Articles | Volume 18, issue 12
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8893–8908, 2018
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article 26 Jun 2018
Research article | 26 Jun 2018
Local time dependence of polar mesospheric clouds: a model study
Francie Schmidt et al.
No articles found.
Franz-Josef Lübken and Josef Höffner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
We present a new concept for a cluster of lidars which allows for the first time to measure time-resolved profiles of temperatures, winds, and aerosols in the entire middle atmosphere, also covering regional horizontal scales (
four-dimensional coverage). Measurements are performed during day and night. The essential component is newly developed laser with unprecedented performance. We also present first measurements. New observational capabilities in atmospheric physics are established.
Ronald Eixmann, Vivien Matthias, Josef Höffner, Gerd Baumgarten, and Michael Gerding
Ann. Geophys., 38, 373–383,Short summary
The aim of this study is to bring local variabilities into a global context. To qualitatively study the impact of global waves on local measurements in winter, we combine local lidar measurements with global MERRA-2 reanalysis data. Our results show that about 98 % of the local day-to-day variability can be explained by the variability of waves with zonal wave numbers 1, 2 and 3. Thus locally measured effects which are not based on global wave variability can be investigated much better.
Irina Strelnikova, Gerd Baumgarten, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 479–499,Short summary
One of the major problems of climate and weather modeling is atmospheric gravity waves. All measured meteorological parameters such as winds and temperature reveal superposition of large-scale background field and small-scale features created by waves. We developed an analysis technique that decomposes the measured winds and temperature into single waves, which allows for a detailed description of wave parameters. Application of this technique will improve understanding of atmospheric dynamics.
Boris Strelnikov, Martin Eberhart, Martin Friedrich, Jonas Hedin, Mikhail Khaplanov, Gerd Baumgarten, Bifford P. Williams, Tristan Staszak, Heiner Asmus, Irina Strelnikova, Ralph Latteck, Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly, Franz-Josef Lübken, Josef Höffner, Raimund Wörl, Jörg Gumbel, Stefan Löhle, Stefanos Fasoulas, Markus Rapp, Aroh Barjatya, Michael J. Taylor, and Pierre-Dominique Pautet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11443–11460,Short summary
Sounding rockets are the only means of measuring small-scale structures (i.e., spatial scales of kilometers to centimeters) in the Earth's middle atmosphere (50–120 km). We present and analyze brand-new high-resolution measurements of atomic oxygen (O) concentration together with high-resolution measurements of ionospheric plasma and neutral air parameters. We found a new behavior of the O inside turbulent layers, which might be essential to adequately model weather and climate.
Jens Söder, Michael Gerding, Andreas Schneider, Andreas Dörnbrack, Henrike Wilms, Johannes Wagner, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4191–4210,Short summary
Atmospheric measurements on rising balloons can be compromised by the balloon's wake. The aim of this study is to provide a tool for assessing the likelihood of encountering the balloon's wake at the position of the gondola. This includes an uncertainty analysis of the calculation and a retrieval of vertical winds. We find an average wake encounter probability of 28 % for a standard radiosonde. Additionally, we evaluate the influence of wake from smaller objects on turbulence measurements.
Jacob Zalach, Christian von Savigny, Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Franz-Josef Lübken, and Adam Bourassa
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Arvid Langenbach, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, Franz-Josef Lübken, Christian von Savigny, and Jacob Zalach
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4065–4076,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosol backscatter ratios in the Arctic using Rayleigh, Mie and Raman backscattered signals were calculated. A backscatter ratio calculation during daytime was performed for the first time. Sharp aerosol layers thinner than 1 km over several days were observed. The seasonal cycle of stratospheric background aerosol in high latitudes including the summer months was calculated for the first time. Top altitude of the aerosol layer was found to reach up to 34 km, especially in summer.
Fazlul I. Laskar, Gunter Stober, Jens Fiedler, Meers M. Oppenheim, Jorge L. Chau, Duggirala Pallamraju, Nicholas M. Pedatella, Masaki Tsutsumi, and Toralf Renkwitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5259–5267,Short summary
Meteor radars are used to track and estimate the fading time of meteor trails. In this investigation, it is observed that the diffusion time estimated from such trail fading time is anomalously higher during noctilucent clouds (NLC) than that in its absence. We propose that NLC particles absorb background electrons and thus modify the background electrodynamics, leading to such an anomaly.
Martin Eberhart, Stefan Löhle, Boris Strelnikov, Jonas Hedin, Mikhail Khaplanov, Stefanos Fasoulas, Jörg Gumbel, Franz-Josef Lübken, and Markus Rapp
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2445–2461,Short summary
This paper describes the measurement of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere onboard sounding rockets using solid electrolyte sensors. Calibration of the sensors in the laboratory is explained in detail. Results from the WADIS-2 rocket campaign show profiles of atomic oxygen density with a high spatial resolution.
Uwe Berger, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4685–4702,Short summary
In this paper we present a new description of statistical probability density functions (pdfs) of polar mesospheric clouds (PMC). We derive a new class of pdfs that describes successfully the probability statistic of ALOMAR lidar observations of different ice parameters. As a main advantage the new method allows us to connect different observational PMC distributions of lidar and satellite data, and also to compare with distributions from ice model studies.
Ove Havnes, Tarjei Antonsen, Gerd Baumgarten, Thomas W. Hartquist, Alexander Biebricher, Åshild Fredriksen, Martin Friedrich, and Jonas Hedin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1673–1683,Short summary
We present a new method of analyzing data from rocket-borne aerosol detectors of the Faraday cup type (DUSTY). By using models for how aerosols are charged in the mesosphere and how they interact in a collision with the probes, fundamental parameters like aerosol radius, charge, and number density can be derived. The resolution can be down to ~ 10 cm, which is much lower than other available methods. The theory is furthermore used to analyze DUSTY data from the 2016 rocket campaign MAXIDUSTY.
Mykhaylo Grygalashvyly, Martin Eberhart, Jonas Hedin, Boris Strelnikov, Franz-Josef Lübken, Markus Rapp, Stefan Löhle, Stefanos Fasoulas, Mikhail Khaplanov, Jörg Gumbel, and Ekaterina Vorobeva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1207–1220,Short summary
Based on rocket-borne true common volume observations of atomic oxygen, atmospheric band emission (762 nm), and background atmosphere density and temperature, one-step, two-step, and combined mechanisms of O2(b1Σg+) formation were analyzed. We found new coefficients for the fit function based on self-consistent temperature, atomic oxygen, and volume emission observations. This can be used for atmospheric band volume emission modeling or the estimation of atomic oxygen by known volume emission.
Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 77–88,Short summary
Simultaneous temperature measurements during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign are used to investigate the thermal structure of the mesopause region. Vertically and horizontally resolved in situ and remote measurements are in good agreement and show dominating long-term and large-scale waves with periods of 24 h and higher tidal harmonics. Only a few gravity waves with periods shorter than 6 h and small amplitudes are there.
Jens Fiedler and Gerd Baumgarten
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16051–16061,Short summary
Ice particles of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) are used as a tracer to investigate tidal signatures in the altitude range from 80 to 90 km. For the first time solar and lunar tidal parameters in NLCs were determined simultaneously from the same data set. Solar variations are dominated by diurnal and semidiurnal tidal components. For NLC occurrence the lunar semidiurnal amplitude is approx. 50 % of the solar semidiurnal amplitude. Phases of solar components indicate upward propagating tides.
Michael Gerding, Jochen Zöllner, Marius Zecha, Kathrin Baumgarten, Josef Höffner, Gunter Stober, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15569–15580,Short summary
We describe the first comparative study of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) and mesospheric summer echoes at midlatitudes. Therefore, this study compares fresh clouds (small particles) with fully evolved clouds in the mesosphere, hinting at their evolution. It is shown that, in contrast to higher latitudes, here only a thin layer of fresh particles exist above the NLCs. This gives evidence that NLCs are not formed locally but are typically advected. This needs to be acknowledged in trend studies.
Gabriel Giono, Boris Strelnikov, Heiner Asmus, Tristan Staszak, Nickolay Ivchenko, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5299–5314,Short summary
Energetic photons, such as ultraviolet light, are able to eject electrons from a material surface, thus creating an electrical current, also called a photocurrent. A proper estimation of this photocurrent can be crucial for space- or rocket-borne particle detectors, as it can dominate over the currents that are of scientific interest (induced by charged particles, for example). This article outlines the design for photocurrent modelling and for experimental confirmation in a laboratory.
Rolf Rüfenacht, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Hildebrand, Franziska Schranz, Vivien Matthias, Gunter Stober, Franz-Josef Lübken, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1971–1987,Short summary
Wind information throughout the middle-atmosphere is crucial for the understanding of atmospheric dynamics but became available only recently, thanks to developments in remote sensing and modelling approaches. We present the first thorough assessment of the quality of the wind estimates by comparing co-located observations from lidar and microwave radiometry and opposing them to the major atmospheric models. Moreover we evaluated a new approach for measuring mesopause region wind by radiometry.
Miriam Sinnhuber, Uwe Berger, Bernd Funke, Holger Nieder, Thomas Reddmann, Gabriele Stiller, Stefan Versick, Thomas von Clarmann, and Jan Maik Wissing
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1115–1147,Short summary
Results from global models are used to analyze the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the middle atmosphere (10–80 km). Model results agree well with observations, and show strong enhancements of NOy, long-lasting ozone loss, and a net heating in the uppermost stratosphere (~35–45 km) during polar winter which changes sign in spring. Energetic particle precipitation therefore has the potential to impact atmospheric dynamics, starting from a warmer winter-time upper stratosphere.
Kathrin Baumgarten, Michael Gerding, Gerd Baumgarten, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 371–384,Short summary
Gravity waves (GWs) as well as solar tides are a key driving mechanism for the circulation in the Earth's atmosphere. The temporal variation of these waves is studied using a record long 10-day continuous Rayleigh–Mie–Raman lidar sounding at midlatitudes. This data set shows a large variability of these waves on timescales of a few days and therefore provides new insights into wave intermittency phenomena, which can help to improve model simulations.
Jens Hildebrand, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Fiedler, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13345–13359,Short summary
We present altitude profiles of winds and temperatures in the Arctic strato- and mesosphere obtained during three Januaries. The data show large year-to-year variations. We compare the observations to model data. For monthly mean profiles we find good agreement below 55 km altitude but also differences of up to 20 K and 20 m s-1 above. The fluctuations during single nights indicate gravity waves. The kinetic energy of such waves is typically 5 to 10 times larger than their potential energy.
Heiner Asmus, Tristan Staszak, Boris Strelnikov, Franz-Josef Lübken, Martin Friedrich, and Markus Rapp
Ann. Geophys., 35, 979–998,Short summary
This work sheds new light on the size distribution of dust grains of meteoric origin in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region using rocket-borne instrumentation. We found that a large number of very small (~ 0.5 nm) particles are charged and therefore have a significant influence on the charge balance of the lower ionosphere.
Andreas Schneider, Johannes Wagner, Jens Söder, Michael Gerding, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7941–7954,Short summary
Wave breaking is studied with a combination of high-resolution turbulence observations with the balloon-borne instrument LITOS and mesoscale simulations with the WRF model. A relation between observed turbulent energy dissipation rates and the occurrence of wave patterns in modelled vertical winds is found, which is interpreted as the effect of wave saturation. The change of stability plays less of a role for mean dissipation for the flights examined.
Boris Strelnikov, Artur Szewczyk, Irina Strelnikova, Ralph Latteck, Gerd Baumgarten, Franz-Josef Lübken, Markus Rapp, Stefanos Fasoulas, Stefan Löhle, Martin Eberhart, Ulf-Peter Hoppe, Tim Dunker, Martin Friedrich, Jonas Hedin, Mikhail Khaplanov, Jörg Gumbel, and Aroh Barjatya
Ann. Geophys., 35, 547–565,Short summary
The WADIS sounding rocket mission utilized multi-point turbulence measurements in the mesosphere by different techniques, i.e., with ionization gauges carried by rockets and ground-based MAARSY and EISCAT radars. Results show that turbulence energy dissipation rates oscillate in space and time with amplitude of up to 2 orders of magnitude. Spatial oscillations show the same wavelengths as atmospheric gravity waves. Temporal variability reveals periods of atmospheric tides and gravity waves.
Johannes Wagner, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Martina Bramberger, Benjamin Witschas, Fernando Chouza, Stephan Rahm, Christian Mallaun, Gerd Baumgarten, and Peter Hoor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4031–4052,
Franz-Josef Lübken, Gerd Baumgarten, Jens Hildebrand, and Francis J. Schmidlin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3911–3919,Short summary
Wind measurements in the middle atmosphere (MA) are crucial to our understanding of atmospheric processes. We have recently developed a new laser-based method to measure winds called DoRIS (Doppler Rayleigh Iodine Spectrometer) which is the only technique to monitor winds in the middle atmosphere quasi-continuously. We compare our measurements with rocket-borne measurements and find excellent agreement above 30 km. DoRIS can now be considered as a validated method to measure winds in the MA.
Michael Gerding, Maren Kopp, Josef Höffner, Kathrin Baumgarten, and Franz-Josef Lübken
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3707–3715,Short summary
Temperature soundings by lidar are an important tool for the understanding of the middle atmosphere, including gravity waves and tides. Though, mesospheric lidar soundings at daytime are rare. We describe a daylight-capable RMR lidar with optical bandwidths in the range of the Doppler broadened laser backscatter. We account for the systematic temperature error induced by the optical filter, and present examples of daylight-independent temperature sounding as well as tidal analysis.
J. Kiliani, G. Baumgarten, F.-J. Lübken, and U. Berger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12897–12907,Short summary
For the first time the shape of noctilucent cloud particles is analyzed with a 3-D Lagrangian model. Three-color lidar measurements are compared directly to optical modeling of NLC simulations with non-spherical shapes: a mix of elongated and flattened cylindrical ice particles consistent with measurements. Comparison is best if flattened particles form a majority, with mean axis ratio around 2.8. NLCs from cylindrical particles are slightly brighter and consist of fewer but larger ice particle.
G. R. Sonnemann, P. Hartogh, U. Berger, and M. Grygalashvyly
Ann. Geophys., 33, 749–767,
A. Schneider, M. Gerding, and F.-J. Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2159–2166,Short summary
Stratospheric turbulence is essential for the atmospheric energy budget. We compare in situ observations with our LITOS method based on spectral analysis of mm-scale wind fluctuations with the Thorpe method applied to standard radiosondes. Energy dissipations rates from both methods differ by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Nevertheless, mean values are in good agreement. We present case studies on both methods and examine the applicability of the Thorpe method for calculation of dissipation rates.
H. Wilms, M. Rapp, P. Hoffmann, J. Fiedler, and G. Baumgarten
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11951–11963,
N. Kaifler, G. Baumgarten, J. Fiedler, and F.-J. Lübken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11757–11768,
A. Szewczyk, B. Strelnikov, M. Rapp, I. Strelnikova, G. Baumgarten, N. Kaifler, T. Dunker, and U.-P. Hoppe
Ann. Geophys., 31, 775–785,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Mesosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Modelled effects of temperature gradients and waves on the hydroxyl rotational distribution in ground-based airglow measurementsA study of the dynamical characteristics of inertia–gravity waves in the Antarctic mesosphere combining the PANSY radar and a non-hydrostatic general circulation modelForcing mechanisms of the terdiurnal tideThe role of the winter residual circulation in the summer mesopause regions in WACCMInfluence of the sudden stratospheric warming on quasi-2-day wavesOn the impact of the temporal variability of the collisional quenching process on the mesospheric OH emission layer: a study based on SD-WACCM4 and SABEREnvironmental influences on the intensity changes of tropical cyclones over the western North PacificModeling of very low frequency (VLF) radio wave signal profile due to solar flares using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation coupled with ionospheric chemistryThe genesis of Typhoon Nuri as observed during the Tropical Cyclone Structure 2008 (TCS08) field experiment – Part 2: Observations of the convective environmentCO at 40–80 km above Kiruna observed by the ground-based microwave radiometer KIMRA and simulated by the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model
Christoph Franzen, Patrick Joseph Espy, and Robert Edward Hibbins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 333–343,Short summary
Ground-based observations of the hydroxyl (OH) airglow have indicated that the rotational energy levels may not be in thermal equilibrium with the surrounding gas. Here we use simulations of the OH airglow to show that temperature changes across the extended airglow layer, either climatological or those temporarily caused by atmospheric waves, can mimic this effect for thermalized OH. Thus, these must be considered in order to quantify the non-thermal nature of the OH airglow.
Ryosuke Shibuya and Kaoru Sato
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3395–3415,Short summary
The first long-term simulation using the high-top non-hydrostatic general circulation model (NICAM) was executed to analyze mesospheric gravity waves. A new finding in this paper is that the spectrum of the vertical fluxes of the zonal momentum has an isolated peak at frequencies slightly lower than f at latitudes from 30 to 75° S at a height of 70 km. This study discusses the physical mechanism for an explanation of the existence of the isolated spectrum peak in the mesosphere.
Friederike Lilienthal, Christoph Jacobi, and Christoph Geißler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15725–15742,Short summary
The terdiurnal solar tide is an atmospheric wave, owing to the daily variation of solar heating with a period of 8 h. Here, we present model simulations of this tide and investigate the relative importance of possible forcing mechanisms because they are still under debate. These are, besides direct solar heating, nonlinear interactions between other tides and gravity wave–tide interactions. As a result, solar heating is most important and nonlinear effects partly counteract this forcing.
Maartje Sanne Kuilman and Bodil Karlsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4217–4228,Short summary
In this study, we investigate the role of the winter residual circulation in the summer mesopause region using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model. In addition, we study the role of the summer stratosphere in shaping the conditions of the summer polar mesosphere. We strengthen the evidence that the variability in the summer mesopause region is mainly driven by changes in the summer mesosphere rather than in the summer stratosphere.
Sheng-Yang Gu, Han-Li Liu, Xiankang Dou, and Tao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4885–4896,Short summary
The influences of sudden stratospheric warming in the Northern Hemisphere on quasi-2-day waves are studied with both observations and simulations. We found the energy of W3 is transferred to W2 through the nonlinear interaction with SPW1 and the instability at winter mesopause could provide additional amplification for W3. The summer easterly is enhanced during SSW, which is more favorable for the propagation of quasi-2-day waves.
S. Kowalewski, C. von Savigny, M. Palm, I. C. McDade, and J. Notholt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10193–10210,
Shoujuan Shu, Fuqing Zhang, Jie Ming, and Yuan Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6329–6342,
S. Palit, T. Basak, S. K. Mondal, S. Pal, and S. K. Chakrabarti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 9159–9168,
M. T. Montgomery and R. K. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4001–4009,
C. G. Hoffmann, D. E. Kinnison, R. R. Garcia, M. Palm, J. Notholt, U. Raffalski, and G. Hochschild
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3261–3271,
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Local time variations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) in the Northern Hemisphere are studied using a combination of a global circulation model and a microphysical model. We investigate the brightness, altitude, and occurrence of the clouds and find a good agreement between model and observations. The variations are caused by tidal structures in background parameters. The temperature varies by about 2 K and water vapor by about 3 ppmv at the altitude of ice particle sublimation near 81.5 km.
Local time variations of polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) in the Northern Hemisphere are studied...