Articles | Volume 14, issue 21
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11687–11696, 2014
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 06 Nov 2014
Research article | 06 Nov 2014
Lidar-observed enhancement of aerosols in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau induced by the Nabro volcano eruption
Q. S. He et al.
No articles found.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Marius Hauck, Aurélien Podglajen, and Felix Ploeger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6627–6645,Short summary
Inter-hemispheric transport is important for understanding atmospheric tracers because of the asymmetry in emissions between the Southern Hemisphere (SH) and Northern Hemisphere (NH). This study finds that the air masses from the NH extratropics to the atmosphere are about 5 times larger than those from the SH extratropics. The interplay between the Asian summer monsoon and westerly ducts triggers the cross-Equator transport from the NH to the SH in boreal summer and fall.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Gaia Pinardi, Michel Van Roozendael, François Hendrick, Nicolas Theys, Nader Abuhassan, Alkiviadis Bais, Folkert Boersma, Alexander Cede, Jihyo Chong, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Anatoly Dzhola, Henk Eskes, Udo Frieß, José Granville, Jay R. Herman, Robert Holla, Jari Hovila, Hitoshi Irie, Yugo Kanaya, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Natalia Kouremeti, Jean-Christopher Lambert, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Ankie Piters, Oleg Postylyakov, Andreas Richter, Julia Remmers, Hisahiro Takashima, Martin Tiefengraber, Pieter Valks, Tim Vlemmix, Thomas Wagner, and Folkard Wittrock
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 6141–6174,Short summary
We validate several GOME-2 and OMI tropospheric NO2 products with 23 MAX-DOAS and 16 direct sun instruments distributed worldwide, highlighting large horizontal inhomogeneities at several sites affecting the validation results. We propose a method for quantification and correction. We show the application of such correction reduces the satellite underestimation in almost all heterogeneous cases, but a negative bias remains over the MAX-DOAS and direct sun network ensemble for both satellites.
Yang Wang, Arnoud Apituley, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Henning Finkenzeller, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, David Garcia-Nieto, Laura Gómez-Martín, François Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Theodore K. Koenig, Karin Kreher, Vinod Kumar, Aleksandra Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Oleg L. Polyansky, Oleg Postylyakov, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Stefan Schmitt, Xin Tian, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Michel Van Roozendael, Rainer Volkamer, Zhuoru Wang, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 5087–5116,
Xinghong Cheng, Jianzhong Ma, Junli Jin, Junrang Guo, Yuelin Liu, Jida Peng, Xiaodan Ma, Minglong Qian, Qiang Xia, and Peng Yan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10757–10774,Short summary
We carried out 19 city-circle-around Car MAX-DOAS experiments on the 6th Ring Road of Beijing in Jan, Sep, and Oct 2014. The tropospheric VCDs of NO2 are retrieved and their temporal and spatial distributions are investigated. Then the NOx emission rates in urban Beijing are estimated using the measured NO2 VCDs together with the refined wind fields, NO2-to-NOx ratios, and NO2 lifetimes simulated by the LAPS-WRF-CMAQ model system, and results are compared with the MEIC inventory in 2012.
Jianzhong Ma, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Junli Jin, Siyang Cheng, Junrang Guo, Zhanfeng Zhang, Jianqiong Wang, Peng Liu, Guoqing Zhang, Janis Pukite, Johannes Lampel, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6973–6990,Short summary
We made ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements at the Mt. Waliguan WMO GAW global baseline station (WLG) in the Tibetan Plateau during the years 2012–2015. We retrieve the differential slant column densities (dSCDs) of NO2, SO2, HCHO, and BrO from measured spectra at different elevation angles. Mixing ratios of these trace gases in the background troposphere over WLG are derived based on these dSCDs at a 1° elevation angle and the TRACY-2 radiative transfer model simulations.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Tianning Su, Zhanqing Li, Chengcai Li, Jing Li, Wenchao Han, Chuanyang Shen, Wangshu Tan, Jing Wei, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3713–3724,Short summary
We study the role of aerosol vertical distribution in thermodynamic stability and PBL development. Under different aerosol vertical structures, the diurnal cycles of PBLH and PM2.5 show distinct characteristics. Large differences in the heating rate affect atmospheric buoyancy and stability differently under different aerosol structures. As a result, the aerosol–PBL interaction can be strengthened by the inverse aerosol structure and potentially neutralized by the decreasing structure.
Sebastian Donner, Jonas Kuhn, Michel Van Roozendael, Alkiviadis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Ilya Bruchkouski, Ka Lok Chan, Steffen Dörner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Ang Li, Jianzhong Ma, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Andreas Richter, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Kimberly Strong, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Yang Wang, Pinhua Xie, Jin Xu, Xiaoyi Zhao, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 685–712,Short summary
The calibration of the elevation angles of MAX-DOAS instruments is important for the correct interpretation of such MAX-DOAS measurements. We present and evaluate different methods for the elevation calibration of MAX-DOAS instruments which were applied during the CINDI-2 field campaign.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Aurélien Podglajen, Jonathon S. Wright, Rolf Müller, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15629–15649,Short summary
The Asian and North American summer monsoons (ASM and NASM) have considerable influence on stratospheric chemistry and physics. More air mass is transported from the monsoon regions to the tropical stratosphere when the tracers are released clearly below the tropopause than when they are released close to the tropopause. Results for different altitudes of air origin reveal two transport pathways (monsoon and tropical) from the upper troposphere over the monsoon regions to the tropical pipe.
Jianzhong Ma, Christoph Brühl, Qianshan He, Benedikt Steil, Vlassis A. Karydis, Klaus Klingmüller, Holger Tost, Bin Chen, Yufang Jin, Ningwei Liu, Xiangde Xu, Peng Yan, Xiuji Zhou, Kamal Abdelrahman, Andrea Pozzer, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11587–11612,Short summary
We find a pronounced maximum in aerosol extinction in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during the Asian summer monsoon, caused mainly by mineral dust emitted from the northern Tibetan Plateau and slope area, lofted to and accumulating within the anticyclonic circulation. Mineral dust, water-soluble compounds, such as nitrate and sulfate, and associated liquid water dominate aerosol extinction around the tropopause within the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone.
Wangshu Tan, Gang Zhao, Yingli Yu, Chengcai Li, Jian Li, Ling Kang, Tong Zhu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3825–3839,Short summary
A new method to retrieve CCN number concentrations using multiwavelength Raman lidars is proposed. The method implements hygroscopic enhancements of backscatter and extinction with relative humidity to represent particle hygroscopicity. The retrieved CCN number concentrations are in good agreement with theoretical calculated values. Sensitivity tests indicate that retrieval error in CCN arises mostly from uncertainties in extinction coefficients and RH profiles.
Qianshan He, Jianzhong Ma, Xiangdong Zheng, Xiaolu Yan, Holger Vömel, Frank G. Wienhold, Wei Gao, Dongwei Liu, Guangming Shi, and Tiantao Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8399–8406,Short summary
An enhanced aerosol layer in the upper troposphere--lower stratosphere was observed by a COBALD over the Tibetan Plateau, in the summer of 2014. The color index of the enhanced aerosol layer indicates the prevalence of dominant fine particles with a mode radius < 0.1 μm. Unlike the very small particles at low relative humidity (RHi < 40%), the relatively large particles in the aerosol layer were generally very hydrophilic as their size increased dramatically with relative humidity.
Mengchu Tao, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Mohamadou Diallo, Stephan Fueglistaler, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6509–6534,Short summary
This paper examines the annual and interannual variations as well as long-term trend of modeled stratospheric water vapor with a Lagrangian chemical transport model driven by ERA-I, MERRA-2 and JRA-55. We find reasonable consistency among the annual cycle, QBO and the variabilities induced by ENSO and volcanic aerosols. The main discrepancies are linked to the differences in reanalysis upwelling rates in the lower stratosphere. The trends are sensitive to the reanalyses that drives the model.
Thomas Wagner, Steffen Beirle, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Steffen Dörner, Caroline Fayt, Udo Frieß, David García-Nieto, Clio Gielen, David González-Bartolome, Laura Gomez, François Hendrick, Bas Henzing, Jun Li Jin, Johannes Lampel, Jianzhong Ma, Kornelia Mies, Mónica Navarro, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Olga Puentedura, Janis Puķīte, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Reza Shaiganfar, Holger Sihler, Michel Van Roozendael, Yang Wang, and Margarita Yela
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2745–2817,Short summary
In this study the consistency between MAX-DOAS measurements and radiative transfer simulations of the atmospheric O4 absorption is investigated. The study is based on measurements (2 selected days during the MADCAT campaign) as well as synthetic spectra. The uncertainties of all relevant aspects (spectral retrieval and radiative transfer simulations) are quantified. For one of the selected days, measurements and simulations do not agree within their uncertainties.
Felix Ploeger, Bernard Legras, Edward Charlesworth, Xiaolu Yan, Mohamadou Diallo, Paul Konopka, Thomas Birner, Mengchu Tao, Andreas Engel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6085–6105,Short summary
We analyse the change in the circulation of the middle atmosphere based on current generation meteorological reanalysis data sets. We find that long-term changes from 1989 to 2015 are similar for the chosen reanalyses, mainly resembling the forced response in climate model simulations to climate change. For shorter periods circulation changes are less robust, and the representation of decadal variability appears to be a major uncertainty for modelling the circulation of the middle atmosphere.
Xiaolu Yan, Paul Konopka, Felix Ploeger, Mengchu Tao, Rolf Müller, Michelle L. Santee, Jianchun Bian, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8079–8096,Short summary
Many works investigate the impact of ENSO on the troposphere. However, only a few works check the impact of ENSO at higher altitudes. Here, we analyse the impact of ENSO on the vicinity of the tropopause using reanalysis, satellite, in situ and model data. We find that ENSO shows the strongest signal in winter, but its impact can last until early the next summer. The ENSO anomaly is insignificant in late summer. Our study can help to understand the atmosphere propagation after ENSO.
Jing Li, Chengcai Li, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3289–3298,Short summary
Our study investigates the long-term trends of extreme aerosol pollution in China over the past ~ 30 years. In the 1980s, an overall positive trend is found throughout China with the extreme trend exceeding the mean trend, except for Northwest China and the North China Plain. In the 1990s, the extreme trends continued to dominate in the south while they yield to the mean trend in the north. After 2000, the extreme trend became weaker than the mean trend overall.
Wanyun Xu, Xiaobin Xu, Meiyun Lin, Weili Lin, David Tarasick, Jie Tang, Jianzhong Ma, and Xiangdong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 773–798,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability on the long-term trends and periodicity of surface ozone measured at Mt Waliguan (WLG) for the period of 1994–2013 is studied. STT ozone and rising emissions in eastern China contribute to spring and autumnal increasing trends, respectively. The 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities in the ozone data are linked to the QBO, EASMI, and sunspot cycle, respectively. An empirical model is obtained for normalised monthly ozone at WLG.
Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Francois Hendrick, Andreas Hilboll, Junli Jin, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Yuhan Luo, Lorenzo Lodi, Jianzhong Ma, Monica Navarro, Ivan Ortega, Enno Peters, Oleg L. Polyansky, Julia Remmers, Andreas Richter, Olga Puentedura, Michel Van Roozendael, André Seyler, Jonathan Tennyson, Rainer Volkamer, Pinhua Xie, Nikolai F. Zobov, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3719–3742,Short summary
Slant column densities of nitrous acid (HONO) derived from different MAX-DOAS instruments and retrieval software are systematically compared for the first time during the Multi Axis DOAS – Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign held at MPIC in Mainz, Germany, from June to October 2013. Through the inter-comparisons and sensitivity studies we quantified the uncertainties in the DOAS fits of HONO from different sources and concluded a recommended setting.
Gang Zhao, Chunsheng Zhao, Ye Kuang, Jiangchuan Tao, Wangshu Tan, Yuxuan Bian, Jing Li, and Chengcai Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12133–12143,Short summary
In this paper, influences of aerosol hygroscopic growth on the lidar ratio are studied. Results indicate that both the magnitude and vertical structures of the retrieved aerosol extinction coefficient (σext) profile from lidar signals are significantly biased. This study proposes a feasible method for reducing the bias of retrieving the σext profile and this method can be implemented in operational retrieval of the aerosol σext profile and for pollution monitoring.
Xiaolu Yan, Jonathon S. Wright, Xiangdong Zheng, Nathaniel J. Livesey, Holger Vömel, and Xiuji Zhou
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 3547–3566,Short summary
We evaluate Aura Microwave Limb Sounder retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone over the eastern Tibetan Plateau against measurements from balloon-borne instruments. The newest version of the retrievals (v4) represents a slight improvement over the previous version, particularly with respect to data yields and upper tropospheric ozone. We identify several biases that did not appear in evaluations conducted elsewhere, highlighting the unique challenges of remote sensing in this region.
J. Z. Ma, S. Beirle, J. L. Jin, R. Shaiganfar, P. Yan, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1547–1567,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)A phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sitesDiel cycle impacts on the chemical and light absorption properties of organic carbon aerosol from wildfires in the western United StatesTerrestrial or marine – indications towards the origin of ice-nucleating particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7° NCloud activation properties of aerosol particles in a continental Central European urban environmentVertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic conditionOn the drivers of droplet variability in alpine mixed-phase cloudsContrasting effects of secondary organic aerosol formations on organic aerosol hygroscopicityImpact of aerosol–radiation interaction on new particle formationMeasurement report: The effect of aerosol chemical composition on light scattering due to the hygroscopic swelling effectMeasurement report: The influence of traffic and new particle formation on the size distribution of 1–800 nm particles in Helsinki – a street canyon and an urban background station comparisonSummer aerosol measurements over the East Antarctic seasonal ice zoneRapid transformation of ambient absorbing aerosols from West African biomass burningTechnical note: Sea salt interference with black carbon quantification in snow samples using the single particle soot photometerMixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol in the South Asian outflow over the northern Indian Ocean during winterTowards understanding the characteristics of new particle formation in the Eastern MediterraneanLarge-scale synoptic drivers of co-occurring summertime ozone and PM2.5 pollution in eastern ChinaA long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic cloudsMeasurement report: Altitudinal variation of cloud condensation nuclei activation across the Indo-Gangetic Plain prior to monsoon onset and during peak monsoon periods: results from the SWAAMI field campaignUrban aerosol size distributions: a global perspectiveThe impact of aerosol size-dependent hygroscopicity and mixing state on the cloud condensation nuclei potential over the north-east AtlanticMeasurement report: Strong light absorption induced by aged biomass burning black carbon over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in pre-monsoon seasonThe important roles of surface tension and growth rate in the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration: evidence from field measurements in southern ChinaAerosol particle formation in the upper residual layerSecondary aerosol formation alters CCN activity in the North China PlainComplex refractive indices in the ultraviolet and visible spectral region for highly absorbing non-spherical biomass burning aerosolDilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) dataMeasurement report: Balloon-borne in situ profiling of Saharan dust over Cyprus with the UCASS optical particle counterEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect on interannual variability in spring aerosols over East AsiaThe impact threshold of the aerosol radiative forcing on the boundary layer structure in the pollution regionZeppelin-led study on the onset of new particle formation in the planetary boundary layerTechnical note: Measurement of chemically resolved volume equivalent diameter and effective density of particles by AAC-SPAMSMeasurement report: CCN activity and its variation with organic oxidation level and volatility observed during aerosol life cycle intensive operational period (ALC-IOP)The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po ValleyClustering diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change to understand their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areasMeteorology-driven variability of air pollution (PM1) revealed with explainable machine learningThe seasonal cycle of ice-nucleating particles linked to the abundance of biogenic aerosol in boreal forestsMeasurement report: Cloud processes and the transport of biological emissions affect southern ocean particle and cloud condensation nuclei concentrationsAmbient aerosol properties in the remote atmosphere from global-scale in-situ measurementsEffects of marine fuel sulfur restrictions on particle number concentrations and size distributions in ship plumes in the Baltic SeaElemental and water-insoluble organic carbon in Svalbard snow: a synthesis of observations during 2007–2018Evaluation of the contribution of new particle formation to cloud droplet in urban atmosphereDeposition of light-absorbing particles in glacier snow of the Sunderdhunga Valley, the southern forefront of the central HimalayasInfluence of vegetation on occurrence and time distributions of regional new aerosol particle formation and growthDominant synoptic patterns associated with the decay process of PM2.5 pollution episodes around BeijingValidation of aerosol backscatter profiles from Raman lidar and ceilometer using balloon-borne measurementsImpacts of coagulation on the appearance time method for new particle growth rate evaluation and their correctionsPM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West African urban areas based on sun photometer and satellite observationsObservations on aerosol optical properties and scavenging during cloud eventsAssessing the vertical structure of Arctic aerosols using balloon-borne measurementsAn overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) project: aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions in the southeast Atlantic basin
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Benjamin Sumlin, Edward Fortner, Andrew Lambe, Nishit J. Shetty, Conner Daube, Pai Liu, Francesca Majluf, Scott Herndon, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11843–11856,Short summary
We present a comparison of the changes to light absorption behavior and chemical composition of wildfire smoke particles from day- and nighttime oxidation processes and discuss the results within the context of previous laboratory findings.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Máté Vörösmarty, and András Zénó Gyöngyösi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11289–11302,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their properties were explored in this study. CCN modify the intensity and other properties of the sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. These properties are primarily influenced by the number of droplets, the droplet size and the cloud residence time. CCN also influence the hydrological cycle (including the amount and intensity of precipitation), vegetation and its interactions with the carbon cycle, as well as atmospheric chemistry, physics and dynamics.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10993–11012,Short summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol–cloud droplet link in alpine mixed-phase clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations and never exceeds a characteristic “limiting droplet number”, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity limited when it is within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.
Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Biao Xue, Biao Luo, Qicong Song, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Pusheng Zhao, Mingfu Cai, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Tiange Li, Sihang Wang, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10375–10391,Short summary
We found that organic aerosol factors with identified sources perform much better than oxidation level parameters in characterizing variations in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, and secondary aerosol formations associated with different sources have distinct effects on organic aerosol hygroscopicity. It reveals that source-oriented organic aerosol hygroscopicity investigations might result in more appropriate parameterization approaches in chemical and climate models.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Rongmin Ren, Zhanqing Li, Peng Yan, Yuying Wang, Hao Wu, Maureen Cribb, Wei Wang, Xiao'ai Jin, Yanan Li, and Dongmei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9977–9994,Short summary
We analyzed the effect of the proportion of components making up the chemical composition of aerosols on f(RH) in southern Beijing in 2019. Nitrate played a more significant role in affecting f(RH) than sulfate. The ratio of the sulfate mass fraction to the nitrate mass fraction (mostly higher than ~ 4) was a sign of the deliquescence of aerosol. A piecewise parameterized scheme was proposed, which could better describe deliquescence and reduce uncertainties in simulating aerosol hygroscopicity.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Jack B. Simmons, Ruhi S. Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, Alan D. Griffiths, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, and Sean Gribben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9497–9513,Short summary
Aerosols have a climate forcing effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Few measurements exist of aerosols in the Southern Ocean, a region key to our understanding of this effect. In this study, aerosol measurements from a summer 2017 campaign in the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone are examined. Higher concentrations of aerosols were found in dry air with origins from above the Antarctic continent compared to other periods of the voyage.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9417–9440,Short summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provides new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterizations for future climate models.
Marco Zanatta, Andreas Herber, Zsófia Jurányi, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9329–9342,Short summary
Saline snow samples were collected from the sea ice in the Fram Strait. Laboratory experiments revealed that sea salt can bias the quantification of black carbon with a laser-induced incandescence technique. The maximum underestimation was quantified to reach values of 80 %–90 %. This salt-induced interference is reported here for the first time and should be considered in future studies aiming to quantify black carbon in snow in marine environments.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Mukunda Madhab Gogoi, Vijayakumar S. Nair, Venugopalan Nair Jayachandran, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9173–9199,Short summary
The first observations of refractory black carbon aerosol size distributions and mixing state in South Asian outflow to the northern Indian Ocean were carried out as a part of the ICARB-2018 experiment during winter. Size distributions indicated mixed sources of BC particles in the outflow, which are thickly coated. The coating thickness of BC is controlled mainly by the availability of condensable species in the outflow.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Meng Gao, Hong Wang, Peng Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Linlin Wang, Guicai Ning, Chao Liu, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9105–9124,Short summary
In recent years, summer O3 pollution over eastern China has become more serious, and it is even the case that surface O3 and PM2.5 pollution can co-occur. However, the synoptic weather pattern (SWP) related to this compound pollution remains unclear. Regional PM2.5 and O3 compound pollution is characterized by various SWPs with different dominant factors. Our findings provide insights into the regional co-occurring high PM2.5 and O3 levels via the effects of certain meteorological factors.
Linn Karlsson, Radovan Krejci, Makoto Koike, Kerstin Ebell, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8933–8959,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions in the Arctic are poorly understood largely due to a lack of observational data. We present the first direct, long-term measurements of cloud residuals, i.e. the particles that remain when cloud droplets and ice crystals are dried. These detailed observations of cloud residuals cover more than 2 years, which is unique for the Arctic and globally. This work studies the size distributions of cloud residuals, their seasonality, and dependence on meteorology.
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, Jamie Trembath, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8979–8997,Short summary
Vertical distributions of atmospheric aerosols across the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and their ability to form clouds have been studied based on airborne measurements during the SWAAMI field campaign. The ability of the aerosols to act as cloud-forming nuclei exhibited large spatial variation across the IGP and strong seasonality with increase in this ability with increase in altitude prior to the onset of monsoon and decrease with increase in altitude during the active phase of the monsoon.
Tianren Wu and Brandon E. Boor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8883–8914,Short summary
Urban air pollution is a major global environmental health challenge. Establishing associations between exposure to urban aerosols and human health outcomes requires reliable aerosol measurements. Of particular importance are measurements of urban aerosol particle size distributions. This review critically analyzes global trends in urban aerosol particle size distributions in order to provide insights into air pollution in cities and guidance for the future for air quality monitoring networks.
Wei Xu, Kirsten N. Fossum, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8655–8675,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important topic in atmospheric studies, especially for evaluating the climate impact of aerosol. Here in this study, CCN closure is studied by using chemical composition based on an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and hygroscopicity growth measurements based on a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at the Mace Head atmospheric research station.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Shan Huang, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Hanbin Xu, Duohong Chen, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8575–8592,Short summary
This study investigated the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) events to the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) and its controlling factors in the Pearl River Delta region. The results show that the surfactant effect can decrease the critical diameter and significantly increase the NCCN during the NPF event. In addition, the growth rate is founded to be the most important controlling factor that affects NCCN for growth of newly-formed particles to the CCN sizes.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Caroline C. Womack, Katherine M. Manfred, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Alessandro Franchin, Kara D. Lamb, Ann M. Middlebrook, Joshua P. Schwarz, Charles A. Brock, Steven S. Brown, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7235–7252,Short summary
Microscopic particles interact with sunlight and affect the earth's climate in ways that are not fully understood. Aerosols from wildfire smoke present particular challenges due to their complexity in shape and composition. We demonstrate that we can experimentally measure aerosol optical properties for many types of smoke particles, using measurements of smoke from controlled burns, but that the method does not work well for smoke with high soot content.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Maria Kezoudi, Matthias Tesche, Helen Smith, Alexandra Tsekeri, Holger Baars, Maximilian Dollner, Víctor Estellés, Johannes Bühl, Bernadett Weinzierl, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Detlef Müller, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6781–6797,Short summary
Mineral dust concentrations in the diameter range from 0.4 to 14.0 μm were measured with the balloon-borne UCASS optical particle counter. Launches were coordinated with ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in situ measurements during a Saharan dust outbreak over Cyprus. Particle number concentrations reached 50 cm−3 for the diameter range 0.8–13.9 μm. Comparisons with aircraft data show reasonable agreement in magnitude and shape of the particle size distribution.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shuhui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5919–5933,
Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yongxiang Ma, Lindong Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Guangjing Liu, and Yongjing Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5739–5753,Short summary
The influence of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the boundary layer structure is nonlinear. The threshold of the modification effects of ARF on the boundary layer structure was determined for the first time, highlighting that once ARF exceeded a certain value, the boundary layer would quickly stabilize and aggravate air pollution. This could provide useful information for relevant atmospheric-environment improvement measures and policies.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Long Peng, Lei Li, Guohua Zhang, Xubing Du, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Xinhui Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5605–5613,Short summary
We build a novel system that utilizes an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) combined with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) to simultaneously characterize the volume equivalent diameter (Dve), chemical compositions, and effective density (ρe) of individual particles in real time. A test of the AAC-SPAMS with both spherical and aspherical particles shows that the deviations between the measured and theoretical values are less than 6 %.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Shan Zhou, Qi Zhang, Sonya Collier, and Jianzhong Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This work focuses on understanding aerosol's ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and its variations with organic oxidation level and volatility using measurements at a rural site. Aerosol properties were examined from four air mass sources. The results help improve the accurate representation of aerosol from different ambient aerosol emissions, transformation pathways, atmospheric processes in a climate model.
Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Martin Rigler, Sergio Cogliati, Francesca Barnaba, Luca Di Liberto, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Niccolò Losi, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4869–4897,Short summary
The work experimentally quantifies the impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon. The most impacting clouds were stratocumulus, altostratus and stratus. Clouds caused a decrease of the heating rate of about 12 % per okta. The black carbon decease was slightly higher with respect to that of brown carbon. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of cloudiness when modelling light-absorbing aerosol climate forcing.
Debing Kong, Shigong Wang, Guicai Ning, Jing Cong, Ming Luo, Xiang Ni, and Mingguo Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study provides the first attempt to examine the diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change and reveals their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areas. Three different diurnal cycles of the preceding day-to-day temperature change are identified and exhibit notably distinct effects on the air quality evolutions. The mechanisms of the identified diurnal cycles effects on air quality are also revealed, which exhibit promising potential for air quality forecasting.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Gregory C. Roberts, Georges Saliba, Lynn M. Russell, Cynthia Twohy, J. Michael Reeves, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, and Ian M. McRobert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3427–3446,Short summary
Measurements of particles and their properties were made from aircraft over the Southern Ocean. Aerosol transported from the Antarctic coast is shown to greatly enhance particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of precipitation was shown to be associated with the lowest particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. These particles are important due to their ability to enhance cloud droplet concentrations, resulting in more sunlight being reflected by the clouds.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere, and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Sami D. Seppälä, Joel Kuula, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Sanna Saarikoski, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3215–3234,Short summary
The effects of fuel sulfur content restrictions implemented by the International Maritime Organization in the Baltic Sea (in July 2010 and January 2015) on the particle properties of ship exhaust plumes and ambient aerosol were studied. The restrictions reduced the particle number concentrations and median particle size in plumes and number concentrations in ambient aerosol. These changes may improve human health in coastal areas and decrease the cooling effect of exhaust emissions from ships.
Christian Zdanowicz, Jean-Charles Gallet, Mats P. Björkman, Catherine Larose, Thomas Schuler, Bartłomiej Luks, Krystyna Koziol, Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, Tõnu Martma, Ward van Pelt, Ulla Wideqvist, and Johan Ström
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3035–3057,Short summary
Black carbon (BC) aerosols are soot-like particles which, when transported to the Arctic, darken snow surfaces, thus indirectly affecting climate. Information on BC in Arctic snow is needed to measure their impact and monitor the efficacy of pollution-reduction policies. This paper presents a large new set of BC measurements in snow in Svalbard collected between 2007 and 2018. It describes how BC in snow varies across the archipelago and explores some factors controlling these variations.
Sihui Jiang, Fang Zhang, Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Xing Yan, Jieyao Liu, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
New particle formation (NPF) can be a large source of CCN and affect weather and climate. Here we show that the NPF contributes largely to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd), but which is suppressed at high particle number concentrations in Beijing due to water vapor competition. We also reveal a considerable impact of the primary sources on the evaluation in urban atmosphere. Our study is with great significance to assess the NPF associated effects on climate in polluted regions.
Jonas Svensson, Johan Ström, Henri Honkanen, Eija Asmi, Nathaniel B. Dkhar, Shresth Tayal, Ved P. Sharma, Rakesh Hooda, Matti Leppäranta, Hans-Werner Jacobi, Heikki Lihavainen, and Antti Hyvärinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2931–2943,Short summary
Light-absorbing particles specifically affect snowmelt in the Himalayas. Through measurements of the constituents in glacier snow pits from the Indian Himalayas our investigations show that different snow layers display striking similarities. These similarities can be characterized by a deposition constant. Our results further indicate that mineral dust can be responsible for the majority of light absorption in the snow in this part of the Himalayas.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Pasi Aalto, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Anikó Kern, Zoltán Barcza, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2861–2880,Short summary
The distribution of the monthly mean nucleation frequency possessed a characteristic pattern. Its shape was compared to those of environmental variables, including vegetation-derived properties. The spring maximum in the occurrence frequency often overlapped with the positive T anomaly. The link between the heat stress and the occurrence minimum in summer could not be proven, whereas an association between the occurrence frequency and vegetation growth dynamics was clearly identified in spring.
Xiaoyan Wang, Renhe Zhang, Yanke Tan, and Wei Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2491–2508,Short summary
The physical mechanisms of synoptic patterns affecting the decay process of air pollution episodes are investigated in this work. Three dominant circulation patterns are identified, which usually decrease the ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 27%–41% after they arrive around Beijing. Emission reductions led to a 4.3–5.7 μg (m3 yr-1)-1 decrease in PM2.5 concentrations around Beijing during 2014 to 2020.
Simone Brunamonti, Giovanni Martucci, Gonzague Romanens, Yann Poltera, Frank G. Wienhold, Maxime Hervo, Alexander Haefele, and Francisco Navas-Guzmán
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2267–2285,Short summary
Lidar (light detection and ranging) is a class of remote-sensing instruments that are widely used for the monitoring of aerosol properties in the lower levels of the atmosphere, yet their measurements are affected by several sources of uncertainty. Here we present the first comparison of two lidar systems against a fully independent instrument carried by meteorological balloons. We show that both lidars achieve a good agreement with the high-precision balloon measurements up to 6 km altitude.
Runlong Cai, Chenxi Li, Xu-Cheng He, Chenjuan Deng, Yiqun Lu, Rujing Yin, Chao Yan, Lin Wang, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2287–2304,Short summary
Growth rate determines the survival probability of atmospheric new particles and hence their impacts. We clarify the impacts of coagulation on the values retrieved by the appearance time method, which is widely used for growth rate evaluation. A new formula with coagulation correction is proposed based on derivation and tested using both models and atmospheric data. We show that the sub-3 nm particle growth rate in polluted environments may be overestimated without the coagulation correction.
Jean-François Léon, Aristide Barthélémy Akpo, Mouhamadou Bedou, Julien Djossou, Marleine Bodjrenou, Véronique Yoboué, and Cathy Liousse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1815–1834,Short summary
We have investigated the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its relation to PM2.5 surface concentrations in southern West Africa based on in situ observations (2015–2017 period) and MODIS satellite data (2003–2019). MODIS AODs are validated using a regional network of handheld and automatic sun photometers. Satellite-derived PM2.5 shows an increasing trend during the short dry period that is possibly linked to the increase in anthropogenic emission over this area.
Antti Ruuskanen, Sami Romakkaniemi, Harri Kokkola, Antti Arola, Santtu Mikkonen, Harri Portin, Annele Virtanen, Kari E. J. Lehtinen, Mika Komppula, and Ari Leskinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1683–1695,Short summary
The study focuses mainly on cloud-scavenging efficiency of absorbing particulate matter (mainly black carbon) but additionally covers cloud-scavenging efficiency of scattering particles and statistics of cloud condensation nuclei. The main findings give insight into how black carbon is distributed in different particle sizes and the sensitivity to cloud scavenged. The main findings are useful for large-scale modelling for evaluating cloud scavenging.
Jessie M. Creamean, Gijs de Boer, Hagen Telg, Fan Mei, Darielle Dexheimer, Matthew D. Shupe, Amy Solomon, and Allison McComiskey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1737–1757,Short summary
Arctic clouds play a role in modulating sea ice extent. Importantly, aerosols facilitate cloud formation, and thus it is crucial to understand the interactions between aerosols and clouds. Vertical measurements of aerosols and clouds are needed to tackle this issue. We present results from balloon-borne measurements of aerosols and clouds over the course of 2 years in northern Alaska. These data shed light onto the vertical distributions of aerosols relative to clouds spanning multiple seasons.
Jens Redemann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Sarah J. Doherty, Bernadette Luna, Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michael S. Diamond, Yohei Shinozuka, Ian Y. Chang, Rei Ueyama, Leonhard Pfister, Ju-Mee Ryoo, Amie N. Dobracki, Arlindo M. da Silva, Karla M. Longo, Meloë S. Kacenelenbogen, Connor J. Flynn, Kristina Pistone, Nichola M. Knox, Stuart J. Piketh, James M. Haywood, Paola Formenti, Marc Mallet, Philip Stier, Andrew S. Ackerman, Susanne E. Bauer, Ann M. Fridlind, Gregory R. Carmichael, Pablo E. Saide, Gonzalo A. Ferrada, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, Brian Cairns, Brent N. Holben, Kirk D. Knobelspiesse, Simone Tanelli, Tristan S. L'Ecuyer, Andrew M. Dzambo, Ousmane O. Sy, Greg M. McFarquhar, Michael R. Poellot, Siddhant Gupta, Joseph R. O'Brien, Athanasios Nenes, Mary Kacarab, Jenny P. S. Wong, Jennifer D. Small-Griswold, Kenneth L. Thornhill, David Noone, James R. Podolske, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Peter Pilewskie, Hong Chen, Sabrina P. Cochrane, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Timothy J. Lang, Eric Stith, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Richard A. Ferrare, Sharon P. Burton, Chris A. Hostetler, David J. Diner, Felix C. Seidel, Steven E. Platnick, Jeffrey S. Myers, Kerry G. Meyer, Douglas A. Spangenberg, Hal Maring, and Lan Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1507–1563,Short summary
Southern Africa produces significant biomass burning emissions whose impacts on regional and global climate are poorly understood. ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) is a 5-year NASA investigation designed to study the key processes that determine these climate impacts. The main purpose of this paper is to familiarize the broader scientific community with the ORACLES project, the dataset it produced, and the most important initial findings.
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Campbell, J. R., Hlavka, D. L., Welton, E. J., Flynn, C. J., Turner, D. D., Spinhirne, J. D., Scott, V. S., and Hwange, I. H.: Full-time, eye-safe cloud and aerosol lidar observation at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program sites: Instruments and data processing, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 19, 431–442, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2002)019<0431:FTESCA>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
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Dethof, A., O'Neill, A., Slingo, J. M., and Smit, H. G. J.: A mechanism for moistening the lower stratosphere involving the Asian summer monsoon, Q. J. Roy Meteorol. Soc., 125, 1079–1106, 1999.
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Fu, R., Hu, Y., Wright, J. S., Jiang, J. H., Dickinson, R. E., Chen, M., Filipiak, M., Read, W. G., Waters, J. W., and Wu, D.: Short circuit of water vapor and polluted air to the global stratosphere by convective transport over the Tibetan Plateau, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103, 5664–5669, 2006.
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Hanson, D. R., Ravishankara, A. R., and Solomon, S.: Heterogeneous react ions in sulfuric acid aerosols: A framework for model calculations, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3615–3629, 1994.
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