Articles | Volume 22, issue 17
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The positive effect of formaldehyde on the photocatalytic renoxification of nitrate on TiO2 particles
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, PR China
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, PR China
State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing 100871, PR China
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Chunxiang Ye, Shuzheng Guo, Weili Lin, Fangjie Tian, Jianshu Wang, Chong Zhang, Suzhen Chi, Yi Chen, Yingjie Zhang, Limin Zeng, Xin Li, Duo Bu, Jiacheng Zhou, and Weixiong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10383–10397,Short summary
Online volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, with other O3 precursors, were used to identify key VOC and other key sources in Lhasa. Total VOCs (TVOCs), alkanes, and aromatics are half as abundant as in Beijing. Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) consist of 52 % of the TVOCs. Alkenes and OVOCs account for 80 % of the ozone formation potential. Aromatics dominate secondary organic aerosol potential. Positive matrix factorization decomposed residential sources.
Yaru Wang, Yi Chen, Suzhen Chi, Jianshu Wang, Chong Zhang, Weixiong Zhao, Weili Lin, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
We reported an optimized system (Mea-OPR) for direct measurement of ozone production rate, which showed a precise, sensitive and reliable measurement of OPR for at least urban and suburban atmosphere, and active O3 photochemical production in winter Beijing. Herein, the Mea-OPR system also shows its potential in exploring the fundamental O3 photochemistry, i.e., surprisingly high ozone production even under high-NOx conditions.
Wanyun Xu, Yuxuan Bian, Weili Lin, Yingjie Zhang, Yaru Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Xiaoyi Zhang, Gen Zhang, Chunxiang Ye, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7635–7652,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are both photochemical pollutants harmful to the ecological environment and human health, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the factors determining their variations in the TP have not been comprehensively investigated. Results from field measurements and observation-based models revealed that day-to-day variations in O3 and PAN were in fact controlled by distinct physiochemical processes.
Xi Cheng, Yong Jie Li, Yan Zheng, Keren Liao, Tong Zhu, Chunxiang Ye, Xinghua Qiu, Theodore K. Koenig, Yanli Ge, and Qi Chen
In this study we conducted laboratory measurements to investigate the formation of gas-phase oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) from six aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We provide a thorough analysis on the effects of precursor structure (substituents and ring numbers) in product distribution, and highlight from a laboratory perspective that heavy (e.g., double-ring) aromatic VOCs are important in initial particle growth during secondary organic aerosol formation.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5679–5697,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and the ozone production regime in Beijing in the summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Lizi Tang, Min Hu, Dongjie Shang, Xin Fang, Jianjiong Mao, Wanyun Xu, Jiacheng Zhou, Weixiong Zhao, Yaru Wang, Chong Zhang, Yingjie Zhang, Jianlin Hu, Limin Zeng, Chunxiang Ye, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4343–4359,Short summary
There was an evident distinction in the frequency of new particle formation (NPF) events at Nam Co station on the Tibetan Plateau: 15 % in pre-monsoon season and 80 % in monsoon season. The frequent NPF events in monsoon season resulted from the higher frequency of southerly air masses, which brought the organic precursors to participate in the NPF process. It increased the amount of aerosol and CCN compared with those in pre-monsoon season, which may markedly affect earth's radiation balance.
Hao Yin, Youwen Sun, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Chunxiang Ye, and Cheng Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14401–14419,Short summary
Improved knowledge of the chemistry and drivers of surface ozone over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) is significant for regulatory and control purposes in this high-altitude region in the Himalayas. Our study investigates the processes and drivers of surface ozone anomalies by using machine-learning model-based meteorological normalization methods between 2015 and 2020 in urban areas over the QTP. This study can provide valuable implication for ozone mitigation over the QTP.
Marios Panagi, Roberto Sommariva, Zoë L. Fleming, Paul S. Monks, Gongda Lu, Eloise A. Marais, James R. Hopkins, Alastair C. Lewis, Qiang Zhang, James D. Lee, Freya A. Squires, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Dwayne E. Heard, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, and Joshua D. Vande Hey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
A dispersion model and a box model were combined to investigate the evolution of VOCs in Beijing once they are emitted from anthropogenic sources. It was determined that during the winter time the VOC concentrations in Beijing are driven predominantly by sources within Beijing and by a combination of transport and chemistry during the summer. Furthermore, the results in the paper highlight the need for a season specific policy.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Claire E. Reeves, Graham P. Mills, Lisa K. Whalley, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Leigh R. Crilley, Sue Grimmond, Dwayne E. Heard, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James R. Hopkins, Simone Kotthaus, Louisa J. Kramer, Roderic L. Jones, James D. Lee, Yanhui Liu, Bin Ouyang, Eloise Slater, Freya Squires, Xinming Wang, Robert Woodward-Massey, and Chunxiang Ye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6315–6330,Short summary
The impact of isoprene on atmospheric chemistry is dependent on how its oxidation products interact with other pollutants, specifically nitrogen oxides. Such interactions can lead to isoprene nitrates. We made measurements of the concentrations of individual isoprene nitrate isomers in Beijing and used a model to test current understanding of their chemistry. We highlight areas of uncertainty in understanding, in particular the chemistry following oxidation of isoprene by the nitrate radical.
Weili Lin, Feng Wang, Chunxiang Ye, and Tong Zhu
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Field observations found that released NOx on the glacier surface of the Tibetan Plateau, an important snow-covered region in the northern mid-latitudes, had a higher concentration than in Antarctic and Arctic regions. Such evidence, and such high fluxes as observed here on the Tibetan plateau is novel. That such high concentrations of nitrogen oxides can be found in remote areas is interesting and important for the oxidative budget of the boundary layer.
Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, William J. Bloss, Tuan Vu, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2125–2147,Short summary
To understand how emission controls will impact ozone, an understanding of the sources and sinks of OH and the chemical cycling between peroxy radicals is needed. This paper presents measurements of OH, HO2 and total RO2 taken in central Beijing. The radical observations are compared to a detailed chemistry model, which shows that under low NO conditions, there is a missing OH source. Under high NOx conditions, the model under-predicts RO2 and impacts our ability to model ozone.
Mike J. Newland, Daniel J. Bryant, Rachel E. Dunmore, Thomas J. Bannan, W. Joe F. Acton, Ben Langford, James R. Hopkins, Freya A. Squires, William Dixon, William S. Drysdale, Peter D. Ivatt, Mathew J. Evans, Peter M. Edwards, Lisa K. Whalley, Dwayne E. Heard, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, Archit Mehra, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, C. Nicholas Hewitt, James D. Lee, Tianqu Cui, Jason D. Surratt, Xinming Wang, Alastair C. Lewis, Andrew R. Rickard, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1613–1625,Short summary
We report the formation of secondary pollutants in the urban megacity of Beijing that are typically associated with remote regions such as rainforests. This is caused by extremely low levels of nitric oxide (NO), typically expected to be high in urban areas, observed in the afternoon. This work has significant implications for how we understand atmospheric chemistry in the urban environment and thus for how to implement effective policies to improve urban air quality.
Eloise J. Slater, Lisa K. Whalley, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa Kramer, William Bloss, Tuan Vu, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lujie Ren, W. Joe F. Acton, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Xinming Wang, Pingqing Fu, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14847–14871,Short summary
The paper details atmospheric chemistry in a megacity (Beijing), focussing on radicals which mediate the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Highly polluted conditions were experienced, including the highest ever levels of nitric oxide (NO), with simultaneous radical measurements. Radical concentrations were large during "haze" events, demonstrating active photochemistry. Modelling showed that our understanding of the chemistry at high NOx levels is incomplete.
Robert Woodward-Massey, Eloise J. Slater, Jake Alen, Trevor Ingham, Danny R. Cryer, Leanne M. Stimpson, Chunxiang Ye, Paul W. Seakins, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3119–3146,Short summary
The OH radical is known as nature’s detergent, removing most trace gases from the atmosphere. Hence, an accurate measurement of its concentration is very important. We present measurements of OH in several field locations using a laser-based fluorescence method equipped with an OH scavenger. By determining the background signal in two different ways, we show that the instrument does not suffer any significant interferences that could result in an overestimation of OH concentrations.
Fanhao Meng, Min Qin, Ke Tang, Jun Duan, Wu Fang, Shuaixi Liang, Kaidi Ye, Pinhua Xie, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Chunxiang Ye, Pingqing Fu, Jianguo Liu, and Wenqing Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5071–5092,Short summary
Nitrous acid (HONO), a major precursor of the OH radical, plays a key role in atmospheric chemistry, but its sources are still debated. The first high-resolution vertical measurements of HONO and NO2 were conducted in Beijing to investigate the nocturnal sources of HONO at different stages of pollution. The ground surface dominated HONO production by heterogeneous conversion of NO2 during clean episodes, but the aerosol production was an important nighttime HONO source during haze episodes.
Yingruo Li, Ziqiang Tan, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yanwen Wang, Yi Zhu, Pengfei Liang, Xi Chen, Yanhua Fang, Yiqun Han, Qi Wang, Di He, Yao Wang, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13841–13857,Short summary
Vehicle emissions are a major source of Beijing's pollution. Various vehicle emission control policies have been implemented at great cost, but there is a lack of appropriate methods to evaluate the effectiveness of such policies. Here we developed a new method to evaluate the effectiveness of vehicle emission control policies during APEC. Our findings are instructive for air pollution control policy making.
Yanhua Fang, Chunxiang Ye, Junxia Wang, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Weili Lin, Fanfan Xu, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12295–12307,Short summary
Year-long observations of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological parameters in Beijing were analysed to investigate sulfate formation. RH and O3 concentrations above thresholds of 45 % and 35 ppb, respectively, greatly accelerated sulfate formation. Ambient changes in RH and O3 contributed to variations in sulfate formation among different seasons and pollution levels. A shift from gas-phase to multiphase SO2 oxidation contributed to fast sulfate formation under polluted conditions.
Chunxiang Ye, Xianliang Zhou, Dennis Pu, Jochen Stutz, James Festa, Max Spolaor, Catalina Tsai, Christopher Cantrell, Roy L. Mauldin III, Andrew Weinheimer, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Eric C. Apel, Alex Guenther, Lisa Kaser, Bin Yuan, Thomas Karl, Julie Haggerty, Samuel Hall, Kirk Ullmann, James Smith, and John Ortega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9107–9120,Short summary
Substantial levels of HONO existed during the day throughout the troposphere over the southeastern US during NOMADSS 2013. Particulate nitrate photolysis appeared to be the major volume HONO source, while NOx was an important HONO precursor only in industrial and urban plumes. HONO was not a significant OH radical precursor in the rural troposphere away from the ground surface; however, its production from particulate nitrate photolysis was an important renoxification pathway.
Defeng Zhao, Xiaojuan Song, Tong Zhu, Zefeng Zhang, Yingjun Liu, and Jing Shang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2481–2493,Short summary
The oxidation of SO2 directly by NO2 on solid/liquid particles is proposed to be a major pathway of particle sulfate formation in the polluted atmosphere. We found that the reaction of SO2 and NO2 on CaCO3 particles produced Ca(NO3)2 aqueous droplets, providing a site for the multiphase oxidation of SO2. The direct multiphase oxidation of SO2 by NO2 led to a reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 on the order of 10-8, which is unlikely to be an important source of sulfate in the ambient atmosphere.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)High enrichment of heavy metals in fine particulate matter through dust aerosol generationProduction of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) by fast-growing phytoplanktonTechnical note: In situ measurements and modelling of the oxidation kinetics in films of a cooking aerosol proxy using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D)Contrasting impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of monoterpenes: insights into the multi-generation chemical mechanismQuantifying the seasonal variations in and regional transport of PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta region, China: characteristics, sources, and health risksOpinion: Atmospheric multiphase chemistry – past, present, and futureDistinct photochemistry in glycine particles mixed with different atmospheric nitrate saltsEffects of storage conditions on the molecular-level composition of organic aerosol particlesCharacterization of gas and particle emissions from open burning of household solid waste from South AfricaChemically distinct particle-phase emissions from highly controlled pyrolysis of three wood typesPredicting photooxidant concentrations in aerosol liquid water based on laboratory extracts of ambient particlesPhysicochemical characterization of free troposphere and marine boundary layer ice-nucleating particles collected by aircraft in the eastern North AtlanticLarge differences of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) and low-volatile species in secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from ozonolysis of β-pinene and limoneneImpact of fossil and non-fossil fuel sources on the molecular compositions of water-soluble humic-like substances in PM2.5 at a suburban site of Yangtze River Delta, ChinaTechnical note: Improved synthetic routes to cis- and trans-(2-methyloxirane-2,3-diyl)dimethanol (cis- and trans-β-isoprene epoxydiol)Technical note: Intercomparison study of the elemental carbon radiocarbon analysis methods using synthetic known samplesChemical evolution of primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols during daytime and nighttimeFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the oxidation of limonene by OH radical: significant contribution of H-abstraction pathwayMeasurement report: Atmospheric aging of combustion-derived particles – impact on stable free radical concentration and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in aqueous mediaPhotoaging of phenolic secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase: evolution of chemical and optical properties and effects of oxidantsAn intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticlesMolecular fingerprints and health risks of home-use incense burning smokeVolatile Oxidation Products and Secondary Organosiloxane Aerosol from D5 + OH at Varying OH ExposuresVariability in grain size, mineralogy, and mode of occurrence of Fe in surface sediments of preferential dust-source inland drainage basins: The case of the Lower Drâa Valley, S MoroccoSimultaneous formation of sulfate and nitrate via co-uptake of SO2 and NO2 by aqueous NaCl droplets: combined effect of nitrate photolysis and chlorine chemistryBulk and molecular-level composition of primary organic aerosol from wood, straw, cow dung, and plastic burningPhoto-induced shrinking of aqueous glycine aerosol dropletsSeasonal variations in photooxidant formation and light absorption in aqueous extracts of ambient particlesSulfate formation via aerosol-phase SO2 oxidation by model biomass burning photosensitizers: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde using single-particle mixing-state analysisYields and molecular composition of gas-phase and secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of the volatile consumer product benzyl alcohol: formation of highly oxygenated and hydroxy nitro-aromatic compoundsA combined gas- and particle-phase analysis of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysisComparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateTechnical note: Chemical composition and source identification of fluorescent components in atmospheric water-soluble brown carbon by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis – potential limitations and applicationsInsoluble lipid film mediates transfer of soluble saccharides from the sea to the atmosphere: the role of hydrogen bondingMagnetic fraction of the atmospheric dust in Kraków – physicochemical characteristics and possible environmental impactModeling daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reactions of biogenic hydrocarbonsSO2 enhances aerosol formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound ozonolysis by producing sulfur-containing compoundsIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low NOx and high NOx conditionsChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macroalgal emissionThe Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometryMeasurement report: Investigation of pH- and particle-size-dependent chemical and optical properties of water-soluble organic carbon: implications for its sources and aging processesThe influence of the addition of isoprene on the volatility of particles formed from the photo-oxidation of anthropogenic–biogenic mixturesSignificant formation of sulfate aerosols contributed by the heterogeneous drivers of dust surfaceParticle-phase processing of α-pinene NO3 secondary organic aerosol in the darkChemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in Hohhot, a semi-arid city in northern China: insight from the COVID-19 lockdownIdentification of highly oxygenated organic molecules and their role in aerosol formation in the reaction of limonene with nitrate radical
Qianqian Gao, Shengqiang Zhu, Kaili Zhou, Jinghao Zhai, Shaodong Chen, Qihuang Wang, Shurong Wang, Jin Han, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Liwu Zhang, Lin Wang, Zimeng Wang, Xin Yang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianmin Chen, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13049–13060,Short summary
Dust is a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Its chemical composition is often assumed to be similar to the parent soil. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified. Dust aerosols are mainly generated by wind erosion, which may have some chemical selectivity. Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be highly enriched in fine-dust (PM2.5) aerosols. In addition, estimation of heavy metal emissions from dust generation by air quality models may have errors without using proper dust profiles.
Daniel C. O. Thornton, Sarah D. Brooks, Elise K. Wilbourn, Jessica Mirrielees, Alyssa N. Alsante, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Andrew Whitesell, and Kiana McFadden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12707–12729,Short summary
A major uncertainty in our understanding of clouds and climate is the sources and properties of the aerosol on which clouds grow. We found that aerosol containing organic matter from fast-growing marine phytoplankton was a source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). INPs facilitate freezing of ice crystals at warmer temperatures than otherwise possible and therefore change cloud formation and properties. Our results show that ecosystem processes and the properties of sea spray aerosol are linked.
Adam Milsom, Shaojun Qi, Ashmi Mishra, Thomas Berkemeier, Zhenyu Zhang, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10835–10843,Short summary
Aerosols and films are found indoors and outdoors. Our study measures and models reactions of a cooking aerosol proxy with the atmospheric oxidant ozone relying on a low-cost but sensitive technique based on mass changes and film rigidity. We found that film morphology changed and film rigidity increased with evidence of surface crust formation during ozone exposure. Our modelling results demonstrate clear potential to take this robust method to the field for reaction monitoring.
Shan Zhang, Lin Du, Zhaomin Yang, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Kun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10809–10822,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the distinct impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of two structurally different monoterpenes (limonene and Δ3-carene). We found that the molecular structure of precursors can largely influence the SOA formation under high RH by impacting the multi-generation reactions. Our results could advance knowledge on the roles of water content in aerosol formation and inform ongoing research on particle environmental effects and applications in models.
Yangzhihao Zhan, Min Xie, Wei Zhao, Tijian Wang, Da Gao, Pulong Chen, Jun Tian, Kuanguang Zhu, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Yi Luo, and Runqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9837–9852,Short summary
Although the main source contribution of pollution is secondary inorganic aerosols in Nanjing, health risks mainly come from industry sources and vehicle emissions. Therefore, the development of megacities should pay more attention to the health burden of vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and industrial processes. This study provides new insight into assessing the relationship between source apportionment and health risks and can provide valuable insight into air pollution strategies.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9765–9785,Short summary
With important climate and air quality impacts, atmospheric multiphase chemistry involves gas interactions with aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We summarize the status of the field and discuss potential directions for future growth. We highlight the importance of a molecular-level understanding of the chemistry, along with atmospheric field studies and modeling, and emphasize the necessity for atmospheric multiphase chemists to interact widely with scientists from neighboring disciplines.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Julian Resch, Kate Wolfer, Alexandre Barth, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9161–9171,Short summary
Detailed chemical analysis of organic aerosols is necessary to better understand their effects on climate and health. Aerosol samples are often stored for days to months before analysis. We examined the effects of storage conditions (i.e., time, temperature, and aerosol storage on filters or as solvent extracts) on composition and found significant changes in the concentration of individual compounds, indicating that sample storage can strongly affect the detailed chemical particle composition.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8921–8937,Short summary
Open burning of household and municipal solid waste is a common practice in developing countries and is a significant source of air pollution. However, few studies have measured emissions from open burning of waste. This study determined gas and particulate emissions from open burning of 10 types of household solid-waste materials. These results can improve emission inventories, air quality management, and assessment of the health and climate effects of open burning of household waste.
Anita M. Avery, Mariam Fawaz, Leah R. Williams, Tami Bond, and Timothy B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8837–8854,Short summary
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of fuels like wood which occurs during combustion or as an isolated process. During combustion, some pyrolysis products are emitted directly, while others are oxidized in the combustion process. This work describes the chemical composition of particle-phase pyrolysis products in order to investigate both the uncombusted emissions from wildfires and the fuel that participates in combustion.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Chrystal Guzman, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8805–8821,Short summary
Although photooxidants are important in airborne particles, little is known of their concentrations. By measuring oxidants in a series of particle dilutions, we predict their concentrations in aerosol liquid water (ALW). We find •OH concentrations in ALW are on the order of 10−15 M, similar to their cloud/fog values, while oxidizing triplet excited states and singlet molecular oxygen have ALW values of ca. 10−13 M and 10−12 M, respectively, roughly 10–100 times higher than in cloud/fog drops.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Dandan Liu, Yun Zhang, Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Qiaorong Xie, Donghuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Chao Ma, Haijie Tong, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8383–8402,Short summary
Based on ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, we found that β-pinene oxidation-derived highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) exhibit higher yield at high ozone concentration, while limonene oxidation-derived HOMs exhibit higher yield at moderate ozone concentration. The distinct molecular response of HOMs and low-volatile species in different biogenic secondary organic aerosols to ozone concentrations provides a new clue for more accurate air quality prediction and management.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yihang Hong, Yu-Chi Lin, Mingyuan Yu, Hongxing Jiang, Zhineng Cheng, Rongshuang Xu, and Xiaoying Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8305–8324,Short summary
The interaction between the sources and molecular compositions of humic-like substances (HULIS) at Nanjing, China, was explored. Significant fossil fuel source contributions to HULIS were found in the 14C results from biomass burnng and traffic emissions. Increasing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products and anthropogenic aromatic compounds were detected in summer and winter, respectively.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Xiangyun Zhang, Jun Li, Sanyuan Zhu, Junwen Liu, Ping Ding, Shutao Gao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7495–7502,Short summary
The results show that 14C elemental carbon (EC) was not only related to the isolation method but also to the types and proportions of the biomass sources in the sample. The hydropyrolysis (Hypy) method, which can be used to isolate a highly stable portion of ECHypy and avoid charring, is a more effective and stable approach for the matrix-independent 14C quantification of EC in aerosols, and the 13C–ECHypy and non-fossil ECHypy values of SRM1649b were –24.9 ‰ and 11 %, respectively.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Hao Luo, Luc Vereecken, Hongru Shen, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Mattias Hallquist, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Defeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7297–7319,Short summary
Oxidation of limonene, an element emitted by trees and chemical products, by OH, a daytime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), including C10-20 compounds. HOMs play an important role in new particle formation and growth. HOM formation can be explained by the chemistry of peroxy radicals. We found that a minor branching ratio initial pathway plays an unexpected, significant role. Considering this pathway enables accurate simulations of HOMs and other concentrations.
Heather L. Runberg and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7213–7223,Short summary
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFRs in the soot were measured and found to be unchanged. However, it was also found that the ability of soot to form hydroxyl radicals was stronger for fresh soot.
Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Cort Anastasio, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7103–7120,Short summary
We studied how aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) form and evolve from a phenolic carbonyl commonly present in biomass burning smoke. The composition and optical properties of the aqSOA are significantly affected by photochemical reactions and are dependent on the oxidants' concentration and identity in water. During photoaging, the aqSOA initially becomes darker, but prolonged aging leads to the formation of volatile products, resulting in significant mass loss and photobleaching.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6613–6631,Short summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, and Song Guo
Incense burning is a common practice in Asia, posing great threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full volatility organic species from incense burning smoke are detected and quantified for the first time. IVOCs are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total EFs and 40.0 % of the SOA estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Hyun Gu Kang, Yanfang Chen, Jiwoo Jeong, Yoojin Park, Thomas Berkemeier, and Hwajin Kim
D5 is an emerging anthropogenic pollutant that is ubiquitous in indoor and urban environments and the OH oxidation of D5 forms secondary organosiloxane aerosol (SOSiA). Application of kinetic box model that uses a volatility basis set (VBS) showed that consideration of oxidative aging (aging-VBS) predicts SOSiA formation much better than using a standard-VBS. Ageing-dependent parameterization is needed to accurately model SOSiA to assess the implications of siloxanes on air quality.
Adolfo González-Romero, Cristina González-Florez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Andres Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, Clarissa Baldo, Roger N. Clark, Zong Bo Shi, Xavier Querol, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
The effect of dust emitted from desertic surfaces upon climate and ecosystems depends on their size and mineralogy, but, data from soil mineral atlases of desert soils is scarce. We performed particle size distribution, mineralogy and Fe speciation at S Morocco. Results show coarser particles, with high quartz proportion are near the elevated areas, meanwhile in depressed areas, finer sizes and higher proportions of clays and nano Fe-oxides. This differences are important for dust modelling.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Ka Yuen Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
We conducted burning experiments to simulate various types of solid fuel combustion, including residential burning, wildfires, agricultural burning, cow dung, and plastic bags burning. The chemical composition of the particles was characterized using mass spectrometers, and new potential markers for different fuels were identified using statistical analysis. This work improves our understanding of emissions from solid fuel burning and offers support for refined source apportionment.
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Oliver Reich, Grégory David, and Ruth Signorell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5393–5402,Short summary
Photosensitizers play an important role in the photochemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Our study provides evidence that mesoscopic glycine clusters forming in aqueous droplets act as unconventional photosensitizers in the visible light spectrum. We observed the influence of these photoactive molecular aggregates in single optically trapped aqueous droplets. Such mesoscopic photosensitizers might be more important for aerosol photochemistry than previously anticipated.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Laura Heinlein, Chrystal Guzman, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
We measured concentrations of three photooxidants – hydroxyl radical, triplet excited states of organic carbon, and singlet molecular oxygen – in fine particles collected over a year. Concentrations are highest in extracts of fresh biomass burning particles, largely because they have the highest particle concentrations and highest light absorption. When normalized by light absorption, rates of formation for each oxidant are generally similar for the four particle types we observed.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Mohammed Jaoui, Kenneth S. Docherty, Michael Lewandowski, and Tadeusz E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4637–4661,Short summary
VCPs are a class of chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products (e.g., coatings, adhesives, inks, personal care products) and are an important component of total VOCs in urban atmospheres. This study provides SOA yields and detailed chemical analysis of the gas- and aerosol-phase products of the photooxidation of one of these VCPs, benzyl alcohol. These results will allow better links between characterized sources and their resulting criteria for pollutant formation.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Cuncun Xu, Jianzhong Song, Xingjun Fan, Jun Li, Wanglu Jia, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2613–2625,Short summary
This work comprehensively investigated the fluorescence data of light-absorbing organic compounds, water-soluble organic matter in different types of aerosol samples, soil dust, and fulvic and humic acids using an excitation–emission matrix (EEM) method and parallel factor modeling. The results revealed which light-absorbing species can be detected by EEM and also provided important information for identifying the chemical composition and possible sources of these species in atmospheric samples.
Minglan Xu, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2235–2249,Short summary
The promotion of soluble saccharides on sea spray aerosol (SSA) generation and the changes in particle morphology were observed. On the contrary, the coexistence of surface insoluble fatty acid film and soluble saccharides significantly inhibited the production of SSA. This is the first demonstration that hydrogen bonding mediated by surface-insoluble fatty acids contributes to saccharide transfer in seawater, providing a new mechanism for saccharide enrichment in SSA.
Jan M. Michalik, Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Łukasz Gondek, Waldemar Tokarz, Jan Żukrowski, Marta Gajewska, and Marek Michalik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1449–1464,Short summary
The magnetic fraction of the aerosols in Kraków was collected and analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and magnetometry. It contains metallic Fe or Fe-rich alloy and Fe oxides. The occurrence of nanometre-scale Fe3O4 particles (predominantly of anthropogenic origin) is shown. Our results can help to determine the sources and transport of pollutants, potential harmful effects, etc.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1209–1226,Short summary
The diurnal pattern in biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is simulated by using the UNIPAR model, which predicts SOA growth via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, and temperature. The simulation suggests that nighttime SOA formation, even in urban environments, where anthropogenic emission is high, is dominated by products from ozonolysis and NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons.
Zhaomin Yang, Kun Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 417–430,Short summary
SO2 significantly promotes particle formation during cyclooctene ozonolysis. Carboxylic acids and their dimers were major products in particles formed in the absence of SO2. SO2 can induce production of organosulfates with stronger particle formation ability than their precursors, leading to the enhancement in particle formation. Formation mechanisms and structures of organosulfates were proposed, which is helpful for better understanding how SO2 perturbs the formation and fate of particles.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 203–220,Short summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15413–15423,Short summary
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in the last 2 decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in coastal new particle formation. We present a complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field research on iodine nucleation in the coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
Yuanyuan Qin, Juanjuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Kang Xiao, Ting Qi, Yuwei Gao, Xueming Zhou, Shaoxuan Shi, Jingnan Li, Jingsi Gao, Ziyin Zhang, Jihua Tan, Yang Zhang, and Rongzhi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13845–13859,Short summary
Deep interrogation of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosols is critical and challenging considering its involvement in many key aerosol-associated chemical reactions. This work examined how the chemical structures (functional groups) and optical properties (UV/fluorescence properties) of WSOC were affected by pH and particle size. We found that the pH- and particle-size-dependent behaviors could be used to reveal the structures, sources, and aging of aerosol WSOC.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Flynn, Spyros N. Pandis, Carl J. Percival, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13677–13693,Short summary
The addition of a low-yield precursor to the reactive mixture of aVOC and bVOC can increase or decrease the SOA volatility that is system-dependent. Therefore, the SOA volatility of the mixtures cannot always be predicted based on the additivity. In complex mixtures the formation of lower-volatility products likely outweighs the formation of products with higher volatility. The unique products of each mixture contribute significantly to the signal, suggesting interactions can be important.
Tao Wang, Yangyang Liu, Hanyun Cheng, Zhenzhen Wang, Hongbo Fu, Jianmin Chen, and Liwu Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13467–13493,Short summary
This study compared the gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous SO2 oxidation pathways by combining laboratory work with a modelling study. The heterogeneous oxidation, particularly that induced by the dust surface drivers, presents positive implications for the removal of airborne SO2 and formation of sulfate aerosols. This work highlighted the atmospheric significance of heterogeneous oxidation and suggested a comparison model to evaluate the following heterogeneous laboratory research.
David M. Bell, Cheng Wu, Amelie Bertrand, Emelie Graham, Janne Schoonbaert, Stamatios Giannoukos, Urs Baltensperger, Andre S. H. Prevot, Ilona Riipinen, Imad El Haddad, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13167–13182,Short summary
A series of studies designed to investigate the evolution of organic aerosol were performed in an atmospheric simulation chamber, using a common oxidant found at night (NO3). The chemical composition steadily changed from its initial composition via different chemical reactions that were taking place inside of the aerosol particle. These results show that the composition of organic aerosol steadily changes during its lifetime in the atmosphere.
Haijun Zhou, Tao Liu, Bing Sun, Yongli Tian, Xingjun Zhou, Feng Hao, Xi Chun, Zhiqiang Wan, Peng Liu, Jingwen Wang, and Dagula Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12153–12166,Short summary
A single year’s offline measurement was conducted in Hohhot to reveal the chemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in a semi-arid region. We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the literature because relatively few studies have focused on the chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 with offline measurements. A knowledge gap exists concerning how chemical composition and sources respond to implemented control measures for aerosols, particularly in a semi-arid region.
Yindong Guo, Hongru Shen, Iida Pullinen, Hao Luo, Sungah Kang, Luc Vereecken, Hendrik Fuchs, Mattias Hallquist, Ismail-Hakki Acir, Ralf Tillmann, Franz Rohrer, Jürgen Wildt, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, Defeng Zhao, and Thomas F. Mentel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11323–11346,Short summary
The oxidation of limonene, a common volatile emitted by trees and chemical products, by NO3, a nighttime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), including C10-30 compounds. Most of the HOM are second-generation organic nitrates, in which carbonyl-substituted C10 nitrates accounted for a major fraction. Their formation can be explained by chemistry of peroxy radicals. HOM, especially low-volatile ones, play an important role in nighttime new particle formation and growth.
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In this study, the influence of HCHO on renoxification on nitrate-doped TiO2 particles is investigated by using an experimental chamber. Mass NOx release is suggested to follow the NO−3-NO3·-HNO3-NOx pathway, with HCHO involved in the transformation of NO3· to HNO3 through hydrogen abstraction. Our proposed reaction mechanism by which HCHO promotes photocatalytic renoxification is helpful for deeply understanding the atmospheric photochemical processes and nitrogen cycling.
In this study, the influence of HCHO on renoxification on nitrate-doped TiO2 particles is...