Articles | Volume 22, issue 2
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Measurement report: Long-term variations in surface NOx and SO2 mixing ratios from 2006 to 2016 at a background site in the Yangtze River Delta region, China
Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas, Minzu University of China, National Ethnic Affairs Commission, Beijing 100081, China
Lin'an Atmosphere Background National Observation and Research Station, Zhejiang Meteorological Service, Hangzhou 311307, China
Key Laboratory of Ecology and Environment in Minority Areas, Minzu University of China, National Ethnic Affairs Commission, Beijing 100081, China
Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Lin'an Atmosphere Background National Observation and Research Station, Zhejiang Meteorological Service, Hangzhou 311307, China
No articles found.
Chunxiang Ye, Shuzheng Guo, Weili Lin, Fangjie Tian, Jianshu Wang, Chong Zhang, Suzhen Chi, Yi Chen, Yingjie Zhang, Limin Zeng, Xin Li, Duo Bu, Jiacheng Zhou, and Weixiong Zhao
This preprint is open for discussion and under review for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP).Short summary
Online VOC measurements by GCMS, accompanied by other O3 precursors, were employed to identify key VOC and key sources in Lhasa. TVOCs (18.70 ± 8.35 ppb) and major anthropogenic alkanes and aromatics are half abundant relative to Beijing. OVOCs consist of 52 % of the TVOCs. Alkenes and OVOCs account fo over 80 % of the OFP. Aromatics dominate SOAP. PMF decomposed six residents' life associated sources.
Jiyuan Yang, Guoyang Lei, Chang Liu, Yutong Wu, Kai Hu, Jinfeng Zhu, Junsong Bao, Weili Lin, and Jun Jin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3015–3029,Short summary
The characteristics of n-alkanes and the contributions of various sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere in Beijing were studied. There were marked seasonal and diurnal differences in the n-alkane concentrations (p<0.01). Particulate-bound n-alkanes were supplied by anthropogenic and biogenic sources; fossil fuel combustion was the dominant contributor. Vehicle exhausts strongly affect PM2.5 pollution. Controlling vehicle exhaust emissions is key to control n-alkane and PM2.5 pollution in Beijing.
Chenhong Zhou, Fan Wang, Yike Guo, Cheng Liu, Dongsheng Ji, Yuesi Wang, Xiaobin Xu, Xiao Lu, Yan Wang, Gregory Carmichael, and Meng Gao
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Manuscript not accepted for further reviewShort summary
We develop an eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) model integrating high-resolution meteorological data, satellite retrievals of trace gases, etc. to provide reconstructed daily ground-level O3 over 2005–2021 in China. It can facilitate climatological, ecological, and health research. The dataset is freely available at Zenodo (https://zenodo.org/record/6507706#.Yo8hKujP13g; Zhou, 2022).
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Ziru Lan, Weili Lin, Weiwei Pu, and Zhiqiang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4561–4573,Short summary
Haze related to particulate matter has become a big problem in eastern China, and ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in secondary particulate matter formation. In this work, variations in the NH3 mixing ratio showed that the contributions of NH3 sources and sinks in urban and suburban areas were quite different, although the areas were under the influence of similar weather systems. This study furthers the understanding of the behavior of NH3 in a megacity environment.
Weili Lin, Feng Wang, Chunxiang Ye, and Tong Zhu
The Cryosphere Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
Field observations found that released NOx on the glacier surface of the Tibetan Plateau, an important snow-covered region in the northern mid-latitudes, had a higher concentration than in Antarctic and Arctic regions. Such evidence, and such high fluxes as observed here on the Tibetan plateau is novel. That such high concentrations of nitrogen oxides can be found in remote areas is interesting and important for the oxidative budget of the boundary layer.
Yijing Chen, Qianli Ma, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Yao, and Wei Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15969–15982,Short summary
CO is one of the major air pollutants. Our study showed that the long-term CO levels at a background station in one of the most developed areas of China decreased significantly and verified that this downward trend was attributed to the decrease in anthropogenic emissions, which indicated that the adopted pollution control policies were effective. Also, this decrease has an implication for the atmospheric chemistry considering the negative correlation between CO levels and OH radical's lifetime.
Tao Ma, Hiroshi Furutani, Fengkui Duan, Takashi Kimoto, Jingkun Jiang, Qiang Zhang, Xiaobin Xu, Ying Wang, Jian Gao, Guannan Geng, Meng Li, Shaojie Song, Yongliang Ma, Fei Che, Jie Wang, Lidan Zhu, Tao Huang, Michisato Toyoda, and Kebin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5887–5897,Short summary
The formation mechanisms of organic matter and sulfate in winter haze in the North China Plain remain unclear. This paper presents the identification and quantification of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) in PM2.5 in Beijing winter and elucidates the heterogeneous HMS chemistry in favorable winter haze conditions. We show that the HMS not only contributes a substantial mass of organic matter, but also leads to an overestimation of sulfate in conventional measurements.
Sinikka T. Lennartz, Christa A. Marandino, Marc von Hobe, Meinrat O. Andreae, Kazushi Aranami, Elliot Atlas, Max Berkelhammer, Heinz Bingemer, Dennis Booge, Gregory Cutter, Pau Cortes, Stefanie Kremser, Cliff S. Law, Andrew Marriner, Rafel Simó, Birgit Quack, Günther Uher, Huixiang Xie, and Xiaobin Xu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 591–609,Short summary
Sulfur-containing trace gases in the atmosphere influence atmospheric chemistry and the energy budget of the Earth by forming aerosols. The ocean is an important source of the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere, carbonyl sulfide (OCS) and its most important precursor carbon disulfide (CS2). In order to assess global variability of the sea surface concentrations of both gases to calculate their oceanic emissions, we have compiled a database of existing shipborne measurements.
Wanyun Xu, Ye Kuang, Chunsheng Zhao, Jiangchuan Tao, Gang Zhao, Yuxuan Bian, Wen Yang, Yingli Yu, Chuanyang Shen, Linlin Liang, Gen Zhang, Weili Lin, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10557–10570,Short summary
The study of HONO, the primary source of OH radicals, is crucial for atmospheric photochemistry and heterogeneous chemistry. Heterogeneous NO2 conversion was shown to be one of the missing sources of HONO on the North China Plain, but the reaction path is still under debate. In this work, evidence was found that NH3 was the key factor that promoted the hydrolysis of NO2, leading to the explosive growth of HONO and nitrate, suggesting that NH3 emission control measures are urgently needed.
Shaojie Song, Meng Gao, Weiqi Xu, Yele Sun, Douglas R. Worsnop, John T. Jayne, Yuzhong Zhang, Lei Zhu, Mei Li, Zhen Zhou, Chunlei Cheng, Yibing Lv, Ying Wang, Wei Peng, Xiaobin Xu, Nan Lin, Yuxuan Wang, Shuxiao Wang, J. William Munger, Daniel J. Jacob, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1357–1371,Short summary
Chemistry responsible for sulfate production in northern China winter haze remains mysterious. We propose a potentially key pathway through the reaction of formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide that has not been accounted for in previous studies. The special atmospheric conditions favor the formation and existence of their complex, hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS).
Ruijing Ni, Jintai Lin, Yingying Yan, and Weili Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11447–11469,Short summary
By integrating several modeling methods, we find considerable contributions of foreign anthropogenic emissions to surface ozone over China (2–11 ppb). For anthropogenic ozone over China, the foreign contribution is 40–50 % below 2 km and 85 % in the upper troposphere. For total foreign anthropogenic ozone over China, the portion of transboundary ozone produced within foreign emission source regions is less than 50 %, with the rest produced by precursors transported out of those source regions.
Xiaobin Xu, Hualong Zhang, Weili Lin, Ying Wang, Wanyun Xu, and Shihui Jia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5199–5217,Short summary
We present the first simultaneous PAN and O3 measurements from the central Tibetan Plateau. Both gases showed unique diurnal cycles with steep rises in the early morning and broader daytime platforms, which is attributed to the PBL evolution. Some high PAN and O3 episodes were observed and caused either by long-range transport of pollutants from south Asia or by downward transport of air masses from the upper troposphere, indicating the dynamic impacts on tropospheric chemistry over the Tibet.
Wanyun Xu, Xiaobin Xu, Meiyun Lin, Weili Lin, David Tarasick, Jie Tang, Jianzhong Ma, and Xiangdong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 773–798,Short summary
The impact of anthropogenic emissions and climate variability on the long-term trends and periodicity of surface ozone measured at Mt Waliguan (WLG) for the period of 1994–2013 is studied. STT ozone and rising emissions in eastern China contribute to spring and autumnal increasing trends, respectively. The 2–3-, 3–7-, and 11-year periodicities in the ozone data are linked to the QBO, EASMI, and sunspot cycle, respectively. An empirical model is obtained for normalised monthly ozone at WLG.
Zhaoyang Meng, Xiaobin Xu, Weili Lin, Baozhu Ge, Yulin Xie, Bo Song, Shihui Jia, Rui Zhang, Wei Peng, Ying Wang, Hongbing Cheng, Wen Yang, and Huarong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 167–184,Short summary
This paper presents simultaneous measurements of NH3, other trace gases, and water-soluble ions in PM2.5 from May to September 2013 at a rural site in the North China Plain. Atmospheric ammonia and related parameters are characterised and the impact of ammonia on formation of secondary aerosols is investigated. The results presented in this paper may improve our understanding of the role of ammonia in aerosol formation.
Rui Wang, Xiaobin Xu, Shihui Jia, Ruisheng Ma, Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Weili Lin, Ying Wang, and Zhiqiang Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3891–3903,Short summary
Knowledge about the vertical distributions of air pollutants is limited. We present first unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) observations of vertical profiles of O3 and size-resolved aerosol number concentrations over a rural site in the North China Plain. We show the determination of mixed and residual layer depth and characterization of diurnal O3 and aerosol number concentrations in the mixed and residual layer. We confirm a rapid increase of O3 in the lower troposphere during the recent decade.
Yingruo Li, Chunxiang Ye, Jun Liu, Yi Zhu, Junxia Wang, Ziqiang Tan, Weili Lin, Limin Zeng, and Tong Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14265–14283,Short summary
We developed the surface flux intensity calculation method based on 2-year continuous ground measurement at a cross-boundary site between Beijing and the NCP to investigate the surface regional transport. The long-term and multispecies observation demonstrated the regional transport influence of the megacity Beijing and the NCP on Yufa. Our study has a direct implication in air quality control measures implemented in Beijing and its surrounding areas.
Liang Ran, Zhaoze Deng, Xiaobin Xu, Peng Yan, Weili Lin, Ying Wang, Ping Tian, Pucai Wang, Weilin Pan, and Daren Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 10441–10454,Short summary
Vertical profiles of black carbon within 1 km above the ground were measured using a micro-aethalometer attached to a tethered balloon during the VOGA field campaign in summer 2014 at a semirural site in the North China Plain. The diurnal cycle of black carbon vertical distributions following the development of the mixing layer was analyzed for a selected dataset of 67 profiles.
Wanyun Xu, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Jie Tang, Jianqing Huang, Hao Wu, and Xiaochun Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6191–6205,Short summary
Long-term characteristics and trends of baseline surface ozone concentration at Waliguan station in western China for the period of 1994 to 2013 were analysed, using a modified Mann–Kendall test and the Hilbert–Huang transform analysis for the trend and periodicity analysis, respectively. Significant increasing trends were detected in all seasons, except for summer. The non-linearity caused by the interannual variation of ozone concentrations is evident, showing a 2–4-year, 7- and 11-year periodicity.
Zhiqiang Ma, Jing Xu, Weijun Quan, Ziyin Zhang, Weili Lin, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3969–3977,Short summary
In this paper, we find that the daily maximum 8 h O3 in the eastern China has undergone a significant increase during 2003–2015, with a rate of 1.1 ppb per year. The increase of surface ozone was mainly induced by the emission changes and the meteorological factors just played a tiny negative influence. Our result also indicates that VOCs seem to play more important role in the ozone increase than the effect of NO titration.
L. Zhang, J. Y. Sun, X. J. Shen, Y. M. Zhang, H. Che, Q. L. Ma, Y. W. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, and J. A. Ogren
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8439–8454,Short summary
The aerosol hygroscopic properties at a rural background site in the Yangtze River delta of China was discussed. The results show the scattering coefficient and backscattering coefficient increased by 58 and 25% as relative humidity (RH) increased from 40 to 85%, while the hemispheric backscatter fraction decreased by 21%. Aerosol hygroscopic growth caused a 47% increase in calculated aerosol direct radiative forcing at 85% RH compared to the forcing at 40% RH. Nitrate played a vital role.
L. Ran, W. L. Lin, Y. Z. Deji, B. La, P. M. Tsering, X. B. Xu, and W. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10721–10730,
W. Y. Xu, C. S. Zhao, L. Ran, W. L. Lin, P. Yan, and X. B. Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7757–7768,
J. Ma, W. L. Lin, X. D. Zheng, X. B. Xu, Z. Li, and L. L Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5311–5325,
H. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Lin, and Y. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Real-time measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the central Indo-Gangetic basin, Lucknow, India: source characterisation and their role in O3 and secondary organic aerosol formationMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertimeMeasurement report: Volatile organic compound characteristics of the different land-use types in Shanghai: spatiotemporal variation, source apportionment and impact on secondary formations of ozone and aerosolO3–precursor relationship over multiple patterns of timescale: a case study in Zibo, Shandong Province, ChinaHigh emission rates and strong temperature response make boreal wetlands a large source of isoprene and terpenesElucidate the formation mechanism of particulate nitrate based on direct radical observations in the Yangtze River Delta summer 2019Pandemic restrictions in 2020 highlight the significance of non-road NOx sources in central LondonMeasurement report: Emission factors of NH3 and NHx for wildfires and agricultural fires in the United StatesExperimental chemical budgets of OH, HO2, and RO2 radicals in rural air in western Germany during the JULIAC campaign 2019Chemical and dynamical identification of emission outflows during the HALO campaign EMeRGe in Europe and AsiaFlaring efficiencies and NOx emission ratios measured for offshore oil and gas facilities in the North SeaMeasurement report: Long-range transport and the fate of dimethyl sulfide oxidation products in the free troposphere derived from observations at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesFormaldehyde and hydroperoxide distribution around the Arabian Peninsula – evaluation of EMAC model results with ship-based measurementsHeterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the remote troposphere defined by aircraft measurements – correctedFundamental oxidation processes in the remote marine atmosphere investigated using the NO–NO2–O3 photostationary stateMeasurement report: Molecular-level investigation of atmospheric cluster ions at the tropical high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesEmission factors and evolution of SO2 measured from biomass burning in wildfires and agricultural firesUnexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Lhasa, the largest city on the Tibetan PlateauChemical identification of new particle formation and growth precursors through positive matrix factorization of ambient ion measurementsThe unexpected high frequency of nocturnal surface ozone enhancement events over China: characteristics and mechanismsSource apportionment of VOCs, IVOCs and SVOCs by positive matrix factorization in suburban Livermore, CaliforniaMeasurement report: Intra- and interannual variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, central ChinaFormation and impacts of nitryl chloride in Pearl River DeltaMultidecadal increases in global tropospheric ozone derived from ozonesonde and surface site observations: can models reproduce ozone trends?What caused ozone pollution during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown? Insights from ground and satellite observationsAmmonium adduct chemical ionization to investigate anthropogenic oxygenated gas-phase organic compounds in urban airAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationAre dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in StaffordshireTechnical note: Northern midlatitude baseline ozone – long-term changes and the COVID-19 impactQuantifying the importance of vehicle ammonia emissions in an urban area of northeastern USA utilizing nitrogen isotopesSeasonal variation in nitryl chloride and its relation to gas-phase precursors during the JULIAC campaign in GermanyObservations of biogenic volatile organic compounds over a mixed temperate forest during the summer to autumn transitionRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen in 2018Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station networkMeasurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe impacts of wildfires on ozone production and boundary layer dynamics in California's Central ValleyDistribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, China
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2997–3014,Short summary
Based on a field campaign in a suburban area of Shanghai during summer 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term on cloudy and rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
Yu Han, Tao Wang, Rui Li, Hongbo Fu, Yusen Duan, Song Gao, Liwu Zhang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2877–2900,Short summary
Limited knowledge is available on volatile organic compound (VOC) multi-site research of different land-use types at city level. This study performed a concurrent multi-site observation campaign on the three typical land-use types of Shanghai, East China. The results showed that concentrations, sources and ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation potentials of VOCs varied with the land-use types.
Zhensen Zheng, Kangwei Li, Bo Xu, Jianping Dou, Liming Li, Guotao Zhang, Shijie Li, Chunmei Geng, Wen Yang, Merched Azzi, and Zhipeng Bai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2649–2665,Short summary
Previous box model studies applied different timescales of observational datasets to identify the O3–precursor relationship, but there is a lack of comparison among these different timescales regarding the impact of O3 formation chemistry. Through a case study at Zibo in China, we find that the O3 formation regime showed overall consistency but non-negligible variability among various patterns of timescale. This would be complementary in developing more accurate O3 pollution control strategies.
Lejish Vettikkat, Pasi Miettinen, Angela Buchholz, Pekka Rantala, Hao Yu, Simon Schallhart, Tuukka Petäjä, Roger Seco, Elisa Männistö, Markku Kulmala, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Alex B. Guenther, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2683–2698,Short summary
Wetlands cover a substantial fraction of the land mass in the northern latitudes, from northern Europe to Siberia and Canada. Yet, their isoprene and terpene emissions remain understudied. Here, we used a state-of-the-art measurement technique to quantify ecosystem-scale emissions from a boreal wetland during an unusually warm spring/summer. We found that the emissions from this wetland were (a) higher and (b) even more strongly dependent on temperature than commonly thought.
Tianyu Zhai, Keding Lu, Haichao Wang, Shengrong Lou, Xiaorui Chen, Renzhi Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2379–2391,Short summary
Particulate nitrate is a growing issue in air pollution. Based on comprehensive field measurement, we show heavy nitrate pollution in eastern China in summer. OH reacting with NO2 at daytime dominates nitrate formation on clean days, while N2O5 hydrolysis largely enhances and become comparable with that of OH reacting with O2 on polluted days (67.2 % and 30.2 %). Model simulation indicates that VOC : NOx = 2 : 1 is effective in mitigating the O3 and nitrate pollution coordinately.
Samuel J. Cliff, Will Drysdale, James D. Lee, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, Stefan Metzger, and Janet F. Barlow
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2315–2330,Short summary
Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to the atmosphere are an ongoing air quality issue. This study directly measures emissions of NOx and carbon dioxide from a tall tower in central London during the coronavirus pandemic. It was found that transport NOx emissions had reduced by >73 % since 2017 as a result of air quality policy and reduced congestion during coronavirus restrictions. During this period, central London was thought to be dominated by point-source heat and power generation emissions.
Laura Tomsche, Felix Piel, Tomas Mikoviny, Claus J. Nielsen, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Melinda K. Schueneman, Jose L. Jimenez, Hannah Halliday, Glenn Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, John B. Nowak, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Emily Gargulinski, Amber J. Soja, and Armin Wisthaler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2331–2343,Short summary
Ammonia (NH3) is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and fires are among the poorly investigated sources. During the 2019 Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality (FIREX-AQ) aircraft campaign, we measured gaseous NH3 and particulate ammonium (NH4+) in smoke plumes emitted from 6 wildfires in the Western US and 66 small agricultural fires in the Southeastern US. We herein present a comprehensive set of emission factors of NH3 and NHx, where NHx = NH3 + NH4+.
Changmin Cho, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, Frank Holland, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Hans-Peter Dorn, Marvin Glowania, Thorsten Hohaus, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Roberto Sommariva, Zhaofeng Tan, Ralf Tillmann, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Anna Novelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2003–2033,Short summary
With this study, we investigated the processes leading to the formation, destruction, and recycling of radicals for four seasons in a rural environment. Complete knowledge of their chemistry is needed if we are to predict the formation of secondary pollutants from primary emissions. The results highlight a still incomplete understanding of the paths leading to the formation of the OH radical, which has been observed in several other environments as well and needs to be further investigated.
Eric Förster, Harald Bönisch, Marco Neumaier, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Andreas Hilboll, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Nikos Daskalakis, Alexandros Panagiotis Poulidis, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Michael Lichtenstern, and Peter Braesicke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1893–1918,Short summary
The airborne megacity campaign EMeRGe provided an unprecedented amount of trace gas measurements. We combine measured volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with trajectory-modelled emission uptakes to identify potential source regions of pollution. We also characterise the chemical fingerprints (e.g. biomass burning and anthropogenic signatures) of the probed air masses to corroborate the contributing source regions. Our approach is the first large-scale study of VOCs originating from megacities.
Jacob T. Shaw, Amy Foulds, Shona Wilde, Patrick Barker, Freya A. Squires, James Lee, Ruth Purvis, Ralph Burton, Ioana Colfescu, Stephen Mobbs, Samuel Cliff, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Stuart Young, Stefan Schwietzke, and Grant Allen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1491–1509,Short summary
Flaring is used by the oil and gas sector to dispose of unwanted natural gas or for safety. However, few studies have assessed the efficiency with which the gas is combusted. We sampled flaring emissions from offshore facilities in the North Sea. Average measured flaring efficiencies were ~ 98 % but with a skewed distribution, including many flares of lower efficiency. NOx and ethane emissions were also measured. Inefficient flaring practices could be a target for mitigating carbon emissions.
Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Diego Aliaga, Cheng Wu, Samara Carbone, Isabel Moreno, Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Liine Heikkinen, Jean Luc Jaffrezo, Gaelle Uzu, Eva Partoll, Markus Leiminger, Fernando Velarde, Paolo Laj, Patrick Ginot, Paolo Artaxo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, Marcos Andrade, Victoria Sinclair, Federico Bianchi, and Armin Hansel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 895–920,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), emitted from the ocean, is the most abundant biogenic sulfur emission into the atmosphere. OH radicals, among others, can oxidize DMS to sulfuric and methanesulfonic acid, which are relevant for aerosol formation. We quantified DMS and nearly all DMS oxidation products with novel mass spectrometric instruments for gas and particle phase at the high mountain station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes in free tropospheric air after long-range transport.
Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, John N. Crowley, Philipp G. Eger, Hartwig Harder, Monica Martinez, Andrea Pozzer, Roland Rohloff, Jan Schuladen, Sebastian Tauer, David Walter, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 119–142,Short summary
Formaldehyde and hydroperoxide measurements were performed in the marine boundary layer around the Arabian Peninsula and highlight the Suez Canal and Arabian (Persian) Gulf as a hotspot of photochemical air pollution. A comparison with the EMAC model shows that the formaldehyde results match within a factor of 2, while hydrogen peroxide was overestimated by more than a factor of 5, which revealed enhanced HOx (OH+HO2) radicals in the simulation and an underestimation of dry deposition velocites.
Hao Guo, Clare M. Flynn, Michael J. Prather, Sarah A. Strode, Stephen D. Steenrod, Louisa Emmons, Forrest Lacey, Jean-Francois Lamarque, Arlene M. Fiore, Gus Correa, Lee T. Murray, Glenn M. Wolfe, Jason M. St. Clair, Michelle Kim, John Crounse, Glenn Diskin, Joshua DiGangi, Bruce C. Daube, Roisin Commane, Kathryn McKain, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Chelsea Thompson, Thomas F. Hanisco, Donald Blake, Nicola J. Blake, Eric C. Apel, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, James W. Elkins, Eric J. Hintsa, Fred L. Moore, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 99–117,Short summary
We have prepared a unique and unusual result from the recent ATom aircraft mission: a measurement-based derivation of the production and loss rates of ozone and methane over the ocean basins. These are the key products of chemistry models used in assessments but have thus far lacked observational metrics. It also shows the scales of variability of atmospheric chemical rates and provides a major challenge to the atmospheric models.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15747–15765,Short summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air, known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from Jan to May 2018 at high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. Combined with state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Pamela S. Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Jeff Peischl, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15603–15620,Short summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Lhasa is the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region – an understudied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use – and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differ significantly from those in other ecosystems.
Cheng He, Xiao Lu, Haolin Wang, Haichao Wang, Yan Li, Guowen He, Yuanping He, Yurun Wang, Youlang Zhang, Yiming Liu, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15243–15261,Short summary
We report that nocturnal ozone enhancement (NOE) events are observed at a high annual frequency of 41 % over 800 sites in China in 2014–2019 (about 50 % higher than that over Europe or the US). High daytime ozone provides a rich ozone source in the nighttime residual layer, determining the overall high frequency of NOE events in China, and enhanced atmospheric mixing then triggers NOE events by allowing the ozone-rich air in the residual layer to be mixed into the nighttime boundary layer.
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Xuan Lu, Xiao Li, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14859–14878,Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018–2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment, and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and sources among interannual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develop control strategies.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Yue Tan and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14455–14466,Short summary
We present a timely analysis of the effects of the recent lockdown in Shanghai on ground-level ozone (O3). Despite a huge reduction in human activity, O3 concentrations frequently exceeded the O3 air quality standard during the 2-month lockdown, implying that future emission reductions similar to those that occurred during the lockdown will not be sufficient to eliminate O3 pollution in many urban areas without the imposition of additional VOC controls or substantial decreases in NOx emissions.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catherine Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14037–14058,Short summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas-phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas-phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Louise Bøge Frederickson, Ruta Sidaraviciute, Johan Albrecht Schmidt, Ole Hertel, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13949–13965,Short summary
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Ian C. Faloona, and Charles A. Mims
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13423–13430,Short summary
Accounting for the continuing long-term decrease of pollution ozone and the large 2020 Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion event improves estimates of background ozone changes caused by COVID-19-related emission reductions; they are smaller than reported earlier. Cooperative, international emission control efforts aimed at maximizing the ongoing decrease in hemisphere-wide background ozone may be the most effective approach to improving ozone pollution in northern midlatitude countries.
Wendell W. Walters, Madeline Karod, Emma Willcocks, Bok H. Baek, Danielle E. Blum, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13431–13448,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia and its products are a significant source of urban haze and nitrogen deposition. We have investigated the seasonal source contributions to a mid-sized city in the northeastern US megalopolis utilizing geospatial statistical analysis and novel isotopic constraints, which indicate that vehicle emissions were significant components of the urban-reduced nitrogen budget. Reducing vehicle ammonia emissions should be considered to improve ecosystems and human health.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Reactive carbon species that are emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Although we can predict emissions of these chemicals by knowing meteorology and plant type, it is difficult to predict during seasonal transitions. Because of this we made measurements of reactive carbon in a forest during the summer to autumn transition and learned that concentrations and emissions are larger than we would have predicted in models.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12525–12542,Short summary
We present the OH and HO2 radical observations at the Shenzhen site (Pearl River Delta, China) in the autumn of 2018. The diurnal maxima were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 for OH and 4.2 × 108 cm−3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 23 %–28 % from RO2 radicals during the daytime). The OH underestimation was identified again, and it was attributable to the missing OH sources. HO2 heterogeneous uptake, ROx sources and sinks, and the atmospheric oxidation capacity were evaluated as well.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Keming Pan and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9681–9702,Short summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites and meteorological sites, two AmeriFlux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during five consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate increases by ~ 50 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decreases the heat flux by 30 % and results in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Agnieszka, P. T. and Gruszecka-Kosowska: The Condition of Air Pollution in Kraków, Poland, in 2005–2020, with Health Risk Assessment, Int. J. Env. Res. Pub. He., 17, E6063, https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176063, 2020.
Bai, J., Wu, J., Chai, W., Wang, P., and Wang, G.: Long-Term Variation of Trace Gases and Particulate Matter at an Atmospheric Background Station in North China, Front. Earth Sci., 248–263, https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2015.53025, 2015.
Chen, L.: Measure and Study on the Atmospheric Pollutants in Three Typical Regional Background Stations of China, M.S. thesis, Lanzhou University, China, 69 pp., 2012.
Cheng, L., Ji, D., He, J., Li, L., Du, L., Cui, Y., Zhang, H., Zhou, L., Li, Z., and Zhou, Y.: Characteristics of air pollutants and greenhouse gases at a regional background station in Southwestern China, Aerosol. Air. Qual. Res, 19, 1007–1023, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2018.11.0397, 2019.
Chen, Y., Ma, Q., Lin, W., Xu, X., Yao, J., and Gao, W.: Measurement report: Long-term variations in carbon monoxide at a background station in China's Yangtze River Delta region, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15969–15982, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-15969-2020, 2020.
Cristofanelli, P., Landi, T. C., Calzolari, F., Duchi, R., Marinoni, A., Rinaldi, M., and Bonasoni, P.: Summer atmospheric composition over the Mediterranean basin: Investigation on transport processes and pollutant export to the free troposphere by observations at the WMO/GAW Mt. Cimone global station (Italy, 2165 m a.s.l.), Atmos. Environ., 141, 139–152, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.06.048, 2016.
Cui, Y., Lin, J., Song, C., Liu, M., Yan, Y., Xu, Y., and Huang, B.: Rapid growth in nitrogen dioxide pollution over Western China, 2005–2013, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6207–6221, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-6207-2016, 2016.
Davuliene, L., Jasineviciene, D., Garbariene, I., Andriejauskiene, J., Ulevicius, V., and Bycenkiene, S.: Long-term air pollution trend analysis in the South-eastern Baltic region, 1981–2017, Atmos. Res., 247, 105191, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2020.105191, 2021.
Deng, J., Guo, H., Zhang, H., Zhu, J., Wang, X., and Fu, P.: Source apportionment of black carbon aerosols from light absorption observation and source-oriented modeling: an implication in a coastal city in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14419–14435, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-14419-2020, 2020.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2006, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2007/6/5/art_1201912_13471624.html, last access: 24 June 2021a.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2007, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2008/6/5/art_1201912_13471634.html, last access: 24 June 2021b.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2008, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2009/6/5/art_1201912_13471647.html, last access: 24 June 2021c.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2009, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2010/6/5/art_1201912_13471671.html, last access: 24 June 2021d.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2010, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2011/6/3/art_1201912_13471687.html, last access: 24 June 2021e.
Department of Ecology and Environment of Zhejiang Province, Bulletin on the ecological environment of Zhejiang Province in 2011, available at: http://sthjt.zj.gov.cn/art/2012/6/4/art_1201912_15028444.html, last access: 24 June 2021f.
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China has been experiencing rapid changes in emissions of air pollutants in recent decades. NOx and SO2 measurements from 2006 to 2016 at the Lin’an World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch station were used to characterize the seasonal and diurnal variations and study the long-term trends. This study reaffirms China’s success in controlling both NOx and SO2 in the Yangtze River Delta but indicates at the same time a necessity to strengthen the NOx emission control.
China has been experiencing rapid changes in emissions of air pollutants in recent decades. NOx...