of soil moisture variability 2–3 months in advance, on average.
August Andersson, Elena N. Kirillova, Stefano Decesari, Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4561–4573,Short summary
Large-scale biomass burning events seasonally cover sub-Saharan Africa with air particles. In this study, we find that the concentrations of these particles at a remote mountain site in Rwanda may increase by a factor of 10 during such dry biomass burning periods, with strong implications for the regional climate and human health. These results provide quantitative constraints that could contribute to reducing the large uncertainties regarding the environmental impact of these fires.
Md. Robiul Islam, Thilina Jayarathne, Isobel J. Simpson, Benjamin Werden, John Maben, Ashley Gilbert, Puppala S. Praveen, Sagar Adhikari, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Donald R. Blake, Robert J. Yokelson, Peter F. DeCarlo, William C. Keene, and Elizabeth A. Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2927–2951,Short summary
The Kathmandu Valley experiences high levels of air pollution. In this study, atmospheric gases and particulate matter were characterized by online and off-line measurements, with an emphasis on understanding their sources. The major sources of particulate matter and trace gases were identified as garbage burning, biomass burning, and vehicles. The majority of secondary organic aerosol was attributed to anthropogenic precursors, while a minority was attributed to biogenic gases.
Min Zhong, Eri Saikawa, Alexander Avramov, Chen Chen, Boya Sun, Wenlu Ye, William C. Keene, Robert J. Yokelson, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Arnico K. Panday
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8209–8228,Short summary
Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental issues in the Kathmandu Valley, the capital city of Nepal. We estimated emissions from two of the major source types in the valley (vehicles and brick kilns) and found that they have significant impacts on air quality surrounding the valley. Our results highlight the importance of improving local emissions estimates for air quality modeling.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Lekhendra Tripathee, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Dipesh Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Mark G. Lawrence, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2725–2747,Short summary
The sources of primary and secondary aerosols in the Hindu Kush–Himalayan–Tibetan Plateau region are not well known. Organic molecular tracers are useful for aerosol source apportionment. The characterization of molecular tracers were first systemically investigated and the contribution from primary and secondary sources to carbonaceous aerosols was estimated in the Kathmandu Valley. Our results demonstrate that biomass burning contributed a significant fraction to OC in the Kathmandu Valley.
H. Langley DeWitt, Jimmy Gasore, Maheswar Rupakheti, Katherine E. Potter, Ronald G. Prinn, Jean de Dieu Ndikubwimana, Julius Nkusi, and Bonfils Safari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2063–2078,Short summary
Air quality in rapidly developing East Africa is a growing but understudied concern. We analyzed long-term black carbon, carbon monoxide, and ozone measurements from the remote Rwanda Climate Observatory and found that seasonal regional biomass burning raised black carbon levels to above-urban concentrations 6 months out of the year. Additional local pollution could exacerbate this issue. More regional monitoring needs to be done to understand and reduce air pollution in this region.
Ashish Singh, Khadak S. Mahata, Maheswar Rupakheti, Wolfgang Junkermann, Arnico K. Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 245–258,Short summary
This paper reports the first airborne measurement campaign in the central Himalayan foothill region, one of the polluted but relatively poorly sampled regions of the world. The measurement campaign quantifies the vertical distribution of aerosols over a polluted mountain valley in the Himalayan foothills and investigates the extent of regional emission transport.
J. Douglas Goetz, Michael R. Giordano, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Ted J. Christian, Rashmi Maharjan, Sagar Adhikari, Prakash V. Bhave, Puppala S. Praveen, Arnico K. Panday, Thilina Jayarathne, Elizabeth A. Stone, Robert J. Yokelson, and Peter F. DeCarlo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14653–14679,Short summary
Size distributions and emission factors of submicron aerosol were quantified using online techniques for a variety of common but under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia: wood and dung cooking fires, groundwater pumps, brick kilns, trash burning, and open burning of crop residues. Optical properties (brown carbon light absorption and the absorption Ångström exponent, AAE) of the emissions were also investigated. Contextual comparisons to the literature and other NAMaSTE results were made.
Khadak Singh Mahata, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Kumar Panday, Piyush Bhardwaj, Manish Naja, Ashish Singh, Andrea Mues, Paolo Cristofanelli, Deepak Pudasainee, Paolo Bonasoni, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14113–14132,Short summary
This paper presents the first-time simultaneous measurement of CO and O3 at multiple sites in the Kathmandu Valley bottom, its mountain rim and a river outlet, providing their spatial, temporal and seasonal–diurnal variations. Our study reveals that high O3, especially during premonsoon, in observed sites is of high concern for human health and ecosystems in the region. We also estimated CO emission flux to be 2–14 times higher than widely used emission databases (EDGAR HTAP, REAS and INTEX-B).
Piyush Bhardwaj, Manish Naja, Maheswar Rupakheti, Aurelia Lupascu, Andrea Mues, Arnico Kumar Panday, Rajesh Kumar, Khadak Singh Mahata, Shyam Lal, Harish C. Chandola, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11949–11971,Short summary
This study provides information about the regional variabilities in some of the pollutants using observations in Nepal and India. It is shown that agricultural crop residue burning leads to a significant enhancement in ozone and CO over a wider region. Further, the wintertime higher ozone levels are shown to be largely due to local emissions, while regional transport could be important in spring and hence shows the role of regional sources versus local sources in the Kathmandu Valley.
Erika von Schneidemesser, Boris Bonn, Tim M. Butler, Christian Ehlers, Holger Gerwig, Hannele Hakola, Heidi Hellén, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Dieter Klemp, Claudia Kofahl, Jürgen Kura, Anja Lüdecke, Rainer Nothard, Axel Pietsch, Jörn Quedenau, Klaus Schäfer, James J. Schauer, Ashish Singh, Ana-Maria Villalobos, Matthias Wiegner, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8621–8645,Short summary
This paper provides an overview of the measurements done at an urban background site in Berlin from June-August of 2014. Results show that natural source contributions to ozone and particulate matter (PM) air pollutants are substantial. Large contributions of secondary aerosols formed in the atmosphere to PM10 concentrations were quantified. An analysis of the sources also identified contributions to PM from plant-based sources, vehicles, and a small contribution from wood burning.
Andrea Mues, Axel Lauer, Aurelia Lupascu, Maheswar Rupakheti, Friderike Kuik, and Mark G. Lawrence
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2067–2091,
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
D. Rupakheti, S. Kang, Z. Cong, M. Rupakheti, L. Tripathee, A. K. Panday, and B. Holben
Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-3, 1493–1497,
Khadak Singh Mahata, Arnico Kumar Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, Ashish Singh, Manish Naja, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12573–12596,Short summary
The paper provides an overview of CH4, CO2, and CO mixing ratios, including diurnal and seasonal variation, and discusses the association of potential sources and meteorology with the observed temporal variation in the Kathmandu Valley. The study will provide an important dataset for a poorly studied region and will be useful for validating estimates from emission inventories, regional models, and satellite observations and assisting in the design of mitigation measures in the region.
Chaeyoon Cho, Sang-Woo Kim, Maheswar Rupakheti, Jin-Soo Park, Arnico Panday, Soon-Chang Yoon, Ji-Hyoung Kim, Hyunjae Kim, Haeun Jeon, Minyoung Sung, Bong Mann Kim, Seungkyu K. Hong, Rokjin J. Park, Dipesh Rupakheti, Khadak Singh Mahata, Puppala Siva Praveen, Mark G. Lawrence, and Brent Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12617–12632,Short summary
We investigated the optical and chemical properties and direct radiative effects of aerosols in the Kathmandu Valley. We concluded that the ratio of light-absorbing to scattering aerosols as well as the concentration of light-absorbing aerosols is much higher at Kathmandu than other comparable regions, and it contributes to a great atmospheric absorption efficiency. This study provides unprecedented insights into aerosol optical properties and their radiative forcings in the Kathmandu Valley.
Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhupesh Adhikary, Puppala Siva Praveen, Maheswar Rupakheti, Shichang Kang, Khadak Singh Mahata, Manish Naja, Qianggong Zhang, Arnico Kumar Panday, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11041–11063,Short summary
For the first time, atmospheric composition was monitored during pre-monsoon season of 2013 at Lumbini (UNESCO world heritage site as birthplace of the Buddha). PM and O3 frequently exceeded WHO guidelines. Pollution concentration, diurnal characteristics and influence of open burning on air quality in Lumbini were investigated. Potential source regions were also identified. Results show that air pollution at this site is of a great concern, requiring prompt attention for mitigation.
Heiko Bozem, Tim M. Butler, Mark G. Lawrence, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Dagmar Kubistin, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10565–10582,Short summary
We present airborne measurements and model simulations in the tropics and mid-latitudes during GABRIEL and HOOVER, respectively. Based only on in situ data net ozone formation/destruction tendencies (NOPR) are calculated and compared to a 3-D chemistry transport model. The NOPR is positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere above 6 km. In the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere ozone destruction prevails. Fresh convection shows strong net ozone formation.
Xin Wan, Shichang Kang, Quanlian Li, Dipesh Rupakheti, Qianggong Zhang, Junming Guo, Pengfei Chen, Lekhendra Tripathee, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Wu Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, Shaopeng Gao, Guangming Wu, and Zhiyuan Cong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8867–8885,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) tracers in the aerosols in Lumbini, northern IGP, were studied for the first time. The levoglucosan was the predominant tracer and BB significantly contributed to the air quality in Lumbini. Mixed crop residues and hardwood were main burning materials. BB emissions constituted large fraction of OC, especially during the post-monsoon season. The sources of BB aerosols in Lumbini varies seasonally due to the influence of local emissions and long-range transport.
Andrea Mues, Maheswar Rupakheti, Christoph Münkel, Axel Lauer, Heiko Bozem, Peter Hoor, Tim Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8157–8176,Short summary
Ceilometer measurements taken in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, were used to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the mixing layer height in the valley. This provides important information on the vertical structure of the atmosphere and can thus also help to understand the mixing of air pollutants (e.g. black carbon) in the valley. The seasonal and diurnal cycles of the mixing layer were found to be highly dependent on meteorology and mainly anticorrelated to black carbon concentrations.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Baerbel Sinha, Arnico K. Panday, Maheswar Rupakheti, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8129–8156,Short summary
This study provides quantitative information regarding the source contributions of the major non-methane volatile organic compound sources in the Kathmandu Valley. Combining high-resolution in situ NMVOC data and model analyses, we show that REAS v2.1 and EDGAR v4.2 emission inventories underestimate the contribution of traffic and do not take the contribution of brick kilns into account. Furthermore, REAS v2.1 overestimates the contribution of residential biofuel use and industries.
Kabindra M. Shakya, Maheswar Rupakheti, Anima Shahi, Rejina Maskey, Bidya Pradhan, Arnico Panday, Siva P. Puppala, Mark Lawrence, and Richard E. Peltier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6503–6516,Short summary
Particulate matter levels were monitored at six major roadway intersections in the Kathmandu Valley during two seasons in 2014. The study documented distinct seasonal (dry season versus wet season) and diel variations in particulate matter levels. This study suggests traffic-related emissions, and soil–dust–construction materials were found to be a major source of particulate matter at these locations.
Boris Bonn, Erika von Schneidemesser, Dorota Andrich, Jörn Quedenau, Holger Gerwig, Anja Lüdecke, Jürgen Kura, Axel Pietsch, Christian Ehlers, Dieter Klemp, Claudia Kofahl, Rainer Nothard, Andreas Kerschbaumer, Wolfgang Junkermann, Rüdiger Grote, Tobias Pohl, Konradin Weber, Birgit Lode, Philipp Schönberger, Galina Churkina, Tim M. Butler, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7785–7811,Short summary
The distribution of air pollutants (gases and particles) have been investigated in different environments in Potsdam, Germany. Remarkable variations of the pollutants have been observed for distances of tens of meters by bicycles, vans and aircraft. Vegetated areas caused reductions depending on the pollutants, the vegetation type and dimensions. Our measurements show the pollutants to be of predominantly local origin, resulting in a huge challenge for common models to resolve.
Marje Prank, Mikhail Sofiev, Svetlana Tsyro, Carlijn Hendriks, Valiyaveetil Semeena, Xavier Vazhappilly Francis, Tim Butler, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Rainer Friedrich, Johannes Hendricks, Xin Kong, Mark Lawrence, Mattia Righi, Zissis Samaras, Robert Sausen, Jaakko Kukkonen, and Ranjeet Sokhi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6041–6070,Short summary
Aerosol composition in Europe was simulated by four chemistry transport models and compared to observations to identify the most prominent areas for model improvement. Notable differences were found between the models' predictions, attributable to different treatment or omission of aerosol sources and processes. All models underestimated the observed concentrations by 10–60 %, mostly due to under-predicting the carbonaceous and mineral particles and omitting the aerosol-bound water.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Vinayak Sinha, Vinod Kumar, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico Panday, Khadak S. Mahata, Dipesh Rupakheti, Bhogendra Kathayat, and Mark G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3979–4003,Short summary
First deployment of PTR-TOF-MS in South Asia. High acetaldehyde and biogenic isoprene concentrations detected even in winter in the Kathmandu Valley. Isocyanic acid, formamide, acetamide, naphthalene and nitromethane were detected for the first time in South Asian air. Oxygenated VOCs and isoprene-dominated OH reactivity and ozone production potentials (> 68 % OPP). Regulation of emissions from biomass co-fired brick kilns' by cleaner technology would improve air quality of the valley.
Peng Fei Chen, Chao Liu Li, Shi Chang Kang, Maheswar Rupakheti, Arnico K. Panday, Fang Ping Yan, Quan Lian Li, Qiang Gong Zhang, Jun Ming Guo, Dipesh Rupakheti, and Wei Luo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
PAHs were measured at six sites along two south-north transects across the central Himalayas. The annual average PAHs and their dry deposition fluxes decreased noticeably from the south to north sides, however, a similar compostion pattern was found at three remote sites, suggesting the northern slope of the Himalayas may be affected by anthropogenic emissions form Indo-Gangetic Plain. PAHs showed a clear seasonal variation at Nepal and they were mainly form biomass and fossil combustion .
E. W. Butt, A. Rap, A. Schmidt, C. E. Scott, K. J. Pringle, C. L. Reddington, N. A. D. Richards, M. T. Woodhouse, J. Ramirez-Villegas, H. Yang, V. Vakkari, E. A. Stone, M. Rupakheti, P. S. Praveen, P. G. van Zyl, J. P. Beukes, M. Josipovic, E. J. S. Mitchell, S. M. Sallu, P. M. Forster, and D. V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 873–905,Short summary
We estimate the impact of residential emissions (cooking and heating) on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate. We find large contributions to annual mean ambient PM2.5 in residential sources regions resulting in significant but uncertain global premature mortality when key uncertainties in emission flux are considered. We show that residential emissions exert an uncertain global radiative effect and suggest more work is needed to characterise residential emissions climate importance.
D. Putero, P. Cristofanelli, A. Marinoni, B. Adhikary, R. Duchi, S. D. Shrestha, G. P. Verza, T. C. Landi, F. Calzolari, M. Busetto, G. Agrillo, F. Biancofiore, P. Di Carlo, A. K. Panday, M. Rupakheti, and P. Bonasoni
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13957–13971,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to present a full-year analysis of simultaneous measurements of ozone, black carbon, and aerosol number concentration at Paknajol, in the Kathmandu Valley, one of the global “hot spots” in terms of air pollution. Results indicate persisting poor air quality conditions throughout the measurement period, and suggest that the pollutants' variability is mainly driven by local pollution source activity, local- and large-scale dynamics, photochemistry, and vegetation fires.
B. Kravitz, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, O. Boucher, J. M. English, P. J. Irvine, A. Jones, M. G. Lawrence, M. MacCracken, H. Muri, J. C. Moore, U. Niemeier, S. J. Phipps, J. Sillmann, T. Storelvmo, H. Wang, and S. Watanabe
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3379–3392,
M. Beekmann, A. S. H. Prévôt, F. Drewnick, J. Sciare, S. N. Pandis, H. A. C. Denier van der Gon, M. Crippa, F. Freutel, L. Poulain, V. Ghersi, E. Rodriguez, S. Beirle, P. Zotter, S.-L. von der Weiden-Reinmüller, M. Bressi, C. Fountoukis, H. Petetin, S. Szidat, J. Schneider, A. Rosso, I. El Haddad, A. Megaritis, Q. J. Zhang, V. Michoud, J. G. Slowik, S. Moukhtar, P. Kolmonen, A. Stohl, S. Eckhardt, A. Borbon, V. Gros, N. Marchand, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. Schwarzenboeck, A. Colomb, A. Wiedensohler, S. Borrmann, M. Lawrence, A. Baklanov, and U. Baltensperger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9577–9591,Short summary
A detailed characterization of air quality in the Paris (France) agglomeration, a megacity, during two summer and winter intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations, revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported into the megacity from upwind regions. Unexpectedly, a major part of organic PM is of modern origin (woodburning and cooking activities, secondary formation from biogenic VOC).
Z. L. Lüthi, B. Škerlak, S.-W. Kim, A. Lauer, A. Mues, M. Rupakheti, and S. Kang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6007–6021,Short summary
The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP) is regularly exposed to polluted air masses that might influence glaciers as well as climate on regional to global scales. We found that atmospheric brown clouds from South Asia reach the HTP by crossing the Himalayas not only through the major north--south river valleys but rather over large areas by being lifted and advected at mid-troposheric levels. The transport is enabled by a combination of synoptic and local meteorological settings.
L. Drinovec, G. Močnik, P. Zotter, A. S. H. Prévôt, C. Ruckstuhl, E. Coz, M. Rupakheti, J. Sciare, T. Müller, A. Wiedensohler, and A. D. A. Hansen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1965–1979,Short summary
We present a new real-time algorithm for compensation of the filter-loading effect in filter photometers, based on a two parallel spot measurement of optical absorption. This algorithm has been incorporated into the new Aethalometer AE33. Intercomparison studies show excellent reproducibility of the AE33 measurements and very good agreement with post-processed data obtained using earlier aethalometer models and other filter-based absorption photometers.
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
Z. S. Stock, M. R. Russo, T. M. Butler, A. T. Archibald, M. G. Lawrence, P. J. Telford, N. L. Abraham, and J. A. Pyle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12215–12231,
S. M. Burrows, P. J. Rayner, T. Butler, and M. G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5473–5488,
D. Kunkel, H. Tost, and M. G. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4203–4222,
J. Lelieveld, M. G. Lawrence, and D. Kunkel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 31–34,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Insights into seasonal variation of wet deposition over southeast Asia via precipitation adjustment from the findings of MICS-Asia IIIModeling the impact of COVID-19 on air quality in southern California: implications for future control policiesResponses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to multi-region emission reductions: a Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 (HTAP2) ensemble modeling studyAnalysis of secondary organic aerosol simulation bias in the Community Earth System Model (CESM2.1)Future evolution of aerosols and implications for climate change in the Euro-Mediterranean region using the CNRM-ALADIN63 regional climate modelSource apportionment of fine organic carbon at an urban site of Beijing using a chemical mass balance modelModeled changes in source contributions of particulate matter during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Yangtze River Delta, ChinaAerosols from anthropogenic and biogenic sources and their interactions – modeling aerosol formation, optical properties, and impacts over the central Amazon basinAerosol radiative forcings induced by substantial changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008 to 2016A study of the effect of aerosols on surface ozone through meteorology feedbacks over ChinaSensitivities to biological aerosol particle properties and ageing processes: potential implications for aerosol–cloud interactions and optical propertiesFuture changes in isoprene-epoxydiol-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX SOA) under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways: the importance of physicochemical dependencyImproving regional air quality predictions in the Indo-Gangetic Plain – case study of an intensive pollution episode in November 2017Recommendations on benchmarks for numerical air quality model applications in China – Part 1: PM2.5 and chemical speciesGlobal modeling studies of composition and decadal trends of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol LayerComparison of chemical lateral boundary conditions for air quality predictions over the contiguous United States during pollutant intrusion eventsSecondary aerosol formation from dimethyl sulfide – improved mechanistic understanding based on smog chamber experiments and modellingEstimation of Secondary Organic Aerosol Viscosity from Explicit Modeling of Gas-Phase Oxidation of Isoprene and α-pineneNon-linear response of PM2.5 to changes in NOx and NH3 emissions in the Po basin (Italy): consequences for air quality plansClimate-driven chemistry and aerosol feedbacks in CMIP6 Earth system modelsSize-resolved aerosol pH over Europe during summerInsights into the aging of biomass burning aerosol from satellite observations and 3D atmospheric modeling: evolution of the aerosol optical properties in Siberian wildfire plumesGlobal modeling of heterogeneous hydroxymethanesulfonate chemistrySignificant wintertime PM2.5 mitigation in the Yangtze River Delta, China, from 2016 to 2019: observational constraints on anthropogenic emission controlsHistorical and future changes in air pollutants from CMIP6 modelsEvaluating trends and seasonality in modeled PM2.5 concentrations using empirical mode decompositionLong-term observational constraints of organic aerosol dependence on inorganic species in the southeast USModel bias in simulating major chemical components of PM2.5 in ChinaAerosol pH and chemical regimes of sulfate formation in aerosol water during winter haze in the North China PlainPollutant emission reductions deliver decreased PM2.5-caused mortality across China during 2015–2017Forest Fire Aerosol – Weather Feedbacks over Western North America Using a High-Resolution, Fully Coupled, Air-Quality ModelEffects of global ship emissions on European air pollution levelsUsing GECKO-A to derive mechanistic understanding of SOA formation from the ubiquitous but understudied campheneTreatment of non-ideality in the SPACCIM multiphase model – Part 2: Impacts on the multiphase chemical processing in deliquesced aerosol particlesInverse modeling of fire emissions constrained by smoke plume transport using HYSPLIT dispersion model and geostationary satellite observationsComprehensive analyses of source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone over Japan via multiple numerical techniquesNumerical analysis of agricultural emissions impacts on PM2.5 in China using a high-resolution ammonia emission inventoryClimate and air quality impacts due to mitigation of non-methane near-term climate forcersQuantitative assessment of changes in surface particulate matter concentrations over China during the COVID-19 pandemic and their implications for Chinese economic activityShipping emissions in the Iberian Peninsula and the impacts on air qualityModelling of the public health costs of fine particulate matter and results for Finland in 2015Development and application of the WRFDA-Chem three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system: aiming to improve air quality forecasting and diagnose model deficienciesAssessment of natural and anthropogenic aerosol air pollution in the Middle East using MERRA-2, CAMS data assimilation products, and high-resolution WRF-Chem model simulationsTrends and spatial shifts in lightning fires and smoke concentrations in response to 21st century climate over the national forests and parks of the western United StatesPredicting secondary organic aerosol phase state and viscosity and its effect on multiphase chemistry in a regional-scale air quality modelThe impact of ship emissions on air quality and human health in the Gothenburg area – Part 1: 2012 emissionsWhy do models perform differently on particulate matter over East Asia? A multi-model intercomparison study for MICS-Asia IIIEvaluating the impact of blowing-snow sea salt aerosol on springtime BrO and O3 in the ArcticImpacts of water partitioning and polarity of organic compounds on secondary organic aerosol over eastern ChinaMultiphase MCM–CAPRAM modeling of the formation and processing of secondary aerosol constituents observed during the Mt. Tai summer campaign in 2014
Syuichi Itahashi, Baozhu Ge, Keiichi Sato, Zhe Wang, Junichi Kurokawa, Jiani Tan, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Xuemei Wang, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Jie Li, Mizuo Kajino, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8709–8734,Short summary
This study presents the detailed analysis of acid deposition over southeast Asia based on the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia (MICS-Asia) phase III. Simulated wet deposition is evaluated with observation data from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The difficulties of models to capture observations are related to the model performance on precipitation. The precipitation-adjusted approach was applied, and the distribution of wet deposition was successfully revised.
Zhe Jiang, Hongrong Shi, Bin Zhao, Yu Gu, Yifang Zhu, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Xin Lu, Yuqiang Zhang, Kevin W. Bowman, Takashi Sekiya, and Kuo-Nan Liou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8693–8708,Short summary
We use the COVID-19 pandemic as a unique natural experiment to obtain a more robust understanding of the effectiveness of emission reductions toward air quality improvement by combining chemical transport simulations and observations. Our findings imply a shift from current control policies in California: a strengthened control on primary PM2.5 emissions and a well-balanced control on NOx and volatile organic compounds are needed to effectively and sustainably alleviate PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Na Zhao, Xinyi Dong, Kan Huang, Joshua S. Fu, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Kengo Sudo, Daven Henze, Tom Kucsera, Yun Fat Lam, Mian Chin, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8637–8654,Short summary
Black carbon acts as a strong climate forcer, especially in vulnerable pristine regions such as the Arctic. This work utilizes ensemble modeling results from the task force Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Phase 2 to investigate the responses of Arctic black carbon and surface temperature to various source emission reductions. East Asia contributed the most to Arctic black carbon. The response of Arctic temperature to black carbon was substantially more sensitive than the global average.
Yaman Liu, Xinyi Dong, Minghuai Wang, Louisa K. Emmons, Yawen Liu, Yuan Liang, Xiao Li, and Manish Shrivastava
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8003–8021,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is considered one of the most important uncertainties in climate modeling. We evaluate SOA performance in the Community Earth System Model version 2.1 (CESM2.1) configured with the Community Atmosphere Model version 6 with chemistry (CAM6-Chem) through a long-term simulation (1988–2019) with observations in the United States, which indicates monoterpene-formed SOA contributes most to the overestimation of SOA at the surface and underestimation in the upper air.
Thomas Drugé, Pierre Nabat, Marc Mallet, and Samuel Somot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7639–7669,Short summary
This study presents the surface mass concentration and AOD evolution of various aerosols over the Euro-Mediterranean region between the end of the 20th century and the mid-21st century. This study also describes the part of the expected climate change over the Euro-Mediterranean region that can be explained by the evolution of these different aerosols.
Jingsha Xu, Di Liu, Xuefang Wu, Tuan V. Vu, Yanli Zhang, Pingqing Fu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Bo Zheng, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7321–7341,Short summary
Source apportionment of fine aerosols in an urban site of Beijing used a chemical mass balance (CMB) model. Seven primary sources (industrial/residential coal burning, biomass burning, gasoline/diesel vehicles, cooking and vegetative detritus) explained an average of 75.7 % and 56.1 % of fine OC in winter and summer, respectively. CMB was found to resolve more primary OA sources than AMS-PMF, but the latter apportioned more secondary OA sources.
Jinlong Ma, Juanyong Shen, Peng Wang, Shengqiang Zhu, Yu Wang, Pengfei Wang, Gehui Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7343–7355,Short summary
Due to the reduced anthropogenic emissions during the COVID-19 lockdown, mainly from the transportation and industrial sectors, PM2.5 decreased significantly in the whole Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and its major cities. However, the contributions and relative importance of different source sectors and regions changed differently, indicating that control strategies should be adjusted accordingly for further pollution control.
Janaína P. Nascimento, Megan M. Bela, Bruno B. Meller, Alessandro L. Banducci, Luciana V. Rizzo, Angel Liduvino Vara-Vela, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Helber Gomes, Sameh A. A. Rafee, Marco A. Franco, Samara Carbone, Glauber G. Cirino, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Stuart A. McKeen, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6755–6779,
Mingxu Liu and Hitoshi Matsui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5965–5982,Short summary
By integrating an advanced global climate model with the latest anthropogenic emission inventory, we quantify the aerosol perturbations to regional radiative budgets due to the changes in anthropogenic emissions in China from 2008–2016. We find that aerosol–radiation interactions lead to a relatively small net radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere but contribute largely to surface brightening in China over the past few decades.
Yawei Qu, Apostolos Voulgarakis, Tijian Wang, Matthew Kasoar, Chris Wells, Cheng Yuan, Sunil Varma, and Laura Mansfield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5705–5718,Short summary
The meteorological effect of aerosols on tropospheric ozone is investigated using global atmospheric modelling. We found that aerosol-induced meteorological effects act to reduce modelled ozone concentrations over China, which brings the simulation closer to observed levels. Our work sheds light on understudied processes affecting the levels of tropospheric gaseous pollutants and provides a basis for evaluating such processes using a combination of observations and model sensitivity experiments.
Minghui Zhang, Amina Khaled, Pierre Amato, Anne-Marie Delort, and Barbara Ervens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3699–3724,Short summary
Although primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs, bioaerosols) represent a small fraction of total atmospheric aerosol burden, they might affect climate and public health. We summarize which PBAP properties are important to affect their inclusion in clouds and interaction with light and might also affect their residence time and transport in the atmosphere. Our study highlights that not only chemical and physical but also biological processes can modify these physicochemical properties.
Duseong S. Jo, Alma Hodzic, Louisa K. Emmons, Simone Tilmes, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Michael J. Mills, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Weiwei Hu, Rahul A. Zaveri, Richard C. Easter, Balwinder Singh, Zheng Lu, Christiane Schulz, Johannes Schneider, John E. Shilling, Armin Wisthaler, and Jose L. Jimenez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3395–3425,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is a major component of submicron particulate matter, but there are a lot of uncertainties in the future prediction of SOA. We used CESM 2.1 to investigate future IEPOX SOA concentration changes. The explicit chemistry predicted substantial changes in IEPOX SOA depending on the future scenario, but the parameterization predicted weak changes due to simplified chemistry, which shows the importance of correct physicochemical dependencies in future SOA prediction.
Behrooz Roozitalab, Gregory R. Carmichael, and Sarath K. Guttikunda
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2837–2860,Short summary
We used air quality modeling to study an extreme pollution episode in November 2017 in India. We found both local and regional emissions contribute to high pollution levels. The extreme pollution values were the result of agricultural fires in the northwest of India. Ozone should be considered in future air quality management strategies.
Ling Huang, Yonghui Zhu, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Yangjun Wang, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2725–2743,Short summary
Numerical air quality models (AQMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorating air quality in China. For any AQM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of AQM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Adriana Bossolasco, Fabrice Jegou, Pasquale Sellitto, Gwenaël Berthet, Corinna Kloss, and Bernard Legras
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2745–2764,Short summary
Using the Community Earth System Model, we simulate the surface aerosols lifted to the Asian tropopause (the ATAL layer), its composition and trend, covering a long-term period (2000–2015). We identify a
double-peakaerosol vertical profile that we attribute to
convectivecloud-borne aerosols. We find that natural aerosol (mineral dust) is the dominant aerosol type and has no long-term trend. ATAL's anthropogenic fraction, by contrast, shows a marked positive trend.
Youhua Tang, Huisheng Bian, Zhining Tao, Luke D. Oman, Daniel Tong, Pius Lee, Patrick C. Campbell, Barry Baker, Cheng-Hsuan Lu, Li Pan, Jun Wang, Jeffery McQueen, and Ivanka Stajner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2527–2550,Short summary
Chemical lateral boundary condition (CLBC) impact is essential for regional air quality prediction during intrusion events. We present a model mapping Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) to Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) CB05–AERO6 (Carbon Bond 5; version 6 of the aerosol module) species. Influence depends on distance from the inflow boundary and species and their regional characteristics. We use aerosol optical thickness to derive CLBCs, achieving reasonable prediction.
Robin Wollesen de Jonge, Jonas Elm, Bernadette Rosati, Sigurd Christiansen, Noora Hyttinen, Dana Lüdemann, Merete Bilde, and Pontus Roldin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study presents a detailed analysis of the OH-initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) based on experiments performed in the Aarhus University research on aerosols (AURA) smog chamber and the gas- and particle-phase chemistry kinetic multilayer model (ADCHAM). We capture the formation, growth and chemical composition of aerosols in the chamber setup by an improved multiphase oxidation mechanism, and utilize our results to reproduce the important role of DMS in the marine boundary layer.
Tommaso Galeazzo, Richard Valorso, Ying Li, Marie Camredon, Bernard Aumont, and Manabu Shiraiwa
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We simulate SOA viscosity with explicit modeling of gas-phase oxidation of isoprene and α-pinene. While the viscosity dependence on relative humidity and mass loadings is captured well by simulations, the model underestimates measured viscosity indicating missing processes. Kinetic limitations and reduction in mass accommodation may cause an increase of viscosity. The developed model is powerful for investigation of the interplay among gas reactions, chemical composition and phase state.
Philippe Thunis, Alain Clappier, Matthias Beekmann, Jean Philippe Putaud, Cornelis Cuvelier, Jessie Madrazo, and Alexander de Meij
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this work, we use modelling simulations to identify the most efficient emission reduction strategies to reduce PM2.5 concentration levels in Northern Italy. Results show contrasting chemical regimes and important non-linearities during wintertime, with the striking result that PM2.5 levels may increase when NOx reductions are applied in NOx-rich areas. A process that may have contributed to the absence of significant PM2.5 decrease during the COVID-19 lockdowns in many European cities.
Gillian Thornhill, William Collins, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Alex Archibald, Susanne Bauer, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Stephanie Fiedler, Gerd Folberth, Ada Gjermundsen, Larry Horowitz, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Jane Mulcahy, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Fabien Paulot, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Roland Séférian, Chris Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, and James Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1105–1126,Short summary
We find that increased temperatures affect aerosols and reactive gases by changing natural emissions and their rates of removal from the atmosphere. Changing the composition of these species in the atmosphere affects the radiative budget of the climate system and therefore amplifies or dampens the climate response of climate models of the Earth system. This study found that the largest effect is a dampening of climate change as warmer temperatures increase the emissions of cooling aerosols.
Stylianos Kakavas, David Patoulias, Maria Zakoura, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 799–811,Short summary
The dependence of aerosol acidity on particle size, location, and altitude over Europe during a summertime period is investigated. Differences of up to 1–4 pH units are predicted between sub- and supermicron particles in northern and southern Europe. Particles of all sizes become increasingly acidic with altitude (0.5–2.5 pH units decrease over 2.5 km). The size-dependent pH differences carry important implications for pH-sensitive processes in the aerosol.
Igor B. Konovalov, Nikolai A. Golovushkin, Matthias Beekmann, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 357–392,Short summary
A lack of consistent observational constraints on the atmospheric evolution of the optical properties of biomass burning (BB) aerosol limits the accuracy of assessments of the aerosol radiative and climate effects. We show that useful insights into the evolution of the BB aerosol optical properties can be inferred from a combination of satellite observations and 3D modeling. We report major changes that occurred in the optical properties of Siberian BB aerosol during its long-range transport.
Shaojie Song, Tao Ma, Yuzhong Zhang, Lu Shen, Pengfei Liu, Ke Li, Shixian Zhai, Haotian Zheng, Meng Gao, Jonathan M. Moch, Fengkui Duan, Kebin He, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 457–481,Short summary
We simulate the atmospheric chemical processes of an important sulfur-containing organic aerosol species, which is produced by the reaction between sulfur dioxide and formaldehyde. We can predict its distribution on a global scale. We find it is particularly rich in East Asia. This aerosol species is more abundant in the colder season partly because of weaker sunlight.
Liqiang Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Xue Chen, Zhen Li, Yibo Zhang, Mengying Li, Khalid Mehmood, Weiping Liu, Tianfeng Chai, Yannian Zhu, Daniel Rosenfeld, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14787–14800,Short summary
The Chinese government has made major strides in curbing anthropogenic emissions. In this study, we constrain a state-of-the-art CTM by a reliable data assimilation method with extensive chemical and meteorological observations. This comprehensive technical design provides a crucial advance in isolating the influences of emission changes and meteorological perturbations over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) from 2016 to 2019, thus establishing the first map of the PM2.5 mitigation across the YRD.
Steven T. Turnock, Robert J. Allen, Martin Andrews, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa Emmons, Peter Good, Larry Horowitz, Jasmin G. John, Martine Michou, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, David Neubauer, Fiona M. O'Connor, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Alistair Sellar, Sungbo Shim, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Kostas Tsigaridis, Tongwen Wu, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14547–14579,Short summary
A first assessment is made of the historical and future changes in air pollutants from models participating in the 6th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Substantial benefits to future air quality can be achieved in future scenarios that implement measures to mitigate climate and involve reductions in air pollutant emissions, particularly methane. However, important differences are shown between models in the future regional projection of air pollutants under the same scenario.
Huiying Luo, Marina Astitha, Christian Hogrefe, Rohit Mathur, and S. Trivikrama Rao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13801–13815,Short summary
A new method is introduced to evaluate nonlinear, nonstationary modeled PM2.5 time series by decomposing decadal PM2.5 concentrations and its species onto various timescales. It does not require preselection of temporal scales and assumptions of linearity and stationarity. It provides a unique opportunity to assess the influence of each species on total PM2.5. The results reveal a phase shift in modeled EC/OC concentrations, indicating the need for improved model treatment of organic aerosols.
Yiqi Zheng, Joel A. Thornton, Nga Lee Ng, Hansen Cao, Daven K. Henze, Erin E. McDuffie, Weiwei Hu, Jose L. Jimenez, Eloise A. Marais, Eric Edgerton, and Jingqiu Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13091–13107,Short summary
This study aims to address a challenge in biosphere–atmosphere interactions: to what extent can biogenic organic aerosol (OA) be modified through human activities? From three surface network observations, we show OA is weakly dependent on sulfate and aerosol acidity in the summer southeast US, on both long-term trends and monthly variability. The results are in strong contrast to a global model, GEOS-Chem, suggesting the need to revisit the representation of aqueous-phase secondary OA formation.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Wei Tao, Hang Su, Guangjie Zheng, Jiandong Wang, Chao Wei, Lixia Liu, Nan Ma, Meng Li, Qiang Zhang, Ulrich Pöschl, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11729–11746,Short summary
We simulated the thermodynamic and multiphase reactions in aerosol water during a wintertime haze event over the North China Plain. It was found that aerosol pH exhibited a strong spatiotemporal variability, and multiple oxidation pathways were predominant for particulate sulfate formation in different locations. Sensitivity tests further showed that ammonia, crustal particles, and dissolved transition metal ions were important factors for multiphase chemistry during haze episodes.
Ben Silver, Luke Conibear, Carly L. Reddington, Christoph Knote, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11683–11695,Short summary
China suffers from serious air pollution, which is thought to cause millions of early deaths each year. Measurements on the ground show that overall air quality is improving. Air quality is also affected by weather conditions, which can vary from year to year. We conduct computer simulations to show it is the reduction of the amount of pollution emitted, rather than weather conditions, which caused air quality to improve during 2015–2017. We then estimate that 150 000 fewer people die early.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Jack Chen, Balbir Pabla, Wanmin Gong, Craig Stroud, Christopher Sioris, Kerry Anderson, Philip Cheung, Junhua Zhang, and Jason Milbrandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We have examined the effects of airborne particles on absorption and scattering of incoming sunlight by the particles themselves via cloud formation. We used an advanced, combined high-resolution weather forecast and chemical transport computer model, for western North America, and simulations with/without the connections between particles and weather enabled. Feedbacks improved weather and air pollution forecasts, and changed cloud behaviour and forest fire pollutant amount and height.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Michael Schulz, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11399–11422,Short summary
We have calculated the effects of air pollution in Europe from shipping on levels of PM2.5 and ozone and depositions of oxidised nitrogen and sulfur from individual sea areas and from all global shipping. Model results are shown for Europe as a whole but also focusing on select, mainly coastal, countries. Calculations are made using 2017 emissions supplemented by calculations reducing sulfur emissions from ships by about 80 % following the implementation of the 2020 global sulfur cap.
Isaac Kwadjo Afreh, Bernard Aumont, Marie Camredon, and Kelley Claire Barsanti
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This is the first SOA modeling study of the ubiquitous but understudied monoterpene, camphene. The explicit chemical model GECKO-A represented chamber data for two well-studied monoterpenes. The predicted camphene SOA yield was relatively high in comparison, ~2× α-pinene. Using 50 / 50 α-pinene / limonene as a surrogate for camphene increased predicted SOA mass from biomass burning fuels by up to ~100 %. The accurate representation of camphene in air quality models can improve predictions of SOA.
Ahmad Jhony Rusumdar, Andreas Tilgner, Ralf Wolke, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10351–10377,Short summary
In the present study, simulations with the SPACCIM-SpactMod multiphase chemistry model are performed. The investigations aim at assessing the impact of a detailed treatment of non-ideality in multiphase models dealing with aqueous aerosol chemistry. The model studies demonstrate that the inclusion of non-ideality considerably affects the multiphase chemical processing of transition metal ions, oxidants, and related chemical subsystems such as organic chemistry in aqueous aerosols.
Hyun Cheol Kim, Tianfeng Chai, Ariel Stein, and Shobha Kondragunta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10259–10277,Short summary
Smoke forecasts have been challenged by high uncertainty in fire emission estimates. We develop an inverse modeling system, the HYSPLIT-based Emissions Inverse Modeling System for wildfires, that estimates wildfire emissions from the transport and dispersion of smoke plumes as measured by satellite observations. Using NOAA HYSPLIT and GOES Aerosol/Smoke Product (GASP), the system resolves smoke source strength as a function of time and vertical level and outperforms current operational system.
Satoru Chatani, Hikari Shimadera, Syuichi Itahashi, and Kazuyo Yamaji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10311–10329,Short summary
Source sensitivities and apportionments of PM2.5 and ozone concentrations over Japan for 2016 were evaluated using multiple numerical techniques including BFM, HDDM, and ISAM, embedded in regional chemical transport models. Influences of stringent emission controls recently implemented in Asian countries were reflected. Differences between sensitivities and apportionments greatly helped distinguish various direct and indirect effects of emission sources on PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
Xiao Han, Lingyun Zhu, Mingxu Liu, Yu Song, and Meigen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9979–9996,Short summary
China is one of the largest agricultural countries in the world. Some of the major PM2.5 particles that cause the atmospheric haze and impact the climate change were converted from agricultural NH3 emission. This paper applied the numerical modeling system, coupled with a high-resolution agricultural NH3 emissions inventory, to investigate the contribution of agricultural NH3 to PM2.5 mass burden in China and obtained some interesting results.
Robert J. Allen, Steven Turnock, Pierre Nabat, David Neubauer, Ulrike Lohmann, Dirk Olivié, Naga Oshima, Martine Michou, Tongwen Wu, Jie Zhang, Toshihiko Takemura, Michael Schulz, Kostas Tsigaridis, Susanne E. Bauer, Louisa Emmons, Larry Horowitz, Vaishali Naik, Twan van Noije, Tommi Bergman, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Prodromos Zanis, Ina Tegen, Daniel M. Westervelt, Philippe Le Sager, Peter Good, Sungbo Shim, Fiona O'Connor, Dimitris Akritidis, Aristeidis K. Georgoulias, Makoto Deushi, Lori T. Sentman, Jasmin G. John, Shinichiro Fujimori, and William J. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9641–9663,
Hyun Cheol Kim, Soontae Kim, Mark Cohen, Changhan Bae, Dasom Lee, Rick Saylor, Minah Bae, Eunhye Kim, Byeong-Uk Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Ariel Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Global outbreaks of COVID-19 offer rare opportunities of natural experiments in emission control and corresponding responses of tropospheric chemistry. This study's novel approach investigates (1) isolating pandemic's impact from natural and anthropogenic variations, (2) emission-adjustment to reproduce real-time emissions (3) brute-force modeling to investigate Chinese economic activities. Results provide characteristics of the region's chemistry and emissions.
Rafael A. O. Nunes, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Vanessa Durán-Grados, Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hanna Hannuniemi, and Sofia I. V. Sousa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9473–9489,Short summary
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula with ship traffic between the Americas, Africa, and Europe, combined with the known adverse effects of this sector on air quality, emphasises the relevance of a more detailed study of these impacts in this region. Results showed increased levels of SO2 and NO2 near port areas, as well as of O3, sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 over the Iberian Peninsula coastline due to shipping emissions. To study mitigation measures, application is crucial.
Jaakko Kukkonen, Mikko Savolahti, Yuliia Palamarchuk, Timo Lanki, Väinö Nurmi, Ville-Veikko Paunu, Leena Kangas, Mikhail Sofiev, Ari Karppinen, Androniki Maragkidou, Pekka Tiittanen, and Niko Karvosenoja
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9371–9391,Short summary
We have developed a mathematical model that can be used to analyse the benefits that could be achieved by implementing alternative air quality abatement measures, policies or strategies. The model was applied to determine pollution sources in the whole of Finland in 2015. Clearly the most economically effective measures were the reduction in emissions from low-level sources in urban areas. Such sources include road transport, non-road vehicles and machinery, and residential wood combustion.
Wei Sun, Zhiquan Liu, Dan Chen, Pusheng Zhao, and Min Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9311–9329,Short summary
A new aerosol and gas pollutant assimilation capability is developed within the WRFDA system with the 3D variational algorithm and MOSAIC (Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry) aerosol scheme. By assimilating surface PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO, it improves 24 h air quality forecasting. Based on this system, model deficiencies are explored. Parameterization in the newly added inorganic aerosol heterogeneous reactions should be adjusted and verified by data assimilation.
Alexander Ukhov, Suleiman Mostamandi, Arlindo da Silva, Johannes Flemming, Yasser Alshehri, Illia Shevchenko, and Georgiy Stenchikov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9281–9310,Short summary
The data assimilation products MERRA2 and CAMS are tested over the Middle East (ME) against in situ and satellite observations. For the first time, we compared the new MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval, MAIAC, with the Deep Blue and Dark Target MODIS AOD. We conducted 2-year high-resolution WRF-Chem simulations with the most accurate OMI-HTAP SO2 emissions to estimate the contribution of natural and anthropogenic aerosols to the PM pollution in the ME.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, Pengfei Liu, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8827–8838,Short summary
Using a coupled vegetation–fire–climate modeling framework, we show a northward shift in forests and increased lightning fire activity in northern US states, including Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. Our findings suggest a large climate penalty on ecosystem, air quality, visibility, and human health in a region valued for its national forests and parks. The fine-scale smoke PM predictions provided in this study should prove useful to human health and environmental assessments.
Ryan Schmedding, Quazi Z. Rasool, Yue Zhang, Havala O. T. Pye, Haofei Zhang, Yuzhi Chen, Jason D. Surratt, Felipe D. Lopez-Hilfiker, Joel A. Thornton, Allen H. Goldstein, and William Vizuete
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8201–8225,Short summary
Accurate model prediction of aerosol concentrations is a known challenge. It is assumed in many modeling systems that aerosols are in a homogeneously mixed phase state. It has been observed that aerosols do phase separate and can form a highly viscous organic shell with an aqueous core impacting the formation processes of aerosols. This work is a model implementation to determine an aerosol's phase state using glass transition temperature and aerosol composition.
Lin Tang, Martin O. P. Ramacher, Jana Moldanová, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, Lasse Johansson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Katarina Yaramenka, Armin Aulinger, and Malin Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7509–7530,Short summary
The effects of shipping emissions on air quality and health in the harbour city of Gothenburg were simulated for 2012 with coupled regional and city-scale chemistry transport models. The results show that contributions of shipping to exposure and health impacts from particulate matter and NO2 are significant and that shipping-related exposure to PM is dominated by emissions from regional shipping outside the city domain and is larger than exposure related to emissions from local road traffic.
Jiani Tan, Joshua S. Fu, Gregory R. Carmichael, Syuichi Itahashi, Zhining Tao, Kan Huang, Xinyi Dong, Kazuyo Yamaji, Tatsuya Nagashima, Xuemei Wang, Yiming Liu, Hyo-Jung Lee, Chuan-Yao Lin, Baozhu Ge, Mizuo Kajino, Jia Zhu, Meigen Zhang, Hong Liao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7393–7410,Short summary
This study evaluated the performance of 12 chemical transport models from MICS-Asia III for predicting the particulate matter (PM) over East Asia. Four model processes were investigated as the possible reasons for model bias with measurements and the factors causing inconsistent predictions of PM from different models: (1) model inputs, (2) gas–particle conversion, (3) dust emission modules and (4) removal mechanisms (wet and dry depositions). The influence of each process was discussed.
Jiayue Huang, Lyatt Jaeglé, Qianjie Chen, Becky Alexander, Tomás Sherwen, Mat J. Evans, Nicolas Theys, and Sungyeon Choi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7335–7358,Short summary
Large-scale enhancements of tropospheric BrO and the depletion of surface ozone are often observed in the springtime Arctic. Here, we use a chemical transport model to examine the role of sea salt aerosol from blowing snow in explaining these phenomena. We find that our simulation can account for the spatiotemporal variability of satellite observations of BrO. However, the model has difficulty in producing the magnitude of observed ozone depletion events.
Jingyi Li, Haowen Zhang, Qi Ying, Zhijun Wu, Yanli Zhang, Xinming Wang, Xinghua Li, Yele Sun, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Jianlin Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7291–7306,Short summary
Large gaps still exist in modeled and observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass loading and properties. Here we investigated the impacts of water partitioning into organic aerosol and nonideality of the organic–water mixture on SOA over eastern China using a regional 3D model. SOA is increased more significantly in humid and hot environments. Increases in SOA further cause an enhancement of the cooling effects of aerosols. It is crucial to consider the above processes in modeling SOA.
Yanhong Zhu, Andreas Tilgner, Erik Hans Hoffmann, Hartmut Herrmann, Kimitaka Kawamura, Lingxiao Yang, Likun Xue, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6725–6747,Short summary
The formation and processing of secondary inorganic and organic compounds at Mt. Tai, the highest mountain on the North China Plain, are modeled using a multiphase chemical model. The concentrations of key radical and non-radical oxidations in the formation processes are investigated. Sensitivity tests assess the impacts of emission data and glyoxal partitioning constants on modeled results. The key precursors of secondary organic compounds are also identified.
Adhikari, S., Mahapatra, P. S., Sapkota, V., and Puppala, S. P.: Characterizing Emissions from Agricultural Diesel Pumps in the Terai Region of Nepal, Atmosphere, 10, 1–12, https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10020056, 2019.
AEPC: A Year in Review NYF 2069/70, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, Government of Nepal, 1–74, 2012.
ARAI: Emission factor development for Indian vehicles, in: Air Quality Monitoring Project-Indian Clean Air Programme, The Automotive Research Association Of India, Pune, 1–94, 2007.
Baidya, S. and Borken-Kleefeld, J.: Atmospheric emissions from road transportation in India, Energ. Policy, 37, 3812–3822, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2009.07.010, 2009.
Bajracharya, I. and Bhattarai, N.: Road Transportation Energy Demand and Environmental Emission: A Case of Kathmandu Valley, Hydro Nepal, J. Water Energ. Environ., 18, 30–40, https://doi.org/10.3126/hn.v18i0.14641, 2016.
Ban-Weiss, G. A., Lunden, M. M., Kirchstetter, T. W., and Harley, R. A.: Measurement of Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors from Individual Heavy-Duty Trucks, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 1419–1424, 2009.
Bhari B.: Characterization of Roadside Air Pollution Levels in Kathmandu Valley, Master's Thesis, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand, 1–88, 2015.
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Emission inventory studies are an important regulatory tool for quantifying the amount of pollutants released in the atmosphere using the fuel consumption and emission rates for different fuels. This study developed an emission inventory over Nepal for 2001–2016 that reveals the changing fuel consumption and subsequently the pollution across different sectors of industrial, transport, agricultural, commercial and residential uses with the use of spatial distribution of anthropogenic activities.
Emission inventory studies are an important regulatory tool for quantifying the amount of...