Articles | Volume 18, issue 11
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
High-molecular-weight esters in α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol: structural characterization and mechanistic proposal for their formation from highly oxygenated molecules
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
now at: Development Bioanalysis, Janssen R & D, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
now at: Soil Service of Belgium, W. de Croylaan 48, Heverlee, Belgium
Leibniz-Institut für Troposphärenforschung (TROPOS), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
now at: Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Kunigami, Okinawa, 904-0495, Japan
Mohammad Safi Shalamzari
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken), 2610 Antwerp, Belgium
now at: Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd., Zernikedreef 12, 2333 CL Leiden, the Netherlands
Department of Chemistry, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S12, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
No articles found.
Laurent Poulain, Benjamin Fahlbusch, Gerald Spindler, Konrad Müller, Dominik van Pinxteren, Zhijun Wu, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Wolfram Birmili, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3667–3684,Short summary
We present results from source apportionment analysis on the carbonaceous aerosol particles, including organic aerosol (OA) and equivalent black carbon (eBC), allowing us to distinguish local emissions from long-range transport for OA and eBC sources. By merging online chemical measurements and considering particle number size distribution, the different air masses reaching the sampling place were described and discussed, based on their respective chemical composition and size distribution.
Dongsheng Ji, Wenkang Gao, Willy Maenhaut, Jun He, Zhe Wang, Jiwei Li, Wupeng Du, Lili Wang, Yang Sun, Jinyuan Xin, Bo Hu, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8569–8590,Short summary
This study reveals an obvious decreasing trend in OC and EC concentrations in urban Beijing. Higher concentrations were related to air masses originating from the northeast sector at wind speeds of approximately 5 km h−1. The potential source regions of the carbonaceous aerosols stretched to broader areas in the northwestern and western regions where coal mining and coal-fired power generation activities are intensive, which is fairly consistent with the MEIC inventory for China.
Paola Formenti, Stuart John Piketh, Andreas Namwoonde, Danitza Klopper, Roelof Burger, Mathieu Cazaunau, Anaïs Feron, Cécile Gaimoz, Stephen Broccardo, Nicola Walton, Karine Desboeufs, Guillaume Siour, Mattheus Hanghome, Samuel Mafwila, Edosa Omoregie, Wolfgang Junkermann, and Willy Maenhaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17003–17016,Short summary
Three-years of continuous measurements at the Henties Bay Aerosol Observatory (HBAO; 22°S, 14°05’E), Namibia, show that during the austral wintertime, long- and medium-range transport of pollution from biomass and fossil fuel burning give rise to peaks of light-absorbing black carbon aerosols into the marine boundary layer ahead of the main biomass burning season. This could affect the cloud properties.
Sarah S. Steimer, Aurélie Delvaux, Steven J. Campbell, Peter J. Gallimore, Peter Grice, Duncan J. Howe, Dominik Pitton, Magda Claeys, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10973–10983,Short summary
Aerosol particles are a major public health concern, but particle properties contributing to their toxicity are not well known. Oxidising components such as peroxy acids might contribute significantly to particle toxicity. However, there is a lack of analytical methods for their characterisation. We synthesized three peroxy acids, developed an analysis method and showed that degradation affects peracid yield, likely leading to underestimation of their concentration in conventional analyses.
Imre Salma, Zoltán Németh, Tamás Weidinger, Willy Maenhaut, Magda Claeys, Mihály Molnár, István Major, Tibor Ajtai, Noémi Utry, and Zoltán Bozóki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13767–13781,Short summary
The major finding of this study lies in the new pragmatic coupled radiocarbon–LVG apportionment scheme, which allows assessment of the contribution of the major carbonaceous species from fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and biogenic sources with a reasonable uncertainty, and without coupling of thermal or separation methods with an AMS for rather small amounts of samples.
Kathrin Gatzsche, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Andreas Tilgner, Anke Mutzel, Torsten Berndt, and Ralf Wolke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13187–13211,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) represents an important fraction of the particulate matter and, thus, an advanced treatment of SOA processes in models is necessary. Therefore, this investigation aims at sensitivity studies of a kinetic description of SOA formation. The results reveal that the particle-phase state and the reactivity of the organic solutes are key parameters in the SOA formation. Overall, the results show that an advanced kinetic treatment enables improved model predictions.
Carlo Bozzetti, Imad El Haddad, Dalia Salameh, Kaspar Rudolf Daellenbach, Paola Fermo, Raquel Gonzalez, María Cruz Minguillón, Yoshiteru Iinuma, Laurent Poulain, Miriam Elser, Emanuel Müller, Jay Gates Slowik, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Urs Baltensperger, Nicolas Marchand, and André Stephan Henry Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8247–8268,Short summary
We present the first long-term organic aerosol source apportionment in an environment influenced by anthropogenic emissions including biomass burning and industrial processes and an active photochemistry. Online and offline aerosol mass spectrometry were used to characterize these emissions and their transformation. Measurements of organic markers provided insights into the origin of biomass smoke in this area, with different seasonal contributions from domestic heating and agricultural burning.
Mohammad Safi Shalamzari, Reinhilde Vermeylen, Frank Blockhuys, Tadeusz E. Kleindienst, Michael Lewandowski, Rafal Szmigielski, Krzysztof J. Rudzinski, Grzegorz Spólnik, Witold Danikiewicz, Willy Maenhaut, and Magda Claeys
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7135–7148,Short summary
Evidence is provided that the green leaf aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal are precursors for secondary organic aerosol, namely, organosulfates with MWs 230, 214, and 170. The structures were elucidated with liquid chromatography/(−)electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS), involving accurate mass measurements and ion trap MS. It is shown that the MW 214 isomer with the sulfate group at the C-2 position is unstable and decarboxylates to a MW 170 organosulfate.
Yan Lv, Xiang Li, Ting Ting Xu, Tian Tao Cheng, Xin Yang, Jian Min Chen, Yoshiteru Iinuma, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2971–2983,Short summary
The study focused on size-resolved PAHs in urban aerosols at a megacity Shanghai site. The results provide us with a mechanistic understanding of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their transport in the human respiratory system; this can help develop better source control strategies.
A. Karanasiou, M. C. Minguillón, M. Viana, A. Alastuey, J.-P. Putaud, W. Maenhaut, P. Panteliadis, G. Močnik, O. Favez, and T. A. J. Kuhlbusch
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
K. W. Fomba, D. van Pinxteren, K. Müller, Y. Iinuma, T. Lee, J. L. Collett Jr., and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8751–8765,
M. Rodigast, A. Mutzel, Y. Iinuma, S. Haferkorn, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2409–2416,Short summary
An optimised method for derivatisation of carbonyl compounds with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) in aqueous samples is described. The comprehensive optimisation of the method leads to an improvement of the detection limit up to a factor of 10 highlighting the good sensitivity of the optimised method for atmospherically relevant carbonyl compounds. The optimised method was successfully applied to detect carbonyl compounds from the aqueous phase oxidation of 3-methylbutanone.
P. Panteliadis, T. Hafkenscheid, B. Cary, E. Diapouli, A. Fischer, O. Favez, P. Quincey, M. Viana, R. Hitzenberger, R. Vecchi, D. Saraga, J. Sciare, J. L. Jaffrezo, A. John, J. Schwarz, M. Giannoni, J. Novak, A. Karanasiou, P. Fermo, and W. Maenhaut
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 779–792,
K. E. Yttri, J. Schnelle-Kreis, W. Maenhaut, G. Abbaszade, C. Alves, A. Bjerke, N. Bonnier, R. Bossi, M. Claeys, C. Dye, M. Evtyugina, D. García-Gacio, R. Hillamo, A. Hoffer, M. Hyder, Y. Iinuma, J.-L. Jaffrezo, A. Kasper-Giebl, G. Kiss, P. L. López-Mahia, C. Pio, C. Piot, C. Ramirez-Santa-Cruz, J. Sciare, K. Teinilä, R. Vermeylen, A. Vicente, and R. Zimmermann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 125–147,
Z. Kitanovski, A. Čusak, I. Grgić, and M. Claeys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2457–2470,
L. Chiappini, S. Verlhac, R. Aujay, W. Maenhaut, J. P. Putaud, J. Sciare, J. L. Jaffrezo, C. Liousse, C. Galy-Lacaux, L. Y. Alleman, P. Panteliadis, E. Leoz, and O. Favez
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1649–1661,
I. Kourtchev, S. J. Fuller, C. Giorio, R. M. Healy, E. Wilson, I. O'Connor, J. C. Wenger, M. McLeod, J. Aalto, T. M. Ruuskanen, W. Maenhaut, R. Jones, D. S. Venables, J. R. Sodeau, M. Kulmala, and M. Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2155–2167,
A. Kahnt, Y. Iinuma, A. Mutzel, O. Böge, M. Claeys, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 719–736,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Opinion: Atmospheric multiphase chemistry – past, present, and futureDistinct photochemistry in glycine particles mixed with different atmospheric nitrate saltsEffects of storage conditions on the molecular-level composition of organic aerosol particlesCharacterization of gas and particle emissions from open burning of household solid waste from South AfricaChemically distinct particle-phase emissions from highly controlled pyrolysis of three wood typesPredicting photooxidant concentrations in aerosol liquid water based on laboratory extracts of ambient particlesPhysicochemical characterization of free troposphere and marine boundary layer ice-nucleating particles collected by aircraft in the eastern North AtlanticLarge differences of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and low-volatile species in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from ozonolysis of β-pinene and limoneneImpact of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources on the molecular compositions of water-soluble humic-like substances in PM2.5 at a suburban site of Yangtze River Delta, ChinaTechnical note: Improved synthetic routes to cis- and trans-(2-methyloxirane-2,3-diyl)dimethanol (cis- and trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol)Technical note: Intercomparison study of the elemental carbon radiocarbon analysis methods using synthetic known samplesChemical evolution of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols during daytime and nighttimeFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the oxidation of limonene by OH radical: significant contribution of H-abstraction pathwayMeasurement report: Atmospheric aging of combustion-derived particles – impact on stable free radical concentration and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in aqueous mediaPhotoaging of phenolic secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase: evolution of chemical and optical properties and effects of oxidantsAn intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticlesMolecular fingerprints and health risks of home-use incense burning smokeTechnical note: in-situ measurements and modelling of the oxidation kinetics in films of a cooking aerosol proxy using a Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)Simultaneous formation of sulfate and nitrate via co-uptake of SO2 and NO2 by aqueous NaCl droplets: combined effect of nitrate photolysis and chlorine chemistryPhoto-induced shrinking of aqueous glycine aerosol dropletsSulfate formation via aerosol-phase SO2 oxidation by model biomass burning photosensitizers: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde using single-particle mixing-state analysisYields and molecular composition of gas-phase and secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of the volatile consumer product benzyl alcohol: formation of highly oxygenated and hydroxy nitro-aromatic compoundsQuantifying the seasonal variations and regional transport of PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta region, China: Characteristics, sources, and health risksA combined gas- and particle-phase analysis of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysisContrasting impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of monoterpenes: insights into the multi-generation chemical mechanismComparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateTechnical note: Chemical composition and source identification of fluorescent components in atmospheric water-soluble brown carbon by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis – potential limitations and applicationsHigh Enrichment of Heavy Metals in Fine Particulate Matter through Dust Aerosol GenerationInsoluble lipid film mediates transfer of soluble saccharides from the sea to the atmosphere: the role of hydrogen bondingProduction of aerosol containing ice nucleating particles (INPs) by fast growing phytoplanktonMagnetic fraction of the atmospheric dust in Kraków – physicochemical characteristics and possible environmental impactModeling daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reactions of biogenic hydrocarbonsSO2 enhances aerosol formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound ozonolysis by producing sulfur-containing compoundsIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low NOx and high NOx conditionsChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macroalgal emissionThe Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Investigation of pH- and particle-size-dependent chemical and optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon: implications for its sources and aging processesThe influence of the addition of isoprene on the volatility of particles formed from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic–biogenic mixturesSignificant formation of sulfate aerosols contributed by the heterogeneous drivers of dust surfaceParticle-phase processing of α-pinene NO3 secondary organic aerosol in the darkChemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China: insight from the COVID-19 lockdownThe positive effect of formaldehyde on the photocatalytic renoxification of nitrate on TiO2 particlesIdentification of highly oxygenated organic molecules and their role in aerosol formation in the reaction of limonene with nitrate radicalA comprehensive study on hygroscopic behaviour and nitrate depletion of NaNO3 and dicarboxylic acid mixtures: implications for nitrate depletion in tropospheric aerosolsSecondary organic aerosols from OH oxidation of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes as an important Si source in the atmosphereEffects of OH radical and SO2 concentrations on photochemical reactions of mixed anthropogenic organic gases
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9765–9785,Short summary
With important climate and air quality impacts, atmospheric multiphase chemistry involves gas interactions with aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We summarize the status of the field and discuss potential directions for future growth. We highlight the importance of a molecular-level understanding of the chemistry, along with atmospheric field studies and modeling, and emphasize the necessity for atmospheric multiphase chemists to interact widely with scientists from neighboring disciplines.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Julian Resch, Kate Wolfer, Alexandre Barth, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9161–9171,Short summary
Detailed chemical analysis of organic aerosols is necessary to better understand their effects on climate and health. Aerosol samples are often stored for days to months before analysis. We examined the effects of storage conditions (i.e., time, temperature, and aerosol storage on filters or as solvent extracts) on composition and found significant changes in the concentration of individual compounds, indicating that sample storage can strongly affect the detailed chemical particle composition.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8921–8937,Short summary
Open burning of household and municipal solid waste is a common practice in developing countries and is a significant source of air pollution. However, few studies have measured emissions from open burning of waste. This study determined gas and particulate emissions from open burning of 10 types of household solid-waste materials. These results can improve emission inventories, air quality management, and assessment of the health and climate effects of open burning of household waste.
Anita M. Avery, Mariam Fawaz, Leah R. Williams, Tami Bond, and Timothy B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8837–8854,Short summary
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of fuels like wood which occurs during combustion or as an isolated process. During combustion, some pyrolysis products are emitted directly, while others are oxidized in the combustion process. This work describes the chemical composition of particle-phase pyrolysis products in order to investigate both the uncombusted emissions from wildfires and the fuel that participates in combustion.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Chrystal Guzman, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8805–8821,Short summary
Although photooxidants are important in airborne particles, little is known of their concentrations. By measuring oxidants in a series of particle dilutions, we predict their concentrations in aerosol liquid water (ALW). We find •OH concentrations in ALW are on the order of 10−15 M, similar to their cloud/fog values, while oxidizing triplet excited states and singlet molecular oxygen have ALW values of ca. 10−13 M and 10−12 M, respectively, roughly 10–100 times higher than in cloud/fog drops.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Dandan Liu, Yun Zhang, Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Qiaorong Xie, Donghuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Chao Ma, Haijie Tong, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8383–8402,Short summary
Based on ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, we found that β-pinene oxidation-derived highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) exhibit higher yield at high ozone concentration, while limonene oxidation-derived HOMs exhibit higher yield at moderate ozone concentration. The distinct molecular response of HOMs and low-volatile species in different biogenic secondary organic aerosols to ozone concentrations provides a new clue for more accurate air quality prediction and management.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yihang Hong, Yu-Chi Lin, Mingyuan Yu, Hongxing Jiang, Zhineng Cheng, Rongshuang Xu, and Xiaoying Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8305–8324,Short summary
The interaction between the sources and molecular compositions of humic-like substances (HULIS) at Nanjing, China, was explored. Significant fossil fuel source contributions to HULIS were found in the 14C results from biomass burnng and traffic emissions. Increasing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products and anthropogenic aromatic compounds were detected in summer and winter, respectively.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Xiangyun Zhang, Jun Li, Sanyuan Zhu, Junwen Liu, Ping Ding, Shutao Gao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7495–7502,Short summary
The results show that 14C elemental carbon (EC) was not only related to the isolation method but also to the types and proportions of the biomass sources in the sample. The hydropyrolysis (Hypy) method, which can be used to isolate a highly stable portion of ECHypy and avoid charring, is a more effective and stable approach for the matrix-independent 14C quantification of EC in aerosols, and the 13C–ECHypy and non-fossil ECHypy values of SRM1649b were –24.9 ‰ and 11 %, respectively.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Hao Luo, Luc Vereecken, Hongru Shen, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Mattias Hallquist, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Defeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7297–7319,Short summary
Oxidation of limonene, an element emitted by trees and chemical products, by OH, a daytime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), including C10-20 compounds. HOMs play an important role in new particle formation and growth. HOM formation can be explained by the chemistry of peroxy radicals. We found that a minor branching ratio initial pathway plays an unexpected, significant role. Considering this pathway enables accurate simulations of HOMs and other concentrations.
Heather L. Runberg and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7213–7223,Short summary
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFRs in the soot were measured and found to be unchanged. However, it was also found that the ability of soot to form hydroxyl radicals was stronger for fresh soot.
Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Cort Anastasio, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7103–7120,Short summary
We studied how aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) form and evolve from a phenolic carbonyl commonly present in biomass burning smoke. The composition and optical properties of the aqSOA are significantly affected by photochemical reactions and are dependent on the oxidants' concentration and identity in water. During photoaging, the aqSOA initially becomes darker, but prolonged aging leads to the formation of volatile products, resulting in significant mass loss and photobleaching.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6613–6631,Short summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, and Song Guo
Incense burning is a common practice in Asia, posing great threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full volatility organic species from incense burning smoke are detected and quantified for the first time. IVOCs are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total EFs and 40.0 % of the SOA estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Adam Milsom, Shaojun Qi, Ashmi Mishra, Thomas Berkemeier, Zhenyu Zhang, and Christian Pfrang
Aerosols and films are found indoors and outdoors. Our study measures and models reactions of a cooking aerosol proxy with the atmospheric oxidant ozone relying on a low-cost, but sensitive technique based on mass changes and film rigidity. We found that film morphology changed and film rigidity increased with evidence of surface crust formation during ozone exposure. Our modelling results demonstrate clear potential to take this robust method to the field for reaction monitoring.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Oliver Reich, Grégory David, and Ruth Signorell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5393–5402,Short summary
Photosensitizers play an important role in the photochemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Our study provides evidence that mesoscopic glycine clusters forming in aqueous droplets act as unconventional photosensitizers in the visible light spectrum. We observed the influence of these photoactive molecular aggregates in single optically trapped aqueous droplets. Such mesoscopic photosensitizers might be more important for aerosol photochemistry than previously anticipated.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Mohammed Jaoui, Kenneth S. Docherty, Michael Lewandowski, and Tadeusz E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4637–4661,Short summary
VCPs are a class of chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products (e.g., coatings, adhesives, inks, personal care products) and are an important component of total VOCs in urban atmospheres. This study provides SOA yields and detailed chemical analysis of the gas- and aerosol-phase products of the photooxidation of one of these VCPs, benzyl alcohol. These results will allow better links between characterized sources and their resulting criteria for pollutant formation.
Yangzhihao Zhan, Min Xie, Tijian Wang, Pulong Chen, Jun Tian, Kuanguang Zhu, Yi Luo, Runqi Zhao, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Mengmeng Li
Although the main source contribution of pollution is secondary inorganic aerosols in Nanjing, health risks mainly come from industry sources and vehicle emissions. Therefore, the development of mega-cities should pay more attention to the health burden of vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and industrial processes. This study provides new insight into assessing the relationship between source apportionment and health risks and can provide valuable insight into air pollution strategies.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
Shan Zhang, Lin Du, Zhaomin Yang, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Kun Li
In this study, we have investigated the distinct impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of two structurally different monoterpenes (limonene and Δ3-carene), We found that the molecular structure of precursors can largely influence the SOA formation under high RH by impacting the multi-generation reactions. Our results could advance knowledge on the roles of water content on aerosol formation, and inform ongoing research on particle environmental effects and applications in models.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Cuncun Xu, Jianzhong Song, Xingjun Fan, Jun Li, Wanglu Jia, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2613–2625,Short summary
This work comprehensively investigated the fluorescence data of light-absorbing organic compounds, water-soluble organic matter in different types of aerosol samples, soil dust, and fulvic and humic acids using an excitation–emission matrix (EEM) method and parallel factor modeling. The results revealed which light-absorbing species can be detected by EEM and also provided important information for identifying the chemical composition and possible sources of these species in atmospheric samples.
Qianqian Gao, Shengqiang Zhu, Kaili Zhou, Jinghao Zhai, Shaodong Chen, Qihuang Wang, Shurong Wang, Jin Han, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Liwu Zhang, Lin Wang, Zimeng Wang, Xin Yang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianmin Chen, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Dust is a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Its chemical composition is often assumed to be similar to the parent soil. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified. Dust aerosols are mainly generated by wind erosion, which may have some chemical selectivity. Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be highly enriched in fine (PM2.5) dust aerosols. In addition, estimation of heavy metal emission from dust generation by air quality models may have errors without using proper dust profiles.
Minglan Xu, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2235–2249,Short summary
The promotion of soluble saccharides on sea spray aerosol (SSA) generation and the changes in particle morphology were observed. On the contrary, the coexistence of surface insoluble fatty acid film and soluble saccharides significantly inhibited the production of SSA. This is the first demonstration that hydrogen bonding mediated by surface-insoluble fatty acids contributes to saccharide transfer in seawater, providing a new mechanism for saccharide enrichment in SSA.
Daniel Conrad Ogilvie Thornton, Sarah Dickerson Brooks, Elise Katherine Wilbourn, Jessica Mirrielees, Alyssa Nicole Alsante, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Andrew Whitesell, and Kiana Kiana McFadden
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
A major uncertainty in our understanding of clouds and climate are the sources and properties of the aerosol on which clouds grow. We found that aerosol containing organic matter from fast growing marine phytoplankton were a source of ice nucleating particles (INPs). INPs facilitate freezing of ice crystals at warmer temperatures than otherwise possible, and therefore change cloud formation and properties. Our results show ecosystem processes and the properties of sea spray aerosol are linked.
Jan M. Michalik, Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Łukasz Gondek, Waldemar Tokarz, Jan Żukrowski, Marta Gajewska, and Marek Michalik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1449–1464,Short summary
The magnetic fraction of the aerosols in Kraków was collected and analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and magnetometry. It contains metallic Fe or Fe-rich alloy and Fe oxides. The occurrence of nanometre-scale Fe3O4 particles (predominantly of anthropogenic origin) is shown. Our results can help to determine the sources and transport of pollutants, potential harmful effects, etc.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1209–1226,Short summary
The diurnal pattern in biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is simulated by using the UNIPAR model, which predicts SOA growth via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, and temperature. The simulation suggests that nighttime SOA formation, even in urban environments, where anthropogenic emission is high, is dominated by products from ozonolysis and NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons.
Zhaomin Yang, Kun Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 417–430,Short summary
SO2 significantly promotes particle formation during cyclooctene ozonolysis. Carboxylic acids and their dimers were major products in particles formed in the absence of SO2. SO2 can induce production of organosulfates with stronger particle formation ability than their precursors, leading to the enhancement in particle formation. Formation mechanisms and structures of organosulfates were proposed, which is helpful for better understanding how SO2 perturbs the formation and fate of particles.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 203–220,Short summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15413–15423,Short summary
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in the last 2 decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in coastal new particle formation. We present a complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field research on iodine nucleation in the coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
Yuanyuan Qin, Juanjuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Kang Xiao, Ting Qi, Yuwei Gao, Xueming Zhou, Shaoxuan Shi, Jingnan Li, Jingsi Gao, Ziyin Zhang, Jihua Tan, Yang Zhang, and Rongzhi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13845–13859,Short summary
Deep interrogation of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is critical and challenging considering its involvement in many key aerosol-associated chemical reactions. This work examined how the chemical structures (functional groups) and optical properties (UV/fluorescence properties) of WSOC were affected by pH and particle size. We found that the pH- and particle-size-dependent behaviors could be used to reveal the structures, sources, and aging of aerosol WSOC.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Spyros N. Pandis, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13677–13693,Short summary
The addition of a low-yield precursor to the reactive mixture of aVOC and bVOC can increase or decrease the SOA volatility that is system-dependent. Therefore, the SOA volatility of the mixtures cannot always be predicted based on the additivity. In complex mixtures the formation of lower-volatility products likely outweighs the formation of products with higher volatility. The unique products of each mixture contribute significantly to the signal, suggesting interactions can be important.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Hanyun Cheng, Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13467–13493,Short summary
This study compared the gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous SO2 oxidation pathways by combining laboratory work with a modelling study. The heterogeneous oxidation, particularly that induced by the dust surface drivers, presents positive implications for the removal of airborne SO2 and formation of sulfate aerosols. This work highlighted the atmospheric significance of heterogeneous oxidation and suggested a comparison model to evaluate the following heterogeneous laboratory research.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13167–13182,Short summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using a common oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition via different chemical reactions that were taking place inside of the aerosol particle. These results show that the composition of organic aerosol steadily changes during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Haijun Zhou, Tao Liu, Bing Sun, Yongli Tian, Xingjun Zhou, Feng Hao, Xi Chun, Zhiqiang Wan, Peng Liu, Jingwen Wang, and Dagula Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12153–12166,Short summary
A single year’s offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot to reveal the chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in a semi-arid region. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because relatively few studies have focused on the chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 with offline measurements. A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region.
Yuhan Liu, Xuejiao Wang, Jing Shang, Weiwei Xu, Mengshuang Sheng, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11347–11358,Short summary
In this study, the influence of HCHO on renoxification on nitrate-doped TiO2 particles is investigated by using an experimental chamber. Mass NOx release is suggested to follow the NO−3-NO3·-HNO3-NOx pathway, with HCHO involved in the transformation of NO3· to HNO3 through hydrogen abstraction. Our proposed reaction mechanism by which HCHO promotes photocatalytic renoxification is helpful for deeply understanding the atmospheric photochemical processes and nitrogen cycling.
Yindong Guo, Hongru Shen, Iida Pullinen, Hao Luo, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, Hendrik Fuchs, Mattias Hallquist, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Defeng Zhao, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11323–11346,Short summary
The oxidation of limonene, a common volatile emitted by trees and chemical products, by NO3, a nighttime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), including C10-30 compounds. Most of the HOM are second-generation organic nitrates, in which carbonyl-substituted C10 nitrates accounted for a major fraction. Their formation can be explained by chemistry of peroxy radicals. HOM, especially low-volatile ones, play an important role in nighttime new particle formation and growth.
Shuaishuai Ma, Qiong Li, and Yunhong Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10955–10970,Short summary
The nitrate phase state can play a critical role in determining the occurrence and extent of nitrate depletion in internally mixed NaNO3–DCA particles, which may be instructive for relevant aerosol reaction systems. Besides, organic acids have a potential to deplete nitrate based on the comprehensive consideration of acidity, particle-phase state, droplet water activity, and HNO3 gas-phase diffusion.
Chong Han, Hongxing Yang, Kun Li, Patrick Lee, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10827–10839,Short summary
We presented yields and compositions of Si-containing SOAs generated from the reaction of cVMSs (D3–D6) with OH radicals. NOx played a negative role in cVMS SOA formation, while ammonium sulfate seeds enhanced D3–D5 SOA yields at short photochemical ages under high-NOx conditions. The aerosol mass spectra confirmed that the components of cVMS SOAs significantly relied on OH exposure. A global cVMS-derived SOA source strength was estimated in order to understand SOA formation potentials of cVMSs.
Junling Li, Kun Li, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Yuanyuan Ji, Wanghui Chu, Yuxue Kong, Yangxi Chu, Yanqin Ren, Yujie Zhang, Haijie Zhang, Rui Gao, Zhenhai Wu, Fang Bi, Xuan Chen, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, Hong Li, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10489–10504,Short summary
Ozone formation is enhanced by higher OH concentration and higher temperature but is influenced little by SO2. SO2 can largely enhance the particle formation. Organo-sulfates and organo-nitrates are detected in the formed particles, and the presence of SO2 can promote the formation of organo-sulfates. The results provide a scientific basis for systematically evaluating the effects of SO2, OH concentration, and temperature on the oxidation of mixed organic gases in the atmosphere.
Beck, M. and Hoffmann, T.: A detailed MSn study for the molecular identification of a dimer formed from oxidation of pinene, Atmos. Environ., 130, 120–126, 2016.
Bohr, F., Henon, E., Garcia, I., and Castro, M.: Theoretical study of the peroxy radicals RO2 self-reaction: Structures and stabilization energies of the intermediate RO4R for various R, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 75, 671–682, 1999.
Bonn, B., Schuster, G., and Moortgat, G.: Influence of water vapor on the process of new particle formation during monoterpene ozonolysis, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 2869–2881, 2002.
Claeys, M., Iinuma, Y., Szmigielski, R., Surratt, J. D., Blockhuys, F., Van Alsenoy, C., Böge, O., Sierau, B., Gómez-González, Y., Vermeylen, R., Van der Veken, P., Shahgholi, M., Chan, A. W. H., Herrmann, H., Seinfeld, J. H., and Maenhaut, W.: Terpenylic acid and related compounds from the oxidation of α-pinene: Implications for new particle formation and growth above forests, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 6976–6982, 2009.
Docherty, K. S., Wu, W., Lim, Y. B., and Ziemann, P. J.: Contributions of organic peroxides to secondary aerosol formed from reactions of monoterpenes with O3, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 4049–4059, 2005.
Ehn, M., Kleist, E., Junninen, H., Petäjä, T., Lönn, G., Schobesberger, S., Dal Maso, M., Trimborn, A., Kulmala, M., Worsnop, D. R., Wahner, A., Wildt, J., and Mentel, T. F.: Gas phase formation of extremely oxidized pinene reaction products in chamber and ambient air, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5113–5127, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5113-2012, 2012.
Ehn, M., Thornton, J. A., Kleist, E., Sipilä, M., Junninen, H., Pullinen, I., Springer, M., Rubach, F., Tillmann, R., Lee, B., Lopez-Hilfiker, F., Andres, S., Ismail-Hakki, A., Rissanen, M., Jokinen, T., Schobesberger, S., Kangasluoma, J., Kontkanen, J., Nieminen, T., Kurtén, T., Nielsen, L. B., Jørgensen, S., Kjaergaard, H. G., Canagaratna, M., Dal Maso, M., Berndt, T., Petäjä, T., Wahner, A., Kerminen, V.-M., Kulmala, M., Worsnop, D. R., Wildt, J., and Mentel, T. F.: A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol, Nature, 506, 476–479, 2014.
Furniss, B. S., Hannaford, A. J., Smith, P. W. G., and Tatchell, A. R.: Vogel's Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, John Wiley, New York, 1989.
Gao, S., Ng, N. L., Keywood, M., Varutbangkul, V., Bahreini, R., Nenes, A., He, J., Yoo, K. Y., Beauchamp, J. L., Hodyss, R., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Particle phase acidity and oligomer formation in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 6582–6589, 2004.
Gao, Y., Hall, W. A., and Johnston, M. V.: Molecular composition of monoterpene secondary organic aerosol at low mass loading, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 7897–7902, 2010.
Glasius, M., Duane, M., and Larsen, B. R.: Determination of polar terpene oxidation products in aerosols by liquid chromatography – ion trap mass spectrometry, J. Chrom. A, 833, 121–135, 1999.
Glasius, M., Lahaniati, M., Calogirou, A., Di Bella, D., Jensen, N. R., Hjorth, J., Kotzias, D., and Larsen, B. R.: Carboxylic acids in secondary aerosols from oxidation of cyclic monoterpenes by ozone, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 1001–1010, 2000.
Guenther, A. B., Jiang, X., Heald, C. L., Sakulyanontvittaya, T., Duhl, T., Emmons, L. K., and Wang, X.: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1471–1492, https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-1471-2012, 2012.
Hall, W. A. and Johnston, M. V.: Oligomer formation pathways in secondary organic aerosol from MS and MS/MS measurements with high mass accuracy and resolving power, J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom., 23, 1097–1108, 2012a.
Hall, W. A. and Johnston, M. V.: The thermal-stability of oligomers in alpha-pinene secondary organic aerosol, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 46, 983–989, 2012b.
Hoffmann, T., Bandur, R., Marggraf, U., and Linscheid, M.: Molecular composition of organic aerosols formed in the alpha-pinene/O3 reaction: Implications for new particle formation processes, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 25569–25578, 1998.
Huang, W., Saathoff, H., Pajunoja, A., Shen, X., Naumann, K.-H., Wagner, R., Virtanen, A., Leisner, T., and Mohr, C.: α-Pinene secondary organic aerosol at low temperature: chemical composition and implications for particle viscosity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2883–2898, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-2883-2018, 2018.
Iinuma, Y., Böge, O., Gnauk, T., and Herrmann, H.: Aerosol chamber study of the α-pinene/O3 reaction: influence of particle acidity on aerosol yields and products, Atmos. Environ., 38, 761–773, 2004.
Iinuma, Y., Müller, C., Berndt, T., Böge, O., Claeys, M., and Herrmann, H.: Evidence for the existence of organosulfates from beta-pinene ozonolysis in ambient secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 6678–6683, 2007.
Kahnt, A., Iinuma, Y., Mutzel, A., Böge, O., Claeys, M., and Herrmann, H.: Campholenic aldehyde ozonolysis: a mechanism leading to specific biogenic secondary organic aerosol constituents, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 719–736, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-719-2014, 2014.
Komai, T.: Water-soluble tertiary-alkyperoxy hydrogen phthalates, Patent, Jpn. Tokkyo Koho, 1971.
Kourtchev, I., Fuller, S. J., Giorio, C., Healy, R. M., Wilson, E., O'Connor, I., Wenger, J. C., McLeod, M., Aalto, J., Ruuskanen, T. M., Maenhaut, W., Jones, R., Venables, D. S., Sodeau, J. R., Kulmala, M., and Kalberer, M.: Molecular composition of biogenic secondary organic aerosols using ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry: comparing laboratory and field studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2155–2167, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2155-2014, 2014.
Kourtchev, I., Doussin, J.-F., Giorio, C., Mahon, B., Wilson, E. M., Maurin, N., Pangui, E., Venables, D. S., Wenger, J. C., and Kalberer, M.: Molecular composition of fresh and aged secondary organic aerosol from a mixture of biogenic volatile compounds: a high-resolution mass spectrometry study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5683–5695, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-5683-2015, 2015.
Kourtchev, I., Giorio, C., Manninen, A., Wilson, E., Mahon, B., Aalto, J., Kajos, M., Venable, D., Ruuskanen, T., Levula, J., Loponen, M., Connors, S., Harris, N., Zhao, D., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Mentel, T., Rudich, Y., Hallquist, M., Doussin, J.-F., Maenhaut, W., Bäck, J., Petäjä, T., Wenger, J., Kulmala, M., and Kalberer, M.: Enhanced volatile organic compounds emissions and organic aerosol mass increase the oligomer content of atmospheric aerosols, Sci. Rep., 6, 35038, https://doi.org/10.103/srep35038, 2016.
Krapf, M., El Haddad, I., Bruns, E. A., Molteni, U., Daellenbach, K. R., Prévôt, A. S. H., Baltensperger, U., and Dommen, J.: Labile peroxides in secondary organic aerosol, Chemistry, 1, 603–616, 2016.
Kristensen, K., Enggrob, K. L., King, S. M., Worton, D. R., Platt, S. M., Mortensen, R., Rosenoern, T., Surratt, J. D., Bilde, M., Goldstein, A. H., and Glasius, M.: Formation and occurrence of dimer esters of pinene oxidation products in atmospheric aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3763–3776, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-3763-2013, 2013.
Kristensen, K., Cui, T., Zhang, H., Gold, A., Glasius, M., and Surratt, J. D.: Dimers in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol: effect of hydroxyl radical, ozone, relative humidity and aerosol acidity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4201–4218, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4201-2014, 2014.
Kristensen, K., Watne, Å. K., Hammes, J., Lutz, A., Petäjä, T., Hallquist, M., Bilde, M., and Glasius, M.: High-molecular weight dimer esters are major products in aerosols from α-pinene ozonolysis and the boreal forest, Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett., 3, 280–285, 2016.
Larsen, B. R., Di Bella, D., Glasius, M., Winterhalter, R., Jensen, N. R., and Hjorth, J.: Gas-phase OH oxidation of monoterpenes: gaseous and particulate products, J. Atmos. Chem., 38, 231–276, 2001.
Lee, S. and Kamens, R. M.: Particle nucleation from the reaction of α-pinene and O3, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6822–6832, 2005.
Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D., Mohr, C., Ehn, M., Rubach, F., Kleist, E., Wildt, J., Mentel, T. F., Carrasquillo, A. J., Daumit, K. E., Hunter, J. F., Kroll, J. H., Worsnop, D. R., and Thornton, J. A.: Phase partitioning and volatility of secondary organic aerosol components formed from α-pinene ozonolysis and OH oxidation: the importance of accretion products and other low volatility compounds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7765–7776, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-7765-2015, 2015.
Müller, L., Reinnig, M.-C., Warnke, J., and Hoffmann, T.: Unambiguous identification of esters as oligomers in secondary organic aerosol formed from cyclohexene and cyclohexene/a-pinene ozonolysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 1423–1433, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-1423-2008, 2008.
Mutzel, A., Poulain, L., Berndt, T., Iinuma, Y., Rodigast, M., Böge, O., Richters, S., Spindler, G., Sipilä, M., Jokinen, T., Kulmala, M., and Herrmann, H.: Highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds observed in tropospheric particles: A field and laboratory study, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 7754–7761, 2015.
Nozière, B., Kalberer, M., Claeys, M., Allan, J., D'Anna, B., Decesari, S., Finessi, E., Glasius, M., Grgíc, I., Hamilton, J. F., Hoffmann, T., Iinuma, Y., Jaoui, M., Kahnt, A., Kampf, C. J., Kourtchev, I., Maenhaut, W., Marsden, N., Saarikoski, S., Schnelle-Kreis, J., Surratt, J. D., Szidat, S., Szmigielski, R., and Wisthaler, A.: The molecular identification of organic compounds in the atmosphere: State of the art and challenges, Chem. Rev., 115, 3919–3983, 2015.
Tolocka, M. P., Jang, M., Ginter, J. M., Cox, F. J., Kamens, R. M., and Johnston, M. V.: Formation of oligomers in secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 1428–1434, 2004.
Wildt, J., Mentel, T. F., Kiendler-Scharr, A., Hoffmann, T., Andres, S., Ehn, M., Kleist, E., Müsgen, P., Rohrer, F., Rudich, Y., Springer, M., Tillmann, R., and Wahner, A.: Suppression of new particle formation from monoterpene oxidation by NOx, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2789–2804, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-2789-2014, 2014.
Winkler, P. M., Ortega, J., Karl, T., Cappellin, L., Friedli, H. R., Barsanti, K., McMurry, P. H., and Smith, J. N.: Identification of the biogenic compounds responsible for size-dependent nanoparticle growth, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L20815, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL053253, 2012.
Winterhalter, R., Van Dingenen, R., Larsen, B. R., Jensen, N. R., and Hjorth, J.: LC-MS analysis of aerosol particles from the oxidation of α-pinene by ozone and OH-radicals, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 3, 1–39, https://doi.org/10.5194/acpd-3-1-2003, 2003.
Witkowski, B. and Gierczak, T.: Early stage composition of SOA produced by α-pinene/ozone reaction: α-Acyloxyhydroperoxy aldehydes and acidic dimers, Atmos. Environ., 95, 59–70, 2014.
Yasmeen, F., Vermeylen, R., Szmigielski, R., Iinuma, Y., Böge, O., Herrmann, H., Maenhaut, W., and Claeys, M.: Terpenylic acid and related compounds: precursors for dimers in secondary organic aerosol from the ozonolysis of α- and β-pinene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9383–9392, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-9383-2010, 2010.
Yasmeen, F., Szmigielski, R., Vermeylen, R., Gómez-González, Y., Surratt, J. D., Chan, A. W. H., Seinfeld, J. H., Maenhaut, W., and Claeys, M.: Mass spectrometric characterization of isomeric terpenoic acids from the oxidation of α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, and Δ3-carene in fine forest aerosol, J. Mass Spectrom., 46, 425–442, 2011.
Yasmeen, F., Vermeylen, R., Maurin, N., Perraudin, E., Doussin, J.-F., and Claeys, M.: Characterisation of tracers for aging of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol using liquid chromatography/negative ion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry, Environ. Chem., 9, 236–246, 2012.
Yu, J., Cocker III, D. R., Griffin, R. J., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Gas-phase ozone oxidation of monoterpenes: Gaseous and particulate products, J. Atmos. Chem., 34, 207–258, 1999.
Zhang, X., McVay, R. C., Huang, D. D., Dalleska, N. F., Aumont, B., Flagan, R. C., and Seinfeld, J. H.: Formation and evolution of molecular products in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 112, 14168–14173, 2015.
Zhang, X., Lambe, A. T., Upshur, M. A., Brooks, W. A., Gray Beì, A., Thomson, R. J., Geiger, F. M., Surratt, J. D., Zhang, Z., Gold, A., Graf, S., Cubison, M. J., Groessl, M., Jayne, J. T., Worsnop, D. R., and Canagaratna, M. R.: Highly oxygenated multifunctional compounds in α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 5932–5940, 2017.
Zhao, J., Ortega, J., Chen, M., McMurry, P. H., and Smith, J. N.: Dependence of particle nucleation and growth on high-molecular-weight gas-phase products during ozonolysis of α-pinene, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7631–7644, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-7631-2013, 2013.
Ziemann, P. J.: Evidence for low-volatility diacyl peroxides as a nucleating agent and major component of aerosol formed from reactions of ozone with cyclohexene and homologous compounds, J. Phys. Chem. A, 106, 4390–4402, 2002.
High-molecular-weight esters present in α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol have been structurally characterized with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unambiguous evidence could be obtained for the linkage in the MW 368 hydroxypinonyl ester of pinic acid, while the same linkage could be supported for the MW 358 diaterpenylic ester of pinic acid. A mechanistic proposal is presented to explain their possible formation from highly oxygenated molecules reported in previous work.
High-molecular-weight esters present in α-pinene ozonolysis secondary organic aerosol have been...