Articles | Volume 22, issue 5
10 Mar 2022
Research article | 10 Mar 2022
Comparison of mesospheric sodium profile retrievals from OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY nightglow measurements
Julia Koch et al.
No articles found.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Monika Szelag, Johanna Tamminen, Carlo Arosio, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Michael Kiefer, Alexandra Laeng, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Christian Retscher, Robert Damadeo, and Jerry D. Lumpe
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
The paper presents the updated SAGE-CCI-OMPS+ climate data record of monthly zonal mean ozone profiles. This dataset covers the stratosphere and combines measurements by 9 limb and occultation satellite instruments – SAGE II, OSIRIS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, GOMOS, ACE-FTS, OMPS-LP, POAM III and SAGE III/ISS. The update includes new versions of MIPAS, ACE-FTS, and OSIRIS datasets, and introduces data from additional sensors (POAM III, SAGE III/ISS) and retrieval processors (OMPS-LP).
Kimberlee Dubé, Daniel Zawada, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, William Randel, David Flittner, Patrick Sheese, and Kaley Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6163–6180,Short summary
Satellite observations are important for monitoring changes in atmospheric composition. Here we describe an improved version of the NO2 retrieval for the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System. The resulting NO2 profiles are compared to those from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station. All datasets agree within 20 % throughout the stratosphere.
Christian von Savigny, Anna Lange, Anne Hemkendreis, Christoph G. Hoffmann, and Alexei Rozanov
Clim. Past, 18, 2345–2356,Short summary
This study investigates the possibility of inferring information on aerosol optical depth from photographs of historic paintings. The idea – which has been applied in previous studies – is very interesting because it would provide an archive of the atmospheric aerosol loading covering many centuries. We show that twilight colours depend not only on the aerosol optical thickness, but also on several other parameters, making a quantitative estimate of aerosol optical depth very difficult.
Christoph G. Hoffmann, Lena G. Buth, and Christian von Savigny
The Madden–Julian oscillation is an important feature of weather in the Tropics. Although it is mainly active in the troposphere, we show that it systematically influences the air temperature in the layers above – up to about 100 km altitude and from pole to pole. We have linked this to another known far-reaching process, the interhemispheric coupling. This is basic research on atmospheric couplings and variability, but might also be of interest for intraseasonal weather forecasting models.
Kristof Bognar, Susann Tegtmeier, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Taran Warnock, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9553–9569,Short summary
We quantify recent changes in stratospheric ozone (outside the polar regions) using a combination of three satellite datasets. We find that upper stratospheric ozone have increased significantly since 2000, although the recovery shows an unexpected pause in the Northern Hemisphere. Combined with the likely decrease in ozone in the lower stratosphere, this presents an interesting challenge for predicting the future of the ozone layer.
Sandra Wallis, Christoph Gregor Hoffmann, and Christian von Savigny
Ann. Geophys., 40, 421–431,Short summary
Although the 1991 eruption of Mt Pinatubo had a severe impact on Earth's climate, the effect of this event on the mesosphere is not well understood. We investigated satellite-borne temperature measurements from the HALOE instrument and found indications that a positive temperature anomaly is present in the tropical upper mesosphere at the beginning of the HALOE time series, which may be related to the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo.
Anna Lange, Gerd Baumgarten, Alexei Rozanov, and Christian von Savigny
Ann. Geophys., 40, 407–419,Short summary
We investigate the influence of different parameters on the colour of noctilucent clouds (highest clouds in the atmosphere), using radiative transfer calculations. We determined the effect of the particle size, optical depth, single scattering/multiple scattering and ozone. For sufficiently large optical depth and for specific viewing geometries, ozone plays only a minor role in the blueish colour of noctilucent clouds (new result).
Mireia Papke Chica, Valerian Hahn, Tiziana Braeuer, Elena de la Torre Castro, Florian Ewald, Mathias Gergely, Simon Kirschler, Luca Bugliaro Goggia, Stefanie Knobloch, Martina Kraemer, Johannes Lucke, Johanna Mayer, Raphael Maerkl, Manuel Moser, Laura Tomsche, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Martin Zoeger, Christian von Savigny, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
The mixed-phase temperature regime in convective clouds challenges our understanding of microphysical and radiative cloud properties. We provide a rare and unique dataset of aircraft in situ measurements in a strong mid-latitude convective system. We find that mechanisms initiating ice nucleation and growth strongly depend on temperature, relative humidity, and vertical velocity and variate within the measured system, resulting in altitude dependent changes of the cloud liquid and ice fraction.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, James M. Russell III, and Jiansheng Zou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1233–1249,Short summary
This study analyzes the quality of two versions (v3.6 and v4.1) of ozone concentration measurements from the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer), by comparing with data from five satellite instruments between 2004 and 2020. It was found that although the v3.6 data exhibit a better agreement than v4.1 with respect to the other instruments, v4.1 exhibits much better stability over time than v3.6. The stability of v4.1 makes it suitable for ozone trend studies.
Debora Griffin, Chris A. McLinden, Enrico Dammers, Cristen Adams, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Carsten Warneke, Ilann Bourgeois, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Kyle J. Zarzana, Jake P. Rowe, Rainer Volkamer, Christoph Knote, Natalie Kille, Theodore K. Koenig, Christopher F. Lee, Drew Rollins, Pamela S. Rickly, Jack Chen, Lukas Fehr, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Katherine Hayden, Cristian Mihele, Sumi N. Wren, John Liggio, Ayodeji Akingunola, and Paul Makar
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7929–7957,Short summary
Satellite-derived NOx emissions from biomass burning are estimated with TROPOMI observations. Two common emission estimation methods are applied, and sensitivity tests with model output were performed to determine the accuracy of these methods. The effect of smoke aerosols on TROPOMI NO2 columns is estimated and compared to aircraft observations from four different aircraft campaigns measuring biomass burning plumes in 2018 and 2019 in North America.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Adam E. Bourassa, Douglas A. Degenstein, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, and Donal P. Murtagh
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 5115–5126,Short summary
The nightglow emission originating from the vibrationally excited hydroxyl layer (about 85 km altitude) has been measured by the infrared imager (IRI) on the Odin satellite for more than 15 years. In this study, we document the retrieval steps, the resulting volume emission rates and the layer characteristics. Finally, we use the monthly zonal averages to demonstrate the fidelity of the data set. This unique, long-term data set will be valuable for studying various topics near the mesopause.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Ulrike Niemeier, Sandra Wallis, Carlo Arosio, Felix Wrana, Claudia Timmreck, Christian von Savigny, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14871–14891,Short summary
In the paper, changes in the stratospheric aerosol loading after the 2018 Ambae eruption were analyzed using OMPS-LP observations. The eruption was also simulated with the MAECHAM5-HAM global climate model. Generally, the model and observations agree very well. We attribute the good consistency of the results to a precisely determined altitude and mass of the volcanic injection, as well as nudging of the meteorological data. The radiative forcing from the eruption was estimated to be −0.13 W m−2.
Daniel Zawada, Ghislain Franssens, Robert Loughman, Antti Mikkonen, Alexei Rozanov, Claudia Emde, Adam Bourassa, Seth Dueck, Hannakaisa Lindqvist, Didier Ramon, Vladimir Rozanov, Emmanuel Dekemper, Erkki Kyrölä, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3953–3972,Short summary
Satellite measurements of atmospheric composition often rely on computer tools known as radiative transfer models to model the propagation of sunlight within the atmosphere. Here we have performed a detailed inter-comparison of seven different radiative transfer models in a variety of conditions. We have found that the models agree remarkably well, at a level better than previously reported. This result provides confidence in our understanding of atmospheric radiative transfer.
Michaela I. Hegglin, Susann Tegtmeier, John Anderson, Adam E. Bourassa, Samuel Brohede, Doug Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Bernd Funke, John Gille, Yasuko Kasai, Erkki T. Kyrölä, Jerry Lumpe, Donal Murtagh, Jessica L. Neu, Kristell Pérot, Ellis E. Remsberg, Alexei Rozanov, Matthew Toohey, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Hsiang-Jui Wang, Carlo Arosio, Robert Damadeo, Ryan A. Fuller, Gretchen Lingenfelser, Christopher McLinden, Diane Pendlebury, Chris Roth, Niall J. Ryan, Christopher Sioris, Lesley Smith, and Katja Weigel
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1855–1903,Short summary
An overview of the SPARC Data Initiative is presented, to date the most comprehensive assessment of stratospheric composition measurements spanning 1979–2018. Measurements of 26 chemical constituents obtained from an international suite of space-based limb sounders were compiled into vertically resolved, zonal monthly mean time series. The quality and consistency of these gridded datasets are then evaluated using a climatological validation approach and a range of diagnostics.
Nellie Wullenweber, Anna Lange, Alexei Rozanov, and Christian von Savigny
Clim. Past, 17, 969–983,Short summary
This study investigates the physical processes leading to the rare phenomenon of the sun appearing blue or green. The phenomenon is caused by anomalous scattering by, e.g., volcanic or forest fire aerosols. Unlike most other studies, our study includes a full treatment of the effect of Rayleigh scattering on the colour of the sun. We investigate different factors and revisit a historic example, i.e. the Canadian forest fires in 1950, that led to blue sun events in different European countries.
Felix Wrana, Christian von Savigny, Jacob Zalach, and Larry W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 2345–2357,Short summary
In this paper, we describe a new method for calculating the size of naturally occurring droplets (aerosols) made mostly of sulfuric acid and water that can be found roughly at 20 km altitude in the atmosphere. We use data from the instrument SAGE III/ISS that is mounted on the International Space Station. We show that our method works well, and that the size parameters we calculate are reasonable and can be a valuable addition for a better understanding of aerosols and their effect on climate.
Ghassan Taha, Robert Loughman, Tong Zhu, Larry Thomason, Jayanta Kar, Landon Rieger, and Adam Bourassa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1015–1036,Short summary
This work describes the newly released OMPS LP aerosol extinction profile multi-wavelength Version 2.0 algorithm and dataset. It is shown that the V2.0 aerosols exhibit significant improvements in OMPS LP retrieval performance in the Southern Hemisphere and at lower altitudes. The new product is compared to the SAGE III/ISS, OSIRIS and CALIPSO missions and shown to be of good quality and suitable for scientific studies.
Larry W. Thomason, Mahesh Kovilakam, Anja Schmidt, Christian von Savigny, Travis Knepp, and Landon Rieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1143–1158,Short summary
Measurements of the impact of volcanic eruptions on stratospheric aerosol loading by space-based instruments show show a fairly well-behaved relationship between the magnitude and the apparent changes to aerosol size over several orders of magnitude. This directly measured relationship provides a unique opportunity to verify the performance of interactive aerosol models used in climate models.
Kimberlee Dubé, Adam Bourassa, Daniel Zawada, Douglas Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, David Flittner, and William Randel
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 557–566,Short summary
SAGE III/ISS measures profiles of NO2; however the algorithm to convert raw measurements to NO2 concentration neglects variations caused by changes in chemistry over the course of a day. We devised a procedure to account for these diurnal variations and assess their impact on NO2 measurements from SAGE III/ISS. We find that the new NO2 concentration is more than 10 % lower than NO2 from the standard algorithm below 30 km, showing that this effect is important to consider at lower altitudes.
Lukas O. Muser, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julia Bruckert, Ákos Horváth, Elizaveta Malinina, Sandra Wallis, Fred J. Prata, Alexei Rozanov, Christian von Savigny, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036,Short summary
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Anqi Li, Chris Z. Roth, Kristell Pérot, Ole Martin Christensen, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, and Donal P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6215–6236,Short summary
The OSIRIS IR imager, one of the instruments on the Odin satellite, routinely measures the oxygen airglow at 1.27 μm. In this study, we primarily focus on the steps done for retrieving the calibrated IRA band limb radiance, the volume emission rate of O2(a1∆g) and finally the ozone number density. Specifically, we use a novel approach to address the issue of the measurements that were made close to the local sunrise, where the O2(a1∆g) diverges from the equilibrium state.
Mahesh Kovilakam, Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, and Luis Millán
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 2607–2634,Short summary
A robust stratospheric aerosol climatology is important as many global climate models (GCMs) make use of observed aerosol properties to prescribe aerosols in the stratosphere. Here, we present version 2.0 of the GloSSAC data set in which a new methodology is used for the post-2005 data that improves the quality of data in the lower stratosphere, which includes an improved 1020 nm extinction. Additionally, size information from multiwavelength measurements of SAGE III/ISS is provided.
Thomas von Clarmann, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Stefan Bender, Amy Braverman, André Butz, Steven Compernolle, Robert Damadeo, Seth Dueck, Patrick Eriksson, Bernd Funke, Margaret C. Johnson, Yasuko Kasai, Arno Keppens, Anne Kleinert, Natalya A. Kramarova, Alexandra Laeng, Bavo Langerock, Vivienne H. Payne, Alexei Rozanov, Tomohiro O. Sato, Matthias Schneider, Patrick Sheese, Viktoria Sofieva, Gabriele P. Stiller, Christian von Savigny, and Daniel Zawada
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4393–4436,Short summary
Remote sensing of atmospheric state variables typically relies on the inverse solution of the radiative transfer equation. An adequately characterized retrieval provides information on the uncertainties of the estimated state variables as well as on how any constraint or a priori assumption affects the estimate. This paper summarizes related techniques and provides recommendations for unified error reporting.
Monika E. Szeląg, Viktoria F. Sofieva, Doug Degenstein, Chris Roth, Sean Davis, and Lucien Froidevaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7035–7047,Short summary
We analyze seasonal dependence of stratospheric ozone trends over 2000–2018. We demonstrate that the mid-latitude upper stratospheric ozone recovery maximizes during local winters and equinoxes. In the tropics, a very strong seasonal dependence of ozone trends is observed at all altitudes. We found hemispheric asymmetry of summertime ozone trend patterns below 35 km. The seasonal dependence of ozone trends and stratospheric temperature trends shows a clear inter-relation of the trend patterns.
Jeffery Langille, Adam Bourassa, Laura L. Pan, Daniel Letros, Brian Solheim, Daniel Zawada, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5477–5486,Short summary
Water vapour (WV) is a highly variable and extremely important trace gas in Earth’s atmosphere. Due to its radiative and chemical properties, it is coupled to the climate in an extremely complex manner. This is especially true in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS). Despite its importance, the physical processes that control mixing and the distribution of WV in the LMS are poorly understood. This study provides observational evidence of moistening the LMS via mixing across the subtropical jet.
Christian von Savigny and Christoph G. Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1909–1920,Short summary
Stratospheric sulfate aerosols increase the Earth's planetary albedo and can lead to significant surface cooling, for example in the aftermath of volcanic eruptions. Their particle size distribution, important for physical and chemical effects of these aerosols, is still not fully understood. The present paper proposes an explanation for systematic differences in aerosol particle size retrieved from measurements made in different measurement geometries and reported in earlier studies.
Olexandr Lednyts'kyy and Christian von Savigny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2221–2261,Short summary
Atomic oxygen is a chemically active trace gas and a critical component of the energy balance of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). By sequentially applying continuity equations of low degree, a new model representing the airglow and photochemistry of oxygen in the MLT is implemented, enabling comparisons with airglow observations at each step. The most effective data sets required to derive the abundance of atomic oxygen are the O2 atmospheric band emission, temperature, N2 and O2.
Piao Rong, Christian von Savigny, Chunmin Zhang, Christoph G. Hoffmann, and Michael J. Schwartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1737–1755,Short summary
We study the presence and characteristics of 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature observed by the microwave limb sounder on NASA's Aura spacecraft. This is a highly interesting and significant subject because the physical and chemical mechanisms leading to these 27 d solar-driven signatures are, in many cases, not well understood. The analysis shows that highly significant 27 d solar signatures in middle atmospheric temperature are present at many altitudes and latitudes.
Jacob Zalach, Christian von Savigny, Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Franz-Josef Lübken, and Adam Bourassa
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, Franz-Josef Lübken, Christian von Savigny, and Jacob Zalach
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4065–4076,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol backscatter ratios in the Arctic using Rayleigh, Mie and Raman backscattered signals were calculated. A backscatter ratio calculation during daytime was performed for the first time. Sharp aerosol layers thinner than 1 km over several days were observed. The seasonal cycle of stratospheric background aerosol in high latitudes including the summer months was calculated for the first time. Top altitude of the aerosol layer was found to reach up to 34 km, especially in summer.
Elizaveta Malinina, Alexei Rozanov, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Heinrich Bovensmann, John P. Burrows, and Doug Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3485–3502,Short summary
This paper covers the problems related to the derivation of aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents from space-borne instruments working in limb and occultation viewing geometries. Aerosol extinction coefficients and Ångström exponents were calculated from the SCIAMACHY aerosol particle size data set. The results were compared with the data from SAGE II and OSIRIS. The Ångström exponent in the tropical regions and its dependency on particle size parameters are discussed.
Christoph G. Hoffmann and Christian von Savigny
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4235–4256,Short summary
We examine a possible statistical linkage between atmospheric variability in the tropical troposphere on the intraseasonal timescale, which is known as Madden–Julian oscillation, and known variability of the solar radiation with a period of 27 days. This helps to understand tropospheric variability in more detail, which is generally of interest, e.g., for weather forecasting. We find indications for such a linkage; however, more research has to be conducted for an unambiguous attribution.
Christian von Savigny, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Günter Entzian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2079–2093,Short summary
This study investigates solar effects in radio reflection height observations in the ionospheric D region at an altitude of about 80 km at northern midlatitudes. The analyzed time series covers almost six solar cycles. Statistically significant solar 27-day and 11-year signatures are identified. However, the driving mechanisms are not fully understood. We also provide evidence for dynamical effects on the radio reflection heights with periods close to the solar rotational cycle.
Tilo Fytterer, Christian von Savigny, Martin Mlynczak, and Miriam Sinnhuber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1835–1851,Short summary
A model was developed to derive night-time atomic oxygen (O(3P)) and atomic hydrogen (H) from satellite observations in the altitude region between 75 km and 100 km. Comparisons between the
best-fit modeland the measurements suggest that chemical reactions involving O2 and O(3P) might occur differently than is usually assumed in literature. This considerably affects the derived abundances of O(3P) and H, which in turn might influence air temperature and winds of the whole atmosphere.
Jeffery Langille, Daniel Letros, Adam Bourassa, Brian Solheim, Doug Degenstein, Fabien Dupont, Daniel Zawada, and Nick D. Lloyd
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 431–455,Short summary
The SHOW instrument is a prototype satellite concept that is being developed through collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, the Canadian Space Agency, and ABB Inc. to provide high vertical resolution (< 200 m) measurements of UTLS water vapour with < 1 ppm accuracy. This paper presents suborbital measurements obtained during a demonstration flight aboard NASA's ER-2 aircraft. These measurements are validated through a comparison with coincident radiosonde measurements.
Landon A. Rieger, Elizaveta P. Malinina, Alexei V. Rozanov, John P. Burrows, Adam E. Bourassa, and Doug A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3433–3445,Short summary
This paper compares aerosol extinction records from two limb scattering instruments, OSIRIS and SCIAMACHY, to that from the occultation instrument SAGE II. Differences are investigated through modelling and retrieval studies and important sources of systematic errors are quantified. It is found that the largest biases come from uncertainties in the aerosol size distribution and the aerosol particle concentration at altitudes above 30 km.
Natalya A. Kramarova, Pawan K. Bhartia, Glen Jaross, Leslie Moy, Philippe Xu, Zhong Chen, Matthew DeLand, Lucien Froidevaux, Nathaniel Livesey, Douglas Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Kaley A. Walker, and Patrick Sheese
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2837–2861,Short summary
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) Limb Profiler (LP) is a newly designed research sensor aiming to continue high vertical resolution ozone records from space-borne sensors. In summer 2017 all LP measurements were processed with the new version 2.5 algorithm. In this paper we provide a description of the key changes implemented in the new algorithm and evaluate the quality of ozone retrievals by comparing with independent satellite profile measurements (MLS, ACE-FTS and OSIRIS).
Daniel J. Zawada, Landon A. Rieger, Adam E. Bourassa, and Douglas A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2375–2393,Short summary
The Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite Limb Profiler measures scattered sunlight, which is then inverted to obtain vertical profiles of ozone in the atmosphere. We have developed a new algorithm for inverting the data which is better suited for areas with large horizontal ozone gradients, such as the polar vortex. Data from the full currently 5-year mission have been processed and are publicly available.
Larry W. Thomason, Nicholas Ernest, Luis Millán, Landon Rieger, Adam Bourassa, Jean-Paul Vernier, Gloria Manney, Beiping Luo, Florian Arfeuille, and Thomas Peter
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 469–492,Short summary
We describe the construction of a continuous 38-year record of stratospheric aerosol optical properties. The Global Space-based Stratospheric Aerosol Climatology, or GloSSAC, provided the input data to the construction of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project stratospheric aerosol forcing data set (1979 to 2014) and is now extended through 2016. GloSSAC focuses on the the SAGE series of instruments through mid-2005 and on OSIRIS and CALIPSO after that time.
William T. Ball, Justin Alsing, Daniel J. Mortlock, Johannes Staehelin, Joanna D. Haigh, Thomas Peter, Fiona Tummon, Rene Stübi, Andrea Stenke, John Anderson, Adam Bourassa, Sean M. Davis, Doug Degenstein, Stacey Frith, Lucien Froidevaux, Chris Roth, Viktoria Sofieva, Ray Wang, Jeannette Wild, Pengfei Yu, Jerald R. Ziemke, and Eugene V. Rozanov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1379–1394,Short summary
Using a robust analysis, with artefact-corrected ozone data, we confirm upper stratospheric ozone is recovering following the Montreal Protocol, but that lower stratospheric ozone (50° S–50° N) has continued to decrease since 1998, and the ozone layer as a whole (60° S–60° N) may be lower today than in 1998. No change in total column ozone may be due to increasing tropospheric ozone. State-of-the-art models do not reproduce lower stratospheric ozone decreases.
Adam E. Bourassa, Chris Z. Roth, Daniel J. Zawada, Landon A. Rieger, Chris A. McLinden, and Douglas A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 489–498,Short summary
OSIRIS satellite measurements of ozone in the stratosphere are corrected for slowly varying errors. These changes make the OSIRIS data compare better with other satellite measurements over the long term and make an impact on our understanding of the recovery of the ozone layer.
Viktoria F. Sofieva, Erkki Kyrölä, Marko Laine, Johanna Tamminen, Doug Degenstein, Adam Bourassa, Chris Roth, Daniel Zawada, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Nabiz Rahpoe, Gabriele Stiller, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Kaley A. Walker, Patrick Sheese, Daan Hubert, Michel van Roozendael, Claus Zehner, Robert Damadeo, Joseph Zawodny, Natalya Kramarova, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12533–12552,Short summary
We present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY, MIPAS, OSIRIS, ACE-FTS and OMPS. For merging, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997.
Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Lucien Froidevaux, Ryan Fuller, Ray Wang, John Anderson, Chris Roth, Adam Bourassa, Doug Degenstein, Robert Damadeo, Joe Zawodny, Stacey Frith, Richard McPeters, Pawan Bhartia, Jeannette Wild, Craig Long, Sean Davis, Karen Rosenlof, Viktoria Sofieva, Kaley Walker, Nabiz Rahpoe, Alexei Rozanov, Mark Weber, Alexandra Laeng, Thomas von Clarmann, Gabriele Stiller, Natalya Kramarova, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Thierry Leblanc, Richard Querel, Daan Swart, Ian Boyd, Klemens Hocke, Niklaus Kämpfer, Eliane Maillard Barras, Lorena Moreira, Gerald Nedoluha, Corinne Vigouroux, Thomas Blumenstock, Matthias Schneider, Omaira García, Nicholas Jones, Emmanuel Mahieu, Dan Smale, Michael Kotkamp, John Robinson, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Neil Harris, Birgit Hassler, Daan Hubert, and Fiona Tummon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10675–10690,Short summary
Thanks to the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments, ozone-depleting chlorine (and bromine) in the stratosphere has declined slowly since the late 1990s. Improved and extended long-term ozone profile observations from satellites and ground-based stations confirm that ozone is responding as expected and has increased by about 2 % per decade since 2000 in the upper stratosphere, around 40 km altitude. At lower altitudes, however, ozone has not changed significantly since 2000.
Martin P. Langowski, Christian von Savigny, John P. Burrows, Didier Fussen, Erin C. M. Dawkins, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, and Daniel R. Marsh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 2989–3006,Short summary
Meteoric metals form metal layers in the upper atmosphere anandplay a role in the formation of middle-atmospheric clouds and aerosols. However, the total metal influx rate is not well known. Global Na datasets from measurements and a model are available, which had not been compared yet on a global scale until this paper. Overall the agreement is good, and many differences between measurements are also found in the model simulations. However, the modeled layer altitude is too low.
Cristen Adams, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris A. McLinden, Chris E. Sioris, Thomas von Clarmann, Bernd Funke, Landon A. Rieger, and Douglas A. Degenstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8063–8080,Short summary
We measured the relationship between volcanic aerosol and trace gases in the stratosphere using the OSIRIS and MIPAS satellite instruments between 2002 and 2014. We found that levels of stratospheric NO2 and N2O5 both decreased significantly in the presence of volcanic aerosol. These decreases were consistent with the modeling results.
Christopher E. Sioris, Landon A. Rieger, Nicholas D. Lloyd, Adam E. Bourassa, Chris Z. Roth, Douglas A. Degenstein, Claude Camy-Peyret, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Gwenaël Berthet, Valéry Catoire, Florence Goutail, Jean-Pierre Pommereau, and Chris A. McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1155–1168,Short summary
A new OSIRIS NO2 retrieval algorithm is described and validated using > 40 balloon-based profile measurements. The validation results indicate a slight improvement relative to the existing operational algorithm in terms of the bias versus the balloon data, particularly in the lower stratosphere. The implication is that this new algorithm should replace the operational one. The motivation was to combine spectral fitting and the SaskTRAN radiative transfer model to achieve an improved product.
Gwenaël Berthet, Fabrice Jégou, Valéry Catoire, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Jean-Baptiste Renard, Adam E. Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Colette Brogniez, Marcel Dorf, Sebastian Kreycy, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Bodo Werner, Franck Lefèvre, Tjarda J. Roberts, Thibaut Lurton, Damien Vignelles, Nelson Bègue, Quentin Bourgeois, Daniel Daugeron, Michel Chartier, Claude Robert, Bertrand Gaubicher, and Christophe Guimbaud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2229–2253,Short summary
Since the last major volcanic event, i.e. the Pinatubo eruption in 1991, only
moderateeruptions have regularly injected sulfur into the stratosphere, typically enhancing the aerosol loading for several months. We investigate here for the first time the chemical perturbation associated with the Sarychev eruption in June 2009, using balloon-borne instruments and model calculations. Some chemical compounds are significantly affected by the aerosols, but the impact on stratospheric ozone is weak.
Sergey M. Khaykin, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Philippe Keckhut, Alain Hauchecorne, Julien Jumelet, Jean-Paul Vernier, Adam Bourassa, Doug A. Degenstein, Landon A. Rieger, Christine Bingen, Filip Vanhellemont, Charles Robert, Matthew DeLand, and Pawan K. Bhartia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1829–1845,Short summary
The article is devoted to the long-term evolution and variability of stratospheric aerosol, which plays an important role in climate change and the ozone layer. We use 22-year long continuous observations using laser radar soundings in southern France and satellite-based observations to distinguish between natural aerosol variability (caused by volcanic eruptions) and human-induced change in aerosol concentration. An influence of growing pollution above Asia on stratospheric aerosol is found.
Patrick E. Sheese, Kaley A. Walker, Chris D. Boone, Chris A. McLinden, Peter F. Bernath, Adam E. Bourassa, John P. Burrows, Doug A. Degenstein, Bernd Funke, Didier Fussen, Gloria L. Manney, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Cora E. Randall, Piera Raspollini, Alexei Rozanov, James M. Russell III, Makoto Suzuki, Masato Shiotani, Joachim Urban, Thomas von Clarmann, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5781–5810,Short summary
This study validates version 3.5 of the ACE-FTS NOy species data sets by comparing diurnally scaled ACE-FTS data to correlative data from 11 other satellite limb sounders. For all five species examined (NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2), there is good agreement between ACE-FTS and the other data sets in various regions of the atmosphere. In these validated regions, these NOy data products can be used for further investigation into the composition, dynamics, and climate of the stratosphere.
Charles Étienne Robert, Christine Bingen, Filip Vanhellemont, Nina Mateshvili, Emmanuel Dekemper, Cédric Tétard, Didier Fussen, Adam Bourassa, and Claus Zehner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4701–4718,Short summary
We compare stratospheric aerosol loading computed with a new computer algorithm with various established datasets to determine the overall agreement. Since the new results are based on observation of starlight through the Earth's atmosphere, various aspects of these measurements can influence the final results. A systematic analysis of these aspects, such as the star brightness and temperature, is carried out to see if, and how, they influence the agreement of the results with other datasets.
Cristen Adams, Elise N. Normand, Chris A. McLinden, Adam E. Bourassa, Nicholas D. Lloyd, Douglas A. Degenstein, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Maria Belmonte Rivas, K. Folkert Boersma, and Henk Eskes
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 4103–4122,Short summary
A new "OMI-minus-OSIRIS" (OmO) prototype dataset for tropospheric NO2 was created by combining information from the OMI satellite instrument, which is sensitive to NO2 in both the troposphere and stratosphere, with information from the OSIRIS satellite instrument, which measures NO2 in the stratosphere. This paper demonstrates that this approach is feasible and could be applied to future geostationary missions.
Daan Hubert, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Tijl Verhoelst, José Granville, Arno Keppens, Jean-Luc Baray, Adam E. Bourassa, Ugo Cortesi, Doug A. Degenstein, Lucien Froidevaux, Sophie Godin-Beekmann, Karl W. Hoppel, Bryan J. Johnson, Erkki Kyrölä, Thierry Leblanc, Günter Lichtenberg, Marion Marchand, C. Thomas McElroy, Donal Murtagh, Hideaki Nakane, Thierry Portafaix, Richard Querel, James M. Russell III, Jacobo Salvador, Herman G. J. Smit, Kerstin Stebel, Wolfgang Steinbrecht, Kevin B. Strawbridge, René Stübi, Daan P. J. Swart, Ghassan Taha, David W. Tarasick, Anne M. Thompson, Joachim Urban, Joanna A. E. van Gijsel, Roeland Van Malderen, Peter von der Gathen, Kaley A. Walker, Elian Wolfram, and Joseph M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 2497–2534,Short summary
A more detailed understanding of satellite O3 profile data records is vital for further progress in O3 research. To this end, we made a comprehensive assessment of 14 limb/occultation profilers using ground-based reference data. The mutual consistency of satellite O3 in terms of bias, short-term variability and decadal stability is generally good over most of the stratosphere. However, we identified some exceptions that impact the quality of recently merged data sets and ozone trend assessments.
B. J. Elash, A. E. Bourassa, P. R. Loewen, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1261–1277,
Kai-Uwe Eichmann, Luca Lelli, Christian von Savigny, Harjinder Sembhi, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 793–815,Short summary
Height-resolved limb radiance spectra of the satellite instrument SCIAMACHY are used to retrieve cloud top heights with a colour index method. Clouds are detectable from the lower to the uppermost troposphere. These cloud heights help to improve the trace gas retrieval for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Comparisons with other data sets have shown good agreement. As clouds and aerosols are not distinguishable, lower stratospheric volcanic aerosol clouds are detected in some years.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, V. V. Rozanov, T. Dunker, U.-P. Hoppe, M. Sinnhuber, and A. C. Aikin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 295–311,Short summary
An algorithm has been developed for the retrieval of sodium atom (Na) number density on a latitude and altitude grid from SCIAMACHY limb measurements of the Na resonance fluorescence (multiannual means 2008–2012). The Na layer peaks at 90 to 93 km altitude and has a FWHM of 5 to 15 km. A summer minimum in peak density and width is observed at high latitudes. At low latitudes, a semiannual oscillation is found. The results are compared with other measurements and models and agree well with these.
F. Ebojie, J. P. Burrows, C. Gebhardt, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, C. von Savigny, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, and H. Bovensmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 417–436,Short summary
The goal of this study is to determine the global and zonal changes in the tropospheric ozone data product derived from SCIAMACHY limb-nadir-matching (LNM) observations during the period 2003–2011. Tropospheric O3 shows statistically significant increases over some regions of South Asia, the South American continent, Alaska, around Congo in Africa and over some continental outflows. Significant decrease in TOC is observed over some continents and oceans.
C. von Savigny, F. Ernst, A. Rozanov, R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, and L. W. Thomason
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5223–5235,Short summary
This article presents validation results for stratospheric aerosol extinction profiles retrieved from limb-scatter measurements with the SCIAMACHY instrument on the Envisat satellite. The SCIAMACHY retrievals are compared to co-located measurements with the SAGE II instrument. Very good agreement to within about 15% is found in a global average sense at altitudes above 15 km. The article also presents sample results on the global morphology of the stratospheric aerosol layer from 2003 to 2011.
N. Rahpoe, M. Weber, A. V. Rozanov, K. Weigel, H. Bovensmann, J. P. Burrows, A. Laeng, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, E. Kyrölä, V. F. Sofieva, J. Tamminen, K. Walker, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, R. Hargreaves, P. Bernath, J. Urban, and D. P. Murtagh
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4369–4381,Short summary
The analyses among six satellite instruments measuring ozone reveals that the relative drift between the sensors is not significant in the stratosphere and we conclude that merging of data from these instruments is possible. The merged ozone profiles can then be ingested in global climate models for long-term forecasts of ozone and climate change in the atmosphere. The added drift uncertainty is estimated at about 3% per decade (1 sigma) and should be applied in the calculation of ozone trends.
D. J. Zawada, S. R. Dueck, L. A. Rieger, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2609–2623,
F. Tummon, B. Hassler, N. R. P. Harris, J. Staehelin, W. Steinbrecht, J. Anderson, G. E. Bodeker, A. Bourassa, S. M. Davis, D. Degenstein, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, E. Kyrölä, M. Laine, C. Long, A. A. Penckwitt, C. E. Sioris, K. H. Rosenlof, C. Roth, H.-J. Wang, and J. Wild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3021–3043,Short summary
Understanding ozone trends in the vertical is vital in terms of assessing the success of the Montreal Protocol. This paper compares and analyses the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone from seven new merged satellite data sets. The data sets largely agree well with each other, particularly for the negative trends seen in the early period 1984-1997. For the 1998-2011 period there is less agreement, but a clear shift from negative to mostly positive trends.
O. Lednyts'kyy, C. von Savigny, K.-U. Eichmann, and M. G. Mlynczak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 1021–1041,Short summary
This paper deals with the retrieval of atomic oxygen concentration profiles in the Earth's upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere region from SCIAMACHY observations of oxygen green line airglow emissions. Atomic oxygen is one of the most important chemical constituents of this atmospheric region, and long-term satellite data sets are rare. The paper includes a detailed description of the retrieval algorithm, an error budget, validation results and some first scientific analyses.
M. P. Langowski, C. von Savigny, J. P. Burrows, W. Feng, J. M. C. Plane, D. R. Marsh, D. Janches, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, and P. Liebing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 273–295,Short summary
Global concentration fields of Mg and Mg+ in the Earth's upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (70-150km) are presented. These are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat satellite grating spectrometer measurements in limb viewing geometry between 2008 and 2012. These were compared with WACCM-Mg model results and a large fraction of the available measurement results for these species, and an interpretation of the results is done. The variation of these species during NLC presence is discussed.
S. Kowalewski, C. von Savigny, M. Palm, I. C. McDade, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10193–10210,
F. Ebojie, C. von Savigny, A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A. Rozanov, M. Weber, K.-U. Eichmann, S. Bötel, N. Rahpoe, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2073–2096,
A. E. Bourassa, D. A. Degenstein, W. J. Randel, J. M. Zawodny, E. Kyrölä, C. A. McLinden, C. E. Sioris, and C. Z. Roth
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6983–6994,
B. Hassler, I. Petropavlovskikh, J. Staehelin, T. August, P. K. Bhartia, C. Clerbaux, D. Degenstein, M. De Mazière, B. M. Dinelli, A. Dudhia, G. Dufour, S. M. Frith, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, J. Granville, N. R. P. Harris, K. Hoppel, D. Hubert, Y. Kasai, M. J. Kurylo, E. Kyrölä, J.-C. Lambert, P. F. Levelt, C. T. McElroy, R. D. McPeters, R. Munro, H. Nakajima, A. Parrish, P. Raspollini, E. E. Remsberg, K. H. Rosenlof, A. Rozanov, T. Sano, Y. Sasano, M. Shiotani, H. G. J. Smit, G. Stiller, J. Tamminen, D. W. Tarasick, J. Urban, R. J. van der A, J. P. Veefkind, C. Vigouroux, T. von Clarmann, C. von Savigny, K. A. Walker, M. Weber, J. Wild, and J. M. Zawodny
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1395–1427,
R. Hommel, K.-U. Eichmann, J. Aschmann, K. Bramstedt, M. Weber, C. von Savigny, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, F. Wittrock, F. Khosrawi, R. Bauer, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3247–3276,
L. A. Rieger, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 777–780,
L. A. Rieger, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 507–522,
C. Adams, A. E. Bourassa, V. Sofieva, L. Froidevaux, C. A. McLinden, D. Hubert, J.-C. Lambert, C. E. Sioris, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 49–64,
M. Langowski, M. Sinnhuber, A. C. Aikin, C. von Savigny, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 29–48,
E. N. Normand, J. T. Wiensz, A. E. Bourassa, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3359–3368,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Rahpoe, J. Tamminen, E. Kyrölä, N. Kalakoski, M. Weber, A. Rozanov, C. von Savigny, A. Laeng, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, S. Lossow, D. Degenstein, A. Bourassa, C. Adams, C. Roth, N. Lloyd, P. Bernath, R. J. Hargreaves, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, M. van Roozendael, N. Kalb, and C. Zehner
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 5, 349–363,
N. Rahpoe, C. von Savigny, M. Weber, A.V. Rozanov, H. Bovensmann, and J. P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2825–2837,
A. Wiacek, R. V. Martin, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2761–2776,
Y. Kasai, H. Sagawa, D. Kreyling, E. Dupuy, P. Baron, J. Mendrok, K. Suzuki, T. O. Sato, T. Nishibori, S. Mizobuchi, K. Kikuchi, T. Manabe, H. Ozeki, T. Sugita, M. Fujiwara, Y. Irimajiri, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath, C. Boone, G. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, J. Orphal, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, E. J. Llewellyn, D. Degenstein, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, L. Froidevaux, M. Birk, G. Wagner, F. Schreier, J. Xu, P. Vogt, T. Trautmann, and M. Yasui
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2311–2338,
C. Adams, A. E. Bourassa, A. F. Bathgate, C. A. McLinden, N. D. Lloyd, C. Z. Roth, E. J. Llewellyn, J. M. Zawodny, D. E. Flittner, G. L. Manney, W. H. Daffer, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1447–1459,
J. T. Wiensz, D. A. Degenstein, N. D. Lloyd, and A. E. Bourassa
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 105–119,
C. Adams, K. Strong, X. Zhao, A. E. Bourassa, W. H. Daffer, D. Degenstein, J. R. Drummond, E. E. Farahani, A. Fraser, N. D. Lloyd, G. L. Manney, C. A. McLinden, M. Rex, C. Roth, S. E. Strahan, K. A. Walker, and I. Wohltmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 611–624,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Local impact of solar variation on NO2 in the lower mesosphere and upper stratosphere from 2007 to 2012Direct estimation of the rate constant of the reaction ClO + HO2 → HOCl + O2 from SMILES atmospheric observationsOn the quality of MIPAS kinetic temperature in the middle atmosphereSignature of the 27-day solar rotation cycle in mesospheric OH and H2O observed by the Aura Microwave Limb SounderPolar-night O3, NO2 and NO3 distributions during sudden stratospheric warmings in 2003–2008 as seen by GOMOS/EnvisatVariability of the nighttime OH layer and mesospheric ozone at high latitudes during northern winter: influence of meteorologyA global climatology of the mesospheric sodium layer from GOMOS data during the 2002–2008 periodFirst multi-year occultation observations of CO2 in the MLT by ACE satellite: observations and analysis using the extended CMAMSpatio-temporal observations of the tertiary ozone maximum
F. Friederich, M. Sinnhuber, B. Funke, T. von Clarmann, and J. Orphal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4055–4064,
K. Kuribayashi, H. Sagawa, R. Lehmann, T. O. Sato, and Y. Kasai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 255–266,
M. García-Comas, B. Funke, M. López-Puertas, D. Bermejo-Pantaleón, N. Glatthor, T. von Clarmann, G. Stiller, U. Grabowski, C. D. Boone, W. J. R. French, T. Leblanc, M. J. López-González, and M. J. Schwartz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6009–6039,
A. V. Shapiro, E. Rozanov, A. I. Shapiro, S. Wang, T. Egorova, W. Schmutz, and Th. Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3181–3188,
V. F. Sofieva, N. Kalakoski, P. T. Verronen, S.-M. Päivärinta, E. Kyrölä, L. Backman, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1051–1066,
A. Damiani, M. Storini, M. L. Santee, and S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 10291–10303,
D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, C. Tétard, N. Mateshvili, E. Dekemper, N. Loodts, C. Bingen, E. Kyrölä, J. Tamminen, V. Sofieva, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, J.-L. Bertaux, G. Barrot, L. Blanot, O. Fanton d'Andon, T. Fehr, L. Saavedra, T. Yuan, and C.-Y. She
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9225–9236,
S. R. Beagley, C. D. Boone, V. I. Fomichev, J. J. Jin, K. Semeniuk, J. C. McConnell, and P. F. Bernath
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1133–1153,
V. F. Sofieva, E. Kyrölä, P. T. Verronen, A. Seppälä, J. Tamminen, D. R. Marsh, A. K. Smith, J.-L. Bertaux, A. Hauchecorne, F. Dalaudier, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, O. Fanton d'Andon, G. Barrot, M. Guirlet, T. Fehr, and L. Saavedra
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4439–4445,
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Fussen, D., Vanhellemont, F., Bingen, C., Kyrölä, E., Tamminen, J., Sofieva, V., Hassinen, S., Seppälä, A., Verronen, P., Bertaux, J. L., Hauchecorne, A., Dalaudier, F., Renard, J. B., Fraisse, R., Fanton d'Andon, O., Barrot, G., Mangin, A., Théodore, B., Guirlet, M., Koopman, R., Snoeij, P., and Saavedra, L.: Global measurement of the mesospheric sodium layer by the star occultation instrument GOMOS, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, 1–5, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL021618, 2004. a
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Koch, J., Bourassa, A., Lloyd, N., Roth, C., She, C. Y., Yuan, T., and von Savigny, C.: Retrieval of mesospheric sodium from OSIRIS nightglow measurements and comparison to ground-based Lidar measurements, J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phy., 216, 105556, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2021.105556, 2021. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i
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The mesopause, the region of the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 100 km, is hard to access by direct measurements. Therefore we look for parameters that can be measured using satellite or ground-based measurements. In this study we researched sodium airglow, a phenomenon that occurs when sodium atoms are excited by chemical reactions. We compared satellite measurements of the airglow and resulting sodium concentration profiles to gain a better understanding of the sodium in that region.
The mesopause, the region of the earth's atmosphere between 85 and 100 km, is hard to access by...