Articles | Volume 14, issue 17
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Technical Note: Application of positive matrix factor analysis in heterogeneous kinetics studies utilizing the mixed-phase relative rates technique
Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, Toronto, M3H 5T4, Canada
now at: Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China
Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, Toronto, M3H 5T4, Canada
Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment Canada, Toronto, M3H 5T4, Canada
No articles found.
Taomou Zong, Zhijun Wu, Junrui Wang, Kai Bi, Wenxu Fang, Yanrong Yang, Xuena Yu, Zhier Bao, Xiangxinyue Meng, Yuheng Zhang, Song Guo, Yang Chen, Chunshan Liu, Yue Zhang, Shao-Meng Li, and Min Hu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 3679–3692,Short summary
This study developed and characterized an indoor chamber system (AIR) to simulate atmospheric multiphase chemistry processes. The AIR chamber can accurately control temperature and relative humidity (RH) over a broad range and simulate diurnal variation of ambient atmospheric RH. The aerosol generation unit can generate organic-coating seed particles with different phase states. The AIR chamber demonstrates high-quality performance in simulating secondary aerosol formation.
Tianran Han, Conghui Xie, Yayong Liu, Yanrong Yang, Yuheng Zhang, Yufei Huang, Xiangyu Gao, Xiaohua Zhang, Fangmin Bao, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
This study reported an integrated UAV measurement platform for GHG monitoring and its application for emission quantification from a coking plant. The key element of this system is a newly designed air sampler, consisting of a 150-meter-long tube with remote-controlled time stamping. When comparing the top-down results to that derived from the bottom-up inventory method, the present findings indicated that the use of IPCC emission factors for emission calculations can lead to overestimation.
Broghan M. Erland, Cristen Adams, Andrea Darlington, Mackenzie L. Smith, Andrew K. Thorpe, Gregory R. Wentworth, Steve Conley, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Charles E. Miller, and John A. Gamon
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 5841–5859,Short summary
Accurately estimating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential to reaching net-zero goals to combat the climate crisis. Airborne box-flights are ideal for assessing regional GHG emissions, as they can attain small error. We compare two box-flight algorithms and found they produce similar results, but daily variability must be considered when deriving emissions inventories. Increasing the consistency and agreement between airborne methods moves us closer to achieving more accurate estimates.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Chong Han, Hongxing Yang, Kun Li, Patrick Lee, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10827–10839,Short summary
We presented yields and compositions of Si-containing SOAs generated from the reaction of cVMSs (D3–D6) with OH radicals. NOx played a negative role in cVMS SOA formation, while ammonium sulfate seeds enhanced D3–D5 SOA yields at short photochemical ages under high-NOx conditions. The aerosol mass spectra confirmed that the components of cVMS SOAs significantly relied on OH exposure. A global cVMS-derived SOA source strength was estimated in order to understand SOA formation potentials of cVMSs.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Sepehr Fathi, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Andrea Darlington, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15461–15491,Short summary
We have investigated the accuracy of aircraft-based mass balance methodologies through computer model simulations of the atmosphere and air quality at a regional high-resolution scale. We have defined new quantitative metrics to reduce emission retrieval uncertainty by evaluating top-down mass balance estimates against the known simulated meteorology and input emissions. We also recommend methodologies and flight strategies for improved retrievals in future aircraft-based studies.
Konstantin Baibakov, Samuel LeBlanc, Keyvan Ranjbar, Norman T. O'Neill, Mengistu Wolde, Jens Redemann, Kristina Pistone, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Katherine Hayden, Tak W. Chan, Michael J. Wheeler, Leonid Nichman, Connor Flynn, and Roy Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10671–10687,Short summary
We find that the airborne measurements of the vertical extinction due to aerosols (aerosol optical depth, AOD) obtained in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) can significantly exceed ground-based values. This can have an effect on estimating the AOSR radiative impact and is relevant to satellite validation based on ground-based measurements. We also show that the AOD can marginally increase as the plumes are being transported away from the source and the new particles are being formed.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, Tori N. Hass-Mitchell, Samar G. Moussa, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Amy Leithead, Patrick Lee, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 255–267,Short summary
Forest fires are an important source of reactive organic gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. We analyzed organic aerosols collected from an aircraft above a boreal forest fire and reported an increasing contribution from compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur as the plume aged, with sulfide and ring-bound nitrogen functionality. Our results demonstrated chemistry that is important in biomass burning but also in urban/developing regions with high local nitrogen and sulfur emissions.
Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, John Liggio, Shao-Meng Li, Kun Li, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Hans D. Osthoff, Kevin Strawbridge, and Jeffery R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12209–12219,Short summary
This work provides the first direct field evidence that anthropogenic organo-nitrate contributed up to half of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) mass that was freshly produced within the emission plumes of oil sands facilities in Alberta, Canada. The findings illustrate the central role of organo-nitrate in SOA production from the oil and gas industry, with relevance for other urban and industrial regions with significant intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) and NOx emissions.
Kun Li, John Liggio, Patrick Lee, Chong Han, Qifan Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9715–9731,Short summary
A new oxidation flow reactor was developed and applied to study the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from precursors associated with oil-sands (OS) operations. The results reveal that the SOA yields from OS precursors are related to the volatilities of precursors and that open-pit mining is the main source of SOA formed from oil sands. In addition, cyclic alkanes are found to play an important role in SOA formation from oil-sands precursors.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roya Ghahreman, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Travis W. Tokarek, Charles A. Odame-Ankrah, Jennifer A. Huo, Robert McLaren, Alex K. Y. Lee, Max G. Adam, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Cristian Mihele, Andrea Darlington, Richard L. Mittermeier, Kevin Strawbridge, Katherine L. Hayden, Jason S. Olfert, Elijah G. Schnitzler, Duncan K. Brownsey, Faisal V. Assad, Gregory R. Wentworth, Alex G. Tevlin, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Jeffrey R. Brook, and Hans D. Osthoff
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17819–17841,Short summary
Measurements of air pollutants at a ground site near Fort McKay in the Athabasca oil sands region in the summer of 2013 are presented. A large number of intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) were observed; these molecules were shown previously to generate atmospheric particles downwind of the region. A principal component analysis was performed to identify major pollution source types, including which source(s) is(are) associated with IVOC emissions (e.g., freshly mined bitumen).
Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Yuemei Han, Katherine Hayden, Gang Lu, Cris M. Mihele, Richard L. Mittermeier, Craig Stroud, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, and Jeffrey R. Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16979–17001,Short summary
We made measurements from a mobile laboratory across a large urban area and determined fleet-average vehicle emission factors (EFs) for a suite of traffic-related air pollutants. We present the first real-world EFs for isocyanic acid (HNCO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and insight into their on-road variability. We find that vehicles may represent an important source of these air toxics at an urban scale. This work has implications for understanding population exposure to these species.
Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, Junhua Zhang, Ayodeji Akingunola, Wanmin Gong, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14695–14714,Short summary
This work uses aircraft-based measurements of smokestack plumes carried out in northern Alberta in 2013. These measurements are used to test equations used to predict how high in the air smokestack plumes rise. It is important to predict plume rise height accurately as it tells us how far downwind pollutants are carried and what air quality can be expected at the surface. We found that the equations that are typically used significantly underestimate the plume rise at this location.
Craig A. Stroud, Paul A. Makar, Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Ayodeji Akingunola, Shao-Meng Li, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, and May Siu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13531–13545,Short summary
It is shown that using measurement-derived volatile organic compound (VOC) and organic aerosol (OA) emissions in the GEM-MACH air quality model provides better overall predictions compared to using bottom-up emission inventories. This work was done to better constrain the fugitive organic emissions from the Athabasca oil sands region, which are a challenge to estimate with bottom-up emission approaches. We use observations from the 2013 Joint Oil Sands Monitoring study.
Junhua Zhang, Michael D. Moran, Qiong Zheng, Paul A. Makar, Pegah Baratzadeh, George Marson, Peter Liu, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10459–10481,Short summary
This paper discusses the development of new synthesized emissions inventories and the generation of air quality model-ready emissions files for the Athabasca Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada, using multiple emissions inventories, continuous emissions monitoring data, and inferred emission rates based on aircraft measurements. Novel facility-specific gridded spatial surrogate fields were generated to allocate emissions spatially within each huge mining facility.
Emma L. Mungall, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Daniel Kunkel, Ellen Gute, David W. Tarasick, Sangeeta Sharma, Christopher J. Cox, Taneil Uttal, and John Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10237–10254,Short summary
We measured gas-phase formic and acetic acid at Alert, Nunavut. These acids play an important role in cloud water acidity in remote environments, yet they are not well represented in chemical transport models, particularly in the Arctic. We observed high levels of formic and acetic acid under both cold, wet, and cloudy and warm, sunny, and dry conditions, suggesting that multiple sources significantly contribute to gas-phase concentrations of these species in the summer Arctic.
Paul A. Makar, Ayodeji Akingunola, Julian Aherne, Amanda S. Cole, Yayne-abeba Aklilu, Junhua Zhang, Isaac Wong, Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Jane Kirk, Ken Scott, Michael D. Moran, Alain Robichaud, Hazel Cathcart, Pegah Baratzedah, Balbir Pabla, Philip Cheung, Qiong Zheng, and Dean S. Jeffries
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9897–9927,Short summary
Complex computer model output was compared to and fused with observation data, to estimate potential damage due to acidifying precipitation for ecosystems in the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Estimated deposition was compared to the maximum no-damage ecosystem capacity for sulfur and/or nitrogen uptake; these critical loads were exceeded, for areas between 10 000 and 330 000 square kilometres, depending on ecosystem type: ecosystem damage will occur at 2013 emission levels.
Monika Aggarwal, James Whiteway, Jeffrey Seabrook, Lawrence Gray, Kevin Strawbridge, Peter Liu, Jason O'Brien, Shao-Meng Li, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3829–3849,Short summary
Aircraft-based laser remote sensing measurements of atmospheric aerosol and ozone were conducted to study air pollution from the oil sands extraction industry in northern Alberta. The ozone mixing ratio measured in the polluted boundary layer air was equal to or less than the background ozone mixing ratio. The lidar measurements detected a layer of forest fire smoke above the surface boundary layer in which the measured ozone mixing ratio was substantially greater than the background amount.
Ayodeji Akingunola, Paul A. Makar, Junhua Zhang, Andrea Darlington, Shao-Meng Li, Mark Gordon, Michael D. Moran, and Qiong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8667–8688,Short summary
We examine the manner in which air-quality models simulate lofting of buoyant plumes of emissions from stacks (plume rise) and the impact of the level of detail in algorithms simulating particles' variation in size (particle size distribution). The most commonly used plume rise algorithm underestimates the height of plumes compared to observations, while a revised algorithm has much better performance. A 12-bin size distribution reduced the forecast 2-bin size distribution bias error by 32 %.
Sabour Baray, Andrea Darlington, Mark Gordon, Katherine L. Hayden, Amy Leithead, Shao-Meng Li, Peter S. K. Liu, Richard L. Mittermeier, Samar G. Moussa, Jason O'Brien, Ralph Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, Doug Worthy, and Robert McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7361–7378,Short summary
Methane emissions from major oil sands facilities in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of Alberta were measured in the summer of 2013 using two related aircraft mass-balance approaches. Tailings ponds and fugitive emissions of methane from open pit mines were found to be the major sources of methane in the region. Total methane emissions in the AOSR were measured to be ~ 20 tonnes of CH4 per hour, which is 48 % higher than the Canadian Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Emissions Inventory.
Yuan Cheng, Shao-Meng Li, Mark Gordon, and Peter Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2653–2667,Short summary
An aircraft campaign was conducted over the Athabasca oil sands (OS) region to characterize refractory black carbon (rBC) particles as they were emitted from the sources and as they were transported downwind; rBC size distributions were consistent at different downwind distances from the source area whereas coating thicknesses on the rBC cores increased considerably as the OS plumes were transported downwind. These results provide insights into the evolution of BC aerosol in the real atmosphere.
John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Jeremy Wentzell, Andrea Darlington, Peter Liu, Amy Leithead, Katherine Hayden, Jason O'Brien, Richard L. Mittermeier, Ralf Staebler, Mengistu Wolde, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8411–8427,Short summary
The emission and formation of gaseous organic acids from the oil sands industry in Canada is explored through aircraft measurements directly over and downwind wind of industrial facilities. Results demonstrated that the formation of organic acids through atmospheric chemical reactions dominated over the direct emissions from mining activities but could not be explicitly modeled. The results highlight the need for improved understanding of photochemical mechanisms leading to these species.
Yuemei Han, Craig A. Stroud, John Liggio, and Shao-Meng Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13929–13944,Short summary
This study investigates the acidity effect on the yield and chemical composition of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol based on a series of laboratory experiments performed using a photochemical reaction chamber under high- and low-NOx conditions. We have found that the acidity effect largely depends on NOx level and the inorganic acidity has a significant role to play in determining various organic aerosol chemical properties such as mass yields, oxidation state, and organic nitrate content.
Vitali E. Fioletov, Chris A. McLinden, Alexander Cede, Jonathan Davies, Cristian Mihele, Stoyka Netcheva, Shao-Meng Li, and Jason O'Brien
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2961–2976,
Alex K. Y. Lee, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Shao-Meng Li, Steve J. Sjostedt, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Anne Marie Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6721–6733,Short summary
Substantial biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) formation was investigated in a coniferous forest mountain region in Whistler, British Columbia. A largely biogenic aerosol growth episode was observed, providing a unique opportunity to investigate BSOA formation chemistry in a forested environment. In particular, our observations provide insights into the relative importance of different oxidation mechanisms between day and night.
Emma L. Mungall, Betty Croft, Martine Lizotte, Jennie L. Thomas, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maurice Levasseur, Randall V. Martin, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6665–6680,Short summary
Previous work has suggested that marine emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) could impact the Arctic climate through interactions with clouds. We made the first high-time-resolution measurements of summertime atmospheric DMS in the Canadian Arctic, and performed source sensitivity simulations. We found that regional marine sources dominated, but do not appear to be sufficient to explain our observations. Understanding DMS sources in the Arctic is necessary to model future climate in the region.
Bin Yuan, John Liggio, Jeremy Wentzell, Shao-Meng Li, Harald Stark, James M. Roberts, Jessica Gilman, Brian Lerner, Carsten Warneke, Rui Li, Amy Leithead, Hans D. Osthoff, Robert Wild, Steven S. Brown, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2139–2153,Short summary
We describe high-resolution measurements of nitrated phenols using a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (ToF-CIMS). Strong diurnal profiles were observed for nitrated phenols, with concentration maxima at night. Box model simulations were able to reproduce the measured nitrated phenols.
M. W. Shephard, C. A. McLinden, K. E. Cady-Pereira, M. Luo, S. G. Moussa, A. Leithead, J. Liggio, R. M. Staebler, A. Akingunola, P. Makar, P. Lehr, J. Zhang, D. K. Henze, D. B. Millet, J. O. Bash, L. Zhu, K. C. Wells, S. L. Capps, S. Chaliyakunnel, M. Gordon, K. Hayden, J. R. Brook, M. Wolde, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5189–5211,Short summary
This study provides direct validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite retrieved profiles against coincident aircraft profiles of carbon monoxide, ammonia, methanol, and formic acid, all of which are of interest for air quality. The comparisons are performed over the Canadian oil sands region during an intensive field campaign in support of the Joint Canada-Alberta Implementation Plan for the Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM). Initial model evaluations are also provided.
Y. Liu, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13569–13584,Short summary
This work for the first time demonstrated that organonitrogen compounds (NOC) can be formed efficiently via the uptake of ammonia by newly formed secondary organic aerosol using a smog chamber equipped with a HR-ToF-AMS. Based on the measured kinetics, this study suggests that light absorption by NOC in atmospheric particles may be important in regions where the BC contribution is minimal and NOC from ammonia should be considered with respect to overall deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems.
M. Gordon, S.-M. Li, R. Staebler, A. Darlington, K. Hayden, J. O'Brien, and M. Wolde
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3745–3765,Short summary
Aircraft-based measurements of air pollutants from sources in the Canadian oil sands were made during a summer intensive field campaign in 2013. This paper describes the top-down emission rate retrieval algorithm (TERRA) to determine facility emissions of pollutants, using SO2 and CH4 as examples. Uncertainty of the emission rates estimated with TERRA is estimated as less than 30%, which is primarily due to the unknown SO2 and CH4 mixing ratios near the surface below the lowest flight level.
N. D. Rider, Y. M. Taha, C. A. Odame-Ankrah, J. A. Huo, T. W. Tokarek, E. Cairns, S. G. Moussa, J. Liggio, and H. D. Osthoff
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2737–2748,Short summary
A photochemical source of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) in which a dialkyl ketone (acetone, diethyl-, di-isopropyl, or di-n-propyl ketone) in the presence of oxygen and nitric oxide is photodissociated by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The source output was analyzed by gas chromatography and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy and modeled using the Master Chemical Mechanism.
B. Yuan, P. R. Veres, C. Warneke, J. M. Roberts, J. B. Gilman, A. Koss, P. M. Edwards, M. Graus, W. C. Kuster, S.-M. Li, R. J. Wild, S. S. Brown, W. P. Dubé, B. M. Lerner, E. J. Williams, J. E. Johnson, P. K. Quinn, T. S. Bates, B. Lefer, P. L. Hayes, J. L. Jimenez, R. J. Weber, R. Zamora, B. Ervens, D. B. Millet, B. Rappenglück, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1975–1993,Short summary
In this work, secondary formation of formic acid at an urban site and a site in an oil and gas production region is studied. We investigated various gas phase formation pathways of formic acid, including those recently proposed, using a box model. The contributions from aerosol-related processes, fog events and air-snow exchange to formic acid are also quantified.
C. Warneke, P. Veres, S. M. Murphy, J. Soltis, R. A. Field, M. G. Graus, A. Koss, S.-M. Li, R. Li, B. Yuan, J. M. Roberts, and J. A. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 411–420,
I. Nuaaman, S.-M. Li, K. L. Hayden, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. Sueper, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, P. K. Quinn, and R. McLaren
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
In this paper, we focus on the measurement and reporting of mass concentrations of particulate chloride and sea salt in a marine area off the coast of California using a High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. We outline a method of deconvolving the total aerosol chloride mass into refractory and non-refractory components, previously not reported in the literature. This can be important in regions where refractory sea salt aerosols can contribute to the aerosol chloride signal measured with t
L. Huang, S. L. Gong, M. Gordon, J. Liggio, R. Staebler, C. A. Stroud, G. Lu, C. Mihele, J. R. Brook, and C. Q. Jia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12631–12648,
B. H. Samset, G. Myhre, A. Herber, Y. Kondo, S.-M. Li, N. Moteki, M. Koike, N. Oshima, J. P. Schwarz, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, N. Bellouin, T. K. Berntsen, H. Bian, M. Chin, T. Diehl, R. C. Easter, S. J. Ghan, T. Iversen, A. Kirkevåg, J.-F. Lamarque, G. Lin, X. Liu, J. E. Penner, M. Schulz, Ø. Seland, R. B. Skeie, P. Stier, T. Takemura, K. Tsigaridis, and K. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12465–12477,Short summary
Far from black carbon (BC) emission sources, present climate models are unable to reproduce flight measurements. By comparing recent models with data, we find that the atmospheric lifetime of BC may be overestimated in models. By adjusting modeled BC concentrations to measurements in remote regions - over oceans and at high altitudes - we arrive at a reduced estimate for BC radiative forcing over the industrial era.
Y. Liu, L. Huang, S.-M. Li, T. Harner, and J. Liggio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12195–12207,
R. Li, C. Warneke, M. Graus, R. Field, F. Geiger, P. R. Veres, J. Soltis, S.-M. Li, S. M. Murphy, C. Sweeney, G. Pétron, J. M. Roberts, and J. de Gouw
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3597–3610,
M. Gordon, A. Vlasenko, R. M. Staebler, C. Stroud, P. A. Makar, J. Liggio, S.-M. Li, and S. Brown
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9087–9097,
T. P. Riedel, G. M. Wolfe, K. T. Danas, J. B. Gilman, W. C. Kuster, D. M. Bon, A. Vlasenko, S.-M. Li, E. J. Williams, B. M. Lerner, P. R. Veres, J. M. Roberts, J. S. Holloway, B. Lefer, S. S. Brown, and J. A. Thornton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3789–3800,
G. M. Buffaloe, D. A. Lack, E. J. Williams, D. Coffman, K. L. Hayden, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, I. Nuaaman, P. Massoli, T. B. Onasch, P. K. Quinn, and C. D. Cappa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1881–1896,
S. Zhou, L. Gonzalez, A. Leithead, Z. Finewax, R. Thalman, A. Vlasenko, S. Vagle, L.A. Miller, S.-M. Li, S. Bureekul, H. Furutani, M. Uematsu, R. Volkamer, and J. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1371–1384,
C. D. Cappa, E. J. Williams, D. A. Lack, G. M. Buffaloe, D. Coffman, K. L. Hayden, S. C. Herndon, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, P. Massoli, R. McLaren, I. Nuaaman, T. B. Onasch, and P. K. Quinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1337–1352,
A. Petzold, J. A. Ogren, M. Fiebig, P. Laj, S.-M. Li, U. Baltensperger, T. Holzer-Popp, S. Kinne, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, C. Wehrli, A. Wiedensohler, and X.-Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8365–8379,
L. Ahlm, K. M. Shakya, L. M. Russell, J. C. Schroder, J. P. S. Wong, S. J. Sjostedt, K. L. Hayden, J. Liggio, J. J. B. Wentzell, H. A. Wiebe, C. Mihele, W. R. Leaitch, and A. M. Macdonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3393–3407,
J. Liggio and S.-M. Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2989–3002,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Molecular fingerprints and health risks of smoke from home-use incense burningHigh enrichment of heavy metals in fine particulate matter through dust aerosol generationProduction of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) by fast-growing phytoplanktonTechnical note: In situ measurements and modelling of the oxidation kinetics in films of a cooking aerosol proxy using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)Contrasting impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of monoterpenes: insights into the multi-generation chemical mechanismQuantifying the seasonal variations in and regional transport of PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta region, China: characteristics, sources, and health risksOpinion: Atmospheric multiphase chemistry – past, present, and futureDistinct photochemistry in glycine particles mixed with different atmospheric nitrate saltsEffects of storage conditions on the molecular-level composition of organic aerosol particlesCharacterization of gas and particle emissions from open burning of household solid waste from South AfricaChemically distinct particle-phase emissions from highly controlled pyrolysis of three wood typesPredicting photooxidant concentrations in aerosol liquid water based on laboratory extracts of ambient particlesPhysicochemical characterization of free troposphere and marine boundary layer ice-nucleating particles collected by aircraft in the eastern North AtlanticLarge differences of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and low-volatile species in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from ozonolysis of β-pinene and limoneneImpact of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources on the molecular compositions of water-soluble humic-like substances in PM2.5 at a suburban site of Yangtze River Delta, ChinaTechnical note: Improved synthetic routes to cis- and trans-(2-methyloxirane-2,3-diyl)dimethanol (cis- and trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol)Technical note: Intercomparison study of the elemental carbon radiocarbon analysis methods using synthetic known samplesChemical evolution of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols during daytime and nighttimeFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the oxidation of limonene by OH radical: significant contribution of H-abstraction pathwayMeasurement report: Atmospheric aging of combustion-derived particles – impact on stable free radical concentration and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in aqueous mediaPhotoaging of phenolic secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase: evolution of chemical and optical properties and effects of oxidantsGas-particle partitioning of toluene oxidation products: an experimental and modeling studyAn intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticlesVolatile Oxidation Products and Secondary Organosiloxane Aerosol from D5 + OH at Varying OH ExposuresVariability in grain size, mineralogy, and mode of occurrence of Fe in surface sediments of preferential dust-source inland drainage basins: The case of the Lower Drâa Valley, S MoroccoSimultaneous formation of sulfate and nitrate via co-uptake of SO2 and NO2 by aqueous NaCl droplets: combined effect of nitrate photolysis and chlorine chemistryBulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burningPhoto-induced shrinking of aqueous glycine aerosol dropletsSeasonal variations in photooxidant formation and light absorption in aqueous extracts of ambient particlesSulfate formation via aerosol-phase SO2 oxidation by model biomass burning photosensitizers: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde using single-particle mixing-state analysisYields and molecular composition of gas-phase and secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of the volatile consumer product benzyl alcohol: formation of highly oxygenated and hydroxy nitro-aromatic compoundsA combined gas- and particle-phase analysis of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysisComparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateTechnical note: Chemical composition and source identification of fluorescent components in atmospheric water-soluble brown carbon by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis – potential limitations and applicationsInsoluble lipid film mediates transfer of soluble saccharides from the sea to the atmosphere: the role of hydrogen bondingMagnetic fraction of the atmospheric dust in Kraków – physicochemical characteristics and possible environmental impactModeling daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reactions of biogenic hydrocarbonsSO2 enhances aerosol formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound ozonolysis by producing sulfur-containing compoundsIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low NOx and high NOx conditionsChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macroalgal emissionThe Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Investigation of pH- and particle-size-dependent chemical and optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon: implications for its sources and aging processesThe influence of the addition of isoprene on the volatility of particles formed from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic–biogenic mixturesSignificant formation of sulfate aerosols contributed by the heterogeneous drivers of dust surfaceParticle-phase processing of α-pinene NO3 secondary organic aerosol in the darkChemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China: insight from the COVID-19 lockdown
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, Maosheng Yao, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13585–13595,Short summary
Incense burning is common in Asia, posing threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full-volatility organic species from incense-burning smoke are detected and quantified. Intermediate-volatility volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total emission factors (EFs) and 40.0 % of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Qianqian Gao, Shengqiang Zhu, Kaili Zhou, Jinghao Zhai, Shaodong Chen, Qihuang Wang, Shurong Wang, Jin Han, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Liwu Zhang, Lin Wang, Zimeng Wang, Xin Yang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianmin Chen, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13049–13060,Short summary
Dust is a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Its chemical composition is often assumed to be similar to the parent soil. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified. Dust aerosols are mainly generated by wind erosion, which may have some chemical selectivity. Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be highly enriched in fine-dust (PM2.5) aerosols. In addition, estimation of heavy metal emissions from dust generation by air quality models may have errors without using proper dust profiles.
Daniel C. O. Thornton, Sarah D. Brooks, Elise K. Wilbourn, Jessica Mirrielees, Alyssa N. Alsante, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Andrew Whitesell, and Kiana McFadden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12707–12729,Short summary
A major uncertainty in our understanding of clouds and climate is the sources and properties of the aerosol on which clouds grow. We found that aerosol containing organic matter from fast-growing marine phytoplankton was a source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). INPs facilitate freezing of ice crystals at warmer temperatures than otherwise possible and therefore change cloud formation and properties. Our results show that ecosystem processes and the properties of sea spray aerosol are linked.
Adam Milsom, Shaojun Qi, Ashmi Mishra, Thomas Berkemeier, Zhenyu Zhang, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10835–10843,Short summary
Aerosols and films are found indoors and outdoors. Our study measures and models reactions of a cooking aerosol proxy with the atmospheric oxidant ozone relying on a low-cost but sensitive technique based on mass changes and film rigidity. We found that film morphology changed and film rigidity increased with evidence of surface crust formation during ozone exposure. Our modelling results demonstrate clear potential to take this robust method to the field for reaction monitoring.
Shan Zhang, Lin Du, Zhaomin Yang, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Kun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10809–10822,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the distinct impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of two structurally different monoterpenes (limonene and Δ3-carene). We found that the molecular structure of precursors can largely influence the SOA formation under high RH by impacting the multi-generation reactions. Our results could advance knowledge on the roles of water content in aerosol formation and inform ongoing research on particle environmental effects and applications in models.
Yangzhihao Zhan, Min Xie, Wei Zhao, Tijian Wang, Da Gao, Pulong Chen, Jun Tian, Kuanguang Zhu, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Yi Luo, and Runqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9837–9852,Short summary
Although the main source contribution of pollution is secondary inorganic aerosols in Nanjing, health risks mainly come from industry sources and vehicle emissions. Therefore, the development of megacities should pay more attention to the health burden of vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and industrial processes. This study provides new insight into assessing the relationship between source apportionment and health risks and can provide valuable insight into air pollution strategies.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9765–9785,Short summary
With important climate and air quality impacts, atmospheric multiphase chemistry involves gas interactions with aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We summarize the status of the field and discuss potential directions for future growth. We highlight the importance of a molecular-level understanding of the chemistry, along with atmospheric field studies and modeling, and emphasize the necessity for atmospheric multiphase chemists to interact widely with scientists from neighboring disciplines.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Julian Resch, Kate Wolfer, Alexandre Barth, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9161–9171,Short summary
Detailed chemical analysis of organic aerosols is necessary to better understand their effects on climate and health. Aerosol samples are often stored for days to months before analysis. We examined the effects of storage conditions (i.e., time, temperature, and aerosol storage on filters or as solvent extracts) on composition and found significant changes in the concentration of individual compounds, indicating that sample storage can strongly affect the detailed chemical particle composition.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8921–8937,Short summary
Open burning of household and municipal solid waste is a common practice in developing countries and is a significant source of air pollution. However, few studies have measured emissions from open burning of waste. This study determined gas and particulate emissions from open burning of 10 types of household solid-waste materials. These results can improve emission inventories, air quality management, and assessment of the health and climate effects of open burning of household waste.
Anita M. Avery, Mariam Fawaz, Leah R. Williams, Tami Bond, and Timothy B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8837–8854,Short summary
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of fuels like wood which occurs during combustion or as an isolated process. During combustion, some pyrolysis products are emitted directly, while others are oxidized in the combustion process. This work describes the chemical composition of particle-phase pyrolysis products in order to investigate both the uncombusted emissions from wildfires and the fuel that participates in combustion.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Chrystal Guzman, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8805–8821,Short summary
Although photooxidants are important in airborne particles, little is known of their concentrations. By measuring oxidants in a series of particle dilutions, we predict their concentrations in aerosol liquid water (ALW). We find •OH concentrations in ALW are on the order of 10−15 M, similar to their cloud/fog values, while oxidizing triplet excited states and singlet molecular oxygen have ALW values of ca. 10−13 M and 10−12 M, respectively, roughly 10–100 times higher than in cloud/fog drops.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Dandan Liu, Yun Zhang, Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Qiaorong Xie, Donghuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Chao Ma, Haijie Tong, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8383–8402,Short summary
Based on ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, we found that β-pinene oxidation-derived highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) exhibit higher yield at high ozone concentration, while limonene oxidation-derived HOMs exhibit higher yield at moderate ozone concentration. The distinct molecular response of HOMs and low-volatile species in different biogenic secondary organic aerosols to ozone concentrations provides a new clue for more accurate air quality prediction and management.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yihang Hong, Yu-Chi Lin, Mingyuan Yu, Hongxing Jiang, Zhineng Cheng, Rongshuang Xu, and Xiaoying Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8305–8324,Short summary
The interaction between the sources and molecular compositions of humic-like substances (HULIS) at Nanjing, China, was explored. Significant fossil fuel source contributions to HULIS were found in the 14C results from biomass burnng and traffic emissions. Increasing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products and anthropogenic aromatic compounds were detected in summer and winter, respectively.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Xiangyun Zhang, Jun Li, Sanyuan Zhu, Junwen Liu, Ping Ding, Shutao Gao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7495–7502,Short summary
The results show that 14C elemental carbon (EC) was not only related to the isolation method but also to the types and proportions of the biomass sources in the sample. The hydropyrolysis (Hypy) method, which can be used to isolate a highly stable portion of ECHypy and avoid charring, is a more effective and stable approach for the matrix-independent 14C quantification of EC in aerosols, and the 13C–ECHypy and non-fossil ECHypy values of SRM1649b were –24.9 ‰ and 11 %, respectively.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Hao Luo, Luc Vereecken, Hongru Shen, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Mattias Hallquist, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Defeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7297–7319,Short summary
Oxidation of limonene, an element emitted by trees and chemical products, by OH, a daytime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), including C10-20 compounds. HOMs play an important role in new particle formation and growth. HOM formation can be explained by the chemistry of peroxy radicals. We found that a minor branching ratio initial pathway plays an unexpected, significant role. Considering this pathway enables accurate simulations of HOMs and other concentrations.
Heather L. Runberg and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7213–7223,Short summary
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFRs in the soot were measured and found to be unchanged. However, it was also found that the ability of soot to form hydroxyl radicals was stronger for fresh soot.
Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Cort Anastasio, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7103–7120,Short summary
We studied how aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) form and evolve from a phenolic carbonyl commonly present in biomass burning smoke. The composition and optical properties of the aqSOA are significantly affected by photochemical reactions and are dependent on the oxidants' concentration and identity in water. During photoaging, the aqSOA initially becomes darker, but prolonged aging leads to the formation of volatile products, resulting in significant mass loss and photobleaching.
Victor Lannuque, Barbara D'Anna, Evangelia Kostenidou, Florian Couvidat, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Philipp Eichler, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Brice Temime-Roussel, Richard Valorso, and Karine Sartelet
Large uncertainties remain in understanding secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from toluene oxidation. In this study, speciation measurements in gaseous and particulate phases were carried out, providing partitioning and volatility data of individual toluene SOA components at different temperatures. A new detailed oxidation mechanism was developed to improve modeled speciation and effects of different processes involved in gas-particle partitioning at the molecular scale are explored.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6613–6631,Short summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Hyun Gu Kang, Yanfang Chen, Jiwoo Jeong, Yoojin Park, Thomas Berkemeier, and Hwajin Kim
D5 is an emerging anthropogenic pollutant that is ubiquitous in indoor and urban environments and the OH oxidation of D5 forms secondary organosiloxane aerosol (SOSiA). Application of kinetic box model that uses a volatility basis set (VBS) showed that consideration of oxidative aging (aging-VBS) predicts SOSiA formation much better than using a standard-VBS. Ageing-dependent parameterization is needed to accurately model SOSiA to assess the implications of siloxanes on air quality.
Adolfo González-Romero, Cristina González-Florez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Andres Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, Clarissa Baldo, Roger N. Clark, Zong Bo Shi, Xavier Querol, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
The effect of dust emitted from desertic surfaces upon climate and ecosystems depends on their size and mineralogy, but, data from soil mineral atlases of desert soils is scarce. We performed particle size distribution, mineralogy and Fe speciation at S Morocco. Results show coarser particles, with high quartz proportion are near the elevated areas, meanwhile in depressed areas, finer sizes and higher proportions of clays and nano Fe-oxides. This differences are important for dust modelling.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Ka Yuen Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
We conducted burning experiments to simulate various types of solid fuel combustion, including residential burning, wildfires, agricultural burning, cow dung, and plastic bags burning. The chemical composition of the particles was characterized using mass spectrometers, and new potential markers for different fuels were identified using statistical analysis. This work improves our understanding of emissions from solid fuel burning and offers support for refined source apportionment.
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Oliver Reich, Grégory David, and Ruth Signorell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5393–5402,Short summary
Photosensitizers play an important role in the photochemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Our study provides evidence that mesoscopic glycine clusters forming in aqueous droplets act as unconventional photosensitizers in the visible light spectrum. We observed the influence of these photoactive molecular aggregates in single optically trapped aqueous droplets. Such mesoscopic photosensitizers might be more important for aerosol photochemistry than previously anticipated.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Laura Heinlein, Chrystal Guzman, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
We measured concentrations of three photooxidants – hydroxyl radical, triplet excited states of organic carbon, and singlet molecular oxygen – in fine particles collected over a year. Concentrations are highest in extracts of fresh biomass burning particles, largely because they have the highest particle concentrations and highest light absorption. When normalized by light absorption, rates of formation for each oxidant are generally similar for the four particle types we observed.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Mohammed Jaoui, Kenneth S. Docherty, Michael Lewandowski, and Tadeusz E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4637–4661,Short summary
VCPs are a class of chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products (e.g., coatings, adhesives, inks, personal care products) and are an important component of total VOCs in urban atmospheres. This study provides SOA yields and detailed chemical analysis of the gas- and aerosol-phase products of the photooxidation of one of these VCPs, benzyl alcohol. These results will allow better links between characterized sources and their resulting criteria for pollutant formation.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Cuncun Xu, Jianzhong Song, Xingjun Fan, Jun Li, Wanglu Jia, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2613–2625,Short summary
This work comprehensively investigated the fluorescence data of light-absorbing organic compounds, water-soluble organic matter in different types of aerosol samples, soil dust, and fulvic and humic acids using an excitation–emission matrix (EEM) method and parallel factor modeling. The results revealed which light-absorbing species can be detected by EEM and also provided important information for identifying the chemical composition and possible sources of these species in atmospheric samples.
Minglan Xu, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2235–2249,Short summary
The promotion of soluble saccharides on sea spray aerosol (SSA) generation and the changes in particle morphology were observed. On the contrary, the coexistence of surface insoluble fatty acid film and soluble saccharides significantly inhibited the production of SSA. This is the first demonstration that hydrogen bonding mediated by surface-insoluble fatty acids contributes to saccharide transfer in seawater, providing a new mechanism for saccharide enrichment in SSA.
Jan M. Michalik, Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Łukasz Gondek, Waldemar Tokarz, Jan Żukrowski, Marta Gajewska, and Marek Michalik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1449–1464,Short summary
The magnetic fraction of the aerosols in Kraków was collected and analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and magnetometry. It contains metallic Fe or Fe-rich alloy and Fe oxides. The occurrence of nanometre-scale Fe3O4 particles (predominantly of anthropogenic origin) is shown. Our results can help to determine the sources and transport of pollutants, potential harmful effects, etc.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1209–1226,Short summary
The diurnal pattern in biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is simulated by using the UNIPAR model, which predicts SOA growth via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, and temperature. The simulation suggests that nighttime SOA formation, even in urban environments, where anthropogenic emission is high, is dominated by products from ozonolysis and NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons.
Zhaomin Yang, Kun Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 417–430,Short summary
SO2 significantly promotes particle formation during cyclooctene ozonolysis. Carboxylic acids and their dimers were major products in particles formed in the absence of SO2. SO2 can induce production of organosulfates with stronger particle formation ability than their precursors, leading to the enhancement in particle formation. Formation mechanisms and structures of organosulfates were proposed, which is helpful for better understanding how SO2 perturbs the formation and fate of particles.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 203–220,Short summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15413–15423,Short summary
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in the last 2 decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in coastal new particle formation. We present a complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field research on iodine nucleation in the coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
Yuanyuan Qin, Juanjuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Kang Xiao, Ting Qi, Yuwei Gao, Xueming Zhou, Shaoxuan Shi, Jingnan Li, Jingsi Gao, Ziyin Zhang, Jihua Tan, Yang Zhang, and Rongzhi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13845–13859,Short summary
Deep interrogation of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is critical and challenging considering its involvement in many key aerosol-associated chemical reactions. This work examined how the chemical structures (functional groups) and optical properties (UV/fluorescence properties) of WSOC were affected by pH and particle size. We found that the pH- and particle-size-dependent behaviors could be used to reveal the structures, sources, and aging of aerosol WSOC.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Spyros N. Pandis, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13677–13693,Short summary
The addition of a low-yield precursor to the reactive mixture of aVOC and bVOC can increase or decrease the SOA volatility that is system-dependent. Therefore, the SOA volatility of the mixtures cannot always be predicted based on the additivity. In complex mixtures the formation of lower-volatility products likely outweighs the formation of products with higher volatility. The unique products of each mixture contribute significantly to the signal, suggesting interactions can be important.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Hanyun Cheng, Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13467–13493,Short summary
This study compared the gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous SO2 oxidation pathways by combining laboratory work with a modelling study. The heterogeneous oxidation, particularly that induced by the dust surface drivers, presents positive implications for the removal of airborne SO2 and formation of sulfate aerosols. This work highlighted the atmospheric significance of heterogeneous oxidation and suggested a comparison model to evaluate the following heterogeneous laboratory research.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13167–13182,Short summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using a common oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition via different chemical reactions that were taking place inside of the aerosol particle. These results show that the composition of organic aerosol steadily changes during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Haijun Zhou, Tao Liu, Bing Sun, Yongli Tian, Xingjun Zhou, Feng Hao, Xi Chun, Zhiqiang Wan, Peng Liu, Jingwen Wang, and Dagula Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12153–12166,Short summary
A single year’s offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot to reveal the chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in a semi-arid region. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because relatively few studies have focused on the chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 with offline measurements. A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region.
Allan, J. D., Jimenez, J. L., Williams, P. I., Alfarra, M. R., Bower, K. N., Jayne, J. T., Coe, H., and Worsnop, D. R.: Quantitative sampling using an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer 1. Techniques of data interpretation and error analysis, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4090, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002jd002358, 2003.
Atkinson, R.: Kinetics and Mechanisms of the Gas-Phase Reactions of the Hydroxyl Radical with Organic Compounds under Atmospheric Conditions, Chem. Rev., 85, 69–201, 1986.
Atkinson, R. and Arey, J.: Atmospheric Degradation of Volatile Organic Compounds, Chem. Rev., 103, 4605–4638, 2003.
Cappa, C. D., Che, D. L., Kessler, S. H., Kroll, J. H., and Wilson, K. R.: Variations in organic aerosol optical and hygroscopic properties upon heterogeneous OH oxidation, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D15204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jd015918, 2011.
Che, D. L., Smith, J. D., Leone, S. R., Ahmed, M., and Wilson, K. R.: Quantifying the reactive uptake of OH by organic aerosols in a continuous flow stirred tank reactor, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 11, 7885–7895, https://doi.org/10.1039/b904418c, 2009.
Donahue, N. M., Robinson, A. L., Hartz, K. E. H., Sage, A. M., and Weitkamp, E. A.: Competitive oxidation in atmospheric aerosols: The case for relative kinetics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L16805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005gl022893, 2005.
Drewnick, F., Hings, S. S., DeCarlo, P., Jayne, J. T., Gonin, M., Fuhrer, K., Weimer, S., Jimenez, J. L., Demerjian, K. L., Borrmann, S., and Worsnop, D. R.: A New Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (TOF-AMS)–-Instrument Description and First Field Deployment, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 39, 637–658, 2005.
Fuchs, N. A. and Sutugin, A. G.: Highly Dispersed Aerosols, Butterworth-Heinemann, Newton, MA, p. 89 1970.
George, I. J. and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Chemical evolution of secondary organic aerosol from OH-initiated heterogeneous oxidation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5551–5563, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5551-2010, 2010.
George, I. J., Vlasenko, A., Slowik, J. G., Broekhuizen, K., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Heterogeneous oxidation of saturated organic aerosols by hydroxyl radicals: uptake kinetics, condensed-phase products, and particle size change, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4187–4201, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-7-4187-2007, 2007.
Hearn, J. D. and Smith, G. D.: A mixed-phase relative rates technique for measuring aerosol reaction kinetics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17805, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006gl026963, 2006.
Huisman, A. J., Krieger, U. K., Zuend, A., Marcolli, C., and Peter, T.: Vapor pressures of substituted polycarboxylic acids are much lower than previously reported, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6647–6662, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-6647-2013, 2013.
Isaacman, G., Chan, A. W. H., Nah, T., Worton, D. R., Ruehl, C. R., Wilson, K. R., and Goldstein, A. H.: Heterogeneous OH Oxidation of Motor Oil Particles Causes Selective Depletion of Branched and Less Cyclic Hydrocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 10632–10640, https://doi.org/10.1021/es302768a, 2012.
Jacobson, M. Z.: Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , p. 813, 2005.
Jayne, J. T., Leard, D. C., Zhang, X., Davidovits, P., Smith, K. A., Kolb, C. E., and Worsnop, D. R.: Development of an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer for Size and Composition Analysis of Submicron Particles, Aerosol Sci. Tech., 33, 49–70, 2000.
Kessler, S. H., Smith, J. D., Che, D. L., Worsnop, D. R., Wilson, K. R., and Kroll, J. H.: Chemical Sinks of Organic Aerosol: Kinetics and Products of the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Erythritol and Levoglucosan, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 7005–7010, https://doi.org/10.1021/es101465m, 2010.
Kessler, S. H., Nah, T., Daumit, K. E., Smith, J. D., Leone, S. R., Kolb, C. E., Worsnop, D. R., Wilson, K. R., and Kroll, J. H.: OH-Initiated Heterogeneous Aging of Highly Oxidized Organic Aerosol, J. Phys. Chem. A, 116, 6358–6365, https://doi.org/10.1021/jp212131m, 2012.
Kolb, C. E., Cox, R. A., Abbatt, J. P. D., Ammann, M., Davis, E. J., Donaldson, D. J., Garrett, B. C., George, C., Griffiths, P. T., Hanson, D. R., Kulmala, M., McFiggans, G., Pöschl, U., Riipinen, I., Rossi, M. J., Rudich, Y., Wagner, P. E., Winkler, P. M., Worsnop, D. R., and O'Dowd, C. D.: An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10561–10605, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-10561-2010, 2010.
Kroll, J. H. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Chemistry of secondary organic aerosol: Formation and evolution of low-volatility organics in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 42, 3593–3624, 2008.
Lambe, A. T., Zhang, J. Y., Sage, A. M., and Donahue, N. M.: Controlled OH radical production via ozone-alkene reactions for use in aerosol aging studies, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2357–2363, https://doi.org/10.1021/es061878e, 2007.
Lambe, A. T., Miracolo, M. A., Hennigan, C. J., Robinson, A. L., and Donahue, N. M.: Effective Rate Constants and Uptake Coefficients for the Reactions of Organic Molecular Markers (n-Alkanes, Hopanes, and Steranes) in Motor Oil and Diesel Primary Organic Aerosols with Hydroxyl Radicals, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43, 8794–8800, https://doi.org/10.1021/es901745h, 2009.
Li, P., Al-Abadleh, H. A., and Grassian, V. H.: Measuring heterogeneous uptake coefficients of gases on solid particle surfaces with a Knudsen Cell reactor: complications due to surface saturation and gas diffusion into underlying layers., J. Phys. Chem. A., 106, 1210–1219, 2002.
Liggio, J., Li, S. M., Vlasenko, A., Sjostedt, S., Chang, R., Shantz, N., Abbatt, J., Slowik, J. G., Bottenheim, J. W., Brickell, P. C., Stroud, C., and Leaitch, W. R.: Primary and secondary organic aerosols in urban air masses intercepted at a rural site, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 115, D21305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd014426, 2010.
Liu, C., Zhang, P., Wang, Y., Yang, B., and Shu, J.: Heterogeneous Reactions of Particulate Methoxyphenols with NO3 Radicals: Kinetics, Products, and Mechanisms, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 13262–13269, 2012.
Liu, Y., Liggio, J., Harner, T., Jantunen, L., Shoeib, M., and Li, S.-M.: Heterogeneous OH initiated oxidation: A possible explanation for the persistence of organophosphate flame retardants in air, Environ. Sci. Technol., 48, 1041–1048, 2014.
Ma, J., Liu, Y., and He, H.: Degradation kinetics of anthracene by ozone on mineral oxides, Atmos. Environ. , 44, 4446–4453, 2010.
McNeill, V. F., Wolfe, G. M., and Thornton, J. A.: The Oxidation of Oleate in Submicron Aqueous Salt Aerosols: Evidence of a Surface Process, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 1073–1083, 2007.
McNeill, V. F., Yatavelli, R. L. N., Thornton, J. A., Stipe, C. B., and Landgrebe, O.: Heterogeneous OH oxidation of palmitic acid in single component and internally mixed aerosol particles: vaporization and the role of particle phase, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 5465–5476, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-8-5465-2008, 2008.
Norris, G. and Vedantham, R.: EPA positive matrix factorization (PMF) 3.0 fundamentals & user guide, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov (last access: 9 August 2013), 2008.
Paatero, P.: Least squares formulation of robust non – negative factor analysis, Chemometr. Intell. Lab., 37, 23–35, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-7439(96)00044-5, 1997.
Paatero, P. and Hopke, P. K.: Discarding or downweighting highnoise variables in factor analytic models, Anal. Chim. Acta, 490, 277–289, 2003.
Paatero, P. and Tapper, U.: Positive matrix factorization: a nonnegative factor model with optimal utilization of error estimates of data values, Environmetrics 5, 111–126, 1994.
Pankow, J. F.: An absorption-model of gas-particle partitioning of organic compounds in the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 28, 185–188, 1994.
Pöschl, U.: Atmospheric Aerosols: Composition, Transformation, Climate and Health Effects, Angew. Chem. Int. Edit., 44, 7520–7540, 2005.
Price, H. C., Murray, B. J., Mattsson, J., O'Sullivan, D., Wilson, T. W., Baustian, K. J., and Benning, L. G.: Quantifying water diffusion in high-viscosity and glassy aqueous solutions using a Raman isotope tracer method, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3817–3830, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-3817-2014, 2014.
Reff, A., Eberly, S. I., and Bhave, P. V.: Receptor modeling of ambient particulate matter data using positive matrix factorization: Review of existing methods, JAPCA J. Air Waste Ma., 57, 146–154, 2007.
Renbaum, L. H. and Smith, G. D.: Artifacts in measuring aerosol uptake kinetics: the roles of time, concentration and adsorption, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 6881–6893, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-6881-2011, 2011.
Sareen, N., Moussa, S. G., and McNeill, V. F.: Photochemical Aging of Light-Absorbing Secondary Organic Aerosol Material, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117, 2987–2996, 2013.
Schwartz, R. E., Russell, L. M., Sjostedt, S. J., Vlasenko, A., Slowik, J. G., Abbatt, J. P. D., Macdonald, A. M., Li, S. M., Liggio, J., Toom-Sauntry, D., and Leaitch, W. R.: Biogenic oxidized organic functional groups in aerosol particles from a mountain forest site and their similarities to laboratory chamber products, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5075–5088, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5075-2010, 2010.
Slowik, J. G., Wong, J. P. S., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: Real-time, controlled OH-initiated oxidation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9775–9790, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-9775-2012, 2012.
Smith, J. D., Kroll, J. H., Cappa, C. D., Che, D. L., Liu, C. L., Ahmed, M., Leone, S. R., Worsnop, D. R., and Wilson, K. R.: The heterogeneous reaction of hydroxyl radicals with sub-micron squalane particles: a model system for understanding the oxidative aging of ambient aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 3209–3222, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-3209-2009, 2009.
Song, Y., Zhang, Y., Xie, S., Zeng, L., Zheng, M., Salmon, L. G., Shao, M., and Slanina, S.: Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Beijing by positive matrix factorization, Atmos. Environ., 40, 1526–1537, 2006.
Ulbrich, I. M., Canagaratna, M. R., Zhang, Q., Worsnop, D. R., and Jimenez, J. L.: Interpretation of organic components from Positive Matrix Factorization of aerosol mass spectrometric data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 2891–2918, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-2891-2009, 2009.
Viana, M., Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Harrison, R. M., Hopke, P. K., Winiwarter, W., Vallius, A., Szidat, S., Prevot, A. S. H., Hueglin, C., Bloemen, H., Wahlin, P., Vecchi, R., Miranda, A. I., Kasper-Giebl, A., Maenhaut, W., and Hitzenberger, R.: Source apportionment of particulate matter in Europe: A review of methods and results, J. Aerosol. Sci., 39, 827–849, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2008.05.007, 2008.
Weitkamp, E. A., Hartz, K. E. H., Sage, A. M., Donahue, N. M., and Robinson, A. L.: Laboratory measurements of the heterogeneous oxidation of condensed-phase organic molecular makers for meat cooking emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 5177–5182, 2008a.
Weitkamp, E. A., Lambe, A. T., Donahue, N. M., and Robinson, A. L.: Laboratory Measurements of the Heterogeneous Oxidation of Condensed-Phase Organic Molecular Makers for Motor Vehicle Exhaust, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 7950–7956, https://doi.org/10.1021/es800745x, 2008b.
Widmann, J. F. and Davis, E. J.: Mathematical models of the uptake of ClONO2 and other gases by atmospheric aerosols, J. Aerosol. Sci., 28, 87–106, 1997.
Wilson, K. R., Smith, J. D., Kessler, S. H., and Kroll, J. H.: The statistical evolution of multiple generations of oxidation products in the photochemical aging of chemically reduced organic aerosol, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 14, 1468–1479, https://doi.org/10.1039/c1cp22716e, 2012.
Worsnop, D. R., Morris, J. W., Shi, Q., Davidovits, P., and Kolb, C. E.: A chemical kinetic model for reactive transformations of aerosol particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1996, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002gl015542, 2002.
Yuan, Z. B., Yu, J. Z., Lau, A. K. H., Louie, P. K. K., and Fung, J. C. H.: Application of positive matrix factorization in estimating aerosol secondary organic carbon in Hong Kong and its relationship with secondary sulfate, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 25–34, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-25-2006, 2006.
Zhang, Q., Jimenez, J., Canagaratna, M., Ulbrich, I., Ng, N., Worsnop, D., and Sun, Y.: Understanding atmospheric organic aerosols via factor analysis of aerosol mass spectrometry: a review, Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 401, 3045–3067, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5355-y, 2011.