Articles | Volume 12, issue 20
Research article 22 Oct 2012
Research article | 22 Oct 2012
Atmospheric impacts on climatic variability of surface incident solar radiation
K. C. Wang et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Radiation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Changes in the surface broadband shortwave radiation budget during the 2017 eclipseReassessment of shortwave surface cloud radiative forcing in the Arctic: consideration of surface-albedo–cloud interactionsDeposition of brown carbon onto snow: changes in snow optical and radiative propertiesSolar UV radiation measurements in Marambio, Antarctica, during years 2017–2019A revisiting of the parametrization of downward longwave radiation in summer over the Tibetan Plateau based on high-temporal-resolution measurementsTrends in surface radiation and cloud radiative effect at four Swiss sites for the 1996–2015 periodCan downwelling far-infrared radiances over Antarctica be estimated from mid-infrared information?Measurements of spectral irradiance during the solar eclipse of 21 August 2017: reassessment of the effect of solar limb darkening and of changes in total ozoneUV measurements at Marambio and Ushuaia during 2000–2010On the suitability of current atmospheric reanalyses for regional warming studies over ChinaA long-term time series of global and diffuse photosynthetically active radiation in the Mediterranean: interannual variability and cloud effectsLong-term series and trends in surface solar radiation in Athens, GreeceReconstruction and analysis of erythemal UV radiation time series from Hradec Králové (Czech Republic) over the past 50 yearsTrends in erythemal doses at the Polish Polar Station, Hornsund, Svalbard based on the homogenized measurements (1996–2016) and reconstructed data (1983–1995)Effects of vernal equinox solar eclipse on temperature and wind direction in SwitzerlandSky radiance at a coastline and effects of land and ocean reflectivitiesImpact of aerosols and clouds on decadal trends in all-sky solar radiation over the Netherlands (1966–2015)Contributions of surface solar radiation and precipitation to the spatiotemporal patterns of surface and air warming in China from 1960 to 2003Multiresolution analysis of the spatiotemporal variability in global radiation observed by a dense network of 99 pyranometersValidation of satellite-based noontime UVI with NDACC ground-based instruments: influence of topography, environment and satellite overpass timeIs global dimming and brightening in Japan limited to urban areas?The climatology of planetary boundary layer height in China derived from radiosonde and reanalysis dataDetection of dimming/brightening in Italy from homogenized all-sky and clear-sky surface solar radiation records and underlying causes (1959–2013)Comparison of land–atmosphere interaction at different surface types in the mid- to lower reaches of the Yangtze River valleySpectral optical layer properties of cirrus from collocated airborne measurements and simulationsLocal short-term variability in solar irradianceThe contrasting roles of water and dust in controlling daily variations in radiative heating of the summertime Saharan heat lowGlobal dimming and urbanization: did stronger negative SSR trends collocate with regions of population growth?Short- and long-term variability of spectral solar UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece: effects of changes in aerosols, total ozone and cloudsOn the progress of the 2015–2016 El Niño eventRole of radiatively forced temperature changes in enhanced semi-arid warming in the cold season over east AsiaAssessment of long-term WRF–CMAQ simulations for understanding direct aerosol effects on radiation "brightening" in the United StatesComparison of OMI UV observations with ground-based measurements at high northern latitudesCharacterisation of J(O1D) at Cape Grim 2000–2005On the scaling of the solar incident fluxAnalysis of actinic flux profiles measured from an ozonesonde balloonRelations between erythemal UV dose, global solar radiation, total ozone column and aerosol optical depth at Uccle, BelgiumSolar irradiance in the heterogeneous albedo environment of the Arctic coast: measurements and a 3-D model studyAssessment of the effect of air pollution controls on trends in shortwave radiation over the United States from 1995 through 2010 from multiple observation networksNear-surface meteorology during the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS): evaluation of reanalyses and global climate modelsHigh levels of ultraviolet radiation observed by ground-based instruments below the 2011 Arctic ozone holeSpectral albedo of seasonal snow during intensive melt period at Sodankylä, beyond the Arctic CircleExperimental and modeled UV erythemal irradiance under overcast conditions: the role of cloud optical depthDecadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th centuryUncertainties of parameterized surface downward clear-sky shortwave and all-sky longwave radiation.Trends of solar ultraviolet irradiance at Barrow, Alaska, and the effect of measurement uncertainties on trend detectionThe influence of solar variability and the quasi-biennial oscillation on lower atmospheric temperatures and sea level pressureAnalysis on the impact of aerosol optical depth on surface solar radiation in the Shanghai megacity, ChinaThe Smithsonian solar constant data revisited: no evidence for a strong effect of solar activity in ground-based insolation dataDependence of the single-scattering properties of small ice crystals on idealized shape models
Guoyong Wen, Alexander Marshak, Si-Chee Tsay, Jay Herman, Ukkyo Jeong, Nader Abuhassan, Robert Swap, and Dong Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10477–10491,Short summary
We combine the ground-based observations and radiative transfer model to quantify the impact of the 2017 solar eclipse on surface shortwave irradiation reduction. We find that the eclipse caused local reductions of time-averaged surface flux of about 379 W m-2 (50 %) and 329 W m-2 (46 %) during the ~ 3 h course of the eclipse at the Casper and Columbia sites, respectively. We estimate that the Moon’s shadow caused a reduction of approximately 7 %–8 % in global average surface broadband SW radiation.
Johannes Stapf, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Christof Lüpkes, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9895–9914,
Nicholas D. Beres, Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Andrey Y. Khlystov, and Hans Moosmüller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6095–6114,Short summary
Brown carbon (BrC) aerosol can be produced by the smoldering combustion of peat, a wildland fuel common at high latitude, often adjacent to the cryosphere. However, little is known about how BrC deposition onto snow changes snow optical and radiative properties. Here, we artificially deposited BrC onto natural snow surfaces, monitored changes of the spectral surface albedo, characterized optical properties of deposited aerosol, and compared to modeled values of albedo and radiative forcing.
Margit Aun, Kaisa Lakkala, Ricardo Sanchez, Eija Asmi, Fernando Nollas, Outi Meinander, Larisa Sogacheva, Veerle De Bock, Antti Arola, Gerrit de Leeuw, Veijo Aaltonen, David Bolsée, Klara Cizkova, Alexander Mangold, Ladislav Metelka, Erko Jakobson, Tove Svendby, Didier Gillotay, and Bert Van Opstal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6037–6054,Short summary
In 2017, new measurements of UV radiation started in Marambio, Antarctica, by the Finnish Meteorological Institute in collaboration with the Argentinian Servicio Meteorológico Nacional. The paper presents the results of UV irradiance measurements from March 2017 to March 2019, and it compares them with those from 2000–2008 and also with UV measurements at other Antarctic stations. In 2017/2018, below average UV radiation levels were recorded due to favourable ozone and cloud conditions.
Mengqi Liu, Xiangdong Zheng, Jinqiang Zhang, and Xiangao Xia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4415–4426,Short summary
This study uses 1 min radiation and lidar measurements at three stations over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) to parametrize downward longwave radiation (DLR) during summer months. Clear-sky DLR can be estimated from the best parametrization with a RMSE of 3.8 W m-2 and R2 > 0.98. Additionally cloud base height under overcast conditions is shown to play an important role in cloudy DLR parametrization, which is considered in the locally calibrated parametrization over the TP for the first time.
Stephan Nyeki, Stefan Wacker, Christine Aebi, Julian Gröbner, Giovanni Martucci, and Laurent Vuilleumier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13227–13241,Short summary
The trends of meteorological parameters and surface downward shortwave radiation (DSR) and downward longwave radiation (DLR) were analysed at four stations (between 370 and 3580 m a. s. l.) in Switzerland for the 1996–2015 period. Trends in DSR and DLR were positive during cloudy as well as clear conditions. The trend due to the influence of clouds decreased in magnitude, which implies a reduction in cloud cover and/or a change towards a different cloud type over the four Swiss sites.
Christophe Bellisario, Helen E. Brindley, Simon F. B. Tett, Rolando Rizzi, Gianluca Di Natale, Luca Palchetti, and Giovanni Bianchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7927–7937,Short summary
We explore the possibility of inferring far-infrared downwelling radiances from mid-infrared observations to better constrain radiation schemes in climate models. Our results imply that while it is feasible to use this type of approach, the quality of the extension will be strongly dependent on the noise characteristics of the observations and on the accurate characterisation of the atmospheric state.
Germar Bernhard and Boyan Petkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4703–4719,Short summary
Solar radiation at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths was measured during the total solar eclipse of 21 August 2017. Data were used to study the wavelength-dependent changes of solar radiation at Earth’s surface and to validate parameterizations of solar limb darkening (LD), which describes the change in the Sun’s brightness between its center and its edge. The study highlights the importance of the LD effect when calculating total ozone and aerosol optical depth during an eclipse.
Kaisa Lakkala, Alberto Redondas, Outi Meinander, Laura Thölix, Britta Hamari, Antonio Fernando Almansa, Virgilio Carreno, Rosa Delia García, Carlos Torres, Guillermo Deferrari, Hector Ochoa, Germar Bernhard, Ricardo Sanchez, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16019–16031,Short summary
Solar UV irradiances were measured at Ushuaia (54° S) and Marambio (64° S) during 2000–2013. The measurements were part of the Antarctic NILU-UV network, which was maintained as a cooperation between Spain, Argentina and Finland. The time series of the network were analysed for the first time in this study. At both stations maximum UV indices and daily doses were measured when spring-time ozone loss episodes occurred. The maximum UV index was 13 and 12 in Ushuaia and Marambio, respectively.
Chunlüe Zhou, Yanyi He, and Kaicun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8113–8136,
Pamela Trisolino, Alcide di Sarra, Fabrizio Anello, Carlo Bommarito, Tatiana Di Iorio, Daniela Meloni, Francesco Monteleone, Giandomenico Pace, Salvatore Piacentino, and Damiano Sferlazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7985–8000,Short summary
The long-term (2002–2016) variability of global and diffuse PAR over the central Mediterranean is investigated based on measurements from Lampedusa. PAR modulates biological processes and this study provides useful insight into its variability. Seasonal and interannual variability of global and diffuse PAR is characterized and the effects of clouds are quantified. The analysis suggests that 77 % of the global PAR interannual variability may be ascribed to clouds.
Stelios Kazadzis, Dimitra Founda, Basil E. Psiloglou, Harry Kambezidis, Nickolaos Mihalopoulos, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, Charikleia Meleti, Panagiotis I. Raptis, Fragiskos Pierros, and Pierre Nabat
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2395–2411,Short summary
The National Observatory of Athens has been collecting solar radiation, sunshine duration, and cloud and visibility data/observations since the beginning of the 20th century. In this work we present surface solar radiation data since 1953 and reconstructed data since 1900. We have attempted to show and discuss the long-term changes in solar surface radiation over Athens, Greece, using these unique datasets.
Klára Čížková, Kamil Láska, Ladislav Metelka, and Martin Staněk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1805–1818,Short summary
In order to broaden the knowledge of long-term UV radiation variability, we have reconstructed and analyzed a 50-year-long UV radiation time series from Hradec Králové, Czech Republic. The UV radiation intensities increased greatly following the decline of ozone amounts in the 1980s and 1990s. High UV radiation doses were observed in days with low ozone amounts, clear or partly cloudy skies, or snow cover.
Janusz W. Krzyścin and Piotr S. Sobolewski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1–11,Short summary
Maintaining homogeneity of long-term UV time series taken from various instruments and thus trend estimation are challenging tasks, especially for remote Arctic sites. Highlights: method of the UV data homogenization is proposed to be used at any remote site. Past UV data built from satellite total O3 and ground-based sunshine duration. Yearly UV doses trendless in the southern Svalbard for 34-year period since 1983. Long-term cloud effects on UV more important than the ozone effects there.
Werner Eugster, Carmen Emmel, Sebastian Wolf, Nina Buchmann, Joseph P. McFadden, and Charles David Whiteman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14887–14904,Short summary
The effects of penumbral shading of the solar eclipse of 20 March 2015 on near-surface meteorology across Switzerland (occultation 65.8–70.1 %) was investigated. Temperature effects at 184 weather stations are compared with temperature drops reported in the literature since 1834. A special focus is, however, put on wind direction effects observed at six flux sites (with 20 Hz data) and 165 meteorological stations (with 10 min resolution data). Results show the importance of local topography.
Axel Kreuter, Mario Blumthaler, Martin Tiefengraber, Richard Kift, and Ann R. Webb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14353–14364,Short summary
We have done measurements of the sky's brightness at the Italian coast and show the influence of the underlying surface: looking towards the land, the sky can be up to 50 % brighter than opposite viewing directions towards the ocean as a result of higher land reflectivity. At low solar elevations, the specular reflection from the ocean, or sun glint, increases the zenith brightness. Understanding these effects requires a 3-D model and is important when retrieving, e.g., aerosol properties.
Reinout Boers, Theo Brandsma, and A. Pier Siebesma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8081–8100,Short summary
In the Netherlands 9 W m−2 more solar radiation falls on the surface today than 50 years ago. Often this increase, which has also been detected in surrounding western Europe, has been attributed to decreasing air pollution due to improved regulatory practices. However, over the Netherlands clouds play an important but ambiguous role. Cloud cover has increased but have become optically thinner as well. Here, the impact of clouds on radiation is in fact more important than that of air pollution.
Jizeng Du, Kaicun Wang, Jiankai Wang, and Qian Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4931–4944,
Bomidi Lakshmi Madhavan, Hartwig Deneke, Jonas Witthuhn, and Andreas Macke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3317–3338,Short summary
A method has been introduced to assess the representativeness of the time series of a point measurement compared to results for a larger area centered around the measurement location. This method allows one to determine the optimal accuracy that can be achieved for the validation of satellite products for a given pixel footprint, or the evaluation of an atmospheric model with a given grid-cell resolution.
Colette Brogniez, Frédérique Auriol, Christine Deroo, Antti Arola, Jukka Kujanpää, Béatrice Sauvage, Niilo Kalakoski, Mikko Riku Aleksi Pitkänen, Maxime Catalfamo, Jean-Marc Metzger, Guy Tournois, and Pierre Da Conceicao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15049–15074,Short summary
The atmospheric ozone layer is changing, thus the UV radiation at the surface is changing. Due to both beneficial and adverse effects of UV on the biosphere, monitoring of UV is essential. Satellite sensors provide estimates of UV at the surface with a global coverage. Validation of satellite-sensor UV is therefore needed and this can be done by comparison with ground-based measurements. The present validation in three sites (midlatitude, tropical) shows that OMI and GOME-2 provide reliable UV.
Katsumasa Tanaka, Atsumu Ohmura, Doris Folini, Martin Wild, and Nozomu Ohkawara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13969–14001,Short summary
Surface solar radiation observed in Japan generally shows a strong decline until the end of the 1980s and then a recovery up until around 2000. A substantial number of measurement stations are located close to populated areas and are speculated to have been influenced by air pollution. However, data obtained at 14 meteorological observatories suggest that the large decadal variations in surface solar radiation occur on a large scale and not limited to urban areas.
Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Yong Zhang, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Wanchun Zhang, Jing He, Mengyun Lou, Yan Yan, Lingen Bian, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13309–13319,Short summary
The large-scale PBL climatology from sounding observations is still lacking in China. This work investigated the BLH characterization at diurnal, monthly and seasonal timescales throughout China, showing large geographic and meteorological dependences. BLH is, on average, negatively (positively) associated with the surface pressure and lower tropospheric stability (wind speed and temperature). Cloud tends to suppress the development of the PBL, which has implications for air quality forecasts.
Veronica Manara, Michele Brunetti, Angela Celozzi, Maurizio Maugeri, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11145–11161,Short summary
This paper presents the temporal evolution of solar radiation over Italy for the 1959–2013 period and discusses possible reasons for differences between all-sky and clear-sky conditions in order to understand which part of the solar radiation variability depends on aerosols or clouds. The results give evidence of a relevant influence of both anthropogenic and natural aerosols on solar radiation long-term variability.
Weidong Guo, Xueqian Wang, Jianning Sun, Aijun Ding, and Jun Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9875–9890,Short summary
Basic characteristics of land–atmosphere interactions at four neighboring sites with different underlying surfaces in southern China, a typical monsoon region, are analyzed systematically. Despite the same climate background, the differences in land surface characteristics like albedo and aerodynamic roughness length due to land use/cover change exert distinct influences on the surface radiative budget and energy allocation and result in differences of near-surface micrometeorological elements.
Fanny Finger, Frank Werner, Marcus Klingebiel, André Ehrlich, Evelyn Jäkel, Matthias Voigt, Stephan Borrmann, Peter Spichtinger, and Manfred Wendisch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7681–7693,Short summary
Solar spectra of optical layer properties of cirrus have been derived from the first truly collocated airborne radiation measurements using an aircraft and a towed sensor platform. The measured layer properties differ slightly due to horizontal cirrus inhomogeneities and the influence of low-level water clouds. Applying a 1-D radiative transfer model sensitivity studies were performed. It was found that if a low-level cloud is not considered, the solar cooling of the cirrus is strongly overestimated.
Gerald M. Lohmann, Adam H. Monahan, and Detlev Heinemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6365–6379,Short summary
Increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems call for the characterization of irradiance variability with very high spatiotemporal resolution. We use 1 Hz irradiance data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers and show mixed sky conditions to differ substantially from clear and overcast skies. For example, the probabilities of strong fluctuations and their respective spatial autocorrelation structures are appreciably distinct under mixed conditions.
John H. Marsham, Douglas J. Parker, Martin C. Todd, Jamie R. Banks, Helen E. Brindley, Luis Garcia-Carreras, Alexander J. Roberts, and Claire L. Ryder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3563–3575,Short summary
The roles of water, clouds and airborne dust in controlling the heating of the Sahara are uncertain, which has major implications for the West African monsoon. Observations from the Fennec project, with satellite data, show that total atmospheric water content provides a far stronger control on total radiative heating than dust does, but dust provides the stronger control on surface heating. Therefore major heating errors in global models are likely due to known errors in water transport.
Adel Imamovic, Katsumasa Tanaka, Doris Folini, and Martin Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2719–2725,Short summary
Systematic measurements of surface solar radiation revealed a worldwide decrease from the 1960s to the mid-1980s. The role of urbanization for this so called global dimming is still under debate. We developed a set of population-data based urbanization indicators and found no correlation between urbanization and global dimming for Europe and Japan, while an urbanization impact can't be precluded for Asia. It is thus called into question whether the global dimming was mainly a local phenomenon.
Ilias Fountoulakis, Alkiviadis F. Bais, Konstantinos Fragkos, Charickleia Meleti, Kleareti Tourpali, and Melina Maria Zempila
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2493–2505,Short summary
Short- and long-term variability of spectral UV irradiance at Thessaloniki, Greece, is discussed in association with changes in total ozone column, aerosols and cloudiness. The UV data set from two Brewer spectrophotometers is used for the analysis. For the entire period 1994–2014, positive, statistically significant increases of UV irradiance were found, mainly attributable to changes in aerosols. UV irradiance is mainly increased from 1994 to 2006 and remains relatively stable thereafter.
Costas A. Varotsos, Chris G. Tzanis, and Nicholas V. Sarlis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2007–2011,Short summary
It has been recently reported that the current 2015–2016 El Niño could become "one of the strongest on record". To further explore this claim, we performed a new analysis that allows the detection of precursory signals of the strong El Niño events by using a recently developed non-linear dynamics tool. The analysis of the SOI time series shows that the 2015–2016 El Niño would be rather a "moderate to strong" or even a "strong” event and not "one of the strongest on record", as that of 1997–1998.
X. Guan, J. Huang, R. Guo, H. Yu, P. Lin, and Y. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13777–13786,Short summary
Dynamical adjustment methodology has been applied to the raw surface air temperature and has successfully identified and separated the contribution of dynamically induced temperature (DIT) and radiatively forced temperature (RFT). It found that regional anthropogenic radiative forcing caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities.
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, D. Wong, R. Gilliam, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12193–12209,Short summary
This study attempts to determine the consequences of the changes in tropospheric aerosol burden arising from substantial reductions in emissions of SO2 and NOx associated with control measures under the Clean Air Act especially on trends in solar radiation. Comparisons of model results with observations of aerosol optical depth, aerosol concentration, and radiation demonstrate that the coupled WRF-CMAQ model is capable of replicating the trends well even though it tends to underestimate the AOD.
G. Bernhard, A. Arola, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, T. Svendby, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7391–7412,Short summary
Surface erythemal UV data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) are validated for high northern latitudes (Arctic and Scandinavia) using ground-based measurements. The bias in OMI data caused by incorrect assumptions of the surface albedo are quantified and the mechanism that causes this bias is discussed. Methods to improve the accuracy of OMI data products are presented.
S. R. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7337–7349,Short summary
Measurements of the photolysis rates which drive production of OH from ozone are reported for Cape Grim, a "clean-air" site in the southern midlatitudes. This remote maritime site sits in the Southern Ocean, a region of the globe which is little studied. From the 6 years of data the dependence of this photolysis on solar zenith angle and stratospheric ozone is determined. Included with the reported values is an estimate of the uncertainties in these measurements.
C. A. Varotsos, S. Lovejoy, N. V. Sarlis, C. G. Tzanis, and M. N. Efstathiou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7301–7306,Short summary
Varotsos et al. (Theor. Appl. Climatol., 114, 725–727, 2013) found that the solar ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths exhibit 1/f-type power-law correlations. In this study, we show that the residues of the spectral solar incident flux with respect to the Planck law over a wider range of wavelengths (i.e. UV-visible) have a scaling regime too.
P. Wang, M. Allaart, W. H. Knap, and P. Stammes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4131–4144,Short summary
A green light sensor has been developed at KNMI to measure actinic flux profiles together with an ozonesonde. The impact of clouds on the actinic flux is clearly detected. Good agreement is found between the DAK-simulated actinic flux profiles and the observations for single-layer clouds in fully overcast scenes. The instrument is suitable for operational balloon measurements because of its simplicity and low cost.
V. De Bock, H. De Backer, R. Van Malderen, A. Mangold, and A. Delcloo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12251–12270,
A. Kreuter, R. Buras, B. Mayer, A. Webb, R. Kift, A. Bais, N. Kouremeti, and M. Blumthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5989–6002,
C.-M. Gan, J. Pleim, R. Mathur, C. Hogrefe, C. N. Long, J. Xing, S. Roselle, and C. Wei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1701–1715,
G. de Boer, M. D. Shupe, P. M. Caldwell, S. E. Bauer, O. Persson, J. S. Boyle, M. Kelley, S. A. Klein, and M. Tjernström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 427–445,
G. Bernhard, A. Dahlback, V. Fioletov, A. Heikkilä, B. Johnsen, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, and T. Svendby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10573–10590,
O. Meinander, S. Kazadzis, A. Arola, A. Riihelä, P. Räisänen, R. Kivi, A. Kontu, R. Kouznetsov, M. Sofiev, J. Svensson, H. Suokanerva, V. Aaltonen, T. Manninen, J.-L. Roujean, and O. Hautecoeur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3793–3810,
M. Antón, L. Alados-Arboledas, J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, M. J. Costa, J. C Chiu, and F. J. Olmo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 11723–11732,
A. Sanchez-Lorenzo and M. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8635–8644,
S. Gubler, S. Gruber, and R. S. Purves
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5077–5098,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 13029–13045,
I. Roy and J. D. Haigh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11679–11687,
J. Xu, C. Li, H. Shi, Q. He, and L. Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3281–3289,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3291–3301,
J. Um and G. M. McFarquhar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3159–3171,
Angstrom, A.: Solar and terrestrial radiation. Report to the international commission for solar research on actinometric investigations of solar and atmospheric radiation, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 50, 121–126, 1924.
Akinoglu, B. G.: Recent Advances in the Relations between Bright Sunshine Hours and Solar Irradiation, in: Modeling Solar Radiation at the Earth's Surface, edited by: Badescu, V., Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 115–143, 2008.
CMA: Observation method of Meteorological radiation, Meteorological Press, Beijing, 1996.
Cong, Z. T., Yang, D. W., and Ni, G. H.: Does evaporation paradox exist in China?, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 357–366, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-13-357-2009, 2009.
Dai, A., Karl, T. R., Sun, B., and Trenberth, K. E.: Recent trends in cloudiness over the United States – A tale of monitoring inadequacies, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 87, 597–606, 2006.
Essa, K. S. and Etman, S. M.: On the relation between cloud cover amount and sunshine duration, Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 87, 235–240, 2004.
Evan, A. T., Heidinger, A. K., and Vimont, D. J.: Arguments against a physical long-term trend in global ISCCP cloud amounts, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04701, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006GL028083, 2007.
Gilgen, H., Wild, M., and Ohmura, A.: Means and trends of shortwave irradiance at the surface estimated from global energy balance archive data, J. Climate, 11, 2042–2061, 1998.
Hayasaka, T., Kawamoto, K., Shi, G. Y., and Ohmura, A.: Importance of aerosols in satellite-derived estimates of surface shortwave irradiance over China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L06802, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025093, 2006.
Hess, M., Koepke, P., and Schult, I.: Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 79, 831–844, 1998.
Holben, B. N., Eck, T. F., Slutsker, I., Tanré, D., Buis, J. P., Setzer, A., Vermote, E., Reagan, J. A., Kaufman, Y. J., Nakajima, T., Lavenu, F., Jankowiak, I., and Smirnov, A.: AERONET – a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Remote Sens. Environ., 66, 1–16, 1998.
Horseman, A., MacKenzie, A. R., and Timmis, R.: Using bright sunshine at low-elevation angles to compile an historical record of the effect of aerosol on incoming solar radiation, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7600–7610, 2008.
Hoyt, D. V.: Percent of Possible Sunshine and the Total Cloud Cover, Mon. Weather Rev., 105, 648–652, 1977.
Kaiser, D. P. and Qian, Y.: Decreasing trends in sunshine duration over China for 1954-1998: Indication of increased haze pollution?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 2042, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL016057, 2002.
Kimball, H. H.: Variations in the total and luminous solar radiation with geographical position in the United States, Mon. Weather Rev., 47, 769–793, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1919)47<769:vittal>2.0.co;2, 1919.
Liang, F. and Xia, X. A.: Long-term trends in solar radiation and the associated climatic factors over China for 1961–2000, Ann. Geophys., 23, 2425–2432, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-23-2425-2005, 2005.
Liepert, B. G.: Observed reductions of surface solar radiation at sites in the United States and worldwide from 1961 to 1990, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1421, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL014910, 2002.
Long, C. N., Dutton, E. G., Augustine, J. A., Wiscombe, W., Wild, M., McFarlane, S. A. and Flynn, C. J.: Significant decadal brightening of downwelling shortwave in the continental United States, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D06, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011263, 2009.
Norris, J. R. and Wild, M.: Trends in aerosol radiative effects over Europe inferred from observed cloud cover, solar "dimming" and solar "brightening", J. Geophys. Res., 112, D08214, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007794, 2007.
Norris, J. R. and Wild, M.: Trends in aerosol radiative effects over China and Japan inferred from observed cloud cover, solar "dimming" and solar "brightening", J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D15, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011378, 2009.
Ohmura, A.: Observed decadal variations in surface solar radiation and their causes, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D05, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011290, 2009.
Pinker, R. T., Zhang, B., and Dutton, E. G.: Do satellites detect trends in surface solar radiation?, Science, 308, 850–854, 2005.
Podgorny, I. A., Li, F., and Ramanathan, V.: Large Aerosol Radiative Forcing due to the 1997 Indonesian Forest Fire, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1028, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015979, 2003.
Prescott, J. A.: Evaporation from water surface in relation to solar radiation, T. Roy. Soc. South Aust., 64, 114–118, 1940.
Qian, Y., Kaiser, D. P., Leung, L. R., and Xu, M.: More frequent cloud-free sky and less surface solar radiation in China from 1955 to 2000, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL024586, 2006.
Raschke, E., Bakan, S., and Kinne, S.: An assessment of radiation budget data provided by the ISCCP and GEWEX-SRB, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L07812, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL025503, 2006.
Roderick, M. L. and Farquhar, G. D.: The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years, Science, 298, 1410–1411, 2002.
Ruckstuhl, C., Norris, J. R., and Philipona, R.: Is there evidence for an aerosol indirect effect during the recent aerosol optical depth decline in Europe?, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D04204, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD012867, 2010.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A. and Wild, M.: Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8635–8644, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-8635-2012, 2012.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Calbo, J., and Martin-Vide, J.: Spatial and Temporal Trends in Sunshine Duration over Western Europe (1938–2004), J. Climate, 21, 6089–6098, 2008.
Sanchez-Lorenzo, A., Calb, J., Brunetti, M. and Deser, C.: Dimming/brightening over the Iberian Peninsula: Trends in sunshine duration and cloud cover and their relations with atmospheric circulation, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D09, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011394, 2009.
Shi, G. Y., Hayasaka, T., Ohmura, A., Chen, Z. H., Wang, B., Zhao, J. Q., Che, H. Z., and Xu, L.: Data quality assessment and the long-term trend of ground solar radiation in China, J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim., 47, 1006–1016, 2008.
Simmons, A. J., Willett, K. M., Jones, P. D., Thorne, P. W., and Dee, D. P.: Low-frequency variations in surface atmospheric humidity, temperature, and precipitation: Inferences from reanalyses and monthly gridded observational data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D01110, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009jd012442, 2010.
Smith, A., Lott, N., and Vose, R.: The Integrated Surface Database Recent Developments and Partnerships, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 704–708, 2011.
Stanhill, G. and Cohen, S.: Global dimming: a review of the evidence for a widespread and significant reduction in global radiation with discussion of its probable causes and possible agricultural consequences, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 107, 255–278, 2001.
Stanhill, G. and Cohen, S.: Solar radiation changes in the United States during the Twentieth Century: Evidence from sunshine measurements, J. Climate, 18, 1503–1512, 2005.
Stevermer, A. J., Petropavlovskikh, I. V., Rosen, J. M., and DeLuisi, J. J.: Development of a global stratospheric aerosol climatology: Optical properties and applications for UV, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 22763–22776, 2000.
Tang, W.-J., Yang, K., He, J., and Qin, J.: Quality control and estimation of global solar radiation in China, Sol. Energy, 84, 466–475, 2010.
Tang, W.-J., Yang, K., Qin, J., Cheng, C. C. K., and He, J.: Solar radiation trend across China in recent decades: a revisit with quality-controlled data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 393–406, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-393-2011, 2011.
van der Werf, G. R., Dempewolf, J., Trigg, S. N., Randerson, J. T., Kasibhatla, P. S., Gigliof, L., Murdiyarso, D., Peters, W., Morton, D. C., Collatz, G. J., Dolman, A. J., and DeFries, R. S.: Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 20350–20355, 2008.
Wang, K., Dickinson, R. E., and Liang, S.: Clear sky visibility has decreased over land globally from 1973 to 2007, Science, 323, 1468–1470, 2009.
Warren, S. G., Eastman, R. M., and Hahn, C. J.: A survey of changes in cloud cover and cloud types over land from surface observations, 1971–96, J. Climate, 20, 717–738, 2007.
Wielicki, B. A., Wong, T. M., Allan, R. P., Slingo, A., Kiehl, J. T., Soden, B. J., Gordon, C. T., Miller, A. J., Yang, S. K., Randall, D. A., Robertson, F., Susskind, J., and Jacobowitz, H.: Evidence for large decadal variability in the tropical mean radiative energy budget, Science, 295, 841–844, 2002.
Wild, M.: Global dimming and brightening: A review, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D16, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011470, 2009.
Wild, M., Gilgen, H., Roesch, A., Ohmura, A., Long, C. N., Dutton, E. G., Forgan, B., Kallis, A., Russak, V., and Tsvetkov, A.: From dimming to brightening: Decadal changes in solar radiation at Earth's surface, Science, 308, 847–850, 2005.
Wild, M., Trüssel, B., Ohmura, A., Long, C.N., König-Langlo, G., Dutton, E. G., and Tsvetkov, A.: Global dimming and brightening: An update beyond 2000, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00D13, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD011382, 2009.
WMO: Measurement of sunshine duration, WMO guide to meteorological instruments and methods of observation manual on the global observing system, WMO, http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/documents/gruanmanuals/CIMO/CIMO_Guide-7th_Edition-2008.pdf (last access: October 2012), 2008.
Xia, X.: A closer looking at dimming and brightening in China during 1961–2005, Ann. Geophys., 28, 1121–1132, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-28-1121-2010, 2010.
Xia, X.: Significant decreasing cloud cover during 1954–2005 due to more clear-sky days and less overcast days in China and its relation to aerosol, Ann. Geophys., 30, 573–582, https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-30-573-2012, 2012.
Xia, X. A., Wang, P. C., Chen, H. B., and Liang, F.: Analysis of downwelling surface solar radiation in China from National Centers for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, satellite estimates, and surface observations, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D09103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006405, 2006.
Yang, K., Koike, T., and Ye, B. S.: Improving estimation of hourly, daily, and monthly solar radiation by importing global data sets, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 137, 43–55, 2006.