Articles | Volume 16, issue 6
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3865-2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-3865-2016
Research article
 | 
23 Mar 2016
Research article |  | 23 Mar 2016

Oxidative potential of ambient water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: contrasts in sources and health associations between ascorbic acid (AA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) assays

Ting Fang, Vishal Verma, Josephine T. Bates, Joseph Abrams, Mitchel Klein, Matthew J. Strickland, Stefanie E. Sarnat, Howard H. Chang, James A. Mulholland, Paige E. Tolbert, Armistead G. Russell, and Rodney J. Weber

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Cited articles

Akhtar, U. S., McWhinney, R. D., Rastogi, N., Abbatt, J. P. D., Evans, G. J., and Scott, J. A.: Cytotoxic and proinflammatory effects of ambient and source-related particulate matter (PM) in relation to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine adsorption by particles, Inhal. Toxicol., 22, 37–47, https://doi.org/10.3109/08958378.2010.518377, 2010.
Aust, A. E., Ball, J. C., Hu, A. A., Lighty, J. S., Smith, K. R., Straccia, A. M., Veranth, J. M., and Young, W. C.: Particle characteristics responsible for effects on human lung epithelial cells, Res. Rep. Health Eff. Inst., 110, 1–65, 2002.
Ayres, J. G., Borm, P., Cassee, F. R., Castranova, V., Donaldson, K., Ghio, A., Harrison, R. M., Hider, R., Kelly, F., and Kooter, I. M.: Evaluating the toxicity of airborne particulate matter and nanoparticles by measuring oxidative stress potential – a workshop report and consensus statement, Inhal. Toxicol., 20, 75–99, 2008.
Balachandran, S., Pachon, J. E., Hu, Y., Lee, D., Mulholland, J. A., and Russell, A. G.: Ensemble-trained source apportionment of fine particulate matter and method uncertainty analysis, Atmos. Environ., 61, 387–394, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.031, 2012.
Bates, J. T., Weber, R. J., Abrams, J., Verma, V., Fang, T., Klein, M., Strickland, M. J., Sarnat, S. E., Chang, H. H., Mulholland, J. A., Tolbert, P. E., and Russell, A. G.: Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Linked to Sources of Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cardiorespiratory Effects, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 13605–13612, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b02967, 2015.
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Short summary
Ascorbic acid (AA) and Dithiothreitol (DTT) assay measures of water-soluble PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP) are compared in terms of spatiotemporal trends, chemical selectivity, sources, and health impacts based on an epidemiological study with backcast estimated OP. Both assays point to metals from brake/tire wear, but only the DTT assay also identifies organics from combustion. DTT is associated with emergency department visits for asthma/wheeze and congestive heart failure, whereas AA is not.
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