Articles | Volume 16, issue 3
05 Feb 2016
Research article | 05 Feb 2016
Seasonal variations of ultra-fine and submicron aerosols in Taipei, Taiwan: implications for particle formation processes in a subtropical urban area
H. C. Cheung et al.
H. C. Cheung, C. C.-K. Chou, W.-R. Huang, and C.-Y. Tsai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8935–8946,
Chuan-Yao Lin, Wan-Chin Chen, Yi-Yun Chien, Charles C. K. Chou, Chian-Yi Liu, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Birger Bohn, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
During the EMeRGe campaign in Asia, atmospheric pollutants were measured on board the HALO aircraft. The WRF-Chem model was employed to evaluate the BB plume transported from Indochina and its impact on the downstream areas. The combination of BB aerosol enhancement with cloud water resulted in a reduction of incoming shortwave radiation at the surface in South China and the East China Sea which potentially has significant regional climate implications.
Ting-Yu Chen, Chia-Li Chen, Yi-Chi Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Haojia Ren, and Hui-Ming Hung
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The anthropogenic influence on aerosol composition in a downstream river-valley forest was investigated using FT-IR and isotope analysis. A higher N-containing species concentration during daytime fog events indicates that a stronger inversion leads to higher pollutant concentrations, and the fog enhances the aqueous-phase chemical processes. Moreover, the observed size-dependent oxygen isotope suggests the contribution of organic peroxyl radicals to local nitrate formation for small particles.
Chuan-Yao Lin, Yang-Fan Sheng, Wan-Chin Chen, Charles C. K. Chou, Yi-Yun Chien, and Wen-Mei Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16893–16910,Short summary
Taiwan and Hong Kong experience air quality deterioration as typhoons approach. However, the mechanism of the formation of poor air quality may differ and still not be well documented in Taiwan. The interaction between easterly typhoon circulation and Taiwan’s Central Mountain Range resulted in a lee side vortex formation. Simulation results indicated that the lee vortex and land–sea breeze, as well as the boundary layer development, were the key mechanisms.
Yu-Wen Chen, Yi-Chun Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Hui-Ming Hung, Shih-Yu Chang, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Michael Lichtenstern, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Greta Stratmann, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Stephan Borrmann, Florian Obersteiner, Eric Förster, Andreas Zahn, Wei-Nai Chen, Po-Hsiung Lin, Shuenn-Chin Chang, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Pao-Kuan Wang, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
By presenting an approach using EMeRGe-Asia airborne field measurements and surface observations, this study shows that the fraction of OH reactivity due to SO2-OH reaction has a significant correlation with the sulfate concentration. Approximately 30 % of sulfate is produced by SO2-OH reaction. Our results underline the importance of SO2-OH gas-phase oxidation in sulfate formation, and demonstrate that the method can be applied to other regions and under different meteorological conditions.
Hirofumi Ohyama, Isamu Morino, Voltaire A. Velazco, Theresa Klausner, Gerry Bagtasa, Matthäus Kiel, Matthias Frey, Akihiro Hori, Osamu Uchino, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Joshua P. DiGangi, Yonghoon Choi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Alina Fiehn, Anke Roiger, Michael Lichtenstern, Hans Schlager, Pao K. Wang, Charles C.-K. Chou, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5149–5163,Short summary
Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4 measured by a solar viewing portable Fourier transform spectrometer (EM27/SUN) were validated with in situ profile data obtained during the transfer flights of two aircraft campaigns. Atmospheric dynamical properties based on ERA5 and WRF-Chem were used as criteria for selecting the best aircraft profiles for the validation. The resulting air-mass-independent correction factors for the EM27/SUN data were 0.9878 for CO2 and 0.9829 for CH4.
Hing Cho Cheung, Charles Chung-Kuang Chou, Celine Siu Lan Lee, Wei-Chen Kuo, and Shuenn-Chin Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5911–5922,Short summary
Air pollution can result in changes to the amount and properties of aerosols, which in turn could influence climate by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This study investigated the composition and hygroscopicity of aerosols (PM2.5) at a station under influences of eastern Asian (EA) outflows and local air mass during respective seasons. The results show that the EA aerosols were more hygroscopic, whereas new particle formation and coagulation could also influence local CCN activity.
Elise S. Droste, Karina E. Adcock, Matthew J. Ashfold, Charles Chou, Zoë Fleming, Paul J. Fraser, Lauren J. Gooch, Andrew J. Hind, Ray L. Langenfelds, Emma Leedham Elvidge, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Marios Panagi, Claire E. Reeves, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4787–4807,Short summary
We update the tropospheric trends and emissions of six perfluorocarbon (PFC) gases, including separate isomers. Trends for these strong greenhouse gases are still increasing, but at slower rates than previously. The lack of natural sinks results in the global accumulation of 833 million metric tonnes of CO2 equivalent for these six PFCs by 2017. Modelling results indicate potential source regions and types in East Asia, but we find that many emissions are unaccounted for in emission reports.
Karina E. Adcock, Claire E. Reeves, Lauren J. Gooch, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, Matthew J. Ashfold, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Charles Chou, Paul J. Fraser, Ray L. Langenfelds, Norfazrin Mohd Hanif, Simon O'Doherty, David E. Oram, Chang-Feng Ou-Yang, Siew Moi Phang, Azizan Abu Samah, Thomas Röckmann, William T. Sturges, and Johannes C. Laube
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4737–4751,
S.-C. Hsu, G.-C. Gong, F.-K. Shiah, C.-C. Hung, S.-J. Kao, R. Zhang, W.-N. Chen, C.-C. Chen, C. C.-K. Chou, Y.-C. Lin, F.-J. Lin, and S.-H. Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
H. C. Cheung, C. C.-K. Chou, W.-R. Huang, and C.-Y. Tsai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8935–8946,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Airborne observations during KORUS-AQ show that aerosol optical depths are more spatially self-consistent than aerosol intensive propertiesUsing aircraft measurements to characterize subgrid-scale variability of aerosol properties near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains siteMeasurement report: A multi-year study on the impacts of Chinese New Year celebrations on air quality in Beijing, ChinaMixing state of black carbon at different atmospheres in north and southwest ChinaColumnar and surface urban aerosol in the Moscow megacity according to measurements and simulations with the COSMO-ART modelVertical aerosol particle exchange in the marine boundary layer estimated from helicopter-borne measurements in the Azores regionCircum-Antarctic abundance and properties of CCN and INPsThe ice-nucleating activity of African mineral dust in the Caribbean boundary layerBiomass burning and marine aerosol processing over the southeast Atlantic Ocean: a TEM single-particle analysisVolatility parameterization of ambient organic aerosols at a rural site of the North China PlainLight absorption by brown carbon over the South-East Atlantic OceanParticle size distribution and particulate matter concentrations during synoptic and convective dust events in West TexasMeasurement of light-absorbing particles in surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers: spatial variability, radiative impacts, and potential source regionsSeasonal variations in fire conditions are important drivers in the trend of aerosol optical properties over the south-eastern AtlanticBlack carbon aerosol reductions during COVID-19 confinement quantified by aircraft measurements over EuropeDiurnal evolution of negative atmospheric ions above the boreal forest: from ground level to the free troposphereAbsorption enhancement of black carbon particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside: effect of particulate matter chemistry, ageing and trend analysisCharacterizing the hygroscopicity of growing particles in the Canadian Arctic summerMeasurement report: Distinct size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei activity at a rural site in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, ChinaMeasurement report: Atmospheric new particle formation in a coastal agricultural site explained with binPMF analysis of nitrate CI-APi-TOF spectraCharacteristics and evolution of brown carbon in western United States wildfiresReduced surface fine dust under droughts over the southeastern United States during summertime: observations and CMIP6 model simulationsStrong light scattering of highly oxygenated organic aerosols impacts significantly on visibility degradationMeasurement report: Spectral and statistical analysis of aerosol hygroscopic growth from multi-wavelength lidar measurements in Barcelona, SpainThe diurnal and seasonal variability of ice-nucleating particles at the High Altitude Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l.), SwitzerlandParametrizations of size distribution and refractive index of biomass burning organic aerosol with black carbon contentThe impact of large-scale circulation on daily fine particulate matter (PM2.5) over major populated regions of China in winterNew particle formation in coastal New Zealand with a focus on open-ocean air massesMeasurement report: Vertical profiling of particle size distributions over Lhasa, Tibet – tethered balloon-based in situ measurements and source apportionmentLong- and short-term temporal variability in cloud condensation nuclei spectra over a wide supersaturation range in the Southern Great Plains siteSiberian Arctic black carbon: gas flaring and wildfire impactImpact of water uptake and mixing state on submicron particles deposition in the human respiratory tract (HRT): Based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements at HRT-like conditionsSmoke in the river: an Aerosols, Radiation and Clouds in southern Africa (AEROCLO-sA) case studyThe impact of temperature inversions on black carbon and particle mass concentrations in a mountainous areaMeasurement report: Interpretation of wide-range particulate matter size distributions in DelhiUnderstanding aerosol microphysical properties from 10 years of data collected at Cabo Verde based on an unsupervised machine learning classificationAerosol optical properties calculated from size distributions, filter samples and absorption photometer data at Dome C, Antarctica, and their relationships with seasonal cycles of sourcesMeasurement report: On the difference in aerosol hygroscopicity between high and low relative humidity conditions in the North China PlainObservations of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six Indian locationsAerodynamic size-resolved composition and cloud condensation nuclei properties of aerosols in a Beijing suburban regionOn the relation between apparent ion and total particle growth rates in the boreal forest and related chamber experimentsComparison of particle number size distribution trends in ground measurements and climate modelsMeteorology impact on PM2.5 change over a receptor region in the regional transport of air pollutants: observational study of recent emission reductions in central ChinaOccurrence and growth of sub-50 nm aerosol particles in the Amazonian boundary layerMeasurement report: Ice-nucleating particles active ≥ −15 °C in free tropospheric air over western EuropeAtmospheric composition in the European Arctic and 30 years of the Zeppelin Observatory, Ny-ÅlesundUnveiling atmospheric transport and mixing mechanisms of ice-nucleating particles over the AlpsInteraction between aerosol and thermodynamic stability within the planetary boundary layer during wintertime over the North China Plain: aircraft observation and WRF-Chem simulationFrequent new particle formation at remote sites in the subboreal forest of North AmericaCharacterizing the volatility and mixing state of ambient fine particles in the summer and winter of urban Beijing
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Roy R. Johnson, Stephen E. Dunagan, Robert Dahlgren, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Arlindo da Silva, Patricia Castellanos, Qian Tan, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth Lee Thornhill, and Meloë Kacenelenbogen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11275–11304,Short summary
Airborne observations of atmospheric particles and pollution over Korea during a field campaign in May–June 2016 showed that the smallest atmospheric particles are present in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The aerosol size is more spatially variable than optical thickness. We show this with remote sensing (4STAR), in situ (LARGE) observations, satellite measurements (GOCI), and modeled properties (MERRA-2), and it is contrary to the current understanding.
Jerome D. Fast, David M. Bell, Gourihar Kulkarni, Jiumeng Liu, Fan Mei, Georges Saliba, John E. Shilling, Kaitlyn Suski, Jason Tomlinson, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Alla Zelenyuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11217–11238,Short summary
Recent aircraft measurements from the HI-SCALE campaign conducted over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma are used to quantify spatial variability of aerosol properties in terms of grid spacings typically used by weather and climate models. Surprisingly large horizontal gradients in aerosol properties were frequently observed in this rural area. This spatial variability can be used as an uncertainty range when comparing surface point measurements with model predictions.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Shuya Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Jing Zheng, Wenfei Zhu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10861–10873,Short summary
Black carbon is the second strongest absorbing component in the atmosphere that exerts warming effects on climate. One critical challenge in quantifying the ambient black carbon's radiative effects is addressing the BC microphysical properties. In this study, the microphysical properties of the aged and fresh BC particles are synthetically analyzed under different atmospheres. The measurement results can be further used in models to help constrain the uncertainties of the BC radiative effects.
Natalia E. Chubarova, Heike Vogel, Elizaveta E. Androsova, Alexander A. Kirsanov, Olga B. Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, and Gdaliy S. Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10443–10466,Short summary
Effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow were analyzed using the COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20% of columnar aerosol content, consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. The black carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). The BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. IPD also defines the daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Holger Siebert, Michel Michalkow, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10007–10021,Short summary
Three different methods were applied to estimate the vertical aerosol particle flux in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and between the MBL and free troposphere. For the first time, aerosol fluxes derived from these three methods were estimated and compared using airborne aerosol measurements using data from the ACORES field campaign in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in July 2017. The amount of fluxes was small and directed up and down for different cases, but the methods were applicable.
Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, André Welti, Andrea Baccarini, Markus Hartmann, Martin Gysel-Beer, Manuela van Pinxteren, Robin L. Modini, Julia Schmale, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9721–9745,Short summary
We present the abundance and origin of cloud-relevant aerosol particles in the preindustral-like conditions of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particles (INP) were measured during a circum-Antarctic scientific cruise with in situ instrumentation and offline filter measurements, respectively. Transport processes were found to play an equally important role as local sources for both the CCN and INP population of the SO.
Alexander D. Harrison, Daniel O'Sullivan, Michael P. Adams, Grace C. E. Porter, Edmund Blades, Cherise Brathwaite, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Cassandra Gaston, Rachel Hawker, Ovid O. Krüger, Leslie Neve, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Andrea Sealy, Peter Sealy, Mark D. Tarn, Shanice Whitehall, James B. McQuaid, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joseph M. Prospero, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9663–9680,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds fundamentally alters cloud properties; hence it is important we understand the special aerosol particles that can nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. In this paper we show that African desert dust that has travelled across the Atlantic to the Caribbean nucleates ice much less well than we might have expected.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek III, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9389–9412,Short summary
Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze aged African smoke particles and how the smoke interacts with the marine atmosphere. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts and that the marine atmosphere can incorporate Na and Cl into smoke particles. Marine salts are more processed when mixed with smoke plumes, and there are interesting Cl-rich yet Na-absent marine particles.
Siman Ren, Lei Yao, Yuwei Wang, Gan Yang, Yiliang Liu, Yueyang Li, Yiqun Lu, Lihong Wang, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9283–9297,Short summary
We improved the empirical functions between volatility and chemical formulas of organic aerosols based on lab experiments and field observations. It was found that organic compounds in ambient aerosols can be divided into two groups according to their O / C ratios and that there should be specialized volatility parameterizations for different O / C organic compounds.
Lu Zhang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Caroline Dang, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Amie Dobracki, Jenny P. S. Wong, Paola Formenti, Steven G. Howell, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9199–9213,Short summary
Widespread biomass burning (BB) events occur annually in Africa and contribute ~ 1 / 3 of global BB emissions, which contain a large family of light-absorbing organics, known as brown carbon (BrC), whose absorption of incident radiation is difficult to estimate, leading to large uncertainties in the global radiative forcing estimation. This study quantifies the BrC absorption of aged BB particles and highlights the potential presence of absorbing iron oxides in this climatically important region.
Karin Ardon-Dryer and Mary C. Kelley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9161–9173,Short summary
Changes in the particle size distribution and particulate matter concentrations during different dust events in West Texas were examined. Analysis based on different timescales showed that current common methods used to evaluate the impact of dust events on air quality will not capture the true impact of short (convective) dust events and, therefore, do not provide an insightful understanding of their impact on the environment and human health.
Chaman Gul, Shichang Kang, Siva Praveen Puppala, Xiaokang Wu, Cenlin He, Yangyang Xu, Inka Koch, Sher Muhammad, Rajesh Kumar, and Getachew Dubache
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8725–8737,Short summary
This work aims to understand concentrations, spatial variability, and potential source regions of light-absorbing impurities (black carbon aerosols, dust particles, and organic carbon) in the surface snow of central and western Himalayan glaciers and their impact on snow albedo and radiative forcing.
Haochi Che, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Lu Zhang, Caroline Dang, Paquita Zuidema, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Xiaoye Zhang, and Connor Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8767–8785,Short summary
A 17-month in situ study on Ascension Island found low single-scattering albedo and strong absorption enhancement of the marine boundary layer aerosols during biomass burnings on the African continent, along with apparent patterns of regular monthly variability. We further discuss the characteristics and drivers behind these changes and find that biomass burning conditions in Africa may be the main factor influencing the optical properties of marine boundary aerosols.
Ovid O. Krüger, Bruna A. Holanda, Sourangsu Chowdhury, Andrea Pozzer, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, John P. Burrows, Christiane Voigt, Jos Lelieveld, Johannes Quaas, Ulrich Pöschl, and Mira L. Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8683–8699,Short summary
The abrupt reduction in human activities during the first COVID-19 lockdown created unprecedented atmospheric conditions. We took the opportunity to quantify changes in black carbon (BC) as a major anthropogenic air pollutant. Therefore, we measured BC on board a research aircraft over Europe during the lockdown and compared the results to measurements from 2017. With model simulations we account for different weather conditions and find a lockdown-related decrease in BC of 41 %.
Lisa J. Beck, Siegfried Schobesberger, Heikki Junninen, Janne Lampilahti, Antti Manninen, Lubna Dada, Katri Leino, Xu-Cheng He, Iida Pullinen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Anna Franck, Pyry Poutanen, Daniela Wimmer, Frans Korhonen, Mikko Sipilä, Mikael Ehn, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Jonathan Duplissy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8547–8577,Short summary
The presented article introduces an overview of atmospheric ions and their composition above the boreal forest. We provide the results of an extensive airborne measurement campaign with an air ion mass spectrometer and particle measurements, showing their diurnal evolution within the boundary layer and free troposphere. In addition, we compare the airborne dataset with the co-located data from the ground at SMEAR II station, Finland.
Jesús Yus-Díez, Marta Via, Andrés Alastuey, Angeliki Karanasiou, María Cruz Minguillón, Noemí Perez, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Matic Ivančič, Martin Rigler, and Marco Pandolfi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8439–8456,Short summary
This study presents the absorption enhancement of internally and externally mixed black carbon (BC) particles in a Mediterranean city and countryside. We showed the importance of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and particle ageing by increasing the BC absorption enhancement. We performed a trend analysis on the absorption enhancement. We found a positive trend of the absorption enhancement at the regional station in summer driven by the increase over time of the relative contribution of SOA.
Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Matthew C. Boyer, Jai Prakash Chaubey, and Douglas B. Collins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8059–8071,Short summary
During summer 2016, the ability of newly formed particles to turn into droplets was measured in the Canadian Arctic. Our observations suggest that these small particles were growing by the condensation of organic vapours likely coming from the surrounding open waters. These particles grew large enough that they could form cloud droplets and therefore affect the earth’s radiation budget. These results are relevant as the Arctic summer rapidly warms with climate change.
Mingfu Cai, Shan Huang, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Weiwei Hu, Wei Chen, Qicong Song, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Duohong Chen, Haobo Tan, Hanbin Xu, Fei Li, Xuejiao Deng, Tao Deng, Jiaren Sun, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8117–8136,Short summary
This study investigated the size dependence and diurnal variation in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, volatility, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. We found that the physical properties of OA could vary in a large range at different particle sizes and affected the number concentration of CCN (NCCN) at all supersaturations. Our results highlight the importance of evaluating the atmospheric evolution processes of OA at different size ranges and their impact on climate effects.
Miska Olin, Magdalena Okuljar, Matti P. Rissanen, Joni Kalliokoski, Jiali Shen, Lubna Dada, Markus Lampimäki, Yusheng Wu, Annalea Lohila, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikko Sipilä, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Miikka Dal Maso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8097–8115,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation is an important source of the total particle number concentration in the atmosphere. Several parameters for predicting new particle formation events have been suggested before, but the results have been inconclusive. This study proposes an another predicting parameter, related to a specific type of highly oxidized organic molecules, especially for similar locations to the measurement site in this study, which was a coastal agricultural site in Finland.
Linghan Zeng, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Joseph M. Katich, Joshua P. Schwarz, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Tom Ryerson, Carsten Warneke, Anne E. Perring, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Lu Xu, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8009–8036,Short summary
Wildfires emit aerosol particles containing brown carbon material that affects visibility and global climate and is toxic. Brown carbon is poorly characterized due to measurement limitations, and its evolution in the atmosphere is not well known. We report on aircraft measurements of brown carbon from large wildfires in the western United States. We compare two methods for measuring brown carbon and study the evolution of brown carbon in the smoke as it moved away from the burning regions.
Wei Li and Yuxuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7843–7859,Short summary
Fine dust is an important component of PM2.5 and can be largely modulated by droughts. In contrast to the increase in dust in the southwest USA where major dust sources are located, dust in the southeast USA is affected more by long-range transport from Africa and decreases under droughts. Both the transport and emissions of African dust are weakened when the southeast USA is under droughts, which reveals how regional-scale droughts can influence aerosol abundance through long-range transport.
Li Liu, Ye Kuang, Miaomiao Zhai, Biao Xue, Yao He, Jun Tao, Biao Luo, Wanyun Xu, Jiangchuan Tao, Changqin Yin, Fei Li, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7713–7726,Short summary
Using simultaneous measurements of a humidified nephelometer system and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor in winter in Guangzhou, the strongest scattering ability of more oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MOOA) among aerosol components considering their dry-state scattering ability and water uptake ability was revealed, leading to large impacts of MOOA on visibility degradation. This has important implications for visibility improvement in China and aerosol radiative effect simulation.
Michaël Sicard, Daniel Camilo Fortunato dos Santos Oliveira, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Cristina Gil-Díaz, Adolfo Comerón, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, and Federico Dios Otín
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7681–7697,Short summary
Atmospheric particles can absorb water vapor, and this water uptake may change their properties, e.g., their size. In the coastal region of Barcelona, Spain, we observe that (1) smaller particles absorb more water vapor, in relative terms, than larger particles and (2) the particle capacity to absorb water vapor has no annual tendency, probably because the site background is quite constant (urban + marine aerosol regime).
Cyril Brunner, Benjamin T. Brem, Martine Collaud Coen, Franz Conen, Martin Steinbacher, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7557–7573,Short summary
Microscopic particles called ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are essential for ice crystals to form in clouds. INPs are a tiny proportion of atmospheric aerosol, and their abundance is poorly constrained. We study how the concentration of INPs changes diurnally and seasonally at a mountaintop station in central Europe. Unsurprisingly, a diurnal cycle is only found when considering air masses that have had lower-altitude ground contact. The highest INP concentrations occur in spring.
Biao Luo, Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Qicong Song, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed comprehensive analysis on biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) size distributions as well as mass scattering and absorption efficiencies with an improved method of on-line quantification of brown carbon absorptions, retrieved real and imaginary parts of BBOA refractive index. Both BBOA volume size distribution and refractive index depend highly on combustion condition represented by the black carbon content which have significant implications for BBOA climate effects simulations.
Zixuan Jia, Ruth M. Doherty, Carlos Ordóñez, Chaofan Li, Oliver Wild, Shipra Jain, and Xiao Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6471–6487,Short summary
This study investigates the modulation of daily PM2.5 over three major populated regions in China by regional meteorology and large-scale circulation during winter. These results demonstrate the benefits of considering the large-scale circulation for air quality studies. The novel circulation indices proposed here can explain a considerable fraction of the day-to-day variability of PM2.5 and can be combined with regional meteorology to improve our capability to predict the variability of PM2.5.
Maija Peltola, Clémence Rose, Jonathan V. Trueblood, Sally Gray, Mike Harvey, and Karine Sellegri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6231–6254,Short summary
Despite the importance of marine aerosol measurements for constraining climate models, these measurements are scarce. We measured the aerosol particle number size distribution in coastal New Zealand over a total period of 10 months. This paper analyses the aerosol properties at the site, with a special focus on new particle formation and marine air masses. New particle formation was observed frequently, but in marine air masses it did not follow traditional event criteria.
Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Yunfei Wu, Jiwei Li, Zhixuan Bai, Ye Lu, Deqing Zhuoga, and Jianchun Bian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6217–6229,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest plateau in the world, plays a crucial role in regional and global climate. To examine the fingerprint left by human activities on the originally remote atmosphere, size distributions of particles from the ground to about 800 m were measured for the first time in summer 2020 in Lhasa, one of a few urbanized cities on TP. Potential sources of particles at different heights were explored. The contribution of emissions from religious activities was highlighted.
Russell J. Perkins, Peter J. Marinescu, Ezra J. T. Levin, Don R. Collins, and Sonia M. Kreidenweis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6197–6215,Short summary
We used 5 years (2009–2013) of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) data from a total of seven instruments housed at the Southern Great Plains site, which were merged into a quality-controlled, continuous dataset of CCN spectra at ~45 min resolution. The data cover all seasons, are representative of a rural, agricultural mid-continental site, and are useful for model initialization and validation. Our analysis of this dataset focuses on seasonal and hourly variability.
Olga B. Popovicheva, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Vasilii O. Kobelev, Marina A. Chichaeva, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Asta Gregorič, and Nikolay S. Kasimov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5983–6000,Short summary
Measurements of black carbon (BC) combined with atmospheric transport modeling reveal that gas flaring from oil and gas extraction in Kazakhstan, Volga-Ural, Komi, Nenets and western Siberia contributes the largest share of surface BC in the Russian Arctic dominating over domestic, industrial and traffic sectors. Pollution episodes show an increasing trend in concentration levels and frequency as the station is in the Siberian gateway of the highest anthropogenic pollution to the Russian Arctic.
Ruiqi Man, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Aristeidis Voliotis, Johannes Größ, Dominik van Pinxteren, Limin Zeng, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Min Hu
Regional and total deposition doses for different age groups were quantified based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements. This work found that particle hygroscopic growth led to a reduction (~24 %) in the total dose. The deposition rate of hygroscopic particles was higher in the daytime, while hydrophobic particles exhibited higher rate at nighttime and rush hours. The results will deepen the understanding of the impact of hygroscopicity and mixing state on deposition pattern in lungs.
Cyrille Flamant, Marco Gaetani, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Patrick Chazette, Juan Cuesta, Stuart John Piketh, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5701–5724,Short summary
Rivers of smoke extend from tropical southern Africa towards the Indian Ocean during the winter fire season, controlled by the interaction of tropical easterly waves, and westerly waves at mid latitudes. During the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017, a river of smoke was directly observed over Namibia. In this paper, the evolution and atmospheric drivers of the river of smoke are described, and the role of a mid-latitude cut-off low in lifting the smoke to the upper troposphere is highlighted.
Kristina Glojek, Griša Močnik, Honey Dawn C. Alas, Andrea Cuesta-Mosquera, Luka Drinovec, Asta Gregorič, Matej Ogrin, Kay Weinhold, Irena Ježek, Thomas Müller, Martin Rigler, Maja Remškar, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Martina Ristorini, Maik Merkel, Miha Markelj, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5577–5601,Short summary
A pilot study to determine the emissions of wood burning under
real-world laboratoryconditions was conducted. We found that measured black carbon (eBC) and particulate matter (PM) in rural shallow terrain depressions with residential wood burning could be much greater than predicted by models. The exceeding levels are a cause for concern since similar conditions can be expected in numerous hilly and mountainous regions across Europe, where approximately 20 % of the total population lives.
Ülkü Alver Şahin, Roy M. Harrison, Mohammed S. Alam, David C. S. Beddows, Dimitrios Bousiotis, Zongbo Shi, Leigh R. Crilley, William Bloss, James Brean, Isha Khanna, and Rulan Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5415–5433,Short summary
Wide-range particle size spectra have been measured in three seasons in Delhi and are interpreted in terms of sources and processes. Condensational growth is a major feature of the fine fraction, and a coarse fraction contributes substantially – but only in summer.
Xianda Gong, Heike Wex, Thomas Müller, Silvia Henning, Jens Voigtländer, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5175–5194,Short summary
We conducted 10 yr measurements to characterize the atmospheric aerosol at Cabo Verde. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm, K-means, was implemented to study the aerosol types. Cloud condensation nuclei number concentrations during dust periods were 2.5 times higher than marine periods. The long-term data sets, together with the aerosol classification, can be used as a basis to improve understanding of annual cycles of aerosol, and aerosol-cloud interactions in the North Atlantic.
Aki Virkkula, Henrik Grythe, John Backman, Tuukka Petäjä, Maurizio Busetto, Christian Lanconelli, Angelo Lupi, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Mirko Severi, Vito Vitale, Patrick Sheridan, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5033–5069,Short summary
Optical properties of surface aerosols at Dome C, Antarctica, in 2007–2013 and their potential source areas are presented. The equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were compared with eBC measured at three other Antarctic sites: the South Pole (SPO) and two coastal sites, Neumayer and Syowa. Transport analysis suggests that South American BC emissions are the largest contributor to eBC at Dome C.
Jingnan Shi, Juan Hong, Nan Ma, Qingwei Luo, Yao He, Hanbing Xu, Haobo Tan, Qiaoqiao Wang, Jiangchuan Tao, Yaqing Zhou, Shuang Han, Long Peng, Linhong Xie, Guangsheng Zhou, Wanyun Xu, Yele Sun, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4599–4613,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols at a rural site in the North China Plain during the winter of 2018, using a HTDMA and a CV-ToF-ACSM. We observed differences in aerosol hygroscopicity during two distinct episodes with different primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation processes. These results provide an improved understanding of the complex influence of sources and aerosol evolution processes on their hygroscopicity.
Mathew Sebastian, Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Vasudevan Anil Kumar, Sandhya Jose, S. Suresh Babu, Govindan Pandithurai, Sachchidanand Singh, Rakesh K. Hooda, Vijay K. Soni, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Ville Vakkari, Eija Asmi, Daniel M. Westervelt, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, and Vijay P. Kanawade
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4491–4508,Short summary
Characteristics of particle number size distributions and new particle formation in six locations in India were analyzed. New particle formation occurred frequently during the pre-monsoon (spring) season and it significantly modulates the shape of the particle number size distributions. The contribution of newly formed particles to cloud condensation nuclei concentrations was ~3 times higher in urban locations than in mountain background locations.
Chenjie Yu, Dantong Liu, Kang Hu, Ping Tian, Yangzhou Wu, Delong Zhao, Huihui Wu, Dawei Hu, Wenbo Guo, Qiang Li, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4375–4391,Short summary
In this study, we applied a new technique to investigate the aerosol properties on both a mass and number basis and CCN abilities in Beijing suburban regions. The size-resolved aerosol chemical compositions and CCN activation measurement enable a detailed analysis of BC-containing particle hygroscopicity and its size-dependent contribution to the CCN activation. The results presented in this study will affect future models and human health studies.
Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Nina Sarnela, Sebastian Holm, Juha Kangasluoma, Markku Kulmala, Paul M. Winkler, and Dominik Stolzenburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Fast nanoparticle growth is essential for the survival of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere and hence their contribution to the climate. We show that using naturally charged ions for growth calculations can cause a significant error. During the diurnal cycle, the importance of ion-induced and neutral nucleation vary, causing the ion-population to have a slower measurable apparent growth. Our results suggest that data from ion spectrometers need to be considered with great care below 3 nm.
Ville Leinonen, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Tero Mielonen, Thomas Kühn, Tuomo Nieminen, Simo Heikkinen, Tuuli Miinalainen, Tommi Bergman, Ken Carslaw, Stefano Decesari, Markus Fiebig, Tareq Hussein, Niku Kivekäs, Markku Kulmala, Ari Leskinen, Andreas Massling, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Jane P. Mulcahy, Steffen M. Noe, Twan van Noije, Fiona M. O'Connor, Colin O'Dowd, Dirk Olivie, Jakob B. Pernov, Tuukka Petäjä, Øyvind Seland, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Henrik Skov, Erik Swietlicki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Annele Virtanen, and Santtu Mikkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We provide the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in-situ observations from Europe and five different earth system models. We investigated commonly used aerosol modes (nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation) separately and were able to show the differences between measured and modeled trends and especially their seasonal patterns. This provides an important addition to earlier aerosol-cloud interaction model evaluation studies.
Xiaoyun Sun, Tianliang Zhao, Yongqing Bai, Shaofei Kong, Huang Zheng, Weiyang Hu, Xiaodan Ma, and Jie Xiong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3579–3593,Short summary
This study revealed the impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on PM2.5 decline in the regional transport of air pollutants over a receptor region in central China. The meteorological drivers led to upwind accelerating and downward offsetting of the effects of emission reductions over the receptor region in regional PM2.5 transport, and the contribution of gaseous precursor emissions to PM2.5 pollution was enhanced with reduced anthropogenic emissions in recent years.
Marco A. Franco, Florian Ditas, Leslie A. Kremper, Luiz A. T. Machado, Meinrat O. Andreae, Alessandro Araújo, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, Joel F. de Brito, Samara Carbone, Bruna A. Holanda, Fernando G. Morais, Janaína P. Nascimento, Mira L. Pöhlker, Luciana V. Rizzo, Marta Sá, Jorge Saturno, David Walter, Stefan Wolff, Ulrich Pöschl, Paulo Artaxo, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3469–3492,Short summary
In Central Amazonia, new particle formation in the planetary boundary layer is rare. Instead, there is the appearance of sub-50 nm aerosols with diameters larger than about 20 nm that eventually grow to cloud condensation nuclei size range. Here, 254 growth events were characterized which have higher predominance in the wet season. About 70 % of them showed direct relation to convective downdrafts, while 30 % occurred partly under clear-sky conditions, evidencing still unknown particle sources.
Franz Conen, Annika Einbock, Claudia Mignani, and Christoph Hüglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3433–3444,Short summary
Above western Europe, ice typically starts to form in clouds a few kilometres above the ground if suitable aerosol particles are present. In air masses typical for that altitude, we found that such particles most likely originate from bacteria and fungi living on plants. Occasional Saharan dust intrusions seem to contribute little to the number concentration of particles able to freeze cloud droplets between 0°C and −15°C.
Stephen M. Platt, Øystein Hov, Torunn Berg, Knut Breivik, Sabine Eckhardt, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Markus Fiebig, Rebecca Fisher, Georg Hansen, Hans-Christen Hansson, Jost Heintzenberg, Ove Hermansen, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Kim Holmén, Stephen Hudson, Roland Kallenborn, Radovan Krejci, Terje Krognes, Steinar Larssen, David Lowry, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Chris Lunder, Euan Nisbet, Pernilla B. Nizzetto, Ki-Tae Park, Christina A. Pedersen, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Thomas Röckmann, Norbert Schmidbauer, Sverre Solberg, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Tove Svendby, Peter Tunved, Kjersti Tørnkvist, Carina van der Veen, Stergios Vratolis, Young Jun Yoon, Karl Espen Yttri, Paul Zieger, Wenche Aas, and Kjetil Tørseth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3321–3369,Short summary
Here we detail the history of the Zeppelin Observatory, a unique global background site and one of only a few in the high Arctic. We present long-term time series of up to 30 years of atmospheric components and atmospheric transport phenomena. Many of these time series are important to our understanding of Arctic and global atmospheric composition change. Finally, we discuss the future of the Zeppelin Observatory and emerging areas of future research on the Arctic atmosphere.
Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Mario Schär, Lucie Roth, Michael Sprenger, Jan Henneberger, Ulrike Lohmann, Cyril Brunner, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3111–3130,Short summary
We investigate the variation in ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for primary ice formation in mixed-phased clouds over the Alps based on simultaneous in situ observations at a mountaintop and a nearby high valley (1060 m height difference). In most cases, advection from the surrounding lower regions was responsible for changes in INP concentration, causing a diurnal cycle at the mountaintop. Our study underlines the importance of the planetary boundary layer as an INP reserve.
Hao Luo, Li Dong, Yichen Chen, Yuefeng Zhao, Delong Zhao, Mengyu Huang, Deping Ding, Jiayuan Liao, Tian Ma, Maohai Hu, and Yong Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2507–2524,Short summary
Aerosol–planetary boundary layer (PBL) interaction is a key mechanism for stabilizing the atmosphere and exacerbating surface air pollution. Using aircraft measurements and WRF-Chem simulations, we find that the aerosol–PBL interaction of different aerosols under contrasting synoptic patterns, PBL structures, and aerosol vertical distributions vary significantly. We attempt to determine which pollutants to target in different synoptic conditions to attain more precise air pollution control.
Meinrat O. Andreae, Tracey W. Andreae, Florian Ditas, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2487–2505,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosol particles are key players in the Earth’s climate system, but there is still considerable uncertainty about where and how these particles are initially formed. We present the first study of new particle formation (NPF) at a pristine site in a subboreal forest region of North America. Our data suggest that, in this environment, there is frequent NPF from biogenic organic precursor compounds, which was likely the predominant source of particles in the preindustrial environment.
Lu Chen, Fang Zhang, Don Collins, Jingye Ren, Jieyao Liu, Sihui Jiang, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2293–2307,Short summary
Understanding the volatility and mixing state of atmospheric aerosols is important for elucidating their formation. Here, the size-resolved volatility of fine particles is characterized using field measurements. On average, the particles are more volatile in the summer. The retrieved mixing state shows that black carbon (BC)-containing particles dominate and contribute 67–77 % toward the total number concentration in the winter, while the non-BC particles accounted for 52–69 % in the summer.
Buzorius, G., McNaughton, C. S., Clarke, A. D., Covert, D. S., Blomquist, B., Nielsen, K., and Brechtel, F. J.: Secondary aerosol formation in continental outflow conditions during ACE-Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D24203, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004749, 2004.
Charlson, R. J., Schwartz, S. E., Hales, J. M., Cess, R. D., Coakley Jr., J. A., Hansen, J. E., and Hofmann, D. J.: Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, Science, 255, 423–430, 1992.
Chen, S.-C., Hsu, S.-C., Tsai, C.-J., Chou, Charles, C.-K., Lin, N.-H., Lee, C.-T., Roam, G.-D., and Pui, D. Y. H.: Dynamic variations of ultrafine, fine and coarse particles at the Lu-Lin background site in East Asia, Atmos. Environ., 78, 154–162, 2013.
Cheng, Y.-H., Kao, Y.-Y., and Liu, J.-J.: Correlations between black carbon mass and size-resolved particle number concentrations in the Taipei urban area: A five-year long-term observation, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 5, 62–72, 2014.
Cheung, H. C., Wang, T., Baumann, K., and Guo, H.: Influence of regional pollution outflow on the concentrations of fine particulate matter and visibility in the coastal area of southern China, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6463–6474, 2005.
Cheung, H. C., Morawska, L., and Ristovski, Z. D.: Observation of new particle formation in subtropical urban environment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3823–3833, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-3823-2011, 2011.
Cheung, H. C., Chou, C. C.-K., Huang, W.-R., and Tsai, C.-Y.: Characterization of ultrafine particle number concentration and new particle formation in an urban environment of Taipei, Taiwan, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8935–8946, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-8935-2013, 2013.
Chou, C. C.-K., Lin, C.-Y., Chen, T.-K., Hsu, S.-C., Lung, S.-C., Liu, S. C., and Young, C.-Y.: Influence of Long-Range Transport Dust Particles on Local Air Quality: A Case Study on Asian Dust Episodes in Taipei during the Spring of 2002 Terrestrial, Atmos. Ocean. Sci., 15, 881–889, 2004.
Chou, C. C.-K., Lee, C.-T., Yuan, C. S., Hsu, W. C., Hsu, S. C., and Liu, S. C.: Implications of the chemical transformation of Asian outflow aerosols for the long-range transport of inorganic nitrogen species, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7508–7519, 2008.
Chou, C. C.-K., Lee, C. T., Cheng, M. T., Yuan, C. S., Chen, S. J., Wu, Y. L., Hsu, W. C., Lung, S. C., Hsu, S. C., Lin, C. Y., and Liu, S. C.: Seasonal variation and spatial distribution of carbonaceous aerosols in Taiwan, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9563–9578, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-9563-2010, 2010.
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Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Riipinen, I., Wagner, R., Hussein, T., Aalto, P. P., and Lehtinen, K. E. J.: Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, Boreal Environ. Res., 10, 323–336, 2005.
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This study investigated the properties of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and submicron particles (PM1) in an east Asian urban area. The results indicate that the concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons, whereas the highest concentration of UFPs was measured in summer. Moreover, UFPs were mostly composed of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents of PM1. This study underlines the significance of secondary organic aerosols in UFPs.
This study investigated the properties of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and submicron particles...