Articles | Volume 18, issue 11
Research article 08 Jun 2018
Research article | 08 Jun 2018
Insight into global trends in aerosol composition from 2005 to 2015 inferred from the OMI Ultraviolet Aerosol Index
Melanie S. Hammer et al.
Melanie S. Hammer, Randall V. Martin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Virginie Buchard, Omar Torres, David A. Ridley, and Robert J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2507–2523,Short summary
We interpret satellite observations to infer the global absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) aerosols. We incorporate these BrC absorption properties into a chemical transport model to estimate global direct radiative effects and changes in hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first time the effect of BrC absorption on atmospheric photochemistry has been considered in a global chemical transport model.
Nick Schutgens, Oleg Dubovik, Otto Hasekamp, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Peter J. T. Leonard, Pavel Litvinov, Jens Redemann, Yohei Shinozuka, Gerrit de Leeuw, Stefan Kinne, Thomas Popp, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6895–6917,Short summary
Absorptive aerosol has a potentially large impact on climate change. We evaluate and intercompare four global satellite datasets of absorptive aerosol optical depth (AAOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA). We show that these datasets show reasonable correlations with the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) reference, although significant biases remain. In a follow-up paper we show that these observations nevertheless can be used for model evaluation.
Nick Gorkavyi, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Leslie Lait, Peter Colarco, Simon Carn, Matthew DeLand, Paul Newman, Mark Schoeberl, Ghassan Taha, Omar Torres, Alexander Vasilkov, and Joanna Joiner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for AMTShort summary
The June 21, 2019 eruption of the Raikoke volcano produced significant amounts of volcanic aerosols (sulfate and ash) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) gas that penetrated into the lower stratosphere. It was shown that the amount of SO2 decreases with a characteristic period of 8–18 days and the peak of sulfate aerosol lags the initial peak of SO2 by 1.5 months. Also we examined the dynamics of unusual a stratospheric coherent circular cloud of SO2 and aerosol that was observed from 07/18 to 10/22/2019.
Vinay Kayetha, Omar Torres, and Hiren Jethva
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for AMTShort summary
Existing measurements of spectral aerosol absorption are limited, particularly in the UV region. Here, we use the synergy of satellite and ground measurements to derive spectral single scattering albedo of aerosols from UV-Visible spectrum. The resulting spectral SSAs are used to investigate seasonality in absorption for carbonaceous, dust and urban aerosols. Regional aerosol absorption models are derived that could be used to make reliable assumptions in satellite remote sensing of aerosols.
Sampa Das, Peter R. Colarco, Luke D. Oman, Ghassan Taha, and Omar Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
Interactions of extreme fires with weather systems can produce towering smoke plumes that inject aerosols at very high altitudes (> 10 km). Three such major injections, largest at the time in terms of emitted aerosol mass, took place over British Columbia, Canada in August 2017. We model the transport and impacts of injected aerosols on the radiation balance of the atmosphere. Our model results match the satellite-observed plume transport and residence time at these high altitudes very closely.
Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Changwoo Ahn, Glen Jaross, and Diego G. Loyola
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6789–6806,Short summary
TROPOMI measures the quantity of small suspended particles (aerosols). We describe initial results of aerosol measurements using a NASA algorithm that retrieves the UV aerosol index, aerosol optical depth, and single-scattering albedo. An evaluation of derived products using sun-photometer observations shows close agreement. We also use these results to discuss important biomass burning and wildfire events around the world that got the attention of scientists and news media alike.
Nick Schutgens, Andrew M. Sayer, Andreas Heckel, Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Gerrit de Leeuw, Peter J. T. Leonard, Robert C. Levy, Antti Lipponen, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Thomas Popp, Caroline Poulsen, Virginia Sawyer, Larisa Sogacheva, Gareth Thomas, Omar Torres, Yujie Wang, Stefan Kinne, Michael Schulz, and Philip Stier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12431–12457,Short summary
We intercompare 14 different datasets of satellite observations of aerosol. Such measurements are challenging but also provide the best opportunity to globally observe an atmospheric component strongly related to air pollution and climate change. Our study shows that most datasets perform similarly well on a global scale but that locally errors can be quite different. We develop a technique to estimate satellite errors everywhere, even in the absence of surface reference data.
Jay Herman, Alexander Cede, Liang Huang, Jerald Ziemke, Omar Torres, Nickolay Krotkov, Matthew Kowalewski, and Karin Blank
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8351–8380,Short summary
The amount of erythemal irradiance reaching the Earth's surface has been calculated from ozone, aerosol, and reflectivity data obtained from OMI and DSCOVR/EPIC satellite instruments showing areas with high levels of solar UV radiation. Changes in erythemal irradiance, cloud transmission, aerosol transmission, and ozone absorption have been estimated for 14 years 2005–2018 in units of percent per year for 191 locations, mostly large cities, and from EPIC for the entire illuminated Earth.
Zhong Chen, Pawan K. Bhartia, Omar Torres, Glen Jaross, Robert Loughman, Matthew DeLand, Peter Colarco, Robert Damadeo, and Ghassan Taha
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 3471–3485,Short summary
The scope of the paper is the evaluation of stratospheric aerosols derived from the OMPS/LP instrument via comparison with independent datasets from the SAGE III/ISS instrument. Results show very good agreement for extinction profiles between an altitude of 19 and 27 km, to within ±25 %, and show systematic differences (LP-SAGE III/ISS) above 28 km and below 19 km (greater than ±25 %).
Larisa Sogacheva, Thomas Popp, Andrew M. Sayer, Oleg Dubovik, Michael J. Garay, Andreas Heckel, N. Christina Hsu, Hiren Jethva, Ralph A. Kahn, Pekka Kolmonen, Miriam Kosmale, Gerrit de Leeuw, Robert C. Levy, Pavel Litvinov, Alexei Lyapustin, Peter North, Omar Torres, and Antti Arola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2031–2056,Short summary
The typical lifetime of a single satellite platform is on the order of 5–15 years; thus, for climate studies the usage of multiple satellite sensors should be considered. Here we introduce and evaluate a monthly AOD merged product and AOD global and regional time series for the period 1995–2017 created from 12 individual satellite AOD products, which provide a long-term perspective on AOD changes over different regions of the globe.
Hiren Jethva and Omar Torres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6489–6503,Short summary
The intercomparison of satellite- and ground-measured aerosol absorption properties, such as presented here using Aura-OMI and SKYNET sensors, constitutes an important exercise to evaluate relative performance, track algorithm changes, and to diagnose retrieval accuracy and issues. The two datasets are found to agree reasonably well under moderate to higher aerosol loading but show disagreement under lower aerosol amounts due to retrieval issues in both techniques.
Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, and Yasuko Yoshida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4291–4307,Short summary
Accuracy assessment of the satellite-retrieved aerosol properties is an important exercise to validate and track the changes in the retrieval algorithm. Here, for the first time, three standard aerosol products derived from MODIS Aqua are compared against the ground-based AERONET dataset over the North American region. The present validation analysis provides guidance in the development of inversion schemes to derive aerosol properties from existing and future MODIS-like sensors.
Xiaoguang Xu, Jun Wang, Yi Wang, Jing Zeng, Omar Torres, Jeffrey S. Reid, Steven D. Miller, J. Vanderlei Martins, and Lorraine A. Remer
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3269–3288,Short summary
Detecting aerosol layer height from space is challenging. The traditional method relies on active sensors such as lidar that provide the detailed vertical structure of the aerosol profile but is costly with limited spatial coverage (more than 1 year is needed for global coverage). Here we developed a passive remote sensing technique that uses backscattered sunlight to retrieve smoke aerosol layer height over both water and vegetated surfaces from a sensor 1.5 million kilometers from the Earth.
Jingyuan Shao, Qianjie Chen, Yuxuan Wang, Xiao Lu, Pengzhen He, Yele Sun, Viral Shah, Randall V. Martin, Sajeev Philip, Shaojie Song, Yue Zhao, Zhouqing Xie, Lin Zhang, and Becky Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6107–6123,Short summary
Sulfate is a key species contributing to particle formation and growth during wintertime Chinese haze events. This study combines observations and modeling of oxygen isotope signatures in sulfate aerosol to investigate its formation mechanisms, with a focus on heterogeneous production on aerosol surface via H2O2, O3, and NO2 and trace metal catalyzed oxidation. Contributions from different formation pathways are presented.
Marc Mallet, Pierre Nabat, Paquita Zuidema, Jens Redemann, Andrew Mark Sayer, Martin Stengel, Sebastian Schmidt, Sabrina Cochrane, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Kerry Meyer, Pablo Saide, Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Robert Wood, David Saint Martin, Romain Roehrig, Christina Hsu, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4963–4990,Short summary
The model is able to represent LWP but not the LCF. AOD is consistent over the continent but also over ocean (ACAOD). Differences are observed in SSA due to the absence of internal mixing in ALADIN-Climate. A significant regional gradient of the forcing at TOA is observed. An intense positive forcing is simulated over Gabon. Results highlight the significant effect of enhanced moisture on BBA extinction. The surface dimming modifies the energy budget.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, W. Richard Leaitch, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Douglas B. Collins, Patrick L. Hayes, Anna L. Hodshire, Lin Huang, John K. Kodros, Alexander Moravek, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Sangeeta Sharma, Samantha Tremblay, Gregory R. Wentworth, Megan D. Willis, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2787–2812,Short summary
Summertime Arctic atmospheric aerosols are strongly controlled by processes related to natural regional sources. We use a chemical transport model with size-resolved aerosol microphysics to interpret measurements made during summertime 2016 in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Our results explore the processes that control summertime aerosol size distributions and support a climate-relevant role for Arctic marine secondary organic aerosol formed from precursor vapors with Arctic marine sources.
Robyn N. C. Latimer and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2635–2653,Short summary
Long-term aerosol measurements from the IMPROVE network were used to investigate the simulation of mass scattering efficiency in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. The simulation of mass scattering efficiency was developed to better represent observations by refining the representation of aerosol size and hygroscopicity. Simulated average mass scattering efficiency over North America increased by 16 %, with larger increases in northern regions and reductions in the southwest.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, W. Richard Leaitch, Amir A. Aliabadi, Allan K. Bertram, Jean-Pierre Blanchet, Aude Boivin-Rioux, Heiko Bozem, Julia Burkart, Rachel Y. W. Chang, Joannie Charette, Jai P. Chaubey, Robert J. Christensen, Ana Cirisan, Douglas B. Collins, Betty Croft, Joelle Dionne, Greg J. Evans, Christopher G. Fletcher, Martí Galí, Roghayeh Ghahremaninezhad, Eric Girard, Wanmin Gong, Michel Gosselin, Margaux Gourdal, Sarah J. Hanna, Hakase Hayashida, Andreas B. Herber, Sareh Hesaraki, Peter Hoor, Lin Huang, Rachel Hussherr, Victoria E. Irish, Setigui A. Keita, John K. Kodros, Franziska Köllner, Felicia Kolonjari, Daniel Kunkel, Luis A. Ladino, Kathy Law, Maurice Levasseur, Quentin Libois, John Liggio, Martine Lizotte, Katrina M. Macdonald, Rashed Mahmood, Randall V. Martin, Ryan H. Mason, Lisa A. Miller, Alexander Moravek, Eric Mortenson, Emma L. Mungall, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maryam Namazi, Ann-Lise Norman, Norman T. O'Neill, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Lynn M. Russell, Johannes Schneider, Hannes Schulz, Sangeeta Sharma, Meng Si, Ralf M. Staebler, Nadja S. Steiner, Jennie L. Thomas, Knut von Salzen, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Megan D. Willis, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jun-Wei Xu, and Jacqueline D. Yakobi-Hancock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2527–2560,Short summary
The Arctic is experiencing considerable environmental change with climate warming, illustrated by the dramatic decrease in sea-ice extent. It is important to understand both the natural and perturbed Arctic systems to gain a better understanding of how they will change in the future. This paper summarizes new insights into the relationships between Arctic aerosol particles and climate, as learned over the past five or so years by a large Canadian research consortium, NETCARE.
Jeffrey A. Geddes, Randall V. Martin, Eric J. Bucsela, Chris A. McLinden, and Daniel J. M. Cunningham
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6271–6287,Short summary
This paper describes an approach for separating the stratospheric and tropospheric contributions in geostationary observations of nitrogen dioxide from the upcoming TEMPO instrument. We find minimal impact of the limited field of observation compared to previous low-Earth-observing systems with global coverage. We find that continued development of low-Earth-orbit retrievals will benefit geostationary data by providing important context outside the field of regard.
Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, and Changwoo Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5837–5864,Short summary
We introduce a new global satellite product of aerosol amounts lofted above the clouds from near-UV observations of Aura/OMI. The global decadal record derived from the product has revealed unprecedented quantitative information of light-absorbing aerosols above the cloud over several oceanic and continental regions of the world. The new dataset characterizing the optical properties of aerosol-cloud overlap will help quantify their radiative effects and representation in climate models.
Sebastian D. Eastham, Michael S. Long, Christoph A. Keller, Elizabeth Lundgren, Robert M. Yantosca, Jiawei Zhuang, Chi Li, Colin J. Lee, Matthew Yannetti, Benjamin M. Auer, Thomas L. Clune, Jules Kouatchou, William M. Putman, Matthew A. Thompson, Atanas L. Trayanov, Andrea M. Molod, Randall V. Martin, and Daniel J. Jacob
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 2941–2953,Short summary
Global atmospheric chemical transport models are crucial tools in atmospheric science, used to address problems ranging from climate change to acid rain. GEOS-Chem High Performance (GCHP) is a new implementation of the widely used GEOS-Chem model, designed for massively parallel architectures. GCHP v11-02c is shown to be highly scalable from 6 to over 500 cores, enabling the routine simulation of global atmospheric chemistry from the surface to the stratopause at resolutions of ~50 km or finer.
Chandra Venkataraman, Michael Brauer, Kushal Tibrewal, Pankaj Sadavarte, Qiao Ma, Aaron Cohen, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Joseph Frostad, Zbigniew Klimont, Randall V. Martin, Dylan B. Millet, Sajeev Philip, Katherine Walker, and Shuxiao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8017–8039,
Matthew J. Cooper, Randall V. Martin, Alexei I. Lyapustin, and Chris A. McLinden
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2983–2994,Short summary
To accurately infer air pollutant concentrations from satellite observations, we must first know the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface. Using a model, we show that satellite observations are better able to observe NO2 near the surface if snow is present. However, knowing when snow is present is difficult due to its variability. We test seven existing snow cover data sets to assess their ability to inform future satellite observations and find that the IMS data set is best suited for this task.
Omar Torres, Pawan K. Bhartia, Hiren Jethva, and Changwoo Ahn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2701–2715,Short summary
Since about three years after the launch the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the EOS-Aura satellite, the sensor’s viewing capability has been affected by what is believed to be an internal obstruction that has reduced OMI’s spatial coverage. It currently affects about half of the instrument’s 60 viewing positions. In this work we carry out an analysis to assess the effect of the reduced spatial coverage on the monthly average values of retrieved parameters.
Pieternel F. Levelt, Joanna Joiner, Johanna Tamminen, J. Pepijn Veefkind, Pawan K. Bhartia, Deborah C. Stein Zweers, Bryan N. Duncan, David G. Streets, Henk Eskes, Ronald van der A, Chris McLinden, Vitali Fioletov, Simon Carn, Jos de Laat, Matthew DeLand, Sergey Marchenko, Richard McPeters, Jerald Ziemke, Dejian Fu, Xiong Liu, Kenneth Pickering, Arnoud Apituley, Gonzalo González Abad, Antti Arola, Folkert Boersma, Christopher Chan Miller, Kelly Chance, Martin de Graaf, Janne Hakkarainen, Seppo Hassinen, Iolanda Ialongo, Quintus Kleipool, Nickolay Krotkov, Can Li, Lok Lamsal, Paul Newman, Caroline Nowlan, Raid Suleiman, Lieuwe Gijsbert Tilstra, Omar Torres, Huiqun Wang, and Krzysztof Wargan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5699–5745,Short summary
The aim of this paper is to highlight the many successes of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) spanning more than 13 years. Data from OMI have been used in a wide range of applications. Due to its unprecedented spatial resolution, in combination with daily global coverage, OMI plays a unique role in measuring trace gases important for the ozone layer, air quality, and climate change. OMI data continue to be used for new research and applications.
Jungbin Mok, Nickolay A. Krotkov, Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, Zhanqing Li, Jhoon Kim, Ja-Ho Koo, Sujung Go, Hitoshi Irie, Gordon Labow, Thomas F. Eck, Brent N. Holben, Jay Herman, Robert P. Loughman, Elena Spinei, Seoung Soo Lee, Pradeep Khatri, and Monica Campanelli
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2295–2311,Short summary
Measuring aerosol absorption from the shortest ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths is important for studies of climate, tropospheric photochemistry, human health, and agricultural productivity. We estimate the accuracy and demonstrate consistency of aerosol absorption retrievals from different instruments, after accounting for spectrally varying surface albedo and gaseous absorption.
Meng Li, Zbigniew Klimont, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Bo Zheng, Chris Heyes, Janusz Cofala, Yuxuan Zhang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3433–3456,Short summary
In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of two widely used anthropogenic emission inventories over China, ECLIPSE and MIX, to explore the potential sources of uncertainties and find clues to improving emission inventories. We found that SO2 emission estimates are consistent between the two inventories (with 1 % differences), while NOx emissions in ECLIPSE's estimates are 16 % lower than those in MIX. Discrepancies at the sector and provincial levels are much higher.
Peter R. Colarco, Santiago Gassó, Changwoo Ahn, Virginie Buchard, Arlindo M. da Silva, and Omar Torres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4121–4134,Short summary
We need satellite observations to characterize the properties of atmospheric aerosols. Those observations have uncertainties associated with them because of assumptions made in their algorithms. We test the assumptions on a part of the aerosol algorithms used with the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flying on the NASA Aura spacecraft. We simulate the OMI observations using a global aerosol model, and then compare what OMI tells us about the simulated aerosols with the model results directly.
Jeffrey A. Geddes and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10071–10091,Short summary
We use observations of nitrogen dioxide columns from multiple satellite instruments with the help of a chemical transport model to constrain the global deposition of reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) over the last 2 decades. NOy deposition decreased by up to 60 % in eastern North America, doubled in regions of East Asia, and declined by 20 % in parts of Western Europe. We also find changes in the export of NOy via atmospheric transport, with direct impacts on countries downwind of source regions.
Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang, Randall V. Martin, Jintai Lin, Hong Huo, Bo Zheng, Siwen Wang, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4131–4145,Short summary
We investigated the impact of spatial proxies on the representation of gridded emissions by comparing six gridded NOx emission datasets over China developed from the same magnitude of emissions and different spatial proxies. GEOS-Chem-modeled NO2 columns from the six gridded emissions are compared with satellite-based columns from OMI. Results show that differences between modeled and satellite-based NO2 columns are sensitive to the spatial proxies used in the gridded emission inventories.
Hiren Jethva, Omar Torres, Lorraine Remer, Jens Redemann, John Livingston, Stephen Dunagan, Yohei Shinozuka, Meloe Kacenelenbogen, Michal Segal Rosenheimer, and Rob Spurr
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5053–5062,Short summary
Validation of the above-cloud aerosol optical depth retrieved using the "color ratio" method applied to MODIS cloudy-sky measurements against airborne direct measurements made by NASA’s AATS and 4STAR sun photometers during SAFARI-2000, ACE-ASIA 2001, and SEAC4RS 2013 reveals a good level of agreement (difference < 0.1), in which most matchups are found be constrained within the estimated uncertainties associated with the MODIS retrievals (-10 % to +50 %).
Graydon Snider, Crystal L. Weagle, Kalaivani K. Murdymootoo, Amanda Ring, Yvonne Ritchie, Emily Stone, Ainsley Walsh, Clement Akoshile, Nguyen Xuan Anh, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Jeff Brook, Fatimah D. Qonitan, Jinlu Dong, Derek Griffith, Kebin He, Brent N. Holben, Ralph Kahn, Nofel Lagrosas, Puji Lestari, Zongwei Ma, Amit Misra, Leslie K. Norford, Eduardo J. Quel, Abdus Salam, Bret Schichtel, Lior Segev, Sachchida Tripathi, Chien Wang, Chao Yu, Qiang Zhang, Yuxuan Zhang, Michael Brauer, Aaron Cohen, Mark D. Gibson, Yang Liu, J. Vanderlei Martins, Yinon Rudich, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9629–9653,Short summary
We examine the chemical composition of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected on filters at traditionally undersampled, globally dispersed urban locations. Several PM2.5 chemical components (e.g. ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and black carbon) vary by more than an order of magnitude between sites while aerosol hygroscopicity varies by a factor of 2. Enhanced anthropogenic dust fractions in large urban areas are apparent from high Zn : Al ratios.
Santiago Gassó and Omar Torres
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3031–3052,Short summary
Aerosol optical depths derived by the OMI near-UV algorithm are evaluated against independent observations over the ocean. The comparison resulted in differences within the expected levels of uncertainty. In addition, in clear sky conditions, the retrieved AODs compare well with independent measurements but they are biased high in partially cloud-contaminated pixels. Additional sources of discrepancies are documented and will be corrected in future versions of the algorithm.
Emma L. Mungall, Betty Croft, Martine Lizotte, Jennie L. Thomas, Jennifer G. Murphy, Maurice Levasseur, Randall V. Martin, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, John Liggio, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6665–6680,Short summary
Previous work has suggested that marine emissions of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) could impact the Arctic climate through interactions with clouds. We made the first high-time-resolution measurements of summertime atmospheric DMS in the Canadian Arctic, and performed source sensitivity simulations. We found that regional marine sources dominated, but do not appear to be sufficient to explain our observations. Understanding DMS sources in the Arctic is necessary to model future climate in the region.
Sajeev Philip, Randall V. Martin, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 1683–1695,Short summary
We assessed the sensitivity of simulation accuracy to the duration of chemical and transport operators in a chemistry-transport model. Longer continuous transport operator duration increases concentrations of emitted species. Chemical operator duration twice that of the transport operator duration offers more simulation accuracy per unit computation. The simulation error from coarser spatial resolution generally exceeds that from longer operator duration.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, W. Richard Leaitch, Peter Tunved, Thomas J. Breider, Stephen D. D'Andrea, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3665–3682,Short summary
Measurements at high-Arctic sites show a strong annual cycle in atmospheric particle number and size. Previous studies identified poor scientific understanding related to global model representation of Arctic particle number and size, limiting ability to simulate this environment. Here we evaluate state-of-science ability to simulate Arctic particles using GEOS-Chem-TOMAS model, documenting key roles and interconnections of particle formation, cloud-related processes and remaining uncertainties.
N. I. Kristiansen, A. Stohl, D. J. L. Olivié, B. Croft, O. A. Søvde, H. Klein, T. Christoudias, D. Kunkel, S. J. Leadbetter, Y. H. Lee, K. Zhang, K. Tsigaridis, T. Bergman, N. Evangeliou, H. Wang, P.-L. Ma, R. C. Easter, P. J. Rasch, X. Liu, G. Pitari, G. Di Genova, S. Y. Zhao, Y. Balkanski, S. E. Bauer, G. S. Faluvegi, H. Kokkola, R. V. Martin, J. R. Pierce, M. Schulz, D. Shindell, H. Tost, and H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3525–3561,Short summary
Processes affecting aerosol removal from the atmosphere are not fully understood. In this study we investigate to what extent atmospheric transport models can reproduce observed loss of aerosols. We compare measurements of radioactive isotopes, that attached to ambient sulfate aerosols during the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, to 19 models using identical emissions. Results indicate aerosol removal that is too fast in most models, and apply to aerosols that have undergone long-range transport.
Melanie S. Hammer, Randall V. Martin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Virginie Buchard, Omar Torres, David A. Ridley, and Robert J. D. Spurr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2507–2523,Short summary
We interpret satellite observations to infer the global absorption properties of brown carbon (BrC) aerosols. We incorporate these BrC absorption properties into a chemical transport model to estimate global direct radiative effects and changes in hydroxyl radical (OH) concentrations. To our knowledge, this is the first time the effect of BrC absorption on atmospheric photochemistry has been considered in a global chemical transport model.
Chi Li, Randall V. Martin, Brian L. Boys, Aaron van Donkelaar, and Sacha Ruzzante
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2435–2457,Short summary
We comprehensively screen and process global hourly visibility data to construct a more reliable monthly inverse visibility (1/Vis) data set, and to infer trends in atmospheric haze. Consistency is found for the inferred 1/Vis seasonality and trends with other collocated in situ aerosol measurements over the US and Europe. Trends of 1/Vis over 1945–1996 for the eastern US, and over 1973–2013 for Europe and eastern Asia are significantly associated with the variation of SO2 emission.
Jeffrey A. Geddes, Colette L. Heald, Sam J. Silva, and Randall V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2323–2340,Short summary
Land use and land cover changes driven by anthropogenic activities or natural causes (e.g., forestry management, agriculture, wildfires) can impact climate and air quality in many complex ways. Using a state-of-the-art chemistry model, we investigate how tree mortality in the US due to insect infestation and disease outbreak may impact atmospheric composition. We find that the surface concentrations of ozone and aerosol can be altered due to changing background emissions and loss processes.
Sang Seo Park, Jhoon Kim, Hanlim Lee, Omar Torres, Kwang-Mog Lee, and Sang Deok Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1987–2006,Short summary
The sensitivities of oxygen-dimer (O4) slant column densities (SCDs) to changes in aerosol layer height are investigated using simulated radiances by a linearized pseudo-spherical vector discrete ordinate radiative transfer (VLIDORT) model, and the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique. A new algorithm is developed and tested to derive the aerosol effective height for cases over East Asia using radiance data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI).
Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Jean-Sébastien Côté, Isabelle Courchesne, Jean-Éric Tremblay, Jonathan Gagnon, Jennie L. Thomas, Sangeeta Sharma, Desiree Toom-Sauntry, Alina Chivulescu, Maurice Levasseur, and Jonathan P. D. Abbatt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1937–1953,Short summary
Air near the surface in the summertime Arctic is extremely clean and typically has very low concentrations of both gases and particles. However, atmospheric measurements taken throughout the Canadian Arctic in the summer of 2014 revealed higher-than-expected amounts of gaseous ammonia. It is likely the majority of this ammonia is coming from migratory seabird colonies throughout the Arctic. Seabird guano (dung) releases ammonia which could impact climate and sensitive Arctic ecosystems.
U. Jeong, J. Kim, C. Ahn, O. Torres, X. Liu, P. K. Bhartia, R. J. D. Spurr, D. Haffner, K. Chance, and B. N. Holben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 177–193,Short summary
An aerosol retrieval and error analysis algorithm using OMI measurements based on an optimal-estimation method was developed in this study. The aerosol retrievals were validated using the DRAGON campaign products. The estimated errors of the retrievals represented the actual biases between retrieval and AERONET measurements well. The retrievals, with their estimated uncertainties, are expected to be valuable for relevant studies, such as trace gas retrieval and data assimilation.
J.-T. Lin, M.-Y. Liu, J.-Y. Xin, K. F. Boersma, R. Spurr, R. Martin, and Q. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11217–11241,Short summary
We conduct an improved OMI-based retrieval of tropospheric NO2 VCDs (POMINO) over China by explicitly accounting for aerosol optical effects and surface reflectance anisotropy. Compared to the traditional implicit aerosol treatment, an explicit treatment greatly lowers NO2 VCDs and subsequently estimated NOx emissions over eastern China, but with large spatiotemporal dependence. An explicit treatment also better captures high-pollution days. Effects of surface reflectance treatments are smaller.
P. Castellanos, K. F. Boersma, O. Torres, and J. F. de Haan
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3831–3849,Short summary
Inaccuracies in the retrieval of NO2 tropospheric columns due to the radiative effects of light-absorbing aerosols are not well understood. Here we explicitly account for the effects of aerosols in the Dutch OMI NO2 (DOMINO) tropospheric AMF calculation by including aerosol observations collocated with OMI pixels. The AMF calculations that included aerosol absorption and scattering were on average 10% higher than traditional AMFs. Errors can reach a factor of 2 for individual pixels.
L. Zhang, D. K. Henze, G. A. Grell, G. R. Carmichael, N. Bousserez, Q. Zhang, O. Torres, C. Ahn, Z. Lu, J. Cao, and Y. Mao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10281–10308,Short summary
We attempt to reduce uncertainties in BC emissions and improve BC model simulations by developing top-down, spatially resolved, estimates of BC emissions through assimilation of OMI observations of aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) with the GEOS-Chem model and its adjoint for April and October of 2006. Despite the limitations and uncertainties, using OMI AAOD to constrain BC sources we are able to improve model representation of BC distributions, particularly over China.
J. R. Pierce, B. Croft, J. K. Kodros, S. D. D'Andrea, and R. V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6147–6158,Short summary
In this paper we show that coagulation of cloud droplets with interstitial aerosol particles, a process often neglected in atmospheric aerosol models, has a significant impact on aerosol size distributions and radiative forcings.
V. Buchard, A. M. da Silva, P. R. Colarco, A. Darmenov, C. A. Randles, R. Govindaraju, O. Torres, J. Campbell, and R. Spurr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5743–5760,Short summary
MERRAero is an aerosol reanalysis based on the GEOS-5 earth system model that incorporates an online aerosol module and assimilation of AOD from MODIS sensors. This study assesses the quality of MERRAero absorption using independent OMI observations. In addition to comparisons to OMI absorption AOD, we have developed a radiative transfer interface to simulate the UV aerosol index from assimilated aerosol fields at OMI footprint. Also, we fully diagnose the model using MISR, AERONET and CALIPSO.
G. Snider, C. L. Weagle, R. V. Martin, A. van Donkelaar, K. Conrad, D. Cunningham, C. Gordon, M. Zwicker, C. Akoshile, P. Artaxo, N. X. Anh, J. Brook, J. Dong, R. M. Garland, R. Greenwald, D. Griffith, K. He, B. N. Holben, R. Kahn, I. Koren, N. Lagrosas, P. Lestari, Z. Ma, J. Vanderlei Martins, E. J. Quel, Y. Rudich, A. Salam, S. N. Tripathi, C. Yu, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M. Brauer, A. Cohen, M. D. Gibson, and Y. Liu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 505–521,Short summary
We have initiated a global network of ground-level monitoring stations to measure concentrations of fine aerosols in urban environments. Our findings include major ions species, total mass, and total scatter at three wavelengths. Results will be used to further evaluate and enhance satellite remote sensing estimates.
S. DeSouza-Machado, L. Strow, E. Maddy, O. Torres, G. Thomas, D. Grainger, and A. Robinson
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are instruments on the 1.30 pm polar orbiting Aqua spacecraft. We describe a daytime estimation of dust and volcanic ash layer heights, using a retrieval algorithm that uses the information in the AIRS L1B thermal infrared data, constrained by the MODIS L2 aerosol optical depths. CALIOP aerosol centroid heights are used for dust height comparisons, as are AATSR volcanic plume heights.
L. N. Lamsal, N. A. Krotkov, E. A. Celarier, W. H. Swartz, K. E. Pickering, E. J. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, R. V. Martin, S. Philip, H. Irie, A. Cede, J. Herman, A. Weinheimer, J. J. Szykman, and T. N. Knepp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11587–11609,
G. C. M. Vinken, K. F. Boersma, J. D. Maasakkers, M. Adon, and R. V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10363–10381,
B. Croft, J. R. Pierce, and R. V. Martin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4313–4325,
M. Chin, T. Diehl, Q. Tan, J. M. Prospero, R. A. Kahn, L. A. Remer, H. Yu, A. M. Sayer, H. Bian, I. V. Geogdzhayev, B. N. Holben, S. G. Howell, B. J. Huebert, N. C. Hsu, D. Kim, T. L. Kucsera, R. C. Levy, M. I. Mishchenko, X. Pan, P. K. Quinn, G. L. Schuster, D. G. Streets, S. A. Strode, O. Torres, and X.-P. Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3657–3690,
C. A. McLinden, V. Fioletov, K. F. Boersma, S. K. Kharol, N. Krotkov, L. Lamsal, P. A. Makar, R. V. Martin, J. P. Veefkind, and K. Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3637–3656,
J.-T. Lin, R. V. Martin, K. F. Boersma, M. Sneep, P. Stammes, R. Spurr, P. Wang, M. Van Roozendael, K. Clémer, and H. Irie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1441–1461,
A. Gkikas, N. Hatzianastassiou, N. Mihalopoulos, V. Katsoulis, S. Kazadzis, J. Pey, X. Querol, and O. Torres
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 12135–12154,
O. Torres, C. Ahn, and Z. Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3257–3270,
A. Wiacek, R. V. Martin, A. E. Bourassa, N. D. Lloyd, and D. A. Degenstein
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 2761–2776,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Improved representation of the global dust cycle using observational constraints on dust properties and abundanceContribution of the world's main dust source regions to the global cycle of desert dustEffect of volcanic emissions on clouds during the 2008 and 2018 Kilauea degassing eventsWintertime direct radiative effects due to black carbon (BC) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain as modelled with new BC emission inventories in CHIMEREFuture changes in Beijing haze events under different anthropogenic aerosol emission scenariosPresent-day radiative effect from radiation-absorbing aerosols in snowSeasonal variation in atmospheric pollutants transport in central Chile: dynamics and consequencesNon-equilibrium interplay between gas–particle partitioning and multiphase chemical reactions of semi-volatile compounds: mechanistic insights and practical implications for atmospheric modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonsAerosol acidity and liquid water content regulate the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogenEnhanced light absorption and reduced snow albedo due to internally mixed mineral dust in grains of snowCoral-reef-derived dimethyl sulfide and the climatic impact of the loss of coral reefsHow Asian aerosols impact regional surface temperatures across the globeAerosol dynamics and dispersion of radioactive particlesDevelopment and intercity transferability of land-use regression models for predicting ambient PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 concentrations in northern TaiwanConstraints on global aerosol number concentration, SO2 and condensation sink in UKESM1 using ATom measurementsTurbulence-permitting air pollution simulation for the Stuttgart metropolitan areaTemporally resolved sectoral and regional contributions to air pollution in Beijing: informing short-term emission controlsDrivers of the fungal spore bioaerosol budget: observational analysis and global modelingImproving the sectional Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) aerosols of the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model with the revised Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation system and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements: the dust aerosol observation campaign at Kashi, near the Taklimakan Desert, northwestern ChinaA revised mineral dust emission scheme in GEOS-Chem: improvements in dust simulations over ChinaQuantifying the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to source mineralogy uncertaintyTechnical note: The enhancement limit of coagulation scavenging of small charged particlesThe effect of meteorological conditions and atmospheric composition in the occurrence and development of new particle formation (NPF) events in EuropeEffectiveness of emission control in reducing PM2.5 pollution in central China during winter haze episodes under various potential synoptic controlsAssessment of meteorology vs. control measures in the China fine particular matter trend from 2013 to 2019 by an environmental meteorology indexA global model perturbed parameter ensemble study of secondary organic aerosol formationAssimilating aerosol optical properties related to size and absorption from POLDER/PARASOL with an ensemble data assimilation systemChanges in black carbon emissions over Europe due to COVID-19 lockdownsEffects of marine organic aerosols as sources of immersion-mode ice-nucleating particles on high-latitude mixed-phase cloudsInsights into particulate matter pollution in the North China Plain during wintertime: local contribution or regional transport?Factors controlling marine aerosol size distributions and their climate effects over the northwest Atlantic Ocean regionMass accommodation and gas–particle partitioning in secondary organic aerosols: dependence on diffusivity, volatility, particle-phase reactions, and penetration depthEvident PM2.5 drops in the east of China due to the COVID-19 quarantine measures in FebruaryOn the Contribution of Fast and Slow Responses to Precipitation Changes Caused by Aerosol PerturbationsWildfire smoke-plume rise: a simple energy balance parameterizationEffective radiative forcing from emissions of reactive gases and aerosols – a multi-model comparisonProcesses controlling the vertical aerosol distribution in marine stratocumulus regions – a sensitivity study using the climate model NorESM1-MPrecipitation response to aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions in regional climate simulations over EuropePresent and future aerosol impacts on Arctic climate change in the GISS-E2.1 Earth system modelAeroCom phase III multi-model evaluation of the aerosol life cycle and optical properties using ground- and space-based remote sensing as well as surface in situ observationsResponse of dust emissions in southwestern North America to 21st century trends in climate, CO2 fertilization, and land use: implications for air qualityRevisiting the relationship between Atlantic dust and tropical cyclone activity using aerosol optical depth reanalyses: 2003–2018Weaker cooling by aerosols due to dust–pollution interactionsSource backtracking for dust storm emission inversion using an adjoint method: case study of Northeast ChinaCharacteristics of surface energy balance and atmospheric circulation during hot-and-polluted episodes and their synergistic relationships with urban heat islands over the Pearl River Delta regionStudy on the impact of three Asian industrial regions on PM2.5 in Taiwan and the process analysis during transportParticle aging and aerosol–radiation interaction affect volcanic plume dispersion: evidence from the Raikoke 2019 eruptionThe warming Tibetan Plateau improves winter air quality in the Sichuan Basin, ChinaUncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing impacts the simulated global monsoon in the 20th centuryEffects of 3D electric field on saltation during dust storms: an observational and numerical study
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Danny M. Leung, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, Jessica S. Wan, and Chloe A. Whicker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8127–8167,Short summary
Desert dust interacts with virtually every component of the Earth system, including the climate system. We develop a new methodology to represent the global dust cycle that integrates observational constraints on the properties and abundance of desert dust with global atmospheric model simulations. We show that the resulting representation of the global dust cycle is more accurate than what can be obtained from a large number of current climate global atmospheric models.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, and Jessica S. Wan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8169–8193,Short summary
The many impacts of dust on the Earth system depend on dust mineralogy, which varies between dust source regions. We constrain the contribution of the world’s main dust source regions by integrating dust observations with global model simulations. We find that Asian dust contributes more and that North African dust contributes less than models account for. We obtain a dataset of each source region’s contribution to the dust cycle that can be used to constrain dust impacts on the Earth system.
Katherine H. Breen, Donifan Barahona, Tianle Yuan, Huisheng Bian, and Scott C. James
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7749–7771,Short summary
Increases in atmospheric aerosols affect the scattering and absorption of solar radiation by altering the macrophysical and microphysical processes of clouds. We analyzed aerosol–cloud interactions in response to degassing events from the Kilauea volcano in 2008 and 2018 by comparing satellite and simulated cloud properties. Results showed a threshold response to overcome meteorological effects that is largely controlled by aerosol concentration, composition, plume height, and ENSO state.
Sanhita Ghosh, Shubha Verma, Jayanarayanan Kuttippurath, and Laurent Menut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7671–7694,Short summary
Wintertime direct radiative perturbation due to black carbon (BC) aerosols was assessed over the Indo-Gangetic Plain with an efficiently modelled BC distribution. The atmospheric radiative warming due to BC was about 50–70 % larger than surface cooling. Compared to the atmosphere without BC, for which a net cooling at the top of the atmosphere was exhibited, enhanced atmospheric radiative warming by 2–3 times and a reduction in surface cooling by 10–20 % were found due to BC.
Lixia Zhang, Laura J. Wilcox, Nick J. Dunstone, David J. Paynter, Shuai Hu, Massimo Bollasina, Donghuan Li, Jonathan K. P. Shonk, and Liwei Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7499–7514,Short summary
The projected frequency of circulation patterns associated with haze events and global warming increases significantly due to weakening of the East Asian winter monsoon. Rapid reduction in anthropogenic aerosol further increases the frequency of circulation patterns, but haze events are less dangerous. We revealed competing effects of aerosol emission reductions on future haze events through their direct contribution to haze intensity and their influence on the atmospheric circulation patterns.
Paolo Tuccella, Giovanni Pitari, Valentina Colaiuda, Edoardo Raparelli, and Gabriele Curci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6875–6893,Short summary
We calculate the radiation-absorbing aerosol quantity in snow with a global chemical and transport atmospheric model, validated with global observations. The perturbation to snow albedo and related climatic impact are assessed. The resulting average radiative flux change in snow is 0.068 W m−2. Black carbon is a major contributor (+0.033 W m−2), followed by dust (+0.012 W m−2) and brown carbon (+0.0066 W m−2). The impact is also characterized by significant seasonal and geographical variability.
Rémy Lapere, Laurent Menut, Sylvain Mailler, and Nicolás Huneeus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6431–6454,Short summary
Based on modeling, the transport dynamics of ozone and fine particles in central Chile are investigated. Santiago emissions are found to influence air quality along a 1000 km plume as far as Argentina and northern Chile. In turn, emissions outside the metropolis contribute significantly to its recorded particles concentration. Emissions of precursors from Santiago are found to lead to the formation of a persistent ozone bubble in altitude, a phenomenon which is described for the first time.
Jake Wilson, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Thomas Berkemeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6175–6198,Short summary
This work explores the gas–particle partitioning of PAHs on soot with a kinetic model. We show that the equilibration timescale depends on PAH molecular structure, temperature, and particle number concentration. We explore scenarios in which the particulate fraction is perturbed from equilibrium by chemical loss and discuss implications for chemical transport models that assume instantaneous equilibration at each model time step.
Athanasios Nenes, Spyros N. Pandis, Maria Kanakidou, Armistead G. Russell, Shaojie Song, Petros Vasilakos, and Rodney J. Weber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6023–6033,Short summary
Ecosystems and air quality are affected by the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr, the sum of ammonium and nitrate). Its large variability is driven by the large difference in deposition velocity of N when in the gas or particle phase. Here we show that aerosol liquid water and acidity, by affecting gas–particle partitioning, modulate the dry deposition velocity of NH3, HNO3, and Nr worldwide. These effects explain the rapid accumulation of nitrate aerosol during haze events.
Tenglong Shi, Jiecan Cui, Yang Chen, Yue Zhou, Wei Pu, Xuanye Xu, Quanliang Chen, Xuelei Zhang, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6035–6051,Short summary
We assess the effect of dust external and internal mixing with snow grains on the absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack. The results suggest that dust–snow internal mixing strongly enhances snow absorption coefficient and albedo reduction relative to external mixing. Meanwhile, the possible non-uniform distribution of dust in snow grains may lead to significantly different values of absorption coefficient and albedo of snowpack in the visible spectral range.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Matthew T. Woodhouse, Todd P. Lane, and Robyn Schofield
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5883–5903,Short summary
Coral reefs are known to produce the aerosol precursor dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Currently, this source of coral DMS is unaccounted for in climate modelling, and the impact of coral reef extinction on aerosol and climate is unknown. In this study, we address this problem using a coupled chemistry–climate model for the first time. We find that coral reefs make a minimal contribution to the aerosol population and are unlikely to play a role in climate modulation.
Joonas Merikanto, Kalle Nordling, Petri Räisänen, Jouni Räisänen, Declan O'Donnell, Antti-Ilari Partanen, and Hannele Korhonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5865–5881,Short summary
Human-induced aerosols concentrate around their emission sources, yet their climate effects span far and wide. Here, we use two climate models to robustly identify the mechanisms of how Asian anthropogenic aerosols impact temperatures across the globe. A total removal of Asian anthropogenic aerosols increases the global temperatures by 0.26 ± 0.04 °C in the models, with the strongest warming taking place over the Arctic due to increased atmospheric transport of energy towards the high north.
Pontus von Schoenberg, Peter Tunved, Håkan Grahn, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Niklas Brännström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5173–5193,Short summary
In a radiological emergency preparedness system, Lagrangian particle dispersion models are often used to track the dispersion of radioactive material. In this study we have shown the importance of simulating advanced aerosol dynamic processes that are commonly neglected or simplified in these simulations. We show that inclusion of detailed ambient-aerosol dynamics can play a large role in the model result in simulations adopting a more detailed representation of aerosol–cloud interactions.
Zhiyuan Li, Kin-Fai Ho, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5063–5078,Short summary
This study established land-use regression (LUR) models using only routine air quality measurement data to support long-term health studies in an Asian metropolitan area. The established LUR models captured the spatial variability in exposure to air pollution with remarkable predictive accuracy. This is the first Asian study to evaluate intercity transferability of LUR models, and it highlights that there exist uncertainties when transferring LUR models between nearby cities.
Ananth Ranjithkumar, Hamish Gordon, Christina Williamson, Andrew Rollins, Kirsty Pringle, Agnieszka Kupc, Nathan Luke Abraham, Charles Brock, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4979–5014,Short summary
The effect aerosols have on climate can be better understood by studying their vertical and spatial distribution throughout the atmosphere. We use observation data from the ATom campaign and evaluate the vertical profile of aerosol number concentration, sulfur dioxide and condensation sink using the UKESM (UK Earth System Model). We identify uncertainties in key atmospheric processes that help improve their theoretical representation in global climate models.
Thomas Schwitalla, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Kirsten Warrach-Sagi, Thomas Bönisch, and Volker Wulfmeyer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4575–4597,Short summary
A prototype of an air quality forecasting system (AQFS) on a turbulence-permitting (TP) horizontal resolution of 50 m is developed. AQFS is based on the WRF-Chem model and uses high-resolution emission data from different pollution sources. A simulation case study of a typical winter day in south Germany serves as a test bed. Results indicate that the complex topography plays an important role for the horizontal and vertical pollution distribution over the Stuttgart metropolitan area.
Tabish Umar Ansari, Oliver Wild, Edmund Ryan, Ying Chen, Jie Li, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4471–4485,Short summary
We use novel modelling approaches to quantify the lingering effects of 1 d local and regional emission controls on subsequent days, the effects of longer continuous emission controls of individual sectors over different regions, and the effects of combined emission controls of multiple sectors and regions on air quality in Beijing under varying weather conditions to inform precise short-term emission control policies for avoiding heavy haze pollution in Beijing.
Ruud H. H. Janssen, Colette L. Heald, Allison L. Steiner, Anne E. Perring, J. Alex Huffman, Ellis S. Robinson, Cynthia H. Twohy, and Luke D. Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4381–4401,Short summary
Bioaerosols are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and have the potential to affect cloud formation, as well as human and ecosystem health. However, their emissions are not well quantified, which hinders the assessment of their role in atmospheric processes. Here, we develop two new emission schemes for fungal spores based on multi-annual datasets of spore counts. We find that our modeled global emissions and burden are an order of magnitude lower than previous estimates.
Wenyuan Chang, Ying Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, Jie Chen, and Kaitao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4403–4430,Short summary
Aerosol simulation in WRF-Chem often uses the MOSAIC aerosol mechanism. Still, we need variational data assimilation (DA) for the MOSAIC aerosols to blend aerosol optical measurements. This study provides a developed GSI variational DA system, with a tangent linear operator designed for multi-source and multi-wavelength aerosol optical measurements. We successfully applied the DA system in an aerosol field campaign to assimilate aerosol optical data in northwestern China.
Rong Tian, Xiaoyan Ma, and Jianqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4319–4337,Short summary
We improve the treatment of the dust emission process in GEOS-Chem by considering the effect of geographical variation of aerodynamic roughness length, smooth roughness length and soil texture, as well as the Owen effect and a more physically based formulation of sandblasting efficiency, which improve estimated threshold friction velocity and dust concentrations over China. Our study highlights the importance of incorporation of realistic land-surface properties into the dust emission scheme.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Martina Klose, Douglas S. Hamilton, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Paul Ginoux, Yves Balkanski, Robert O. Green, Olga Kalashnikova, Jasper F. Kok, Vincenzo Obiso, David Paynter, and David R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3973–4005,Short summary
For the first time, this study quantifies the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to uncertainty in the soil mineral abundance using all currently available information. We show that the majority of the estimated direct radiative effect range is due to uncertainty in the simulated mass fractions of iron oxides and thus their soil abundance, which is independent of the model employed. We therefore prove the necessity of considering mineralogy for understanding dust–climate interactions.
Naser G. A. Mahfouz and Neil M. Donahue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3827–3832,Short summary
In this technical note, we show that the limit of the coagulation scavenging enhancement of charged particles is asymptotically 2; that is, at the limit, charged particles are lost at twice the rate of their neutral counterparts. This has serious implications for aerosol particle survivability where ions play a role in nucleation and growth. Such cases can happen readily in experiments and cannot be neglected in the atmosphere.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, James Brean, Francis D. Pope, Manuel Dall'Osto, Xavier Querol, Andrés Alastuey, Noemi Perez, Tuukka Petäjä, Andreas Massling, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3345–3370,Short summary
New particle formation events from 16 sites over Europe have been studied, and the influence of meteorological and atmospheric composition variables has been investigated. Some variables, like solar radiation intensity and temperature, have a positive effect on the occurrence of these events, while others have a negative effect, affecting different aspects such as the rate at which particles are formed or grow. This effect varies depending on the site type and magnitude of these variables.
Yingying Yan, Yue Zhou, Shaofei Kong, Jintai Lin, Jian Wu, Huang Zheng, Zexuan Zhang, Aili Song, Yongqing Bai, Zhang Ling, Dantong Liu, and Tianliang Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3143–3162,Short summary
We analyze the effectiveness of emission reduction for local and upwind regions during winter haze episodes controlled by the main potential synoptic patterns over central China, a regional pollutant transport hub with sub-basin topography. Our results provide an opportunity to effectively mitigate haze pollution via local emission control actions in coordination with regional collaborative actions according to different synoptic patterns.
Sunling Gong, Hongli Liu, Bihui Zhang, Jianjun He, Hengde Zhang, Yaqiang Wang, Shuxiao Wang, Lei Zhang, and Jie Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2999–3013,Short summary
Surface concentrations of PM2.5 in China have had a declining trend since 2013 across the country. This research found that the control measures of emission reduction are the dominant factors in the PM2.5 declining trends in various regions. The contribution by the meteorology to the surface PM2.5 concentrations from 2013 to 2019 was not found to show a consistent trend, fluctuating positively or negatively by about 5% on the annual average and 10–20% for the fall–winter heavy-pollution seasons.
Kamalika Sengupta, Kirsty Pringle, Jill S. Johnson, Carly Reddington, Jo Browse, Catherine E. Scott, and Ken Carslaw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2693–2723,Short summary
Global models consistently underestimate atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA), which has significant climatic implications. We use a perturbed parameter model ensemble and ground-based observations to reduce the uncertainty in modelling SOA formation from oxidation of volatile organic compounds. We identify plausible parameter spaces for the yields of extremely low-volatility, low-volatility, and semi-volatile organic compounds based on model–observation match for three key model outputs.
Athanasios Tsikerdekis, Nick A. J. Schutgens, and Otto P. Hasekamp
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2637–2674,Short summary
Accurate representation of aerosols in the atmosphere is hard to achieve due to their complex microphysical and optical properties and uncertain emissions. In our work, we employ a data assimilation method which integrates model simulations with satellite observation related to the amount, size and the light absorption of aerosol. The use of these observations in an experiment improves aerosol representation and it is recommended for utilization in future data assimilation practices.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Stephen M. Platt, Sabine Eckhardt, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Paolo Laj, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, John Backman, Benjamin T. Brem, Markus Fiebig, Harald Flentje, Angela Marinoni, Marco Pandolfi, Jesus Yus-Dìez, Natalia Prats, Jean P. Putaud, Karine Sellegri, Mar Sorribas, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Stergios Vratolis, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Andreas Stohl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2675–2692,Short summary
Following the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to Europe, social distancing rules were introduced to prevent further spread. We investigate the impacts of the European lockdowns on black carbon (BC) emissions by means of in situ observations and inverse modelling. BC emissions declined by 23 kt in Europe during the lockdowns as compared with previous years and by 11 % as compared to the period prior to lockdowns. Residential combustion prevailed in Eastern Europe, as confirmed by remote sensing data.
Xi Zhao, Xiaohong Liu, Susannah M. Burrows, and Yang Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2305–2327,Short summary
Organic sea spray particles influence aerosol and cloud processes over the ocean. This study introduces the emission, cloud droplet activation, and ice nucleation (IN) of marine organic aerosol (MOA) into the Community Earth System Model. Our results indicate that MOA IN particles dominate primary ice nucleation below 400 hPa over the Southern Ocean and Arctic boundary layer. MOA enhances cloud forcing over the Southern Ocean in the austral winter and summer.
Jiarui Wu, Naifang Bei, Yuan Wang, Xia Li, Suixin Liu, Lang Liu, Ruonan Wang, Jiaoyang Yu, Tianhao Le, Min Zuo, Zhenxing Shen, Junji Cao, Xuexi Tie, and Guohui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2229–2249,Short summary
A source-oriented version of the WRF-Chem model is developed to conduct source identification of wintertime PM2.5 in the North China Plain. Trans-boundary transport of air pollutants generally dominates the haze pollution in Beijing and Tianjin. The air quality in Hebei, Shandong, and Shanxi is generally controlled by local emissions. Primary aerosol species, such as EC and POA, are generally controlled by local emissions, while secondary aerosol shows evident regional characteristics.
Betty Croft, Randall V. Martin, Richard H. Moore, Luke D. Ziemba, Ewan C. Crosbie, Hongyu Liu, Lynn M. Russell, Georges Saliba, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Arne Schiller, Martí Galí, Rachel Y.-W. Chang, Erin E. McDuffie, Kelsey R. Bilsback, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1889–1916,Short summary
North Atlantic Aerosols and Marine Ecosystems Study measurements combined with GEOS-Chem-TOMAS modeling suggest that several not-well-understood key factors control northwest Atlantic aerosol number and size. These synergetic and climate-relevant factors include particle formation near and above the marine boundary layer top, particle growth by marine secondary organic aerosol on descent, particle formation/growth related to dimethyl sulfide, sea spray aerosol, and ship emissions.
Manabu Shiraiwa and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1565–1580,Short summary
Mass accommodation is a crucial process in secondary organic aerosol partitioning that depends on volatility, diffusivity, reactivity, and particle penetration depth of the chemical species involved. For efficient kinetic modeling, we introduce an effective mass accommodation coefficient that accounts for the above influencing factors, can be applied in the common Fuchs–Sutugin approximation, and helps to resolve inconsistencies and shortcomings of earlier experimental and model investigations.
Zhicong Yin, Yijia Zhang, Huijun Wang, and Yuyan Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1581–1592,Short summary
It is a must to disentangle the contributions of stable meteorology from the effects of the COVID-19 lockdown. A 59 % decline in PM2.5 related to the COVID-19 pandemic was found in North China. The COVID-19 quarantine measures decreased the PM2.5 in the Yangtze River Delta by 72 %. In Hubei Province where most pneumonia cases were confirmed, the impact of the total emission reduction (72 %) evidently exceeded the rising percentage of PM2.5 driven by meteorology (13 %).
Shipeng Zhang, Philip Stier, and Duncan Watson-Parris
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The relationship between aerosol-induced changes in atmospheric energetics and precipitation responses across different scales are studied in terms of fast (radiatively or microphysically mediated) and slow (temperature mediated) responses. We introduced a method to decompose rainfall changes into contributions from clouds, aerosols, and clear-clean sky from an energetic perspective. It provides a way to better interpret and quantify the precipitation changes caused by aerosol perturbations.
Nadya Moisseeva and Roland Stull
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1407–1425,Short summary
Wildfire smoke-plume rise, which determines the emissions injection height, is widely recognized as an area of uncertainty within regional and global chemical transport models. In this work we propose a simple energy balance parameterization to predict the mean smoke equilibrium height for fires of arbitrary shape and intensity.
Gillian D. Thornhill, William J. Collins, Ryan J. Kramer, Dirk Olivié, Ragnhild B. Skeie, Fiona M. O'Connor, Nathan Luke Abraham, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Susanne E. Bauer, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Piers M. Forster, Larry W. Horowitz, Ben Johnson, James Keeble, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Martine Michou, Michael J. Mills, Jane P. Mulcahy, Gunnar Myhre, Pierre Nabat, Vaishali Naik, Naga Oshima, Michael Schulz, Christopher J. Smith, Toshihiko Takemura, Simone Tilmes, Tongwen Wu, Guang Zeng, and Jie Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 853–874,Short summary
This paper is a study of how different constituents in the atmosphere, such as aerosols and gases like methane and ozone, affect the energy balance in the atmosphere. Different climate models were run using the same inputs to allow an easy comparison of the results and to understand where the models differ. We found the effect of aerosols is to reduce warming in the atmosphere, but this effect varies between models. Reactions between gases are also important in affecting climate.
Lena Frey, Frida A.-M. Bender, and Gunilla Svensson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 577–595,Short summary
We investigate the vertical distribution of aerosol in the climate model NorESM1-M in five regions of marine stratocumulus clouds. We thereby analyze the total aerosol extinction to facilitate a comparison with satellite data. We find that the model underestimates aerosol extinction throughout the troposphere, especially elevated aerosol layers. Further, we perform sensitivity experiments to identify the processes most important for vertical aerosol distribution in our model.
José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Sonia Jerez, Raquel Lorente-Plazas, Laura Palacios-Peña, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 415–430,Short summary
The effect of aerosols on regional climate simulations presents large uncertainties due to their complex and non-linear interactions with a wide variety of factors, including aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions. We show how these interactions are strongly conditioned by the meteorological situation and the type of aerosol. While natural aerosols tend to increase precipitation in some areas, anthropogenic aerosols decrease the number of rainy days in some pollutant regions.
Ulas Im, Kostas Tsigaridis, Gregory Faluvegi, Peter L. Langen, Joshua P. French, Rashed Mahmood, Thomas Manu, Knut von Salzen, Daniel C. Thomas, Cynthia H. Whaley, Zbigniew Klimont, Henrik Skov, and Jørgen Brandt
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Future (2015–2050) simulations of the aerosol burdens and their climate impacts over the Arctic under various emission projections show that although the Arctic aerosol burdens are projected to decrease significantly, the Arctic surface air temperatures will continue to increase by up to 2.6 °C in 2050. Regardless of the magnitude of aerosol reductions, similar responses in surface air temperatures are calculated, while high mitigation of aerosols are still necessary to limit sea-ice loss.
Jonas Gliß, Augustin Mortier, Michael Schulz, Elisabeth Andrews, Yves Balkanski, Susanne E. Bauer, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Huisheng Bian, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Paul Ginoux, Jan J. Griesfeller, Andreas Heckel, Zak Kipling, Alf Kirkevåg, Harri Kokkola, Paolo Laj, Philippe Le Sager, Marianne Tronstad Lund, Cathrine Lund Myhre, Hitoshi Matsui, Gunnar Myhre, David Neubauer, Twan van Noije, Peter North, Dirk J. L. Olivié, Samuel Rémy, Larisa Sogacheva, Toshihiko Takemura, Kostas Tsigaridis, and Svetlana G. Tsyro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 87–128,Short summary
Simulated aerosol optical properties as well as the aerosol life cycle are investigated for 14 global models participating in the AeroCom initiative. Considerable diversity is found in the simulated aerosol species emissions and lifetimes, also resulting in a large diversity in the simulated aerosol mass, composition, and optical properties. A comparison with observations suggests that, on average, current models underestimate the direct effect of aerosol on the atmosphere radiation budget.
Yang Li, Loretta J. Mickley, and Jed O. Kaplan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 57–68,Short summary
Climate models predict a shift toward warmer, drier environments in southwestern North America. Under future climate, the two main drivers of dust trends play opposing roles: (1) CO2 fertilization enhances vegetation and, in turn, decreases dust, and (2) increasing land use enhances dust emissions from northern Mexico. In the worst-case scenario, elevated dust concentrations spread widely over the domain by 2100 in spring, suggesting a large climate penalty on air quality and human health.
Peng Xian, Philip J. Klotzbach, Jason P. Dunion, Matthew A. Janiga, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peter R. Colarco, and Zak Kipling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15357–15378,Short summary
Using dust AOD (DAOD) data from three aerosol reanalyses, we explored the correlative relationships between DAOD and multiple indices representing seasonal Atlantic TC activities. A robust negative correlation with Caribbean DAOD and Atlantic TC activity was found. We documented for the first time the regional differences of this relationship for over the Caribbean and the tropical North Atlantic. We also evaluated the impacts of potential confounding climate factors in this relationship.
Klaus Klingmüller, Vlassis A. Karydis, Sara Bacer, Georgiy L. Stenchikov, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15285–15295,Short summary
Particulate air pollution cools the climate and partially masks the greenhouse warming by reflecting sunlight and enhancing the reflection by clouds. The intensity of this cooling depends on interactions between pollution and desert dust within the atmosphere. Our simulations with a global atmospheric chemistry-climate model indicate that these interactions significantly weaken the cooling.
Jianbing Jin, Arjo Segers, Hong Liao, Arnold Heemink, Richard Kranenburg, and Hai Xiang Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15207–15225,Short summary
Data assimilation provides a powerful tool to estimate emission inventories by feeding observations. This emission inversion relies on the correct assumption about the emission uncertainty, which describes the potential spatiotemporal spreads of sources. However, an unrepresentative uncertainty is unavoidable. Especially in the complex dust emission, the uncertainties can hardly all be taken into account. This study reports how adjoint can be used to detect errors in the emission uncertainty.
Ifeanyichukwu C. Nduka, Steve Hung Lam Yim, Chi-Yung Tam, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study analyzed the nature, mechanisms and drivers for Hot-and-Polluted episodes (HPEs) in the Pearl River Delta, China. A total of eight HPEs were identified and can be grouped into three clusters of HPEs that were respectively driven (1) by weak subsidence and convection induced by approaching tropical cyclones, (2) by calm conditions with low wind speed at the lower atmosphere, and (3) by the combination of both aforementioned conditions.
Ming-Tung Chuang, Maggie Chel Gee Ooi, Neng-Huei Lin, Joshua S. Fu, Chung-Te Lee, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Ming-Cheng Yen, Steven Soon-Kai Kong, and Wei-Syun Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14947–14967,Short summary
This study evaluated the impact of Asian haze from the three biggest industrial regions on Taiwan and analyzed the process during transport. The production and removal process revealed the mechanisms of long-range transport. This is the first time that the brute force method and process analysis technique has been applied in a Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling System. Also, this study simulated the interesting transboundary transport of pollutants from southern mainland China to Taiwan.
Lukas O. Muser, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julia Bruckert, Ákos Horváth, Elizaveta Malinina, Sandra Wallis, Fred J. Prata, Alexei Rozanov, Christian von Savigny, Heike Vogel, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15015–15036,Short summary
Volcanic aerosols endanger aircraft and thus disrupt air travel globally. For aviation safety, it is vital to know the location and lifetime of such aerosols in the atmosphere. Here we show that the interaction of volcanic particles with each other eventually reduces their atmospheric lifetime. Moreover, we demonstrate that sunlight heats these particles, which lifts them several kilometers in the atmosphere. These findings support a more reliable forecast of volcanic aerosol dispersion.
Shuyu Zhao, Tian Feng, Xuexi Tie, and Zebin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14873–14887,Short summary
The Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a rapid warming during the last 40 years, particularly in winter. The warming leads to an increase in the planetary boundary layer height and a decrease in the relative humidity in the Sichuan Basin, causing a reduction of PM2.5 concentration by 17.5 % (~25.1 μg m−3), of which the reduction in secondary aerosols is 19.7 μg m−3. These findings indicate that the warming plateau plays an important role in mitigating air quality in downstream.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Andrew G. Turner, Amulya Chevuturi, Laura J. Wilcox, Andrea J. Dittus, and Ed Hawkins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14903–14915,Short summary
We use a set of model simulations of the 20th century to demonstrate that the uncertainty in the cooling effect of man-made aerosol emissions has a wide range of impacts on global monsoons. For the weakest cooling, the impact of aerosol is overpowered by greenhouse gas (GHG) warming and monsoon rainfall increases in the late 20th century. For the strongest cooling, aerosol impact dominates over GHG warming, leading to reduced monsoon rainfall, particularly from 1950 to 1980.
Huan Zhang and You-He Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14801–14820,Short summary
We assess the effects of triboelectric charging on wind-blown sand via observations and a numerical model. The 3D electric field within a few centimetres of the ground is characterized for the first time. By using the discrete element method together with the particle-charging model, we explicitly account for the particle–particle charging during collisions. We find that triboelectric charging could enhance the total mass flux and saltation height by up to 20 % and 15 %, respectively.
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We apply a simulation of the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI), a method of detecting aerosol absorption from satellite observations, to interpret UVAI values observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) from 2005 to 2015 to understand global trends in aerosol composition. We find that global trends in the UVAI are largely explained by trends in absorption by mineral dust, absorption by brown carbon, and scattering by secondary inorganic aerosol.
We apply a simulation of the Ultraviolet Aerosol Index (UVAI), a method of detecting aerosol...