Articles | Volume 13, issue 14
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Ultrafine sea spray aerosol over the southeastern Pacific: open-ocean contributions to marine boundary layer CCN
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
A. D. Clarke
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
Department of Meteorology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
S. G. Howell
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
J. B. Jensen
NCAR/EOL, Boulder, CO, USA
L. M. Shank
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
now at: Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, Quality Assurance Division, JBPHH, HI 96860, USA
C. S. McNaughton
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
now at: Golder Associates Ltd., Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Department of Oceanography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hawaii, HI 96816, USA
No articles found.
Kristina Pistone, Eric M. Wilcox, Paquita Zuidema, Marco Giordano, James Podolske, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Steven G. Howell, and Steffen Freitag
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
The springtime southeast Atlantic atmosphere contains lots of smoke from continental fires. This smoke also contains water vapor; more smoke means more humidity. We use aircraft observations and models to describe how these values change through the season and over the region. We then sort the atmosphere into different profile types, by vertical structure and amount of smoke and humidity. Since they both absorb solar energy, our work helps to better quantify the heating effects in this region.
Calvin Howes, Pablo E. Saide, Hugh Coe, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Jim M. Haywood, Steven G. Howell, Siddhant Gupta, Janek Uin, Mary Kacarab, Chongai Kuang, L. Ruby Leung, Athanasios Nenes, Greg M. McFarquhar, James Podolske, Jens Redemann, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Jenny P. S. Wong, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, Yang Zhang, Jianhao Zhang, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13911–13940,Short summary
To better understand smoke properties and its interactions with clouds, we compare the WRF-CAM5 model with observations from ORACLES, CLARIFY, and LASIC field campaigns in the southeastern Atlantic in August 2017. The model transports and mixes smoke well but does not fully capture some important processes. These include smoke chemical and physical aging over 4–12 days, smoke removal by rain, sulfate particle formation, aerosol activation into cloud droplets, and boundary layer turbulence.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven G. Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4775–4799,Short summary
Southern Africa produces approximately one-third of the world’s carbon from fires. The thick smoke layer can flow westward, interacting with the southeastern Atlantic cloud deck. The net radiative impact can alter regional circulation patterns, impacting rainfall over Africa. We find that the smoke is highly absorbing of sunlight, mostly because it contains more black carbon than smoke over the Northern Hemisphere.
Emily D. Lenhardt, Lan Gao, Jens Redemann, Feng Xu, Sharon P. Burton, Brian Cairns, Ian Chang, Richard A. Ferrare, Chris A. Hostetler, Pablo E. Saide, Calvin Howes, Yohei Shinozuka, Snorre Stamnes, Mary Kacarab, Amie Dobracki, Jenny Wong, Steffen Freitag, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 2037–2054,Short summary
Small atmospheric particles, such as smoke from wildfires or pollutants from human activities, impact cloud properties, and clouds have a strong influence on climate. To better understand the distributions of these particles, we develop relationships to derive their concentrations from remote sensing measurements from an instrument called a lidar. Our method is reliable for smoke particles, and similar steps can be taken to develop relationships for other particle types.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Dieter Busch, Anton Bergen, John P. Burrows, Steffen Freitag, and Olesia Halbherr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1767–1787,Short summary
Inland shipping is an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The amount of emitted NOx depends on the characteristics of the individual vessels and the traffic density. Ship emissions are often characterised by the amount of emitted NOx per unit of burnt fuel, and further knowledge about fuel consumption is needed to quantify the total emissions caused by ship traffic. In this study, a new approach to derive absolute emission rates (in g s−1) from onshore measurements is presented.
Paul A. Barrett, Steven J. Abel, Hugh Coe, Ian Crawford, Amie Dobracki, James Haywood, Steve Howell, Anthony Jones, Justin Langridge, Greg M. McFarquhar, Graeme J. Nott, Hannah Price, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Kate Szpek, Jonathan W. Taylor, Robert Wood, Huihui Wu, Paquita Zuidema, Stéphane Bauguitte, Ryan Bennett, Keith Bower, Hong Chen, Sabrina Cochrane, Michael Cotterell, Nicholas Davies, David Delene, Connor Flynn, Andrew Freedman, Steffen Freitag, Siddhant Gupta, David Noone, Timothy B. Onasch, James Podolske, Michael R. Poellot, Sebastian Schmidt, Stephen Springston, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jamie Trembath, Alan Vance, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jianhao Zhang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6329–6371,Short summary
To better understand weather and climate, it is vital to go into the field and collect observations. Often measurements take place in isolation, but here we compared data from two aircraft and one ground-based site. This was done in order to understand how well measurements made on one platform compared to those made on another. Whilst this is easy to do in a controlled laboratory setting, it is more challenging in the real world, and so these comparisons are as valuable as they are rare.
Matthew S. Norgren, John Wood, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Snorre A. Stamnes, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan C. Crosbie, Michael A. Shook, A. Scott Kittelman, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Stephen Broccardo, Steffen Freitag, and Jeffrey S. Reid
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1373–1394,Short summary
A new spectral instrument (SPN-S), with the ability to partition solar radiation into direct and diffuse components, is used in airborne settings to study the optical properties of aerosols and cirrus. It is a low-cost and mechanically simple system but has higher measurement uncertainty than existing standards. This challenge is overcome by utilizing the unique measurement capabilities to develop new retrieval techniques. Validation is done with data from two NASA airborne research campaigns.
Sarah J. Doherty, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Yohei Shinozuka, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Hamish Gordon, Marc Mallet, Kerry Meyer, David Painemal, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, James R. Podolske, Sharon P. Burton, Richard A. Ferrare, Calvin Howes, Pierre Nabat, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Kristina Pistone, Ian Chang, Lan Gao, Robert Wood, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1–46,Short summary
Between July and October, biomass burning smoke is advected over the southeastern Atlantic Ocean, leading to climate forcing. Model calculations of forcing by this plume vary significantly in both magnitude and sign. This paper compares aerosol and cloud properties observed during three NASA ORACLES field campaigns to the same in four models. It quantifies modeled biases in properties key to aerosol direct radiative forcing and evaluates how these biases propagate to biases in forcing.
Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steve Howell, Pablo Saide, Steffen Freitag, Allison C. Aiken, Sharon P. Burton, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Jens Redemann, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The global maximum of shortwave-absorbing aerosol above cloud occurs above the southeast Atlantic, where the biomass-burning aerosol provides a distinct aerosol radiative warming of regional climate. The smoke aerosols are unusually highly absorbing of sunlight. This study seeks to understand the cause. We conclude the aerosol is already strongly absorbing at the fire emission source, but that chemical aging, through encouraging a net loss of organic aerosol, also contributes.
Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Nikolai Smirnow, and Arthur J. Sedlacek III
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7381–7404,Short summary
Small particles in the air have important effects on visibility, clouds, and human health. For the ORACLES project we got a new particle sizing instrument that is fast, works over the most important particle sizes, and avoids some of the issues that plague other optical particle sizers. Unfortunately it sees some particles much smaller than they really are, likely because they heat up and evaporate. We show a crude correction and speculate why these particles heat up much more than expected.
Rose M. Miller, Greg M. McFarquhar, Robert M. Rauber, Joseph R. O'Brien, Siddhant Gupta, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Amie N. Dobracki, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Caroline Dang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14815–14831,Short summary
A large stratocumulus cloud deck resides off the west coast of central Africa. Biomass burning in Africa produces a large plume of aerosol that is carried by the wind over this stratocumulus cloud deck. This paper shows that particles with sizes from 0.01 to 1 mm reside within this plume. Past studies have shown that biomass burning produces such particles, but this is the first study to show that they can be transported westward, over long distances, to the Atlantic stratocumulus cloud deck.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
Sabrina P. Cochrane, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, Peter Pilewskie, Scott Kittelman, Jens Redemann, Samuel LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Connor Flynn, Amie Dobracki, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Sarah Doherty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 567–593,Short summary
Based on observations from the 2016 and 2017 field campaigns of ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS), this work establishes an observationally driven link from mid-visible aerosol optical depth (AOD) and other scene parameters to broadband shortwave irradiance (and by extension the direct aerosol radiative effect, DARE). The majority of the case-to-case DARE variability within the ORACLES dataset is attributable to the dependence on AOD and scene albedo.
Yohei Shinozuka, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Sharon P. Burton, Richard Ferrare, Sarah J. Doherty, Hamish Gordon, Karla Longo, Marc Mallet, Yan Feng, Qiaoqiao Wang, Yafang Cheng, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Samuel LeBlanc, Connor Flynn, Michal Segal-Rosenhaimer, Kristina Pistone, James R. Podolske, Eric J. Stith, Joseph Ryan Bennett, Gregory R. Carmichael, Arlindo da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Ruby Leung, Yang Zhang, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, and Paquita Zuidema
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11491–11526,Short summary
In the southeast Atlantic, well-defined smoke plumes from Africa advect over marine boundary layer cloud decks; both are most extensive around September, when most of the smoke resides in the free troposphere. A framework is put forth for evaluating the performance of a range of global and regional atmospheric composition models against observations made during the NASA ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) airborne mission in September 2016.
Yohei Shinozuka, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Paquita Zuidema, Richard A. Ferrare, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Stephen Broccardo, Jens Redemann, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Marta Fenn, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, and Connor J. Flynn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11275–11285,Short summary
To help satellite retrieval of aerosols and studies of their radiative effects, we demonstrate that daytime aerosol optical depth over low-level clouds is similar to that in neighboring clear skies at the same heights. Based on recent airborne lidar and sun photometer observations above the southeast Atlantic, the mean AOD difference at 532 nm is between 0 and -0.01, when comparing the cloudy and clear sides of cloud edges, with each up to 20 km wide.
Mary Kacarab, K. Lee Thornhill, Amie Dobracki, Steven G. Howell, Joseph R. O'Brien, Steffen Freitag, Michael R. Poellot, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3029–3040,Short summary
We find that extensive biomass burning aerosol plumes from southern Africa can profoundly influence clouds in the southeastern Atlantic. Concurrent variations in vertical velocity, however, are found to magnify the relationship between boundary layer aerosol and the cloud droplet number. Neglecting these covariances may strongly bias the sign and magnitude of aerosol impacts on the cloud droplet number.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal-Rosenheimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Stephen Dunagan, Robert P. Dahlgren, Kerry Meyer, James Podolske, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Jennifer Small-Griswold, Brent Holben, Michael Diamond, Robert Wood, Paola Formenti, Stuart Piketh, Gillian Maggs-Kölling, Monja Gerber, and Andreas Namwoonde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1565–1590,Short summary
The southeast Atlantic during August–October experiences layers of smoke from biomass burning over marine stratocumulus clouds. Here we present the light attenuation of the smoke and its dependence in the spatial, vertical, and spectral domain through direct measurements from an airborne platform during September 2016. From our observations of this climatically important smoke, we found an average aerosol optical depth of 0.32 at 500 nm, slightly lower than comparative satellite measurements.
Sabrina P. Cochrane, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Hong Chen, Peter Pilewskie, Scott Kittelman, Jens Redemann, Samuel LeBlanc, Kristina Pistone, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Connor Flynn, Steven Platnick, Kerry Meyer, Rich Ferrare, Sharon Burton, Chris Hostetler, Steven Howell, Steffen Freitag, Amie Dobracki, and Sarah Doherty
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6505–6528,Short summary
For two cases from the NASA ORACLES experiments, we retrieve aerosol and cloud properties and calculate a direct aerosol radiative effect (DARE). We investigate the relationship between DARE and the cloud albedo by specifying the albedo for which DARE transitions from a cooling to warming radiative effect. Our new aerosol retrieval algorithm is successful despite complexities associated with scenes that contain aerosols above clouds and decreases the uncertainty on retrieved aerosol parameters.
Kristina Pistone, Jens Redemann, Sarah Doherty, Paquita Zuidema, Sharon Burton, Brian Cairns, Sabrina Cochrane, Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, Steffen Freitag, Steven G. Howell, Meloë Kacenelenbogen, Samuel LeBlanc, Xu Liu, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Yohei Shinozuka, Snorre Stamnes, Bastiaan van Diedenhoven, Gerard Van Harten, and Feng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9181–9208,Short summary
Understanding how smoke particles interact with sunlight is important in calculating their effects on climate, since some smoke is more scattering (cooling) and some is more absorbing (heating). Knowing this proportion is important for both satellite observations and climate models. We measured smoke properties in a recent aircraft-based field campaign off the west coast of Africa and present a comparison of these properties as measured using the six different, independent techniques available.
Michael S. Diamond, Amie Dobracki, Steffen Freitag, Jennifer D. Small Griswold, Ashley Heikkila, Steven G. Howell, Mary E. Kacarab, James R. Podolske, Pablo E. Saide, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14623–14636,Short summary
Smoke from Africa can mix into clouds over the southeast Atlantic and create new droplets, which brightens the clouds, reflects more sunlight, and thus cools the region. Using aircraft data from a NASA field campaign, we find that cloud properties are correlated with smoke as expected when the smoke is below the clouds but not when smoke is above the clouds because it takes several days for clouds to mix smoke downward. We recommend methods that can track clouds as they move for future studies.
Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, Sunil Baidar, Barbara Dix, Siyuan Wang, Daniel C. Anderson, Ross J. Salawitch, Pamela A. Wales, Carlos A. Cuevas, Rafael P. Fernandez, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Mathew J. Evans, Tomás Sherwen, Daniel J. Jacob, Johan Schmidt, Douglas Kinnison, Jean-François Lamarque, Eric C. Apel, James C. Bresch, Teresa Campos, Frank M. Flocke, Samuel R. Hall, Shawn B. Honomichl, Rebecca Hornbrook, Jørgen B. Jensen, Richard Lueb, Denise D. Montzka, Laura L. Pan, J. Michael Reeves, Sue M. Schauffler, Kirk Ullmann, Andrew J. Weinheimer, Elliot L. Atlas, Valeria Donets, Maria A. Navarro, Daniel Riemer, Nicola J. Blake, Dexian Chen, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Thomas F. Hanisco, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15245–15270,Short summary
Tropospheric inorganic bromine (BrO and Bry) shows a C-shaped profile over the tropical western Pacific Ocean, and supports previous speculation that marine convection is a source for inorganic bromine from sea salt to the upper troposphere. The Bry profile in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is complex, suggesting that the total Bry budget in the TTL is not closed without considering aerosol bromide. The implications for atmospheric composition and bromine sources are discussed.
T. Chubb, Y. Huang, J. Jensen, T. Campos, S. Siems, and M. Manton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 971–987,Short summary
The remote Southern Ocean is known to be one of the most pristine environments on the planet, but we found that cloud droplet and aerosol concentrations during one research flight in June 2009 were higher than expected. We were unable to attribute this to continental aerosol sources, and we hypothesize that strong winds resulted in local aerosol production in the form of sea salt. This has several consequences for climate modelling and cloud physics research.
Y. Shinozuka, A. D. Clarke, A. Nenes, A. Jefferson, R. Wood, C. S. McNaughton, J. Ström, P. Tunved, J. Redemann, K. L. Thornhill, R. H. Moore, T. L. Lathem, J. J. Lin, and Y. J. Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7585–7604,
M. C. Wyant, C. S. Bretherton, R. Wood, G. R. Carmichael, A. Clarke, J. Fast, R. George, W. I. Gustafson Jr., C. Hannay, A. Lauer, Y. Lin, J.-J. Morcrette, J. Mulcahy, P. E. Saide, S. N. Spak, and Q. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 153–172,Short summary
Simulations from a group of GCMs, forecast models, and regional models are compared with aircraft and ship observations of the marine boundary layer (MBL) in the southeast Pacific region during the VOCALS-REx field campaign of October-November 2008. Gradients of cloud, aerosol, and chemical properties in and above the MBL extending from the Peruvian coast westward along 20 degrees south are compared during the period.
X. Wang, C. L. Heald, D. A. Ridley, J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, A. E. Perring, H. Coe, D. Liu, and A. D. Clarke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10989–11010,
S. G. Howell, A. D. Clarke, S. Freitag, C. S. McNaughton, V. Kapustin, V. Brekovskikh, J.-L. Jimenez, and M. J. Cubison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5073–5087,
G. W. Mann, K. S. Carslaw, C. L. Reddington, K. J. Pringle, M. Schulz, A. Asmi, D. V. Spracklen, D. A. Ridley, M. T. Woodhouse, L. A. Lee, K. Zhang, S. J. Ghan, R. C. Easter, X. Liu, P. Stier, Y. H. Lee, P. J. Adams, H. Tost, J. Lelieveld, S. E. Bauer, K. Tsigaridis, T. P. C. van Noije, A. Strunk, E. Vignati, N. Bellouin, M. Dalvi, C. E. Johnson, T. Bergman, H. Kokkola, K. von Salzen, F. Yu, G. Luo, A. Petzold, J. Heintzenberg, A. Clarke, J. A. Ogren, J. Gras, U. Baltensperger, U. Kaminski, S. G. Jennings, C. D. O'Dowd, R. M. Harrison, D. C. S. Beddows, M. Kulmala, Y. Viisanen, V. Ulevicius, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Zdimal, M. Fiebig, H.-C. Hansson, E. Swietlicki, and J. S. Henzing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4679–4713,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
S. Freitag, A. D. Clarke, S. G. Howell, V. N. Kapustin, T. Campos, V. L. Brekhovskikh, and J. Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 107–128,
A. D. Clarke, S. Freitag, R. M. C. Simpson, J. G. Hudson, S. G. Howell, V. L. Brekhovskikh, T. Campos, V. N. Kapustin, and J. Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7511–7529,
Related subject area
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studying the transport of ultrafine particles from an airport to adjacent residential areasInvestigation of the effects of the Greek extreme wildfires of August 2021 on air quality and spectral solar irradianceCharacterization of dust-related new particle formation events based on long-term measurement in the North China PlainAirborne investigation of black carbon interaction with low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic summerThe variation in the particle number size distribution during the rainfall: wet scavenging and air mass changingCharacterization of size-segregated particles' turbulent flux and deposition velocity by eddy correlation method at an Arctic siteVertical distribution of black carbon and its mixing state in the urban boundary layer in summerInsights into the size-resolved dust emission from field measurements in the Moroccan SaharaActive thermokarst regions contain rich sources of ice nucleating particlesDrivers controlling black carbon temporal variability in the Arctic lower troposphereA new method for the quantification of ambient particulate-matter emission fluxesMeasurement report: The 4-year variability and influence of the Winter Olympics and other special events on air quality in urban Beijing during wintertimeBlack carbon content of traffic emissions significantly impacts black carbon mass size distributions and mixing statesImpact of desert dust on new particle formation events and cloud condensation nuclei budget in dust-influenced areasMeasurement Report: Wintertime new particle formation in the rural area of the North China Plain – influencing factors and possible formation mechanismMeasurement report: Rapid decline of aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical property effects on radiative forcing in an urban area of Beijing from 2018 to 2021Aerosol first indirect effect of African smoke at the cloud base of marine cumulus clouds over Ascension Island, southern Atlantic OceanMeasurement report: Atmospheric fluorescent bioaerosol concentrations measured during 18 months in a coniferous forest in the south of SwedenMeasurement report: High Arctic aerosol hygroscopicity at sub- and supersaturated conditions during spring and summerExamining the vertical heterogeneity of aerosols over the Southern Great PlainsOpinion: The strength of long-term comprehensive observations to meet multiple grand challenges at different environments and in the atmosphereIce-nucleating particles in northern Greenland: annual cycles, biological contribution and parameterizationsAerosol deposition to the boreal forest in the vicinity of the Alberta Oil SandsThe density of ambient black carbon retrieved by a new method: implications for cloud condensation nuclei predictionAerosol absorption by in-situ filter-based photometer and ground-based sun-photometer in an urban atmosphereLong-range transported continental aerosol in the eastern North Atlantic: three multiday event regimes influence cloud condensation nucleiMeasurement report: Understanding the seasonal cycle of Southern Ocean aerosolsElucidating ozone and PM2.5 pollution in the Fenwei Plain reveals the co-benefits of controlling precursor gas emissions in winter hazeQuantifying particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicityMeasurement report: Size-resolved mass concentration of equivalent black carbon-containing particle larger than 700 nm and its role in radiationMeasurement report: Black carbon properties and concentrations in southern Sweden urban and rural air – the importance of long-range transportDiurnal differences in the effect of aerosols on cloud-to-ground lightning in the Sichuan BasinIntensive aerosol properties of boreal and regional biomass burning aerosol at Mt. Bachelor Observatory: larger and black carbon (BC)-dominant particles transported from Siberian wildfiresCharacterization of ultrafine particles and the occurrence of new particle formation events in an urban and coastal site of the Mediterranean areaAtmospheric nanoparticles hygroscopic growth measurement by a combined surface plasmon resonance microscope and hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer
Ghislain Motos, Gabriel Freitas, Paraskevi Georgakaki, Jörg Wieder, Guangyu Li, Wenche Aas, Chris Lunder, Radovan Krejci, Julie Thérèse Pasquier, Jan Henneberger, Robert Oscar David, Christoph Ritter, Claudia Mohr, Paul Zieger, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13941–13956,Short summary
Low-altitude clouds play a key role in regulating the climate of the Arctic, a region that suffers from climate change more than any other on the planet. We gathered meteorological and aerosol physical and chemical data over a year and utilized them for a parameterization that help us unravel the factors driving and limiting the efficiency of cloud droplet formation. We then linked this information to the sources of aerosol found during each season and to processes of cloud glaciation.
Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Sarah L. Barr, Ian T. Burke, James B. McQuaid, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13819–13834,Short summary
The sources and concentrations of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in the Arctic are still poorly understood. Here we report aircraft-based INP concentrations and aerosol composition in the western North American Arctic. The concentrations of INPs and all aerosol particles were low. The aerosol samples contained mostly sea salt and dust particles. Dust particles were more relevant for the INP concentrations than sea salt. However, dust alone cannot account for all of the measured INPs.
Katherine L. Ackerman, Alison D. Nugent, and Chung Taing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13735–13753,Short summary
Sea salt aerosol is an important marine aerosol that may be produced in greater quantities in coastal regions than over the open ocean. This study observed these particles along the windward coastline of O'ahu, Hawai'i, to understand how wind and waves influence their production and dispersal. Overall, wave heights were the strongest variable correlated with changes in aerosol concentrations, while wind speeds played an important role in their horizontal dispersal and vertical mixing.
Jiyeon Park, Hyojin Kang, Yeontae Gim, Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Sangjong Park, Chang Hoon Jung, Darius Ceburnis, Colin O'Dowd, and Young Jun Yoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13625–13646,Short summary
We measured the number size distribution of 2.5–300 nm particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations at King Sejong Station on the Antarctic Peninsula continuously from 1 January to 31 December 2018. During the pristine and clean periods, 97 new particle formation (NPF) events were detected. For 83 of these, CCN concentrations increased by 2 %–268 % (median 44 %) following 1 to 36 h (median 8 h) after NPF events.
Aodong Du, Jiaxing Sun, Hang Liu, Weiqi Xu, Wei Zhou, Yuting Zhang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Yan Li, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, and Yele Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13597–13611,Short summary
We characterized the impacts of emission controls on particle mixing state and density during the Beijing Olympic Winter Games using a SPAMS in tandem with a DMA and an AAC. OC and sulfate-containing particles increased, while those from primary emissions decreased. The effective particle densities increased and varied largely for different particles, highlighting the impacts of aging and formation processes on the changes of particle density and mixing state.
Karine Sellegri, Theresa Barthelmeß, Jonathan Trueblood, Antonia Cristi, Evelyn Freney, Clémence Rose, Neill Barr, Mike Harvey, Karl Safi, Stacy Deppeler, Karen Thompson, Wayne Dillon, Anja Engel, and Cliff Law
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12949–12964,Short summary
The amount of sea spray emitted to the atmosphere depends on the ocean temperature, but this dependency is not well understood, especially when ocean biology is involved. In this study, we show that sea spray emissions are increased by up to a factor of 4 at low seawater temperatures compared to moderate temperatures, and we quantify the temperature dependence as a function of the ocean biogeochemistry.
Albert Ansmann, Kevin Ohneiser, Ronny Engelmann, Martin Radenz, Hannes Griesche, Julian Hofer, Dietrich Althausen, Jessie M. Creamean, Matthew C. Boyer, Daniel A. Knopf, Sandro Dahlke, Marion Maturilli, Henriette Gebauer, Johannes Bühl, Cristofer Jimenez, Patric Seifert, and Ulla Wandinger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12821–12849,Short summary
The 1-year MOSAiC (2019–2020) expedition with the German ice breaker Polarstern was the largest polar field campaign ever conducted. The Polarstern, with our lidar aboard, drifted with the pack ice north of 85° N for more than 7 months (October 2019 to mid-May 2020). We measured the full annual cycle of aerosol conditions in terms of aerosol optical and cloud-process-relevant properties. We observed a strong contrast between polluted winter and clean summer aerosol conditions.
Nair Krishnan Kala, Narayana Sarma Anand, Mohanan R. Manoj, Srinivasan Prasanth, Harshavardhana S. Pathak, Thara Prabhakaran, Pramod D. Safai, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, and Sreedharan K. Satheesh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12801–12819,Short summary
We present a 3D data set of aerosol black carbon over the Indian mainland by assimilating data from surface, aircraft, and balloon measurements, along with multi-satellite observations. Radiative transfer computations using height-resolved aerosol absorption show higher warming in the free troposphere and will have large implications for atmospheric stability. This data set will help reduce the uncertainty in aerosol radiative effects in climate model simulations over the Indian region.
Sujan Shrestha, Shan Zhou, Manisha Mehra, Meghan Guagenti, Subin Yoon, Sergio L. Alvarez, Fangzhou Guo, Chun-Ying Chao, James H. Flynn III, Yuxuan Wang, Robert J. Griffin, Sascha Usenko, and Rebecca J. Sheesley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10845–10867,Short summary
We evaluated different methods for assessing the influence of long-range transport of biomass burning (BB) plumes at a coastal site in Texas, USA. We show that the aerosol composition and optical properties exhibited good agreement, while CO and acetonitrile trends were less specific for assessing BB source influence. Our results demonstrate that the network of aerosol optical measurements can be useful for identifying the influence of aged BB plumes in anthropogenically influenced areas.
Guangyu Li, Elise K. Wilbourn, Zezhen Cheng, Jörg Wieder, Allison Fagerson, Jan Henneberger, Ghislain Motos, Rita Traversi, Sarah D. Brooks, Mauro Mazzola, Swarup China, Athanasios Nenes, Ulrike Lohmann, Naruki Hiranuma, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10489–10516,Short summary
In this work, we present results from an Arctic field campaign (NASCENT) in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, on the abundance, variability, physicochemical properties, and potential sources of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) relevant for mixed-phase cloud formation. This work improves the data coverage of Arctic INPs and aerosol properties, allowing for the validation of models predicting cloud microphysical and radiative properties of mixed-phase clouds in the rapidly warming Arctic.
Jun Shi, Jinpei Yan, Shanshan Wang, Shuhui Zhao, Miming Zhang, Suqing Xu, Qi Lin, Hang Yang, and Siying Dai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10349–10359,Short summary
An underway aerosol-monitoring system was used to determine the Na+ concentration during different cyclone periods in the Southern Ocean in order to assess the potential effects of cyclones on sea spray aerosol (SSA) emissions. It was estimated that more than 23 % of SSAs were transported upwards during cyclone periods. Vertically transported SSAs can be regarded as an important source of CCN and hence have an effect on climate in the middle and high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.
Jean-Philippe Putaud, Enrico Pisoni, Alexander Mangold, Christoph Hueglin, Jean Sciare, Michael Pikridas, Chrysanthos Savvides, Jakub Ondracek, Saliou Mbengue, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Laurent Poulain, Dominik van Pinxteren, Hartmut Herrmann, Andreas Massling, Claus Nordstroem, Andrés Alastuey, Cristina Reche, Noemí Pérez, Sonia Castillo, Mar Sorribas, Jose Antonio Adame, Tuukka Petaja, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Jarkko Niemi, Véronique Riffault, Joel F. de Brito, Augustin Colette, Olivier Favez, Jean-Eudes Petit, Valérie Gros, Maria I. Gini, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Evangelia Diapouli, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Karl Espen Yttri, and Wenche Aas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10145–10161,Short summary
Many European people are still exposed to levels of air pollution that can affect their health. COVID-19 lockdowns in 2020 were used to assess the impact of the reduction in human mobility on air pollution across Europe by comparing measurement data with values that would be expected if no lockdown had occurred. We show that lockdown measures did not lead to consistent decreases in the concentrations of fine particulate matter suspended in the air, and we investigate why.
Qian Xiao, Jiaoshi Zhang, Yang Wang, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan Crosbie, Edward L. Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Jeffrey S. Reid, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Armin Sorooshian, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Sarah Woods, Paul Lawson, Snorre A. Stamnes, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9853–9871,Short summary
Using recent airborne measurements, we show that the influences of anthropogenic emissions, transport, convective clouds, and meteorology lead to new particle formation (NPF) under a variety of conditions and at different altitudes in tropical marine environments. NPF is enhanced by fresh urban emissions in convective outflow but is suppressed in air masses influenced by aged urban emissions where reactive precursors are mostly consumed while particle surface area remains relatively high.
Andreas Aktypis, Christos Kaltsonoudis, David Patoulias, Panayiotis Kalkavouras, Angeliki Matrali, Christina N. Vasilakopoulou, Evangelia Kostenidou, Kalliopi Florou, Nikos Kalivitis, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Maria I. Gini, Athanasios Kouras, Constantini Samara, Mihalis Lazaridis, Sofia-Eirini Chatoutsidou, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, and Spyros N. Pandis
Extensive continuous particle number size distribution measurements took place during two summers (2020 and 2021) in 11 sites in Greece for the investigation of the frequency and the spatial extent of new particle formation. The frequency during summer varied from close to zero in southwestern Greece to more than 60 % in the northern, central, and eastern regions. The spatial variability can be explained by the proximity of the sites to coal-fired power plants and agricultural areas.
Simo Hakala, Ville Vakkari, Heikki Lihavainen, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Kimmo Neitola, Jenni Kontkanen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Tareq Hussein, Mamdouh I. Khoder, Mansour A. Alghamdi, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9287–9321,Short summary
Things are not always as they first seem in ambient aerosol measurements. Observations of decreasing particle sizes are often interpreted as resulting from particle evaporation. We show that such observations can counterintuitively be explained by particles that are constantly growing in size. This requires one to account for the previous movements of the observed air. Our explanation implies a larger number of larger particles, meaning more significant effects of aerosols on climate and health.
Julius Seidler, Markus Norbert Friedrich, Christoph Karl Thomas, and Anke Christine Nölscher
Here we study the transport of ultrafine particles (UFP) from an airport to two new adjacent measuring sites for one year. The number of UFP in the air and the diurnal variation is typical urban. Winds from the airport show increased number concentrations. Additionally, considering wind frequencies, we estimate that from all UFP measured at the two sites 10–14 % originate from the airport and/or other UFP sources from between airport and site.
Akriti Masoom, Ilias Fountoulakis, Stelios Kazadzis, Ioannis-Panagiotis Raptis, Anna Kampouri, Basil E. Psiloglou, Dimitra Kouklaki, Kyriakoula Papachristopoulou, Eleni Marinou, Stavros Solomos, Anna Gialitaki, Dimitra Founda, Vasileios Salamalikis, Dimitris Kaskaoutis, Natalia Kouremeti, Nikolaos Mihalopoulos, Vassilis Amiridis, Andreas Kazantzidis, Alexandros Papayannis, Christos S. Zerefos, and Kostas Eleftheratos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8487–8514,Short summary
We analyse the spatial and temporal aerosol spectral optical properties during the extreme wildfires of August 2021 in Greece and assess their effects on air quality and solar radiation quantities related to health, agriculture, and energy. Different aerosol conditions are identified (pure smoke, pure dust, dust–smoke together); the largest impact on solar radiation quantities is found for cases with mixed dust–smoke aerosols. Such situations are expected to occur more frequently in the future.
Xiaojing Shen, Junying Sun, Huizheng Che, Yangmei Zhang, Chunhong Zhou, Ke Gui, Wanyun Xu, Quan Liu, Junting Zhong, Can Xia, Xinyao Hu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Shuo Liu, Jiayuan Lu, Aoyuan Yu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8241–8257,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) events occur when the dust episodes' fade is analysed based on long-term measurement of particle number size distribution. Analysis shows that the observed formation and growth rates are approximately 50 % of and 30 % lower than those of other NPF events. As a consequence of the uptake of precursor gases on mineral dust, the physical and chemical properties of submicron particles, as well as the ability to be cloud condensation nuclei, can be changed.
Marco Zanatta, Stephan Mertes, Olivier Jourdan, Regis Dupuy, Emma Järvinen, Martin Schnaiter, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, Zsófia Jurányi, and Andreas Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7955–7973,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) particles influence the Arctic radiative balance. Vertical measurements of black carbon were conducted during the ACLOUD campaign in the European Arctic to study the interaction of BC with clouds. This study shows that clouds influence the vertical variability of BC properties across the inversion layer and that multiple activation and transformation mechanisms of BC may occur in the presence of low-level, persistent, mixed-phase clouds.
Guangdong Niu, Ximeng Qi, Liangduo Chen, Lian Xue, Shiyi Lai, Xin Huang, Jiaping Wang, Xuguang Chi, Wei Nie, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Aijun Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7521–7534,Short summary
The reported below-cloud wet-scavenging coefficients (BWSCs) are much higher than theoretical data, but the reason remains unclear. Based on long-term observation, we find that air mass changing during rainfall events causes the overestimation of BWSCs. Thus, the discrepancy in BWSCs between observation and theory is not as large as currently believed. To obtain reasonable BWSCs and parameterizations from field observations, the effect of air mass changes needs to be considered.
Antonio Donateo, Gianluca Pappaccogli, Daniela Famulari, Mauro Mazzola, Federico Scoto, and Stefano Decesari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7425–7445,Short summary
This work aims to measure the turbulent fluxes and the dry deposition velocity for size-segregated particles (from ultrafine to quasi-coarse range) at an Arctic site (Svalbard). Aiming to characterize the effect of surface properties on dry deposition, continuous observations were performed from the coldest months (on snow surface) to the snow melting period and throughout the summer (snow-free surface). A data fit of the deposition velocity as a function of particle diameters will be provided.
Hang Liu, Xiaole Pan, Shandong Lei, Yuting Zhang, Aodong Du, Weijie Yao, Guiqian Tang, Tao Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Jie Li, Yele Sun, Junji Cao, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7225–7239,Short summary
We provide the average vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) concentration, size distribution and coating thickness at different times of the day in an urban area based on 112 vertical profiles. In addition, it is found that BC in the residual layer generally has a thicker coating, higher absorption enhancement and hygroscopicity than on the surface. Such aged BC could enter into the boundary layer and influence the BC properties in the early morning.
Cristina González-Flórez, Martina Klose, Andrés Alastuey, Sylvain Dupont, Jerónimo Escribano, Vicken Etyemezian, Adolfo Gonzalez-Romero, Yue Huang, Konrad Kandler, George Nikolich, Agnesh Panta, Xavier Querol, Cristina Reche, Jesús Yus-Díez, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7177–7212,Short summary
Atmospheric mineral dust consists of tiny mineral particles that are emitted by wind erosion from arid regions. Its particle size distribution (PSD) affects its impact on the Earth's system. Nowadays, there is an incomplete understanding of the emitted dust PSD and a lot of debate about its variability. Here, we try to address these issues based on the measurements performed during a wind erosion and dust emission field campaign in the Moroccan Sahara within the framework of FRAGMENT project.
Kevin R. Barry, Thomas C. J. Hill, Marina Nieto-Caballero, Thomas A. Douglas, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Paul J. DeMott, and Jessie M. Creamean
Ice nucleating particles (INPs) are important for the climate due to their influence on cloud properties. To understand potential land-based sources of them in the Arctic, we carried out a source survey near the northernmost point of Alaska, a landscape connected to the changing permafrost (thermokarst). Permafrost contained high concentrations of INPs, with the largest values near the coast. The thermokarst lakes were found to emit INPs, and its water contained elevated concentrations.
Stefania Gilardoni, Dominic Heslin-Rees, Mauro Mazzola, Vito Vitale, Michael Sprenger, and Radovan Krejci
Models still fail in reproducing black carbon (BC) temporal variability in the Arctic. Analysis of equivalent BC concentration in the European Arctic shows that BC seasonal variability is modulated by the efficiency of removal by precipitation during transport towards high latitudes. Short-term variability is controlled by synoptic-scale circulation patterns. The advection of warm air from lower latitudes is an effective pollution transport pathway during summer.
Stergios Vratolis, Evangelia Diapouli, Manousos I. Manousakas, Susana Marta Almeida, Ivan Beslic, Zsofia Kertesz, Lucyna Samek, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6941–6961,Short summary
Using a dataset from 16 European and Asian cities we develop a new method so as to identify and quantify the emission fluxes from each geographic grid cell for secondary sulfate and dust aerosol. The information provided by the new method allows the implementation of targeted mitigation measures. The new method could be applied to several other pollutants (e.g., black carbon).
Yishuo Guo, Chenjuan Deng, Aino Ovaska, Feixue Zheng, Chenjie Hua, Junlei Zhan, Yiran Li, Jin Wu, Zongcheng Wang, Jiali Xie, Ying Zhang, Tingyu Liu, Yusheng Zhang, Boying Song, Wei Ma, Yongchun Liu, Chao Yan, Jingkun Jiang, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Men Xia, Tuomo Nieminen, Wei Du, Tom Kokkonen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6663–6690,Short summary
Using the comprehensive datasets, we investigated the long-term variations of air pollutants during winter in Beijing from 2019 to 2022 and analyzed the characteristics of atmospheric pollution cocktail during different short-term special events (e.g., Beijing Winter Olympics, COVID lockdown and Chinese New Year) associated with substantial emission reductions. Our results are useful in planning more targeted and sustainable long-term pollution control plans.
Fei Li, Biao Luo, Miaomiao Zhai, Li Liu, Gang Zhao, Hanbing Xu, Tao Deng, Xuejiao Deng, Haobo Tan, Ye Kuang, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6545–6558,Short summary
A field campaign was conducted to study black carbon (BC) mass size distributions and mixing states connected to traffic emissions using a system that combines a differential mobility analyzer and single-particle soot photometer. Results showed that the black carbon content of traffic emissions has a considerable influence on both BC mass size distributions and mixing states, which has crucial implications for accurately representing BC from various sources in regional and climate models.
Juan Andrés Casquero-Vera, Daniel Pérez-Ramírez, Hassan Lyamani, Fernando Rejano, Andrea Casans, Gloria Titos, Francisco José Olmo, Lubna Dada, Simo Hakala, Tareq Hussein, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Pauli Paasonen, Antti Hyvärinen, Noemí Pérez, Xavier Querol, Sergio Rodríguez, Nikos Kalivitis, Yenny González, Mansour A. Alghamdi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Andrés Alastuey, Tuukka Petäjä, and Lucas Alados-Arboledas
Here we present the first study of the effect of mineral dust on the inhibition/promotion of new particle formation (NPF) events in different dust-influenced areas. Unexpectedly, we show that the occurrence of NPF events is highly frequent during mineral dust outbreaks, occurring even during extreme dust outbreaks. We also show that the occurrence of NPF events during mineral dust outbreaks significantly affects the potential cloud condensation nuclei budget.
Juan Hong, Min Tang, Qiaoqiao Wang, Nan Ma, Shaowen Zhu, Shaobin Zhang, Xihao Pan, Linhong Xie, Guo Li, Uwe Kuhn, Chao Yan, Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Yao He, Wanyun Xu, Runlong Cai, Yaqing Zhou, Zhibin Wang, Guangsheng Zhou, Bin Yuan, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5699–5713,Short summary
A comprehensive investigation of the characteristics of new particle formation (NPF) events was conducted at a rural site on the North China Plain (NCP), China, during the wintertime of 2018 by covering the particle number size distribution down to sub–3 nm. Potential mechanisms for NPF under the current environment were explored, followed by a further discussion on the factors governing the occurrence of NPF at this rural site compared with other regions (e.g., urban areas) in the NCP region.
Xinyao Hu, Junying Sun, Can Xia, Xiaojing Shen, Yangmei Zhang, Quan Liu, Zhaodong Liu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Aoyuan Yu, Jiayuan Lu, Shuo Liu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5517–5531,Short summary
The simultaneous measurements under dry conditions of aerosol optical properties were conducted at three wavelengths for PM1 and PM10 in urban Beijing from 2018 to 2021. Considerable reductions in aerosol absorption coefficient and increased single scattering albedo demonstrated that absorbing aerosols were more effectively controlled than scattering aerosols due to pollution control measures. The aerosol radiative effect and the transport's impact on aerosol optical properties were analysed.
Martin de Graaf, Karolina Sarna, Jessica Brown, Elma V. Tenner, Manon Schenkels, and David P. Donovan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5373–5391,Short summary
Clouds over the oceans reflect sunlight and cool the earth. Simultaneous measurements were performed of cloud droplet sizes and smoke particles in and near the cloud base over Ascension Island, a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, to determine the sensitivity of cloud droplets to smoke from the African continent. The smoke was found to reduce cloud droplet sizes, which makes the cloud droplets more susceptible to evaporation, reducing cloud lifetime.
Madeleine Petersson Sjögren, Malin Alsved, Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, and Jakob Löndahl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4977–4992,Short summary
Biological aerosol particles (bioaerosols) affect human health by spreading diseases and may be important agents for atmospheric processes, but their abundance and size distributions are largely unknown. We measured bioaerosols for 18 months in the south of Sweden to investigate bioaerosol temporal variations and their couplings to meteorology. Our results showed that the bioaerosols emissions were coupled to meteorological parameters and depended strongly on the season.
Andreas Massling, Robert Lange, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Ulrich Gosewinkel, Lise-Lotte Sørensen, and Henrik Skov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4931–4953,Short summary
The effect of anthropogenic activities on cloud formation introduces the highest uncertainties with respect to climate change. Data on Arctic aerosols and their corresponding cloud-forming properties are very scarce and most important as the Arctic is warming about 2 times as fast as the rest of the globe. Our studies investigate aerosols in the remote Arctic and suggest relatively high cloud-forming potential, although differences are observed between the Arctic spring and summer.
Yang Wang, Chanakya Bagya Ramesh, Scott Giangrande, Jerome Fast, Xianda Gong, Jiaoshi Zhang, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi, John Shilling, Jason Tomlinson, Die Wang, and Jian Wang
We report the vertical profiles of aerosol properties over the Southern Great Plains (SGP), a region influenced by shallow convective clouds, land-atmosphere interactions, boundary layer turbulence, and the aerosol life cycle. We examined the processes that drive the aerosol population and distribution in the lower troposphere over the SGP. This study helps improve our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions and the model representation of aerosol processes.
Markku Kulmala, Anna Lintunen, Hanna Lappalainen, Annele Virtanen, Chao Yan, Ekaterina Ezhova, Tuomo Nieminen, Ilona Riipinen, Risto Makkonen, Johanna Tamminen, Anu-Maija Sundström, Antti Arola, Armin Hansel, Kari Lehtinen, Timo Vesala, Tuukka Petäjä, Jaana Bäck, Tom Kokkonen, and Veli-Matti Kerminen
To be able to meet global grand challenges, we need comprehensive open data with proper metadata. In this opinion paper, we describe the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Earth surface – Atmosphere Relations) concept and include several examples (cases), such as NPF and growth, feedback loops, the effect of COVID, and what has been learnt from these investigations. The future needs and the potential of comprehensive observations of the environment are summarized.
Kevin C. H. Sze, Heike Wex, Markus Hartmann, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Diego Villanueva, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4741–4761,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play an important role in cloud formation and thus in our climate. But little is known about the abundance and properties of INPs, especially in the Arctic, where the temperature increases almost 4 times as fast as that of the rest of the globe. We observe higher INP concentrations and more biological INPs in summer than in winter, likely from local sources. We also provide three equations for estimating INP concentrations in models at different times of the year.
Timothy Jiang, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, and Michael Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4361–4372,Short summary
Measurements of submicron aerosols (particles smaller than 1 / 1000 of a millimeter) were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements tell us how quickly aerosols are absorbed by the forest (known as deposition rate) and how the deposition rate depends on the size of the aerosol. The measurements show good agreement with a parameterization developed from a recent study for deposition of aerosols to a similar pine forest.
Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Jieyao Liu, and Fang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4327–4342,Short summary
The density of black carbon (BC) is linked to its morphology and mixing state and could cause uncertainty in evaluating cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. A method for retrieving the mixing state and density of BC in the urban atmosphere is developed. The mean retrieval density of internally mixed BC was lower, assuming void-free spherical structures. Our study suggests the importance of accounting for variable BC density in models when assessing its climate effect in urban atmosphere.
Alessandro Bigi, Giorgio Veratti, Elisabeth Andrews, Martine Collaud Coen, Lorenzo Guerrieri, Vera Bernardoni, Dario Massabò, Luca Ferrero, Sergio Teggi, and Grazia Ghermandi
Atmospheric particles include compounds playing a key role on the greenhouse effect and on air toxicity. Concurrent observations of these compounds by multiple instruments are presented, following a deployment within an urban environment in the Po valley, one of the pollution hotspot of Europe. The study compares these data highlighting the impact by ground emissions, mainly vehicular traffic and biomass burning, on the absorption of Sun radiation and ultimately on climate change and air quality.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Jian Wang, Robert Wood, Fan Mei, Connor Flynn, Stephen Springston, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Chongai Kuang, and Allison C. Aiken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4221–4246,Short summary
This study provides a summary statistic of multiday aerosol plume transport event influences on aerosol physical properties and the cloud condensation nuclei budget at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). An algorithm that integrates aerosol properties is developed and applied to identify multiday aerosol transport events. The influence of the aerosol plumes on aerosol populations at the ENA is successively assessed.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, James Harnwell, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Keiichiro Hara, Ian M. McRobert, Alain Protat, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Robyn Schofield, Stephen R. Wilson, Connor J. Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Greg M. McFarquhar, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3749–3777,Short summary
Observations of aerosols in pristine regions are rare but are vital to constraining the natural baseline from which climate simulations are calculated. Here we present recent seasonal observations of aerosols from the Southern Ocean and contrast them with measurements from Antarctica, Australia and regionally relevant voyages. Strong seasonal cycles persist, but striking differences occur at different latitudes. This study highlights the need for more long-term observations in remote regions.
Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Haobin Zhong, Jing Duan, Zixi Wang, Wei Huang, and Wei Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3595–3607,Short summary
The complex interaction between O3 and PM2.5, coupled with the topology of the Fenwei Plain and the evolution of the boundary layer height, highlights the challenges in further reducing particulate pollution in winter despite years of efforts to reduce emissions. Through scenario analysis in a chemical box model constrained by observation, we show the co-benefits of reducing NOx and VOCs simultaneously in reducing ozone and SOA.
Liang Yuan and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3195–3205,Short summary
Chemical compositions vary between and within particles due to the complex sources and aging processes, causing particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicity, which is of great importance to aerosol climatic and environmental effects. This study proposes an algorithm to quantify the heterogeneity from in situ measurements, sheds light on the reanalysis of the existing H-TDMA datasets, and could have a large impact on how we use and think about these datasets.
Weilun Zhao, Ying Li, Gang Zhao, Song Guo, Nan Ma, Shuya Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Previous studies concentrated on black carbon (BC)-containing particle less than 700 nm because of technical limitation. In this study, BC-containing particle larger than 700 nm (BC>700) was measured, highlighting the importance of BC>700 to total BC mass and absorption. The contribution of BC>700 to BC direct radiative effect was estimated, highlighting the necessity to consider whole size range of BC-containing particle in the model estimation of BC radiative effect.
Erik Ahlberg, Stina Ausmeel, Lovisa Nilsson, Mårten Spanne, Julija Pauraite, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Michele Bertò, Henrik Skov, Pontus Roldin, Adam Kristensson, Erik Swietlicki, and Axel Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3051–3064,Short summary
To investigate the properties and origin of black carbon particles in southern Sweden during late summer, we performed measurements both at a rural site and the nearby city of Malmö. We found that local traffic emissions of black carbon led to concentrations around twice as high as those at the rural site. Modeling show that these emissions are not clearly distinguishable at the rural site, unless meteorology was favourable, which shows the importance of long-range transport and processing.
Haichao Wang, Yongbo Tan, Zheng Shi, Ning Yang, and Tianxue Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2843–2857,Short summary
The effects of aerosols on lightning are complex and still far from understood. We analysed the impacts of aerosols on lightning activity in the Sichuan Basin. Results show that lightning flashes first increase with aerosol loading during all periods and then behave differently (decrease in the afternoon and flatten at night). This suggests that the changes in solar radiation can modulate the aerosol effects on the occurrence and development of convection and lightning activity.
Nathaniel W. May, Noah Bernays, Ryan Farley, Qi Zhang, and Daniel A. Jaffe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2747–2764,Short summary
In summer 2019 at Mt. Bachelor Observatory, we observed smoke from wildfires with transport times ranging from less than a day up to 2 weeks. Aerosol absorption of multi-day transported smoke was dominated by black carbon, while smoke with shorter transport times had greater brown carbon absorption. Notably, Siberian smoke exhibited aerosol scattering and physical properties indicative of contributions from larger particles than typically observed in smoke.
Adelaide Dinoi, Daniel Gulli, Kay Weinhold, Ivano Ammoscato, Claudia R. Calidonna, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Daniele Contini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2167–2181,Short summary
In this study, particle number size distribution analysis was performed with the purpose of characterizing new particle formation (NPF) events occurring in two areas of southern Italy over 5 years of measurements. The identification of NPF events produced different results in terms of frequency and seasonality. Some of the main variables involved in the process, the local atmospheric conditions in which the events occurred, and the role of the air masses were discussed and compared.
Zhibo Xie, Jiaoshi Zhang, Huaqiao Gui, Yang Liu, Bo Yang, Haosheng Dai, Hang Xiao, Douguo Zhang, Da-Ren Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2079–2088,Short summary
The hygroscopic growth of single nanoparticles is important for hygroscopic characteristic analysis of atmospheric particles and for scientific studies involving atmospheric particles. Based on the hygroscopicity difference of subgroups of atmospheric nanoparticles, the classification and proportion analysis of atmospheric nanoparticles has been completed, which has potential significance in predicting the contribution of the atmospheric particulate hygroscopicity and particle growth mechanism.
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