Articles | Volume 18, issue 6
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3937–3949, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3937-2018
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3937–3949, 2018
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3937-2018

Research article 20 Mar 2018

Research article | 20 Mar 2018

Secondary sulfate is internally mixed with sea spray aerosol and organic aerosol in the winter Arctic

Rachel M. Kirpes et al.

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Cited articles

Allen, H. M., Draper, D. C., Ayres, B. R., Ault, A., Bondy, A., Takahama, S., Modini, R. L., Baumann, K., Edgerton, E., Knote, C., Laskin, A., Wang, B., and Fry, J. L.: Influence of crustal dust and sea spray supermicron particle concentrations and acidity on inorganic NO3- aerosol during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10669–10685, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-10669-2015, 2015. 
Alterskjaer, K., Kristjansson, J. E., and Hoose, C.: Do anthropogenic aerosols enhance or suppress the surface cloud forcing in the Arctic?, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, DS22204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd014015, 2010. 
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Ault, A. P., Peters, T. M., Sawvel, E. J., Casuccio, G. S., Willis, R. D., Norris, G. A., and Grassian, V. H.: Single-particle SEM-EDX analysis of iron-containing coarse particulate matter in an urban environment: sources and distribution of iron within Cleveland, Ohio, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 4331–4339, https://doi.org/10.1021/es204006k, 2012. 
Ault, A. P., Guasco, T. L., Ryder, O. S., Baltrusaitis, J., Cuadra-Rodriguez, L. A., Collins, D. B., Ruppel, M. J., Bertram, T. H., Prather, K. A., and Grassian, V. H.: Inside versus Outside: Ion Redistribution in Nitric Acid Reacted Sea Spray Aerosol Particles as Determined by Single Particle Analysis, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135, 14528–14531, https://doi.org/10.1021/ja407117x, 2013a. 
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Arctic atmospheric particles have important climate impacts via cloud formation and precipitation, particularly in the wintertime. We show that sulfate, formed during atmospheric transport, is within individual sea spray particles and organic particles measured in the Alaskan Arctic. Greater contributions of combustion emissions were observed when the wind direction came from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields, showing its regional influence.
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