Articles | Volume 10, issue 2
21 Jan 2010
21 Jan 2010
Carbonyl sulfide exchange in a temperate loblolly pine forest grown under ambient and elevated CO2
M. L. White et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Volatile organic compound fluxes in a subarctic peatland and lakeOH and HO2 radical chemistry in a midlatitude forest: measurements and model comparisonsConsumption of CH3Cl, CH3Br, and CH3I and emission of CHCl3, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 from the forefield of a retreating Arctic glacierPTR-TOF-MS eddy covariance measurements of isoprene and monoterpene fluxes from an eastern Amazonian rainforestSignificant emissions of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes by big-leaf mahogany trees: discovery of a missing dimethyl sulfide source to the atmospheric environmentPlant assemblages in atmospheric depositionEmission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning – an updated assessmentInvestigation of coastal sea-fog formation using the WIBS (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor) techniqueSoil–atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide in a Mediterranean citrus orchardMeasurements of nitric oxide and ammonia soil fluxes from a wet savanna ecosystem site in West Africa during the DACCIWA field campaignPhysicochemical uptake and release of volatile organic compounds by soil in coated-wall flow tube experiments with ambient airInteractions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudesImpacts of an intense wildfire smoke episode on surface radiation, energy and carbon fluxes in southwestern British Columbia, CanadaSurface–atmosphere exchange of inorganic water-soluble gases and associated ions in bulk aerosol above agricultural grassland pre- and postfertilisationSoil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in a boreal forest in southern FinlandDrivers for spatial, temporal and long-term trends in atmospheric ammonia and ammonium in the UKAnnual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesisEthene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulationAdverse effects of increasing drought on air quality via natural processesA synthesis of research needs for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cyclingArctic regional methane fluxes by ecotope as derived using eddy covariance from a low-flying aircraftEffect of mid-term drought on Quercus pubescens BVOCs' emission seasonality and their dependency on light and/or temperatureField observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) exchange in red oaksTerpenoid and carbonyl emissions from Norway spruce in Finland during the growing seasonA top-down approach of surface carbonyl sulfide exchange by a Mediterranean oak forest ecosystem in southern FranceAir–surface exchange of gaseous mercury over permafrost soil: an investigation at a high-altitude (4700 m a.s.l.) and remote site in the central Qinghai–Tibet PlateauImbalanced phosphorus and nitrogen deposition in China's forestsRole of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenesCanopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern ItalyMethanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. (Hypericaceae) in the central Amazon forestFuture vegetation–climate interactions in Eastern Siberia: an assessment of the competing effects of CO2 and secondary organic aerosolsConceptual design of a measurement network of the global changeEffects of global change during the 21st century on the nitrogen cycleIntroduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) – multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiativeThe Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosolsAn ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurementsArctic microbial and next-generation sequencing approach for bacteria in snow and frost flowers: selected identification, abundance and freezing nucleationDiel and seasonal changes of biogenic volatile organic compounds within and above an Amazonian rainforestSources and fluxes of organic nitrogen in precipitation over the southern East Sea/Sea of JapanInfluence of local air pollution on the deposition of peroxyacetyl nitrate to a nutrient-poor natural grassland ecosystemVariability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescensForest canopy interactions with nucleation mode particlesThe balances of mixing ratios and segregation intensity: a case study from the field (ECHO 2003)Concentrations and fluxes of isoprene and oxygenated VOCs at a French Mediterranean oak forestFrom emissions to ambient mixing ratios: online seasonal field measurements of volatile organic compounds over a Norway spruce-dominated forest in central GermanyOverview of the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory: site description and selected science results from 2008 to 2013Eddy covariance fluxes and vertical concentration gradient measurements of NO and NO2 over a ponderosa pine ecosystem: observational evidence for within-canopy chemical removal of NOxBiogenic volatile organic compound emissions during BEARPEX 2009 measured by eddy covariance and flux–gradient similarity methodsUndisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model resultsComparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest
Roger Seco, Thomas Holst, Mikkel Sillesen Matzen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Tao Li, Tihomir Simin, Joachim Jansen, Patrick Crill, Thomas Friborg, Janne Rinne, and Riikka Rinnan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13399–13416,Short summary
Northern ecosystems exchange climate-relevant trace gases with the atmosphere, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We measured VOC fluxes from a subarctic permafrost-free fen and its adjacent lake in northern Sweden. The graminoid-dominated fen emitted mainly isoprene during the peak of the growing season, with a pronounced response to increasing temperatures stronger than assumed by biogenic emission models. The lake was a sink of acetone and acetaldehyde during both periods measured.
Michelle M. Lew, Pamela S. Rickly, Brandon P. Bottorff, Emily Reidy, Sofia Sklaveniti, Thierry Léonardis, Nadine Locoge, Sebastien Dusanter, Shuvashish Kundu, Ezra Wood, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9209–9230,Short summary
The OH radical is the primary oxidant in the atmosphere, and measurements of its concentration provide a rigorous test of our understanding of atmospheric chemistry. Previous measurements of OH concentrations in forest environments have shown large discrepancies with model predictions. In this paper, we present measurements of OH in a forest in Indiana, USA, and compare the results to model predictions to test our understanding of this important chemistry.
Moya L. Macdonald, Jemma L. Wadham, Dickon Young, Chris R. Lunder, Ove Hermansen, Guillaume Lamarche-Gagnon, and Simon O'Doherty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7243–7258,Short summary
Climate change has caused glaciers in the Arctic to shrink, uncovering new soils. We used field measurements to study the exchange of a group of gases involved in ozone destruction, called halocarbons, between these new soils and the atmosphere. We found that mats of cyanobacteria, early colonisers of soils, are linked to a larger-than-expected exchange of halocarbons with the atmosphere. We also found that gases which are commonly thought to be marine in origin were released from these soils.
Chinmoy Sarkar, Alex B. Guenther, Jeong-Hoo Park, Roger Seco, Eliane Alves, Sarah Batalha, Raoni Santana, Saewung Kim, James Smith, Julio Tóta, and Oscar Vega
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7179–7191,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are important components of the atmosphere due to their contribution to atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report major BVOCs, e.g. isoprene and total monoterpene flux measurements with a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) using the eddy covariance (EC) method at a primary rainforest in eastern Amazonia. We used the measured data to evaluate the MEGAN2.1 model for the emission site.
Lejish Vettikkat, Vinayak Sinha, Savita Datta, Ashish Kumar, Haseeb Hakkim, Priya Yadav, and Baerbel Sinha
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 375–389,Short summary
There are several widely grown tree species whose BVOC emission potentials are still unknown. Studies over the Amazon rainforest have reported presence of terrestrial dimethyl sulfide sources. Here, we show that mahogany, which is grown widely in several regions of the world, is a high emitter of dimethyl sulfide and monoterpenes. With future land use and land cover changes promoting plantations of this tree for economic purposes, its impact on air quality could be quite significant.
Ke Dong, Cheolwoon Woo, and Naomichi Yamamoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11969–11983,Short summary
The work reported here is the first, the most comprehensive molecularly based study of atmospheric deposition of plants. Plants disperse spores, pollen, and fragments into the atmosphere. The emitted plant particles return to the pedosphere by sedimentation (dry deposition) and/or by precipitation (wet deposition), comprising part of the Earth's cycling of substances. This study reports plant assemblages in dry and wet atmospheric deposits collected together at the same sampling point.
Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8523–8546,Short summary
Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of atmospheric pollutants worldwide. This paper presents an up-to-date compilation of emission factors for over 120 trace gas and aerosol species from the different forms of open vegetation fires and domestic biofuel use, based on an analysis of over 370 published studies. Using these emission factors and current global burning activity data, the annual emissions of important species released by the various types of biomass burning are estimated.
Shane M. Daly, David J. O'Connor, David A. Healy, Stig Hellebust, Jovanna Arndt, Eoin J. McGillicuddy, Patrick Feeney, Michael Quirke, John C. Wenger, and John R. Sodeau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5737–5751,Short summary
For a long time sea-salt particles were considered the only types of particles that drive sea-fog formation but recently iodine oxide particles released from kelp have been identified as a source. There are no previous field studies to provide a direct timeline link between molecular iodine release, particle formation and sea-fog formation. The present observations from Cork Harbour provide such a link. A stabilizing mechanism enhancing distribution of iodine in the troposphere is suggested.
Fulin Yang, Rafat Qubaja, Fyodor Tatarinov, Rafael Stern, and Dan Yakir
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3873–3883,Short summary
The contribution of soil carbonyl sulfate (COS) flux is probably the major limitation to the application of COS as a novel tracer of canopy-scale CO2 uptake. We provide new, field-based high-resolution results on the spatial and temporal variations in soil COS flux, its relationships to CO2 exchange and the key factors influencing it. We furthermore provide the only study, to our knowledge, that validate the surface dynamic chamber approach, increasingly used, with soil concentration profiles.
Federica Pacifico, Claire Delon, Corinne Jambert, Pierre Durand, Eleanor Morris, Mat J. Evans, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Venance H. E. Donnou, Arnaud V. Houeto, Irene Reinares Martínez, and Pierre-Etienne Brilouet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2299–2325,Short summary
Biogenic fluxes from soil at a local and regional scale are crucial to study air pollution and climate. Here we present field measurements of soil fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) observed over four different land cover types, i.e. bare soil, grassland, maize field, and forest, at an inland rural site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign in June and July 2016.
Guo Li, Yafang Cheng, Uwe Kuhn, Rongjuan Xu, Yudong Yang, Hannah Meusel, Zhibin Wang, Nan Ma, Yusheng Wu, Meng Li, Jonathan Williams, Thorsten Hoffmann, Markus Ammann, Ulrich Pöschl, Min Shao, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2209–2232,Short summary
VOCs play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Emission and deposition on soil have been suggested as important sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The exchange characteristics and heterogeneous chemistry of VOCs on soil, however, are not well understood. We used a newly designed differential coated-wall flow tube system to investigate the long-term variability of bidirectional air–soil exchange of 13 VOCs at ambient air conditions of an urban background site in Beijing.
Michael Boy, Erik S. Thomson, Juan-C. Acosta Navarro, Olafur Arnalds, Ekaterina Batchvarova, Jaana Bäck, Frank Berninger, Merete Bilde, Zoé Brasseur, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Dimitri Castarède, Maryam Dalirian, Gerrit de Leeuw, Monika Dragosics, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Jonathan Duplissy, Annica M. L. Ekman, Keyan Fang, Jean-Charles Gallet, Marianne Glasius, Sven-Erik Gryning, Henrik Grythe, Hans-Christen Hansson, Margareta Hansson, Elisabeth Isaksson, Trond Iversen, Ingibjorg Jonsdottir, Ville Kasurinen, Alf Kirkevåg, Atte Korhola, Radovan Krejci, Jon Egill Kristjansson, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Antti Lauri, Matti Leppäranta, Heikki Lihavainen, Risto Makkonen, Andreas Massling, Outi Meinander, E. Douglas Nilsson, Haraldur Olafsson, Jan B. C. Pettersson, Nønne L. Prisle, Ilona Riipinen, Pontus Roldin, Meri Ruppel, Matthew Salter, Maria Sand, Øyvind Seland, Heikki Seppä, Henrik Skov, Joana Soares, Andreas Stohl, Johan Ström, Jonas Svensson, Erik Swietlicki, Ksenia Tabakova, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Aki Virkkula, Gesa A. Weyhenmeyer, Yusheng Wu, Paul Zieger, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2015–2061,Short summary
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date and aimed to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. The paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated and provides a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC.
Ian G. McKendry, Andreas Christen, Sung-Ching Lee, Madison Ferrara, Kevin B. Strawbridge, Norman O'Neill, and Andrew Black
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 835–846,Short summary
Wildfire smoke in July 2015 had a significant impact on air quality, radiation, and energy budgets across British Columbia. With lighter smoke, a wetland and forested site showed enhanced photosynthetic activity (taking in carbon dioxide). However, with dense smoke the forested site became a strong source. These results suggest that smoke during the growing season potentially plays an important role in the carbon budget, and this effect will likely increase as climate changes.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Mathew R. Heal, Marsailidh M. Twigg, Nicholas Cowan, Matthew R. Jones, Sarah R. Leeson, William J. Bloss, Louisa J. Kramer, Leigh Crilley, Matthias Sörgel, Meinrat Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16953–16978,Short summary
Understanding the impact of agricultural activities on the atmosphere requires more measurements of inorganic trace gases and associated aerosol counterparts. This research presents 1 month of measurements above agricultural grassland during a period of fertiliser application. It was found that emissions of the important trace gases ammonia and nitrous acid peaked after fertiliser use and that the velocity at which the measured aerosols were deposited was dependent upon their size.
Wu Sun, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Huilin Chen, Ivan Mammarella, Timo Vesala, Janne Levula, Helmi Keskinen, and Ulli Seibt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1363–1378,Short summary
Most soils consume carbonyl sulfide (COS) and CO due to microbial uptake, but whether boreal forest soils act like this is uncertain. We measured growing season soil COS and CO fluxes in a Finnish pine forest. The soil behaved as a consistent and relatively invariant sink of COS and CO. Uptake rates of COS and CO decrease with soil moisture due to diffusion limitation and increase with respiration because of microbial control. Using COS to infer photosynthesis is not affected by soil COS flux.
Yuk S. Tang, Christine F. Braban, Ulrike Dragosits, Anthony J. Dore, Ivan Simmons, Netty van Dijk, Janet Poskitt, Gloria Dos Santos Pereira, Patrick O. Keenan, Christopher Conolly, Keith Vincent, Rognvald I. Smith, Mathew R. Heal, and Mark A. Sutton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 705–733,Short summary
A unique long-term dataset of NH3 and NH4+ data from the NAMN is used to assess spatial, seasonal and long-term variability across the UK. NH3 is spatially variable, with distinct temporal profiles according to source types. NH4+ is spatially smoother, with peak concentrations in spring from long-range transport. Decrease in NH3 is smaller than emissions, but NH4+ decreased faster than NH3, due to a shift from stable (NH4)2SO4 to semi-volatile NH4NO3, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of NH3.
Pertti Hari, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Liisa Kulmala, Markku Kulmala, Steffen Noe, Tuukka Petäjä, Anni Vanhatalo, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15045–15053,Short summary
We developed a theory on the seasonal behaviour of photosynthesis in natural conditions and tested the theory with intensive measurements. Light, temperature, water vapor and CO2 concentration explained the daily variation in photosynthesis, and the physiological state of the photosynthetic machinery explained the annual pattern of photosynthesis. The theory explained about 95 % of the variance of photosynthesis measured with chambers in the field in northern Finland.
Robert C. Rhew, Malte Julian Deventer, Andrew A. Turnipseed, Carsten Warneke, John Ortega, Steve Shen, Luis Martinez, Abigail Koss, Brian M. Lerner, Jessica B. Gilman, James N. Smith, Alex B. Guenther, and Joost A. de Gouw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13417–13438,Short summary
Alkenes emanate from both natural and anthropogenic sources and can contribute to atmospheric ozone production. This study measured
lightalkene (ethene, propene and butene) fluxes from a ponderosa pine forest using a novel relaxed eddy accumulation method, revealing much larger emissions than previously estimated and accounting for a significant fraction of OH reactivity. Emissions have a diurnal cycle related to sunlight and temperature, and the forest canopy appears to be the source.
Yuxuan Wang, Yuanyu Xie, Wenhao Dong, Yi Ming, Jun Wang, and Lu Shen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12827–12843,Short summary
Besides the well-known large impact on agriculture and water resources, drought is associated with significant adverse effects on air quality. Drought-induced degradation of air quality is largely due to natural processes, offsetting the effort of anthropogenic emission reduction during the past decades. Such adverse impacts should be included in modeling processes under current and future climate for mitigation policy.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
David S. Sayres, Ronald Dobosy, Claire Healy, Edward Dumas, John Kochendorfer, Jason Munster, Jordan Wilkerson, Bruce Baker, and James G. Anderson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8619–8633,Short summary
Arctic temperatures have risen faster than the global average, causing the depth of melting of the frozen ground to increase. Previously frozen organic carbon, once exposed to air, water, and microbes, is turned into carbon dioxide and methane, both of which are important greenhouse gases. Due to the large and varied surface area of the Arctic and the difficulty of making measurements there we use a low flying aircraft (<25 m) to measure the amount of methane released from different regions.
Amélie Saunier, Elena Ormeño, Christophe Boissard, Henri Wortham, Brice Temime-Roussel, Caroline Lecareux, Alexandre Armengaud, and Catherine Fernandez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7555–7566,Short summary
We investigated the BVOC emissions variations of Quercus Pubescens, under natural and amplified drought, in situ, in order to determine the dependency to light and/or temperature of these emissions. Our results showed that all BVOC emissions were reduced with amplified drought. Moreover, we highlighted two dependences: (i) light and temperature and (ii) light and temperature during the day and to temperature during the night. These results can be useful to enhance emission models.
Luca Cappellin, Alberto Algarra Alarcon, Irina Herdlinger-Blatt, Juaquin Sanchez, Franco Biasioli, Scot T. Martin, Francesco Loreto, and Karena A. McKinney
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4189–4207,Short summary
The role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in plant interactions with the atmosphere is investigated through field observations of branch-level VOC exchange in a New England forest. The data reveal previously unknown sources and sinks of oxygenated VOCs. The emission of methyl ethyl ketone is linked to uptake of methyl vinyl ketone, suggesting the possibility of within-leaf isoprene oxidation. Bidirectional fluxes of some VOCs are also reported, including for benzaldehyde for the first time.
Hannele Hakola, Virpi Tarvainen, Arnaud P. Praplan, Kerneels Jaars, Marja Hemmilä, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, and Heidi Hellén
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3357–3370,Short summary
We present spring and summer VOC emission rate measurements from Norway spruce using an in situ gas chromatograph. Monoterpene and C4–C10 aldehyde emission rates reached maxima in July. SQT emissions increased at the end of July and in August SQT were the most abundant group. The MT emission pattern varied a lot from tree to tree and therefore emission fluxes on canopy level should be conducted for more representative measurements. However, leaf level measurements produce more reliable SQT data.
Sauveur Belviso, Ilja Marco Reiter, Benjamin Loubet, Valérie Gros, Juliette Lathière, David Montagne, Marc Delmotte, Michel Ramonet, Cerise Kalogridis, Benjamin Lebegue, Nicolas Bonnaire, Victor Kazan, Thierry Gauquelin, Catherine Fernandez, and Bernard Genty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14909–14923,Short summary
The role that soil, foliage, and atmospheric dynamics have on surface OCS exchange in a Mediterranean forest ecosystem in southern France (O3HP) was investigated in June of 2012 and 2013 with essentially a top-down approach. Atmospheric data suggest that the site is appropriate for estimating GPP directly from eddy covariance measurements of OCS fluxes, but it is less adequate for scaling NEE to GPP from observations of vertical gradients of OCS relative to CO2 during the daytime.
Zhijia Ci, Fei Peng, Xian Xue, and Xiaoshan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14741–14754,Short summary
We performed field measurements and controlled field experiments to examine the flux, temporal variation and influencing factors of air–surface Hg(0) exchange at a high-altitude and remote site in the central Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. We found that the environmental conditions greatly influenced the air–surface Hg dynamics. Our results have important implications for the Hg biogeochemical cycle in the soils of Qinghai–Tibet Plateau under rapid climate warming and environmental change.
Enzai Du, Wim de Vries, Wenxuan Han, Xuejun Liu, Zhengbing Yan, and Yuan Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8571–8579,Short summary
Accelerated N emissions in China may lead to an imbalance of atmospheric nutrient inputs in various ecosystems. Our assessment of P and N deposition in China's forests showed relatively high rates of P deposition, but they were accompanied by even much higher N deposition, resulting in high N : P deposition ratios. P and N deposition both showed a power-law increase with closer distance to the nearest large cities. Our results suggest an anthropogenic imbalance of regional N and P cycling.
Johanna Joensuu, Nuria Altimir, Hannele Hakola, Michael Rostás, Maarit Raivonen, Mika Vestenius, Hermanni Aaltonen, Markus Riederer, and Jaana Bäck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7813–7823,Short summary
Plants produce volatile compounds (BVOCs) that have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. Our aim was to see if terpenes, a key group of BVOCs, can be found on surfaces of pine needles and, if so, how they compare with the emissions of the same tree. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but there were also differences in the emission and wax spectra. The results support the existence of BVOCs on needle surfaces, with possible implications for air chemistry.
W. Joe F. Acton, Simon Schallhart, Ben Langford, Amy Valach, Pekka Rantala, Silvano Fares, Giulia Carriero, Ralf Tillmann, Sam J. Tomlinson, Ulrike Dragosits, Damiano Gianelle, C. Nicholas Hewitt, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7149–7170,Short summary
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere and hence have a significant impact on air quality. It is therefore important that we can accurately quantify their emission. In this paper we use three methods to determine the fluxes of reactive VOCs from a woodland canopy. We show that two different canopy-scale measurement methods give good agreement, whereas estimates based on leaf-level-based emission underestimate isoprene fluxes.
Kolby J. Jardine, Angela B. Jardine, Vinicius F. Souza, Vilany Carneiro, Joao V. Ceron, Bruno O. Gimenez, Cilene P. Soares, Flavia M. Durgante, Niro Higuchi, Antonio O. Manzi, José F. C. Gonçalves, Sabrina Garcia, Scot T. Martin, Raquel F. Zorzanelli, Luani R. Piva, and Jeff Q. Chambers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6441–6452,Short summary
In this study, high light-dependent isoprene emissions were observed from mature V. guianensis leaves in the central Amazon. As predicted by energetic models, isoprene emission increased nonlinearly with net photosynthesis. High leaf temperatures resulted in the classic uncoupling of net photosynthesis from isoprene emissions. Finally, leaf phenology differentially controlled methanol and isoprene emissions.
Almut Arneth, Risto Makkonen, Stefan Olin, Pauli Paasonen, Thomas Holst, Maija K. Kajos, Markku Kulmala, Trofim Maximov, Paul A. Miller, and Guy Schurgers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5243–5262,Short summary
We study the potentially contrasting effects of enhanced ecosystem CO2 release in response to warmer temperatures vs. emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and their formation of secondary organic aerosol through a combination of measurements and modelling at a remote location in Eastern Siberia. The study aims to highlight the number of potentially opposing processes and complex interactions between vegetation physiology, soil processes and trace-gas exchanges in the climate system.
P. Hari, T. Petäjä, J. Bäck, V.-M. Kerminen, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Vihma, T. Laurila, Y. Viisanen, T. Vesala, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1017–1028,Short summary
This manuscript introduces a conceptual design of a global, hierarchical observation network which provides tools and increased understanding to tackle the inter-connected environmental and societal challenges that we will face in the coming decades. Each ecosystem type on the globe has its own characteristic features that need to be taken into consideration. The hierarchical network is able to tackle problems related to large spatial scales, heterogeneity of ecosystems and their complexity.
D. Fowler, C. E. Steadman, D. Stevenson, M. Coyle, R. M. Rees, U. M. Skiba, M. A. Sutton, J. N. Cape, A. J. Dore, M. Vieno, D. Simpson, S. Zaehle, B. D. Stocker, M. Rinaldi, M. C. Facchini, C. R. Flechard, E. Nemitz, M. Twigg, J. W. Erisman, K. Butterbach-Bahl, and J. N. Galloway
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13849–13893,
M. Kulmala, H. K. Lappalainen, T. Petäjä, T. Kurten, V.-M. Kerminen, Y. Viisanen, P. Hari, S. Sorvari, J. Bäck, V. Bondur, N. Kasimov, V. Kotlyakov, G. Matvienko, A. Baklanov, H. D. Guo, A. Ding, H.-C. Hansson, and S. Zilitinkevich
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13085–13096,Short summary
The Pan-European Experiment (PEEX) is introduced. PEEX is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. This paper outlines the mission, vision and objectives of PEEX and introduces its main components, including the research agenda, research infrastructure, knowledge transfer and potential impacts on society. The paper also summarizes the main scientific questions that PEEX is going to tackle in the future.
M. O. Andreae, O. C. Acevedo, A. Araùjo, P. Artaxo, C. G. G. Barbosa, H. M. J. Barbosa, J. Brito, S. Carbone, X. Chi, B. B. L. Cintra, N. F. da Silva, N. L. Dias, C. Q. Dias-Júnior, F. Ditas, R. Ditz, A. F. L. Godoi, R. H. M. Godoi, M. Heimann, T. Hoffmann, J. Kesselmeier, T. Könemann, M. L. Krüger, J. V. Lavric, A. O. Manzi, A. P. Lopes, D. L. Martins, E. F. Mikhailov, D. Moran-Zuloaga, B. W. Nelson, A. C. Nölscher, D. Santos Nogueira, M. T. F. Piedade, C. Pöhlker, U. Pöschl, C. A. Quesada, L. V. Rizzo, C.-U. Ro, N. Ruckteschler, L. D. A. Sá, M. de Oliveira Sá, C. B. Sales, R. M. N. dos Santos, J. Saturno, J. Schöngart, M. Sörgel, C. M. de Souza, R. A. F. de Souza, H. Su, N. Targhetta, J. Tóta, I. Trebs, S. Trumbore, A. van Eijck, D. Walter, Z. Wang, B. Weber, J. Williams, J. Winderlich, F. Wittmann, S. Wolff, and A. M. Yáñez-Serrano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10723–10776,Short summary
This paper describes the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a new atmosphere-biosphere observatory located in the remote Amazon Basin. It presents results from ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at the ATTO site during the first 3 years of operation.
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
R. Mortazavi, S. Attiya, and P. A. Ariya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6183–6204,Short summary
Next-generation sequencing revealed the existence of diverse community of bacteria in the Arctic samples with many originating from distinct ecological environments. The observed varied range in ice nucleation of cultivable bacteria and in all of the melted samples further revealed the existence of the heterogeneous pool of bacteria. Changes in the microbial pool and its impact on the freezing and melting process may potentially lead to changing the Arctic environment and thus global climate.
A. M. Yáñez-Serrano, A. C. Nölscher, J. Williams, S. Wolff, E. Alves, G. A. Martins, E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Brito, K. Jardine, P. Artaxo, and J. Kesselmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3359–3378,
G. Yan and G. Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2761–2774,
A. Moravek, P. Stella, T. Foken, and I. Trebs
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 899–911,
A.-C. Genard-Zielinski, C. Boissard, C. Fernandez, C. Kalogridis, J. Lathière, V. Gros, N. Bonnaire, and E. Ormeño
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 431–446,
S. C. Pryor, K. E. Hornsby, and K. A. Novick
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11985–11996,Short summary
What role do forests play in determining the concentration (and composition) of climate-relevant aerosol particles? This study seeks to address two aspects of this question. Firstly, we document high in-canopy removal of recently formed particles. Then we show evidence that growth rates of particles are a function of soil water availability via a reduction in canopy emissions of gases responsible for particle growth to climate-relevant sizes during drought conditions.
R. Dlugi, M. Berger, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, F. Rohrer, F. Holland, K. Lu, and G. Kramm
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10333–10362,
C. Kalogridis, V. Gros, R. Sarda-Esteve, B. Langford, B. Loubet, B. Bonsang, N. Bonnaire, E. Nemitz, A.-C. Genard, C. Boissard, C. Fernandez, E. Ormeño, D. Baisnée, I. Reiter, and J. Lathière
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10085–10102,
E. Bourtsoukidis, J. Williams, J. Kesselmeier, S. Jacobi, and B. Bonn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6495–6510,
J. Ortega, A. Turnipseed, A. B. Guenther, T. G. Karl, D. A. Day, D. Gochis, J. A. Huffman, A. J. Prenni, E. J. T. Levin, S. M. Kreidenweis, P. J. DeMott, Y. Tobo, E. G. Patton, A. Hodzic, Y. Y. Cui, P. C. Harley, R. S. Hornbrook, E. C. Apel, R. K. Monson, A. S. D. Eller, J. P. Greenberg, M. C. Barth, P. Campuzano-Jost, B. B. Palm, J. L. Jimenez, A. C. Aiken, M. K. Dubey, C. Geron, J. Offenberg, M. G. Ryan, P. J. Fornwalt, S. C. Pryor, F. N. Keutsch, J. P. DiGangi, A. W. H. Chan, A. H. Goldstein, G. M. Wolfe, S. Kim, L. Kaser, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Hansel, C. A. Cantrell, R. L. Mauldin, and J. N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6345–6367,
K.-E. Min, S. E. Pusede, E. C. Browne, B. W. LaFranchi, and R. C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5495–5512,
J.-H. Park, S. Fares, R. Weber, and A. H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 231–244,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, A. Guenther, M. Graus, R. Schnitzhofer, A. Turnipseed, L. Fischer, P. Harley, M. Madronich, D. Gochis, F. N. Keutsch, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11935–11947,
L. Kaser, T. Karl, R. Schnitzhofer, M. Graus, I. S. Herdlinger-Blatt, J. P. DiGangi, B. Sive, A. Turnipseed, R. S. Hornbrook, W. Zheng, F. M. Flocke, A. Guenther, F. N. Keutsch, E. Apel, and A. Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2893–2906,
Aneja, V. P., Overton, J. H., Cupitt, L. T., Durham, J. L., and Wilson, W. E.: Carbon disulphide and carbonyl sulphide from biogenic sources and their contributions to the global sulphur cycle, Nature, 282, 493–496, 1979.
Barnes, I., Becker, K. H., and Patroescu, I.: The tropospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulfide: A new source of carbonyl sulfide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2389–2392, 1994.
Berresheim, H. and Vulcan, V. D.: Vertical distributions of COS, CS2, DMS and other sulfur compounds in a loblolly pine forest, Atmos. Environ., 26A, 2031–2036, 1992.
Bonan, G. B.: Forests and climate change: Forcings, feedbacks, and the climate benefits of forests, Science, 320, 1444, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155121, 2008.
Brown, K. A. and Bell, J. N. B.: Vegetation – the missing sink in the global cycle of carbonyl sulphide (COS), Atmos. Environ., 20, 537–540, 1986.
Caird, M. A., Richards, J. H., and Donovan, L. A.: Nighttime stomatal conductance and transpiration in C3 and C4 plants, Plant Physiol., 143, 4–10, 2007.
Campbell, J. E., Carmichael, G. R., Chai, T., Mena-Carrasco, M., Tang, Y., Blake, D. R., Blake, N. J., Vey, S. A., Collatz, G. J., Baker, I., Berry, J. A., Montzka, S. A., Sweeney, C., Schnoor, J. L., and Stanier, C. O.: Photosynthetic control of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide during the growing season, Science, 322, 1085–1088, 2008.
Castro, M. S. and Galloway, J. N.: A comparison of sulfur-free and ambient air enclosure techniques for measuring the exchange of reduced sulfur gases between soils and the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15427–15437, 1991.
Chin, M. and Davis, D. D.: Global sources and sinks of OCS and CS2 and their distribution, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 7, 321–337, 1993.
Chin, M. and Davis, D. D.: A reanalysis of carbonyl sulfide as a source of stratospheric background sulfur aerosol, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 8993–9005, 1995.
deMello, W. Z. and Hines, M. E.: Application of static and dynamic enclosures for determining dimethyl sulfide and carbonyl sulfide exchange in Sphagnum peatlands: Implications for the magnitude and direction of flux, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 14601–14607, 1994.
Elliot, S., Lu, E., and Rowland, F. S.: Rates and mechanisms for the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in natural waters, Environ. Sci. Technol., 23, 458–461, 1989.
FACTS-1 LAI-2000 Leaf Area Index measurements: http://face.env.duke.edu/products.cfm, last access: 15 June 2007, 2006a.
FACTS-1 Soil moisture measurements: http://face.env.duke.edu/products.cfm, last access: 15 June 2007, 2006b.
Galbally, I.: Some measurements of ozone variation and destruction in the atmospheric surface layer, Nature, 218, 456–457, 1968.
Geng, C. and Mu, Y.: Carbonyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfide exchange between trees and the atmosphere, Atmos. Environ., 40, 1373–1383, 2006.
Goldan, P. D., Fall, R., Kuster, W. C., and Fehsenfeld, F. C.: Uptake of COS by growing vegetation: A major tropospheric sink, J. Geophys. Res., 93, 14186–14192, 1988.
Greenwood, D. R., Scarr, M. J., and Christophel, D. C.: Leaf stomatal frequency in the Australian tropical rainforest tree Neolitsea dealbata (Lauraceae) as a proxy measure of atmospheric pCO(2), Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 196, 375–393, 2003.
Güsten, H., Heinrich, G., and Sprung, D.: Nocturnal depletion of ozone in the Upper Rhine Valley, Atmos. Environ, 32, 1195–1202, 1998.
Hastie, D. R., Shepson, P. B., Sharma, S., and Schiff, H. I.: The influence of the nocturnal boundary layer on secondary trace species in the atmosphere at Dorset, Ontario, Atmos. Environ. A–Gen., 27, 533–541, 1993.
Herrick, J. D. and Thomas, R. B.: No photosynthetic down-regulation in sweetgum trees (Liquidambar styraciflua) after three years of CO2 enrichment at the Duke Forest FACE experiment, Plant Cell Environ., 24, 53–64, 2001.
Herrick, J. D., Maherali, H., and Thomas, R. B.: Reduced stomatal conductance in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) sustained over long-term CO2 enrichment, New Phytol., 162, 387-396, 2004.
Hungate, B. A., Reichstein, M., Dijkstra, P., Johnson, D., Hymus, G., Tenhunen, J. D., Hinkle, C. R., and Drake, B. G.: Evapotranspiration and soil water content in a scrub-oak woodland under carbon dioxide enrichment, Glob. Change Biol., 8, 289–298, 2002.
Kammann, C., Grunhage, L., Gruters, U., Janze, S., and Jager, H. J.: Response of aboveground grassland biomass and soil moisture to moderate long-term CO2 enrichment, Basic Appl. Ecol., 6, 351–365, 2005.
Kesselmeier, J., Meixner, F. X., Hofmann, U., Ajavon, A.-L., Leimbach, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Reduced sulfur compound exchange between the atmosphere and tropical tree species in southern Cameroon, Biogeochemistry, 23, 23–45, 1993.
Kesselmeier, J. and Merk, L.: Exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) between agricultural plants and the atmosphere: Studies on the deposition of COS to peas, corn and rapeseed, Biogeochemistry, 23, 47–59, 1993.
Kesselmeier, J., Teusch, N., and Kuhn, U.: Controlling variables for the uptake of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide by soil, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11577–11584, 1999.
Kettle, A. J.: Comparison of dynamic models to predict the concentration of a photochemical tracer in the upper ocean as a function of depth and time, Mar. Freshwater Res., 51, 289–304, 2000.
Kettle, A. J., Kuhn, U., von Hobe, M., Kesselmeier, J., and Andreae, M. O.: Global budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide: Temporal and spatial variations of the dominant sources and sinks, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 4658, https://doi.org/4610.1029/2002JD002187, 2002.
Kettunen, R., Saarnio, S., Martikainen, P. J., and Silvola, J.: Increase of N2O fluxes in agricultural peat and sandy soil under elevated CO2 concentration: concomitant changes in soil moisture, groundwater table and biomass production of Phleum pratense, Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys., 74, 175–189, 2006.
Kjellstrom, E.: A three-dimensional global model study of carbonyl sulfide in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, J. Atmos. Chem., 29, 151–177, 1998.
Kouwenberg, L. L. R., McElwain, J. C., Kurschner, W. M., Wagner, F., Beerling, D. J., Mayle, F. E., and Visscher, H.: Stomatal frequency adjustment of four conifer species to historical changes in atmospheric CO2, Am. J. Bot., 90, 610–619, 2003.
Kuhn, U., Ammann, C., Wolf, A., Meixner, F. X., Andreae, M. O., and Kesselmeier, J.: Carbonyl sulfide exchange on an ecosystem scale: soil represents a dominant sink for atmospheric COS, Atmos. Environ., 33, 995–1008, 1999.
Kurschner, W. M., Wagner, F., Visscher, E. H., and Visscher, H.: Predicting the response of leaf stomatal frequency to a future CO2-enriched atmosphere: constraints from historical observations, Geol.e Rundsch., 86, 512–517, 1997.
Lake, J. A. and Woodward, F. I.: Response of stomatal numbers to CO2 and humidity: control by transpiration rate and abscisic acid, New Phytol., 179, 397–404, 2008.
Mao, H., Talbot, R., Troop, D., Johnson, R., Businger, S., and Thompson, A. E.: Smart balloon observations over the North Atlantic: O3 data analysis and modelling, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D23S56, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006507, 2006.
McLain, J. E. T., Kepler, T. B., and Ahmann, D. M.: Belowground factors mediating changes in methane consumption in a forest soil under elevated CO2, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 1050, https://doi.org/1010.1029/2001GB001439, 2002.
Montzka, S. A., Calvert, P., Hall, B. D., Elkins, J. W., Conway, T. J., Tans, P. P., and Sweeney, C.: On the global distribution, seasonality, and budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (COS) and some similarities to CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D09302, https://doi.org/09310.01029/02006JD007665, 2007.
Norby, R. J., Hartz-Rubin, J. S., and Verbrugge, M. J.: Phenological responses in maple to experimental atmospheric warming and CO2 enrichment, Glob. Change Biol., 9, 1792–1801, 2003.
Norby, R. J., DeLucia, E. H., Gielen, B., Calfapietra, C., Giardina, C. P., King, J. S., Ledford, J., McCarthy, H. R., Moore, D. J. P., Ceulemans, R., De Angelis, P., Finzi, A. C., Karnosky, D. F., Kubiske, M. E., Lukac, M., Pregitzer, K. S., Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. E., Schlesinger, W. H., and Oren, R.: Forest response to elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity, P. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 18052–18056, 2005.
Notholt, J., Kuang, Z., Rinsland, C. P., Toon, G. C., Rex, M., Jones, N., Albrecht, T., Deckelmann, H., Krieg, J., Weinzierl, C., Bingemar, H. G., Weller, R., and Schrems, O.: Enhanced upper tropical tropospheric COS: Impact on the stratospheric aerosol layer, Nature, 300, 307–310, 2003.
Oh, N. H. and Richter, D. D.: Elemental translocation and loss from three highly weathered soil-bedrock profiles in the southeastern United States, Geoderma, 126, 5–25, 2005.
Protoschill-Krebs, G. and Kesselmeier, J.: Enzymatic pathways for the consumption of carbonyl sulphide (COS) by higher plants, Bot. Acta, 105, 206–212, 1992.
Protoschill-Krebs, G., Wilhelm, C., and Kesselmeier, J.: Consumption of carbonyl sulphide by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii with different activities of carbonic anhydrase (CA) induced by different CO2 growing regimes, Bot. Acta, 108, 445–448, 1995.
Protoschill-Krebs, G., Wilhelm, C., and Kesselmeier, J.: Consumption of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by higher plant carbonic anhydrase (CA), Atmos. Environ., 30, 3151–3156, 1996.
Rogers, A. and Ellsworth, D. S.: Photosynthetic acclimation of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated pCO2 (FACE), Plant Cell Environ., 25, 851–858, 2002.
Sandoval-Soto, L., Stanimirov, M., von Hobe, M., Schmitt, V., Valdes, J., Wild, A., and Kesselmeier, J.: Global uptake of carbonyl sulfide (COS) by terrestrial vegetation: Estimates corrected by deposition velocities normalized to the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), Biogeosciences, 2, 125–132, 2005.
Schafer, K. V. R., Oren, R., Lai, C.-T., and Katul, G. G.: Hydrologic balance in an intact temperate forest ecosystem under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, Glob. Change Biol., 8, 895–911, 2002.
Shepson, P. B., Bottenheim, J. W., Hastie, D. R., and Venkatram, A.: Determination of the relative ozone and pan deposition velocities at night, Geophys. Res. Lett, 19, 1121–1124, 1992.
Simmons, J. S., Lemedtsson, L., Hultberg, H., and Hines, M. E.: Consumption of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide by coniferous boreal forest soils, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 11569–11576, 1999.
Sive, B. C., Zhou, Y., Troop, D., Wang, Y., Little, W. C., Wingenter, O. W., Russo, R. S., Varner, R. K., and Talbot, R.: Development of a cryogen-free concentration system for measurements of volatile organic compounds, Anal. Chem., 77, 6989–6998, 2005.
Sive, B. C., Varner, R. K., Mao, H., Blake, D. R., Wingenter, O. W., and Talbot, R.: A large terrestrial source of methyl iodide, Geophys. Res. Lett, 34, L17808, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL030528, 2007.
Solomon, S., Portmann, R. W., Garcia, R. R., Thomason, L. W., Poole, L. R., and McCormick, M. P.: The role of aerosol variations in anthropogenic ozone depletion at northern midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res.–Atmos., 101, 6713–6727, 1996.
Steinbacher, M., Bingemer, H. G., and Schmidt, U.: Measurements of the exchange of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and carbon disulfide (CS2) between soil and atmosphere in a spruce forest in central Germany, Atmos. Environ., 38, 6043–6052, 2004.
Steltzer, H. and Post, E.: Seasons and life cycles, Science, 324, 886–887, 2009.
Stenberg, P.: Correcting LAI-2000 estimates for the clumping of needles in shoots of conifers, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 79, 1–8, 1996.
Talbot, R., Mao, H., and Sive, B.: Diurnal characteristics of surface level O3 and other important trace gases in New England, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D09307, https://doi.org/10:1029/2004JD005449, 2005.
Taylor, J. R.: An introduction to error analysis: the study of uncertainties in physical measurements, in: Books in Physics, edited by: Commins, E. D., University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 270 pp., 1982.
Turco, R. P., Whitten, R. C., Toon, O. B., Pollack, J. B., and Hamill, P.: OCS, stratospheric aerosols and climate, Nature, 283, 283–286, 1980.
Varner, R. K., Crill, P. M., and Talbot, R. W.: Wetlands: a potentially significant source of atmospheric methyl bromide and methyl chloride, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2433–2436, 1999.
Varner, R. K., Zhou, Y., Russo, R. S., Wingenter, O. W., Atlas, E., Stroud, C., Mao, H., Talbot, R., and Sive, B. C.: Controls on atmospheric chloroiodomethane (CH2ClI) in marine environments, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D10303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008889, 2008.
Van Diest, H. and Kesselmeier, J.: Soil atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) regulated by diffusivity depending on water-filled pore space, Biogeosciences, 5, 475–483, 2008.
Wagner, F., Dilcher, D. L., and Visscher, H.: Stomatal frequency responses in hardwood-swamp vegetation from Florida during a 60-year continuous CO2 increase, Am. J. Bot., 92, 690–695, 2005.
Watts, S. F.: The mass budgets of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and hydrogen sulfide, Atmos. Environ., 34, 761–779, 2000.
Weiss, P. S., Andrews, S. S., Johnson, J. E., and Zafiriou, O. C.: Photoproduction of Carbonyl Sulfide in South-Pacific Ocean Waters as a Function of Irradiation Wavelength, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 215–218, 1995.
White, M. L., Russo, R. S., Zhou, Y., Mao, H., Varner, R. K., Ambrose, J., Veres, P., Wingenter, O. W., Haase, K., Stutz, J., Talbot, R., and Sive, B. C.: Volatile Organic Compounds in Northern New England Marine and Continental Environments during the ICARTT 2004 Campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08S90, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009161, 2008.
Xu, X., Bingemer, H. G., and Schmidt, U.: The flux of carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide between the atmosphere and a spruce forest, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2, 171–181, 2002.
Yi, Z., Wang, X., Sheng, G., Zhang, D., Zhou, G., and Fu, J.: Soil uptake of carbonyl sulfide in subtropical forests with different successional stages in south China, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D08302, https://doi.org/08310.01029/02006JD008408, 2007.
Zhou, L., Tucker, C. J., Kaufmann, R. K., Slayback, D., Shabanov, N. V., and Myneni, R. B.: Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981 to 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 20069–20083, 2001.
Zhou, L., Kaufmann, R. K., Tian, Y., Myneni, R. B., and Tucker, C. J.: Relation between interannual variations in satellite measures of northern forest greenness and climate between 1982 and 1999, J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4004, https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002510, 2003.
Zhou, Y., Varner, R. K., Russo, R. S., Wingenter, O. W., Haase, K. B., Talbot, R., and Sive, B. C.: Coastal water source of short-lived halocarbons in New England, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D21302, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005603, 2005.
Zhou, Y., Mao, H., Russo, R. S., Blake, D. R., Wingenter, O. W., Haase, K., Ambrose, J. L., Varner, R. K., Talbot, R., and Sive, B.: Bromoform and dibromomethane measurements in the seacoast region of New Hampshire, 2002–2004, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D08305, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD009103, 2008.