Articles | Volume 16, issue 13
Research article 12 Jul 2016
Research article | 12 Jul 2016
A study of the influence of forest gaps on fire–atmosphere interactions
Michael T. Kiefer et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)CO2-equivalence metrics for surface albedo change based on the radiative forcing concept: a critical reviewEffects of aerosol dynamics and gas–particle conversion on dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen in a temperate forestOzone–vegetation feedback through dry deposition and isoprene emissions in a global chemistry–carbon–climate modelPathway dependence of ecosystem responses in China to 1.5 °C global warmingA model-based analysis of foliar NOx depositionQuantifying the UK's carbon dioxide flux: an atmospheric inverse modelling approach using a regional measurement networkPrediction of photosynthesis in Scots pine ecosystems across Europe by a needle-level theoryTechnical note: How are NH3 dry deposition estimates affected by combining the LOTOS-EUROS model with IASI-NH3 satellite observations?Isoprene and monoterpene emissions in south-east Australia: comparison of a multi-layer canopy model with MEGAN and with atmospheric observationsParticulate matter air pollution may offset ozone damage to global crop productionSensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozoneThe influence of idealized surface heterogeneity on virtual turbulent flux measurementsTechnical Note: Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: methodology and system evaluationAtmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: quantification of the European terrestrial CO2 fluxesModeling the contributions of global air temperature, synoptic-scale phenomena and soil moisture to near-surface static energy variability using artificial neural networksFuture inhibition of ecosystem productivity by increasing wildfire pollution over boreal North AmericaMulti-model ensemble simulations of olive pollen distribution in Europe in 2014: current status and outlookModeling soil organic carbon dynamics and their driving factors in the main global cereal cropping systemsA wedge strategy for mitigation of urban warming in future climate scenariosThe boundary condition for vertical velocity and its interdependence with surface gas exchangePan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX): towards a holistic understanding of the feedbacks and interactions in the land–atmosphere–ocean–society continuum in the northern Eurasian regionGreenhouse gas simulations with a coupled meteorological and transport model: the predictability of CO2Increasing summer net CO2 uptake in high northern ecosystems inferred from atmospheric inversions and comparisons to remote-sensing NDVIStratospheric sulfate geoengineering could enhance the terrestrial photosynthesis rateDistinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past 3 decadesGranger causality from changes in level of atmospheric CO2 to global surface temperature and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, and a candidate mechanism in global photosynthesisMACC regional multi-model ensemble simulations of birch pollen dispersion in EuropeStably stratified canopy flow in complex terrainFire emission heights in the climate system – Part 1: Global plume height patterns simulated by ECHAM6-HAM2Fire emission heights in the climate system – Part 2: Impact on transport, black carbon concentrations and radiationReliable, robust and realistic: the three R's of next-generation land-surface modellingBiases in atmospheric CO2 estimates from correlated meteorology modeling errorsCarbon balance of China constrained by CONTRAIL aircraft CO2 measurementsGreenhouse gas network design using backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modelling − Part 1: Methodology and Australian test caseSensitivity analysis of an updated bidirectional air–surface exchange model for elemental mercury vaporNitrous oxide emissions 1999 to 2009 from a global atmospheric inversionQuantifying the constraint of biospheric process parameters by CO2 concentration and flux measurement networks through a carbon cycle data assimilation systemPhotosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate modelPresent and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedancesGlobal mapping of maximum emission heights and resulting vertical profiles of wildfire emissionsScorched Earth: how will changes in the strength of the vegetation sink to ozone deposition affect human health and ecosystems?The effect of climate and climate change on ammonia emissions in EuropeObserving the continental-scale carbon balance: assessment of sampling complementarity and redundancy in a terrestrial assimilation system by means of quantitative network designCO2 flux estimation errors associated with moist atmospheric processesDO3SE modelling of soil moisture to determine ozone flux to forest treesEstimation of speciated and total mercury dry deposition at monitoring locations in eastern and central North AmericaA conceptual framework to quantify the influence of convective boundary layer development on carbon dioxide mixing ratiosA comparison of different inverse carbon flux estimation approaches for application on a regional domainInverse modeling of CO2 sources and sinks using satellite observations of CO2 from TES and surface flask measurementsVariability and budget of CO2 in Europe: analysis of the CAATER airborne campaigns – Part 2: Comparison of CO2 vertical variability and fluxes between observations and a modeling framework
Ryan M. Bright and Marianne T. Lund
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9887–9907,Short summary
Humans affect the reflective properties (albedo) of Earth's surface and the amount of solar energy that it absorbs, in turn affecting climate. In recent years, a variety of climate metrics have been applied to characterize albedo perturbations in terms of their
CO2-equivalenteffects, despite the lack of scientific consensus surrounding the methods behind them. We review these metrics, evaluate their (de)merits, provide guidance for future application, and suggest avenues for future research.
Genki Katata, Kazuhide Matsuda, Atsuyuki Sorimachi, Mizuo Kajino, and Kentaro Takagi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4933–4949,Short summary
This work quantified the role of aerosol dynamics and gas–particle conversion processes in the dry deposition of inorganic reactive nitrogen using a new multilayer land surface model. It also revealed a potential impact of the above processes on improving the predictive accuracy of chemical transport models.
Cheng Gong, Yadong Lei, Yimian Ma, Xu Yue, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3841–3857,Short summary
We evaluate ozone–vegetation feedback using a fully coupled chemistry–carbon–climate global model (ModelE2-YIBs). Ozone damage to photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and isoprene emissions parameterized by different schemes and sensitivities is jointly considered. In general, surface ozone concentrations are increased due to ozone–vegetation interactions, especially over the regions with a high ambient ozone level such as the eastern US, eastern China, and western Europe.
Xu Yue, Hong Liao, Huijun Wang, Tianyi Zhang, Nadine Unger, Stephen Sitch, Zhaozhong Feng, and Jia Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2353–2366,Short summary
We explore ecosystem responses in China to 1.5 °C global warming under stabilized versus transient pathways. Remarkably, GPP shows 30 % higher enhancement in the stabilized than the transient pathway because of the lower ozone (smaller damages to photosynthesis) and fewer aerosols (higher light availability) in the former pathway. Our analyses suggest that an associated reduction of CO2 and pollution emissions brings more benefits to ecosystems in China via 1.5 °C global warming.
Erin R. Delaria and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2123–2141,Short summary
Uptake of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) through pores in the surfaces of leaves has been identified as a significant, but inadequately understood, loss process of atmospheric nitrogen oxides. We have constructed a simple model for examining the impact of NO2 foliar uptake on the atmospheric chemistry of nitrogen oxides. We show that an accurate representation in atmospheric models of the effects of weather and soil conditions on leaf NO2 uptake may be important for accurately predicting NO2 deposition.
Emily D. White, Matthew Rigby, Mark F. Lunt, T. Luke Smallman, Edward Comyn-Platt, Alistair J. Manning, Anita L. Ganesan, Simon O'Doherty, Ann R. Stavert, Kieran Stanley, Mathew Williams, Peter Levy, Michel Ramonet, Grant L. Forster, Andrew C. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4345–4365,Short summary
Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from the terrestrial biosphere on a national scale is important for evaluating land use strategies to mitigate climate change. We estimate emissions of CO2 from the UK biosphere using atmospheric data in a top-down approach. Our findings show that bottom-up estimates from models of biospheric fluxes overestimate the amount of CO2 uptake in summer. This suggests these models wrongly estimate or omit key processes, e.g. land disturbance due to harvest.
Pertti Hari, Steffen Noe, Sigrid Dengel, Jan Elbers, Bert Gielen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Bart Kruijt, Liisa Kulmala, Anders Lindroth, Ivan Mammarella, Tuukka Petäjä, Guy Schurgers, Anni Vanhatalo, Markku Kulmala, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13321–13328,Short summary
The development of eddy-covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes began a new era in the field studies of photosynthesis. The interpretation of the very variable CO2 fluxes in evergreen forests has been problematic especially in seasonal transition times. We apply two theoretical needle-level equations and show they can predict photosynthetic CO2 flux between the atmosphere and Scots pine forests. This has strong implications for the interpretation of the global change and boreal forests.
Shelley C. van der Graaf, Enrico Dammers, Martijn Schaap, and Jan Willem Erisman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13173–13196,Short summary
A combination of NH3 satellite observations from IASI and the LOTOS-EUROS model is used to derive NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes over Europe. The results were evaluated using surface measurements (EMEP, LML, MAN) and a sensitivity study. This is a first step in further integration of surface measurements, satellite observations and an atmospheric transport model to derive accurate NH3 surface concentrations and dry deposition fluxes on a large scale.
Kathryn M. Emmerson, Martin E. Cope, Ian E. Galbally, Sunhee Lee, and Peter F. Nelson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7539–7556,Short summary
We compare the CSIRO in-house biogenic emissions model (ABCGEM) with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for eucalypt-rich south-east Australia. Differences in emissions are not only due to the emission factors, but also how these emission factors are processed. ABCGEM assumes monoterpenes are not light dependent, whilst MEGAN does. Comparison with observations suggests that Australian monoterpenes may not be as light dependent as other vegetation globally.
Luke D. Schiferl and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5953–5966,Short summary
Global population growth and industrialization have contributed to poor air quality worldwide, and increasing population will put pressure on global food production. We therefore assess how air pollution may impact crop growth. Ozone has previously been shown to damage crops. We demonstrate that the impact of particles associated with enhanced light scattering promotes growth, offsetting much, if not all, ozone damage. This has implications for air quality management and global food security.
Alessandro Anav, Chiara Proietti, Laurent Menut, Stefano Carnicelli, Alessandra De Marco, and Elena Paoletti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5747–5763,Short summary
Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, the role of water availability is often neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies. We show how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in semi-arid environments. Despite the fact that dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere.
Frederik De Roo and Matthias Mauder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5059–5074,Short summary
We investigate the mismatch between incoming energy and the turbulent flux of sensible heat at the Earth's surface and how surface heterogeneity affects this imbalance. To resolve the turbulent fluxes we employ large-eddy simulations. We study terrain with different heterogeneity lengths and quantify the contributions of advection by the mean flow and horizontal flux-divergence in the surface energy budget. We find that the latter contributions depend on the scale of the heterogeneity length.
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas Frank Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3027–3045,
Panagiotis Kountouris, Christoph Gerbig, Christian Rödenbeck, Ute Karstens, Thomas F. Koch, and Martin Heimann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3047–3064,
Sara C. Pryor, Ryan C. Sullivan, and Justin T. Schoof
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14457–14471,Short summary
The air temperature and water vapor content are increasing globally due to the increased concentration of "heat-trapping" (greenhouse) gases. But not all regions are warming at the same rate. This analysis is designed to improve understanding of the causes of recent trends and year-to-year variability in summertime heat indices over the eastern US and to present a new model that can be used to make projections of future events that may cause loss of life and/or decreased human well-being.
Xu Yue, Susanna Strada, Nadine Unger, and Aihui Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13699–13719,Short summary
Climate change will significantly increase wildfire emissions in boreal North America by the midcentury, leading to increased surface ozone and atmospheric aerosols. These air pollutants can affect vegetation photosynthesis through stomatal uptake (for ozone) and radiative and climatic perturbations (for aerosols). Using a carbon–chemistry–climate model, we estimate trivial ozone vegetation damages but significant aerosol-induced reduction in ecosystem productivity by the 2050s.
Mikhail Sofiev, Olga Ritenberga, Roberto Albertini, Joaquim Arteta, Jordina Belmonte, Carmi Geller Bernstein, Maira Bonini, Sevcan Celenk, Athanasios Damialis, John Douros, Hendrik Elbern, Elmar Friese, Carmen Galan, Gilles Oliver, Ivana Hrga, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Kai Krajsek, Donat Magyar, Jonathan Parmentier, Matthieu Plu, Marje Prank, Lennart Robertson, Birthe Marie Steensen, Michel Thibaudon, Arjo Segers, Barbara Stepanovich, Alvaro M. Valdebenito, Julius Vira, and Despoina Vokou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12341–12360,Short summary
This work presents the features and evaluates the quality of the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service forecasts of olive pollen distribution in Europe. It is shown that the models can predict the main features of the observed pollen distribution but have more difficulties in capturing the season start and end, which appeared shifted by a few days. We also demonstrated that the combined use of model predictions with up-to-date measurements (data fusion) can strongly improve the results.
Guocheng Wang, Wen Zhang, Wenjuan Sun, Tingting Li, and Pengfei Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11849–11859,Short summary
Cropland soil carbon sequestration contribute to not only climate change mitigation but also to sustainable agricultural production. This paper investigates soil carbon dynamics across the global main cereal cropping systems at a fine spatial resolution, using a modeling approach based on state-of-the-art databases of soil and climate. The key environmental controls on soil carbon changes were also identified.
Lei Zhao, Xuhui Lee, and Natalie M. Schultz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9067–9080,Short summary
Heat stress associated with climate change is one of most severe threats to human society. The problem is further compounded in urban areas by urban heat islands (UHIs). We use an urban climate model to evaluate the cooling benefits of active urban heat mitigation strategies both individually and collectively. We show that by forming UHI mitigation wedges, these strategies have the potential to significantly reduce the UHI effect plus warming induced by greenhouse gases.
Andrew S. Kowalski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8177–8187,Short summary
An analysis based on physical conservation law demonstrates that surface–atmosphere exchanges include a non-diffusive component. This implies the need to revise flux gradient relationships including eddy diffusivities in micrometeorology and stomatal conductances in plant physiology.
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Saroja M. Polavarapu, Michael Neish, Monique Tanguay, Claude Girard, Jean de Grandpré, Kirill Semeniuk, Sylvie Gravel, Shuzhan Ren, Sébastien Roche, Douglas Chan, and Kimberly Strong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12005–12038,Short summary
CO2 predictions are used to compute model–data mismatches when estimating surfaces fluxes using atmospheric observations together with an atmospheric transport model. By isolating the component of transport error which is due to uncertain meteorological analyses, it is demonstrated that CO2 can only be defined on large spatial scales. Thus, there is a spatial scale below which we cannot infer fluxes simply due to the fact that meteorological analyes are imperfect.
Lisa R. Welp, Prabir K. Patra, Christian Rödenbeck, Rama Nemani, Jian Bi, Stephen C. Piper, and Ralph F. Keeling
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9047–9066,Short summary
Boreal and arctic ecosystems have been responding to elevated temperatures and atmospheric CO2 over the last decades. It is not clear if these ecosystems are sequestering more carbon or possibly becoming sources. This is an important feedback of the carbon cycle to global warming. We studied monthly biological land CO2 fluxes inferred from atmospheric CO2 concentrations using inverse models and found that net summer CO2 uptake increased, resulting in a small increase in annual CO2 uptake.
L. Xia, A. Robock, S. Tilmes, and R. R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1479–1489,Short summary
Climate model simulations show that stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could impact the terrestrial carbon cycle by enhancing the carbon sink. Enhanced downward diffuse radiation, combined with cooling, could stimulate plants to grow more and absorb more carbon dioxide. This beneficial impact of stratospheric sulfate geoengineering would need to be balanced by a large number of potential risks in any future decisions about implementation of geoengineering.
X. Yue, N. Unger, and Y. Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11931–11948,Short summary
We estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) during 1982-2011, with a focus on the feedback from biosphere (such as tree growth and phenology). Increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~25% of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. However, phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions.
L. M. W. Leggett and D. A. Ball
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11571–11592,Short summary
The previously expected linear relationship between atmospheric CO2 and climate variables including temperature is showing an increasing mismatch. This paper nonetheless provides fresh and possibly definitive support for a major relationship between CO2 and climate. Granger causality analysis provides evidence that change in level not level of CO2 primarily influences both global temperature and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. The results may contribute to the prediction of future climate.
M. Sofiev, U. Berger, M. Prank, J. Vira, J. Arteta, J. Belmonte, K.-C. Bergmann, F. Chéroux, H. Elbern, E. Friese, C. Galan, R. Gehrig, D. Khvorostyanov, R. Kranenburg, U. Kumar, V. Marécal, F. Meleux, L. Menut, A.-M. Pessi, L. Robertson, O. Ritenberga, V. Rodinkova, A. Saarto, A. Segers, E. Severova, I. Sauliene, P. Siljamo, B. M. Steensen, E. Teinemaa, M. Thibaudon, and V.-H. Peuch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8115–8130,Short summary
The paper presents the first ensemble modelling experiment for forecasting the atmospheric dispersion of birch pollen in Europe. The study included 7 models of MACC-ENS tested over the season of 2010 and applied for 2013 in forecasting and reanalysis modes. The results were compared with observations in 11 countries, members of European Aeroallergen Network. The models successfully reproduced the timing of the unusually late season of 2013 but had more difficulties with absolute concentration.
X. Xu, C. Yi, and E. Kutter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7457–7470,
A. Veira, S. Kloster, S. Wilkenskjeld, and S. Remy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7155–7171,Short summary
We discuss the representation of wildfire emission heights in global climate models. Our implementation of a simple, semi-empirical plume height parametrization in the aerosol-climate model ECHAM6-HAM2 shows reasonable agreement with observations and with a more complex plume rise model. In contrast, prescribed emission heights, which do not consider the intensity of individual fires, fail to adequately simulate global plume height patterns. Diurnal and seasonal cycles are of minor importance.
A. Veira, S. Kloster, N. A. J. Schutgens, and J. W. Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7173–7193,Short summary
Global aerosol-climate models usually prescribe wildfire emission injections at fixed atmospheric levels. Here, we quantify the impact of prescribed and parametrized emission heights on aerosol long-range transport and radiation. For global emission height changes of 1.5-3.5km, we find a top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing of 0.05-0.1Wm-2. Replacing prescribed emission heights by a simple plume height parametrization only marginally improves the model performance in aerosol optical thickness.
I. C. Prentice, X. Liang, B. E. Medlyn, and Y.-P. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5987–6005,Short summary
Land surface models (LSMs) describe how carbon and water fluxes react to environmental change. They are key component of climate models, yet they differ enormously. Many perform poorly, despite having many parameters. We outline a development strategy emphasizing robustness, reliability and realism, none of which is guaranteed by complexity alone. We propose multiple constraints, benchmarking and data assimilation, and representing unresolved processes stochastically, as tools in this endeavour.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2903–2914,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10133–10144,
T. Ziehn, A. Nickless, P. J. Rayner, R. M. Law, G. Roff, and P. Fraser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9363–9378,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6273–6287,
R. L. Thompson, F. Chevallier, A. M. Crotwell, G. Dutton, R. L. Langenfelds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, Y. Tohjima, T. Nakazawa, P. B. Krummel, L. P. Steele, P. Fraser, S. O'Doherty, K. Ishijima, and S. Aoki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1801–1817,
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Studies of fire–atmosphere interactions in horizontally heterogeneous forests are limited in number. This study considers the sensitivity of fire-perturbed variables (e.g., vertical velocity, turbulent kinetic energy) to gaps in forest cover using ARPS-CANOPY, an atmospheric numerical model with a canopy sub-model. Results show that the atmosphere is most sensitive to the fire when the gap is centered on the fire and least sensitive when the gap is upstream of the fire.
Studies of fire–atmosphere interactions in horizontally heterogeneous forests are limited in...