Articles | Volume 21, issue 24
15 Dec 2021
Measurement report | 15 Dec 2021
Measurement report: Characterization of uncertainties in fluxes and fuel sulfur content from ship emissions in the Baltic Sea
Jari Walden et al.
No articles found.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Markku Kulmala, Lauri Laakso, Janne Rinne, Ram Oren, and Gabriel Katul
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 26, 5773–5791,Short summary
The productivity of semiarid grazed grasslands is linked to the variation in rainfall and transpiration. By combining carbon dioxide and water flux measurements, we show that the annual transpiration is nearly constant during wet years while grasses react quickly to dry spells and drought, which reduce transpiration. The planning of annual grazing strategies could consider the early-season rainfall frequency that was linked to the portion of annual transpiration.
Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Olli Nevalainen, Mikko Peltoniemi, Cemal M. Taniş, Ali N. Arslan, Juuso Rainne, Annalea Lohila, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 19, 4747–4765,Short summary
Vegetation greenness was monitored with digital cameras in three northern peatlands during five growing seasons. The greenness index derived from the images was highest at the most nutrient-rich site. Greenness indicated the main phases of phenology and correlated with CO2 uptake, though this was mainly related to the common seasonal cycle. The cameras and Sentinel-2 satellite showed consistent results, but more frequent satellite data are needed for reliable detection of phenological phases.
Sanna Saarikoski, Heidi Hellén, Arnaud P. Praplan, Simon Schallhart, Petri Clusius, Jarkko V. Niemi, Anu Kousa, Toni Tykkä, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Minna Aurela, Laura Salo, Topi Rönkkö, Luis M. F. Barreira, Liisa Pirjola, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript under review for ACPShort summary
This study elucidates properties and sources of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and organic aerosol (OA) a street canyon. Anthropogenic VOCs were clearly higher than biogenic VOCs (bVOCs) but bVOCs produced larger portion of the oxidation products. OA consisted mostly of oxygenated OA representing secondary OA (SOA). SOA was partly associated with bVOCs but it was also related to long-range transport. Primary OA originated mostly from traffic and a small portion from local coffee roastery.
Lea Fink, Matthias Karl, Volker Matthias, Sonia Oppo, Richard Kranenburg, Jeroen Kuenen, Jana Moldanova, Sara Jutterström, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Elisa Majamäki
Ship contribution to air pollution in the Mediterranean Sea was simulated with five chemistry transport models. An evaluation of the results for NO2 and O3 air concentrations and dry deposition is presented. Emission data, modeled year and domain were the same. Outputs of model runs were compared to measurements from background stations. Focus was to compare model outputs concerning the concentration of regulatory pollutants and the ship contributions to total air pollution concentrations.
Sari Juutinen, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Viktor Ivakhov, Maiju Linkosalmi, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Johanna Nyman, Emmi Vähä, Marina Loskutova, Alexander Makshtas, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 19, 3151–3167,Short summary
We measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in heterogenous Arctic tundra in eastern Siberia. We found that tundra wetlands with sedge and grass vegetation contributed disproportionately to the landscape's ecosystem CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere. Moreover, we observed high CH4 consumption in dry tundra, particularly in barren areas, offsetting part of the CH4 emissions from the wetlands.
Christoffer Hallgren, Johan Arnqvist, Erik Nilsson, Stefan Ivanell, Metodija Shapkalijevski, August Thomasson, Heidi Pettersson, and Erik Sahlée
Wind Energ. Sci., 7, 1183–1207,Short summary
Non-idealized wind profiles with negative shear in part of the profile (e.g., low-level jets) frequently occur in coastal environments and are important to take into consideration for offshore wind power. Using observations from a coastal site in the Baltic Sea, we analyze in which meteorological and sea state conditions these profiles occur and study how they alter the turbulence structure of the boundary layer compared to idealized profiles.
Marc Guevara, Hervé Petetin, Oriol Jorba, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Ingrid Super, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Elisa Majamäki, Lasse Johansson, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2521–2552,Short summary
To control the spread of the COVID-19 disease, European governments implemented mobility restriction measures that resulted in an unprecedented drop in anthropogenic emissions. This work presents a dataset of emission adjustment factors that allows quantifying changes in 2020 European primary emissions per country and pollutant sector at the daily scale. The resulting dataset can be used as input in modelling studies aiming at quantifying the impact of COVID-19 on air quality levels.
Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Nicolas Moussiopoulos, Alexander Baklanov, John Bartzis, Isabelle Coll, Sandro Finardi, Rainer Friedrich, Camilla Geels, Tiia Grönholm, Tomas Halenka, Matthias Ketzel, Androniki Maragkidou, Volker Matthias, Jana Moldanova, Leonidas Ntziachristos, Klaus Schäfer, Peter Suppan, George Tsegas, Greg Carmichael, Vicente Franco, Steve Hanna, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Guus J. M. Velders, and Jaakko Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4615–4703,Short summary
This review of air quality research focuses on developments over the past decade. The article considers current and future challenges that are important from air quality research and policy perspectives and highlights emerging prominent gaps of knowledge. The review also examines how air pollution management needs to adapt to new challenges and makes recommendations to guide the direction for future air quality research within the wider community and to provide support for policy.
Milla M. Johansson, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Jani Särkkä, Ulpu Leijala, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 22, 813–829,Short summary
We analysed the correlation of sea level and wind waves at a coastal location in the Gulf of Finland using tide gauge data, wave measurements, and wave simulations. The correlation was positive for southwesterly winds and negative for northeasterly winds. Probabilities of high total water levels (sea level + wave crest) are underestimated if sea level and waves are considered independent. Suitably chosen copula functions can account for the dependence.
Olli Nevalainen, Olli Niemitalo, Istem Fer, Antti Juntunen, Tuomas Mattila, Olli Koskela, Joni Kukkamäki, Layla Höckerstedt, Laura Mäkelä, Pieta Jarva, Laura Heimsch, Henriikka Vekuri, Liisa Kulmala, Åsa Stam, Otto Kuusela, Stephanie Gerin, Toni Viskari, Julius Vira, Jari Hyväluoma, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Annalea Lohila, Tuomas Laurila, Jussi Heinonsalo, Tuula Aalto, Iivari Kunttu, and Jari Liski
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 11, 93–109,Short summary
Better monitoring of soil carbon sequestration is needed to understand the best carbon farming practices in different soils and climate conditions. We, the Field Observatory Network (FiON), have therefore established a methodology for monitoring and forecasting agricultural carbon sequestration by combining offline and near-real-time field measurements, weather data, satellite imagery, and modeling. To disseminate our work, we built a website called the Field Observatory (fieldobservatory.org).
Jeroen Kuenen, Stijn Dellaert, Antoon Visschedijk, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Ingrid Super, and Hugo Denier van der Gon
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 491–515,Short summary
This paper presents an 18-year time series for anthropogenic emissions for the main air pollutants in Europe, distinguishing 15 main source categories. It provides a complete overview of emissions to air and is designed to support air quality modelling. The data build where possible on official country total emissions used in the policy processes, but where necessary alternative data were used. The emission data are spatially distributed at high resolution (~ 6 km x 6 km) in a consistent way.
Anna-Maria Virkkala, Susan M. Natali, Brendan M. Rogers, Jennifer D. Watts, Kathleen Savage, Sara June Connon, Marguerite Mauritz, Edward A. G. Schuur, Darcy Peter, Christina Minions, Julia Nojeim, Roisin Commane, Craig A. Emmerton, Mathias Goeckede, Manuel Helbig, David Holl, Hiroki Iwata, Hideki Kobayashi, Pasi Kolari, Efrén López-Blanco, Maija E. Marushchak, Mikhail Mastepanov, Lutz Merbold, Frans-Jan W. Parmentier, Matthias Peichl, Torsten Sachs, Oliver Sonnentag, Masahito Ueyama, Carolina Voigt, Mika Aurela, Julia Boike, Gerardo Celis, Namyi Chae, Torben R. Christensen, M. Syndonia Bret-Harte, Sigrid Dengel, Han Dolman, Colin W. Edgar, Bo Elberling, Eugenie Euskirchen, Achim Grelle, Juha Hatakka, Elyn Humphreys, Järvi Järveoja, Ayumi Kotani, Lars Kutzbach, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Ivan Mammarella, Yojiro Matsuura, Gesa Meyer, Mats B. Nilsson, Steven F. Oberbauer, Sang-Jong Park, Roman Petrov, Anatoly S. Prokushkin, Christopher Schulze, Vincent L. St. Louis, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, William Quinton, Andrej Varlagin, Donatella Zona, and Viacheslav I. Zyryanov
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 179–208,Short summary
The effects of climate warming on carbon cycling across the Arctic–boreal zone (ABZ) remain poorly understood due to the relatively limited distribution of ABZ flux sites. Fortunately, this flux network is constantly increasing, but new measurements are published in various platforms, making it challenging to understand the ABZ carbon cycle as a whole. Here, we compiled a new database of Arctic–boreal CO2 fluxes to help facilitate large-scale assessments of the ABZ carbon cycle.
Marcus Reckermann, Anders Omstedt, Tarmo Soomere, Juris Aigars, Naveed Akhtar, Magdalena Bełdowska, Jacek Bełdowski, Tom Cronin, Michał Czub, Margit Eero, Kari Petri Hyytiäinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Anders Kiessling, Erik Kjellström, Karol Kuliński, Xiaoli Guo Larsén, Michelle McCrackin, H. E. Markus Meier, Sonja Oberbeckmann, Kevin Parnell, Cristian Pons-Seres de Brauwer, Anneli Poska, Jarkko Saarinen, Beata Szymczycha, Emma Undeman, Anders Wörman, and Eduardo Zorita
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1–80,Short summary
As part of the Baltic Earth Assessment Reports (BEAR), we present an inventory and discussion of different human-induced factors and processes affecting the environment of the Baltic Sea region and their interrelations. Some are naturally occurring and modified by human activities, others are completely human-induced, and they are all interrelated to different degrees. The findings from this study can largely be transferred to other comparable marginal and coastal seas in the world.
Martti Honkanen, Jens Daniel Müller, Jukka Seppälä, Gregor Rehder, Sami Kielosto, Pasi Ylöstalo, Timo Mäkelä, Juha Hatakka, and Lauri Laakso
Ocean Sci., 17, 1657–1675,Short summary
The exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the sea and the atmosphere is regulated by the gradient of CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) between the sea and the air. The daily variation of the seawater pCO2 recorded at the fixed station Utö in the Baltic Sea was found to be mainly biologically driven. Calculation of the annual net exchange of CO2 between the sea and atmosphere based on daily measurements of pCO2 carried out using the same sampling time every day could introduce a bias of up to 12 %.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14851–14869,Short summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) in the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Camilla Geels, Morten Winther, Camilla Andersson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Jørgen Brandt, Lise M. Frohn, Ulas Im, Wing Leung, and Jesper H. Christensen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12495–12519,Short summary
In this study, we set up new shipping emissions scenarios and use two chemistry transport models and a health assessment model to assess the development of air quality and related health impacts in the Nordic region. Shipping alone is associated with about 850 premature deaths during present-day conditions, decreasing to approximately 550–600 cases in the 2050 scenarios.
Ralf Weisse, Inga Dailidienė, Birgit Hünicke, Kimmo Kahma, Kristine Madsen, Anders Omstedt, Kevin Parnell, Tilo Schöne, Tarmo Soomere, Wenyan Zhang, and Eduardo Zorita
Earth Syst. Dynam., 12, 871–898,Short summary
The study is part of the thematic Baltic Earth Assessment Reports – a series of review papers summarizing the knowledge around major Baltic Earth science topics. It concentrates on sea level dynamics and coastal erosion (its variability and change). Many of the driving processes are relevant in the Baltic Sea. Contributions vary over short distances and across timescales. Progress and research gaps are described in both understanding details in the region and in extending general concepts.
Laura Heimsch, Annalea Lohila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Henriikka Vekuri, Jussi Heinonsalo, Olli Nevalainen, Mika Korkiakoski, Jari Liski, Tuomas Laurila, and Liisa Kulmala
Biogeosciences, 18, 3467–3483,Short summary
CO2 and H2O fluxes were measured at a newly established eddy covariance site in southern Finland for 2 years from 2018 to 2020. This agricultural grassland site focuses on the conversion from intensive towards more sustainable agricultural management. The first summer experienced prolonged dry periods, and notably larger fluxes were observed in the second summer. The field acted as a net carbon sink during both study years.
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Magda Wilewska-Bien, Lena Granhag, Erik Ytreberg, K. Martin Eriksson, Daniel Yngsell, Ida-Maja Hassellöv, Kerstin Magnusson, Urmas Raudsepp, Ilja Maljutenko, Hulda Winnes, and Jana Moldanova
Ocean Sci., 17, 699–728,Short summary
This modelling study describes a methodology for describing pollutant discharges from ships to the sea. The pilot area used is the Baltic Sea area and discharges of bilge, ballast, sewage, wash water as well as stern tube oil are reported for the year 2012. This work also reports the release of SOx scrubber effluents. This technique may be used by ships to comply with tight sulfur limits inside Emission Control Areas, but it also introduces a new pollutant stream from ships to the sea.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Aku Helin, Minna Aurela, Kimmo Teinilä, Milla Friman, Leena Kangas, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Anu Kousa, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Sanna Saarikoski, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6297–6314,Short summary
We present results from the long-term measurements (5 years) of highly time-resolved atmospheric PM1 composition at an urban street canyon site. Overall, the results increased knowledge of the variability of PM1 concentration, composition, and sources in a traffic site and the implications for urban air quality. The investigation of pollution episodes showed that both local and long-range-transported pollutants can still cause elevated PM1 and PM2.5 concentrations in northern Europe.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Sami D. Seppälä, Joel Kuula, Antti-Pekka Hyvärinen, Sanna Saarikoski, Topi Rönkkö, Jorma Keskinen, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3215–3234,Short summary
The effects of fuel sulfur content restrictions implemented by the International Maritime Organization in the Baltic Sea (in July 2010 and January 2015) on the particle properties of ship exhaust plumes and ambient aerosol were studied. The restrictions reduced the particle number concentrations and median particle size in plumes and number concentrations in ambient aerosol. These changes may improve human health in coastal areas and decrease the cooling effect of exhaust emissions from ships.
Lauri Heiskanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Sari Juutinen, Annalea Lohila, Timo Penttilä, Maiju Linkosalmi, Juha Mikola, Tuomas Laurila, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 18, 873–896,Short summary
We studied ecosystem- and plant-community-level carbon (C) exchange between subarctic mire and the atmosphere during 2017–2018. We found strong spatial variation in CO2 and CH4 dynamics between the main plant communities. The earlier onset of growing season in 2018 strengthened the CO2 sink of the ecosystem, but this gain was counterbalanced by a later drought period. Variation in water table level, soil temperature and vegetation explained most of the variation in ecosystem-level C exchange.
Camille Yver-Kwok, Carole Philippon, Peter Bergamaschi, Tobias Biermann, Francescopiero Calzolari, Huilin Chen, Sebastien Conil, Paolo Cristofanelli, Marc Delmotte, Juha Hatakka, Michal Heliasz, Ove Hermansen, Kateřina Komínková, Dagmar Kubistin, Nicolas Kumps, Olivier Laurent, Tuomas Laurila, Irene Lehner, Janne Levula, Matthias Lindauer, Morgan Lopez, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, Per Marklund, Jean-Marc Metzger, Meelis Mölder, Stephen M. Platt, Michel Ramonet, Leonard Rivier, Bert Scheeren, Mahesh Kumar Sha, Paul Smith, Martin Steinbacher, Gabriela Vítková, and Simon Wyss
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 89–116,Short summary
The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a pan-European research infrastructure which provides harmonized and high-precision scientific data on the carbon cycle and the greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. All stations have to undergo a rigorous assessment before being labeled, i.e., receiving approval to join the network. In this paper, we present the labeling process for the ICOS atmospheric network through the 23 stations that were labeled between November 2017 and November 2019.
Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Sander Rikka, Victor Alari, Aarne Männik, Laura Tuomi, and Heidi Pettersson
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 3593–3609,Short summary
Wave observations have a fundamental uncertainty due to the randomness of the sea state. Such scatter is absent in model data, and we tried two methods to best account for this difference when combining measured and modelled wave heights. The results were used to estimate how rare a 2019 storm in the Bothnian Sea was. Both methods were found to have strengths and weaknesses, but our best estimate was that, in the current climate, such a storm might on average repeat about once a century.
Hui Zhang, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila, Aino Korrensalo, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Mika Aurela, Timo Penttilä, Tuomas Laurila, Stephanie Gerin, Viivi Lindholm, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 17, 6247–6270,Short summary
We studied the impact of a stream on peatland microhabitats and CH4 emissions in a northern boreal fen. We found that there were higher water levels, lower peat temperatures, and greater oxygen concentrations close to the stream; these supported the highest biomass production but resulted in the lowest CH4 emissions. Further from the stream, the conditions were drier and CH4 emissions were also low. CH4 emissions were highest at an intermediate distance from the stream.
Mona Kurppa, Pontus Roldin, Jani Strömberg, Anna Balling, Sasu Karttunen, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Liisa Pirjola, Topi Rönkkö, Hilkka Timonen, Antti Hellsten, and Leena Järvi
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 5663–5685,Short summary
High-resolution modelling is needed to solve the aerosol concentrations in a complex urban area. Here, the performance of an aerosol module within the PALM model to simulate the detailed horizontal and vertical distribution of aerosol particles is studied. Further, sensitivity to the meteorological and aerosol boundary conditions is assessed using both model and observation data. The horizontal distribution is sensitive to the wind speed and stability, and the vertical to the wind direction.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Michael Schulz, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Hilde Fagerli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11399–11422,Short summary
We have calculated the effects of air pollution in Europe from shipping on levels of PM2.5 and ozone and depositions of oxidised nitrogen and sulfur from individual sea areas and from all global shipping. Model results are shown for Europe as a whole but also focusing on select, mainly coastal, countries. Calculations are made using 2017 emissions supplemented by calculations reducing sulfur emissions from ships by about 80 % following the implementation of the 2020 global sulfur cap.
Lasse Johansson, Erik Ytreberg, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Erik Fridell, K. Martin Eriksson, Maria Lagerström, Ilja Maljutenko, Urmas Raudsepp, Vivian Fischer, and Eva Roth
Ocean Sci., 16, 1143–1163,Short summary
Very little is currently known about the activities and emissions of private leisure boats. To change this, a new model was created (BEAM). The model was used for the Baltic Sea to estimate leisure boat emissions, also considering antifouling paint leach. When compared to commercial shipping, the modeled leisure boat emissions were seen to be surprisingly large for some pollutant species, and these emissions were heavily concentrated on coastal inhabited areas during summer and early autumn.
Havu Pellikka, Terhi K. Laurila, Hanna Boman, Anu Karjalainen, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 20, 2535–2546,Short summary
Meteotsunamis are long waves created by atmospheric disturbances travelling over the sea. These waves can be hazardous in rare cases. Their occurrence in the Baltic Sea has been poorly known, which is why we examine century-long sea level records from the Gulf of Finland to identify these waves. In total, 121 potential meteotsunamis were found. The strong connection between meteotsunami occurrence and lightning observations indicates that meteotsunamis in this region occur during thunderstorms.
Rafael A. O. Nunes, Maria C. M. Alvim-Ferraz, Fernando G. Martins, Fátima Calderay-Cayetano, Vanessa Durán-Grados, Juan Moreno-Gutiérrez, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Hanna Hannuniemi, and Sofia I. V. Sousa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9473–9489,Short summary
The central position of the Iberian Peninsula with ship traffic between the Americas, Africa, and Europe, combined with the known adverse effects of this sector on air quality, emphasises the relevance of a more detailed study of these impacts in this region. Results showed increased levels of SO2 and NO2 near port areas, as well as of O3, sulfate, PM2.5, and PM10 over the Iberian Peninsula coastline due to shipping emissions. To study mitigation measures, application is crucial.
Lin Tang, Martin O. P. Ramacher, Jana Moldanová, Volker Matthias, Matthias Karl, Lasse Johansson, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Katarina Yaramenka, Armin Aulinger, and Malin Gustafsson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7509–7530,Short summary
The effects of shipping emissions on air quality and health in the harbour city of Gothenburg were simulated for 2012 with coupled regional and city-scale chemistry transport models. The results show that contributions of shipping to exposure and health impacts from particulate matter and NO2 are significant and that shipping-related exposure to PM is dominated by emissions from regional shipping outside the city domain and is larger than exposure related to emissions from local road traffic.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Markku Kulmala, Lauri Laakso, Janne Rinne, Ram Oren, and Gabriel Katul
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The annual ET is approximately equal to precipitation during six measured years for grazed savanna grassland. The computed annual transpiration was highly constrained when rainfall was near or above the long-term mean but was reduced during severe drought year. The developed methodologies can be used in a wide range of arid and semi-arid ecosystems.
Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Heidi Pettersson, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Ocean Sci., 15, 1469–1487,Short summary
In this paper we present wave buoy measurements from the Finnish archipelago. The properties of the waves inside the archipelago differed from waves in the open sea because of the sheltering effect of the islands. In the archipelago the highest single wave was, on average, only 1.58 times the significant wave height, which is lower than what is predicted by previous research. A more robust way to calculate the wave frequency in the complex archipelago conditions was proposed.
Jan Eiof Jonson, Michael Gauss, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Lasse Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13469–13487,Short summary
Calculations have been made with the regional-scale EMEP chemical transport model covering Europe and the sea areas surrounding Europe, including much of the North Atlantic. The main focus is on the effects on air pollution as well as depositions of sulfur and nitrogen following the implementation of stricter sulfur emission regulations from 1 January 2015 for ships operating in the Baltic Sea. We also include a study on the effects of future (2030) emissions changes.
Mika Korkiakoski, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Timo Penttilä, Sakari Sarkkola, Paavo Ojanen, Kari Minkkinen, Juuso Rainne, Tuomas Laurila, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 16, 3703–3723,Short summary
We measured greenhouse gas and energy fluxes for 2 years after clear-cutting in a peatland forest. We found high carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide emissions. However, in the second year after clear-cutting, the carbon dioxide emissions had already decreased by 33 % from the first year. Also, clear-cutting turned the site from a methane sink into a methane source. We conclude that clear-cutting peatland forests exerts a strong climatic warming effect through accelerated emission of greenhouse gas.
Martin Otto Paul Ramacher, Matthias Karl, Johannes Bieser, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, and Lasse Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9153–9179,Short summary
We simulated the impact of NOx shipping emissions on air quality and exposure in the Baltic Sea harbour cities Rostock (Germany), Riga (Latvia) and Gdańsk–Gdynia (Poland) for 2012. We found that local shipping affects total NO2, with contributions of 22 %, 11 % and 16 % in Rostock, Riga and Gdańsk–Gdynia. Exposure to NO2 from all emission sources was highest at home addresses (54 %–59 %). Emissions from shipping have a high impact on NO2 exposure in the port area (50 %–80 %).
Matthias Karl, Jan Eiof Jonson, Andreas Uppstu, Armin Aulinger, Marje Prank, Mikhail Sofiev, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Markus Quante, and Volker Matthias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7019–7053,Short summary
The effect of ship emissions on the regional air quality in the Baltic Sea region was investigated with three regional chemistry transport model systems. The ship influence on air quality is shown to depend on the boundary conditions, meteorological data and aerosol formation and deposition schemes that are used in these models. The study provides a reliable approach for the evaluation of policy options regarding emission regulations for ship traffic in the Baltic Sea.
Matthias Karl, Johannes Bieser, Beate Geyer, Volker Matthias, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, and Erik Fridell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1721–1752,Short summary
Air emissions of nitrogen oxides from ship traffic in the Baltic Sea are a health concern in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea region. We find that the introduction of the nitrogen emission control area (NECA) is critical for reducing ship emissions of nitrogen oxides to levels that are low enough to sustainably dampen ozone production. The decline of the ship-related nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea between 2012 and 2040 varies between 46 % and 78 % in different regulation scenarios.
Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mika Aurela, Juha Hatakka, Aleksi Räsänen, Tarmo Virtanen, Juha Mikola, Viktor Ivakhov, Vladimir Kondratyev, and Tuomas Laurila
Biogeosciences, 16, 255–274,Short summary
We analysed ecosystem-scale measurements of methane exchange between Arctic tundra and the atmosphere, taking into account the large variations in vegetation and soil properties. The measurements are spatial averages, but using meteorological and statistical modelling techniques we could estimate methane emissions for different land cover types and quantify how well the measurements correspond to the spatial variability. This provides a more accurate estimate of the regional methane emission.
Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Mattias Liefvendahl, Rickard Bensow, Peter Sigray, Martin Östberg, Ilkka Karasalo, Mathias Andersson, Heikki Peltonen, and Jukka Pajala
Ocean Sci., 14, 1373–1383,Short summary
This paper presents the implementation of an underwater noise emission module in the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model. This model is based on real shipping activity, as described by the vessel navigation systems, and combines it with technical descriptions of each ship. The methodology described facilitates the expression of underwater noise as emission maps, which describe the energy emitted to the water. This enables regular reporting of shipping noise and facilitates further research.
Ulpu Leijala, Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Milla M. Johansson, Havu Pellikka, Lauri Laakso, and Kimmo K. Kahma
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2785–2799,Short summary
The coastal flooding risks based on the combined effect of sea level variations and wind-generated waves are estimated for the present, 2050 and 2100. The variability of the wave conditions between the two case study locations in the Helsinki archipelago leads to a difference in the safe building levels of up to 1 m. The rising mean sea level in the Gulf of Finland and the uncertainty of the associated scenarios contribute to the flooding risks notably in 2100.
Martti Honkanen, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Tuomas Laurila, Timo Mäkelä, Juha Hatakka, Sami Kielosto, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 5335–5350,Short summary
The exchange rate of carbon dioxide (CO2) between the atmosphere and the sea is typically small compared to the fluxes observed in the terrestrial ecosystems, causing technical challenges for the measurements of the CO2 sea–air fluxes. In this paper, we examine CO2 sea–air flux measurements carried out on a fixed station on an island. The problems generated by water vapor interference and unmet theoretical assumptions of the eddy covariance method are addressed.
Kari Minkkinen, Paavo Ojanen, Timo Penttilä, Mika Aurela, Tuomas Laurila, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 15, 3603–3624,Short summary
Drainage often turns peatlands into C sources. We measured C dynamics of a drained forested boreal peatland over 4 years, including one with a drought during growing season. The drained peatland ecosystem was a strong sink of C in all studied years. Also, the peat soil sequestered C. A drought period in one summer significantly decreased C sequestration through decreased gross primary production, but since the drought also decreased ecosystem respiration, the site remained a C sink.
Juha Mikola, Tarmo Virtanen, Maiju Linkosalmi, Emmi Vähä, Johanna Nyman, Olga Postanogova, Aleksi Räsänen, D. Johan Kotze, Tuomas Laurila, Sari Juutinen, Vladimir Kondratyev, and Mika Aurela
Biogeosciences, 15, 2781–2801,Short summary
To support C exchange measurements, we examined plant and soil attributes in Siberian Arctic tundra. Our results illustrate a typical tundra ecosystem with great spatial variation. Mosses dominate plant biomass and control many soil attributes such as temperature, but variation in moss biomass is difficult to capture by remote sensing. This indicates challenges in spatial extrapolation of some of those plant and soil attributes that are relevant for regional ecosystem and global climate models.
Jan-Victor Björkqvist, Laura Tuomi, Niko Tollman, Antti Kangas, Heidi Pettersson, Riikka Marjamaa, Hannu Jokinen, and Carl Fortelius
Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 17, 1653–1658,Short summary
We studied the highest wave events in the Baltic Sea using wave measurements available since 1996. Going beyond classifying them based solely on the maximum wave height, we found that they can be divided into two groups based on, for example, the length of the storm. Two of the severest storms show different behaviour, with the most recent (in 2017) being the longest on record. We hope this more in-depth description of the storms will aid in the issuing of warnings for extreme wave conditions.
Thibaud Thonat, Marielle Saunois, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Zeli Tan, Qianlai Zhuang, Patrick M. Crill, Brett F. Thornton, David Bastviken, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Nikita Zimov, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Ove Hermansen, and Doug E. J. Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8371–8394,Short summary
Atmospheric methane simulations in the Arctic have been made for 2012 and compared to continuous observations at six measurement sites. All methane sources significantly affect the measurements at all stations, at least at the synoptic scale, except for biomass burning. An appropriate modelling framework combined with continuous observations of atmospheric methane enables us to gain knowledge on regional methane sources, including those which are usually poorly represented, such as freshwater.
Tea Thum, Sönke Zaehle, Philipp Köhler, Tuula Aalto, Mika Aurela, Luis Guanter, Pasi Kolari, Tuomas Laurila, Annalea Lohila, Federico Magnani, Christiaan Van Der Tol, and Tiina Markkanen
Biogeosciences, 14, 1969–1987,Short summary
Modelling seasonal cycle at the coniferous forests poses a challenge. We implemented a model for sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) to a land surface model JSBACH. It was used to study the seasonality of the carbon cycle in the Fenno-Scandinavian region. Comparison was made to direct CO2 flux measurements and satellite observations of SIF. SIF proved to be a better proxy for photosynthesis than the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation.
Mika Korkiakoski, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mika Aurela, Markku Koskinen, Kari Minkkinen, Paavo Ojanen, Timo Penttilä, Juuso Rainne, Tuomas Laurila, and Annalea Lohila
Biogeosciences, 14, 1947–1967,Short summary
We measured methane exchange rates at the forest floor of a nutrient-rich drained peatland in southern Finland. The forest floor acted mainly as a small methane sink, but emission peaks were occasionally observed during spring and rainfall events. The strength of the sink correlated best with groundwater level and soil temperatures at 20 and 30 cm depths. Diurnal variations were also observed but they were caused by changes in ambient wind speed and not by biological processes.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
Matti Räsänen, Mika Aurela, Ville Vakkari, Johan P. Beukes, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Pieter G. Van Zyl, Miroslav Josipovic, Andrew D. Venter, Kerneels Jaars, Stefan J. Siebert, Tuomas Laurila, Janne Rinne, and Lauri Laakso
Biogeosciences, 14, 1039–1054,Short summary
This study presents measurements of carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and a grazed savanna grassland ecosystem for 3 years. We find that the yearly variation in carbon dioxide balance is largely determined by the changes in the early wet season balance (September to November) and in the mid-growing season balance (December to January).
Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira, Pavel Jurus, Emanuela Clementi, Heidi Pettersson, and Marcos Mateus
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
Hanna K. Lappalainen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Theo Kurten, Aleksander Baklanov, Anatoly Shvidenko, Jaana Bäck, Timo Vihma, Pavel Alekseychik, Meinrat O. Andreae, Stephen R. Arnold, Mikhail Arshinov, Eija Asmi, Boris Belan, Leonid Bobylev, Sergey Chalov, Yafang Cheng, Natalia Chubarova, Gerrit de Leeuw, Aijun Ding, Sergey Dobrolyubov, Sergei Dubtsov, Egor Dyukarev, Nikolai Elansky, Kostas Eleftheriadis, Igor Esau, Nikolay Filatov, Mikhail Flint, Congbin Fu, Olga Glezer, Aleksander Gliko, Martin Heimann, Albert A. M. Holtslag, Urmas Hõrrak, Juha Janhunen, Sirkku Juhola, Leena Järvi, Heikki Järvinen, Anna Kanukhina, Pavel Konstantinov, Vladimir Kotlyakov, Antti-Jussi Kieloaho, Alexander S. Komarov, Joni Kujansuu, Ilmo Kukkonen, Ella-Maria Duplissy, Ari Laaksonen, Tuomas Laurila, Heikki Lihavainen, Alexander Lisitzin, Alexsander Mahura, Alexander Makshtas, Evgeny Mareev, Stephany Mazon, Dmitry Matishov, Vladimir Melnikov, Eugene Mikhailov, Dmitri Moisseev, Robert Nigmatulin, Steffen M. Noe, Anne Ojala, Mari Pihlatie, Olga Popovicheva, Jukka Pumpanen, Tatjana Regerand, Irina Repina, Aleksei Shcherbinin, Vladimir Shevchenko, Mikko Sipilä, Andrey Skorokhod, Dominick V. Spracklen, Hang Su, Dmitry A. Subetto, Junying Sun, Arkady Y. Terzhevik, Yuri Timofeyev, Yuliya Troitskaya, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen, Viacheslav I. Kharuk, Nina Zaytseva, Jiahua Zhang, Yrjö Viisanen, Timo Vesala, Pertti Hari, Hans Christen Hansson, Gennady G. Matvienko, Nikolai S. Kasimov, Huadong Guo, Valery Bondur, Sergej Zilitinkevich, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14421–14461,Short summary
After kick off in 2012, the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) program has expanded fast and today the multi-disciplinary research community covers ca. 80 institutes and a network of ca. 500 scientists from Europe, Russia, and China. Here we introduce scientific topics relevant in this context. This is one of the first multi-disciplinary overviews crossing scientific boundaries, from atmospheric sciences to socio-economics and social sciences.
Maiju Linkosalmi, Mika Aurela, Juha-Pekka Tuovinen, Mikko Peltoniemi, Cemal M. Tanis, Ali N. Arslan, Pasi Kolari, Kristin Böttcher, Tuula Aalto, Juuso Rainne, Juha Hatakka, and Tuomas Laurila
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 417–426,Short summary
Digital photography has become a widely used tool for monitoring the vegetation phenology. The seasonal cycle of the greenness index obtained from photographs correlated well with the CO2 exchange of the plants at our wetland and Scots pine forest sites. While the seasonal changes in the greenness were more obvious for the ecosystem dominated by annual plants, clear seasonal patterns were also observed for the evergreen forest.
Fanni Mylläri, Eija Asmi, Tatu Anttila, Erkka Saukko, Ville Vakkari, Liisa Pirjola, Risto Hillamo, Tuomas Laurila, Anna Häyrinen, Jani Rautiainen, Heikki Lihavainen, Ewan O'Connor, Ville Niemelä, Jorma Keskinen, Miikka Dal Maso, and Topi Rönkkö
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7485–7496,Short summary
The primary emissions of a coal-fired power plant were highly affected by the flue-gas cleaning technologies. The primary emission results were used as input values for a Gaussian plume model and the model correlated well with the atmospheric measurements from the flue-gas plume. Concentrations of newly formed particles in the flue gas plume were higher than the primary particle concentration, and thus the source of particle-forming precursors should be characterized in more detail.
Joonas Enroth, Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko Niemi, Anu Kousa, Irena Ježek, Griša Močnik, Samara Carbone, Heino Kuuluvainen, Topi Rönkkö, Risto Hillamo, and Liisa Pirjola
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5497–5512,Short summary
This paper presents a comprehensive summary of roadside measurements using a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Pollution gradients were observed for particle number, black carbon, organics, some metals, and gases at four different highway environments. Flow dynamics appeared to be an important factor, however, at the most open site, condensation of semi-volatile organics was observed. The fleet average NO2 emission factor increased over the last decade.
Matthias Karl, Jaakko Kukkonen, Menno P. Keuken, Susanne Lützenkirchen, Liisa Pirjola, and Tareq Hussein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4817–4835,Short summary
Particles emitted from road traffic are subject to complex dilution processes as well as microphysical transformation processes. Particle measurements at major roads in Rotterdam, Oslo and Helsinki were used to analyze the relevance of microphysical transformation processes. Transformation processes caused changes of the particle number concentration of up to 20–30 % on the neighborhood scale. A simple parameterization to predict particle number concentrations in urban areas is presented.
Antoine Berchet, Philippe Bousquet, Isabelle Pison, Robin Locatelli, Frédéric Chevallier, Jean-Daniel Paris, Ed J. Dlugokencky, Tuomas Laurila, Juha Hatakka, Yrjo Viisanen, Doug E. J. Worthy, Euan Nisbet, Rebecca Fisher, James France, David Lowry, Viktor Ivakhov, and Ove Hermansen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4147–4157,Short summary
We propose insights based on atmospheric observations around the Arctic circle to evaluate estimates of methane emissions to the atmosphere from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. Based on a comprehensive statistical analysis of the observations and of high-resolution transport simulations, annual methane emissions from ESAS are estimated to range from 0.0 to 4.5 TgCH4 yr−1, with a maximum in summer and very low emissions in winter.
Louis Marelle, Jennie L. Thomas, Jean-Christophe Raut, Kathy S. Law, Jukka-Pekka Jalkanen, Lasse Johansson, Anke Roiger, Hans Schlager, Jin Kim, Anja Reiter, and Bernadett Weinzierl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2359–2379,
J.-V. Björkqvist, H. Pettersson, L. Laakso, K. K. Kahma, H. Jokinen, and P. Kosloff
Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 17–25,Short summary
We identified a previously unknown artefact in the Datawell DWR-G4 wave buoy, which measures the GPS signal to resolve surface water waves. The artefact interferes with the part of the measurements containing information about the longer waves and must be removed to obtain accurate readings. We presented a correction method and found it to be accurate based on a comparison to measurements from a larger wave buoy that measures the movements of the device without using the GPS signal.
E. Asmi, V. Kondratyev, D. Brus, T. Laurila, H. Lihavainen, J. Backman, V. Vakkari, M. Aurela, J. Hatakka, Y. Viisanen, T. Uttal, V. Ivakhov, and A. Makshtas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1271–1287,Short summary
Aerosol number size distributions were measured in Arctic Russia continuously during 4 years. The particles' seasonal characteristics and sources were identified based on these data. In early spring, elevated concentrations were detected during episodes of Arctic haze and during days of secondary particle formation. In summer, Siberian forests biogenic emissions had a significant impact on particle number and mass. These are the first such results obtained from the region.
J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, and J. Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 71–84,Short summary
This manuscript describes the emissions from shipping in European sea areas. The work is based on automatic position reports (AIS) sent by ships and reflects realistic activity patterns of ships. The work demonstrates that it is feasible to construct full bottom-up emission inventories based on large-volume activity data sets.
S. Carbone, T. Onasch, S. Saarikoski, H. Timonen, K. Saarnio, D. Sueper, T. Rönkkö, L. Pirjola, A. Häyrinen, D. Worsnop, and R. Hillamo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4803–4815,Short summary
The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the quantification of trace metal content in black carbon aerosol in real time, such as combustion-related emissions, by using the SP-AMS. The properties of 13 different trace metals (Na, Al, Ca, V, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr and Ba) were investigated in a controlled laboratory experiment. The results from the laboratory tests were applied to study fine particles in emissions of a heavy-fuel-oil-fired heating station.
V. M. N. C. S. Vieira, E. Sahlée, P. Jurus, E. Clementi, H. Pettersson, and M. Mateus
Manuscript not accepted for further review
V. M. N. C. S. Vieira, E. Sahlée, P. Jurus, E. Clementi, H. Pettersson, and M. Mateus
Manuscript not accepted for further review
J. Beecken, J. Mellqvist, K. Salo, J. Ekholm, J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, V. Litvinenko, K. Volodin, and D. A. Frank-Kamenetsky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5229–5241,Short summary
Measurements of SO2, NOx and particle emission factors of more than 400 individual ship passages in the Gulf of Finland are presented and discussed. The measurements were conducted during two campaigns in the years 2011 and 2012 from ground-based and helicopter-based platforms. It was found that a significant number of ships use fuel oil with a fuel sulfur content below the limit of 1%. Additionally, the results of modeled data for the same ships were compared to the measurements of this study.
J. E. Jonson, J. P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, M. Gauss, and H. A. C. Denier van der Gon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 783–798,Short summary
In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations are made with the EMEP air pollution model. Ship emissions are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLLs) are calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions, with ship emissions before and after 2010, and for future projections.
M. Kauhaniemi, A. Stojiljkovic, L. Pirjola, A. Karppinen, J. Härkönen, K. Kupiainen, L. Kangas, M. A. Aarnio, G. Omstedt, B. R. Denby, and J. Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9155–9169,
J. Soares, A. Kousa, J. Kukkonen, L. Matilainen, L. Kangas, M. Kauhaniemi, K. Riikonen, J.-P. Jalkanen, T. Rasila, O. Hänninen, T. Koskentalo, M. Aarnio, C. Hendriks, and A. Karppinen
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1855–1872,
J. M. Balzani Lööv, B. Alfoldy, L. F. L. Gast, J. Hjorth, F. Lagler, J. Mellqvist, J. Beecken, N. Berg, J. Duyzer, H. Westrate, D. P. J. Swart, A. J. C. Berkhout, J.-P. Jalkanen, A. J. Prata, G. R. van der Hoff, and A. Borowiak
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 2597–2613,
I. Ialongo, J. Hakkarainen, N. Hyttinen, J.-P. Jalkanen, L. Johansson, K. F. Boersma, N. Krotkov, and J. Tamminen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7795–7805,
J. Beecken, J. Mellqvist, K. Salo, J. Ekholm, and J.-P. Jalkanen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1957–1968,
O. Peltola, A. Hensen, C. Helfter, L. Belelli Marchesini, F. C. Bosveld, W. C. M. van den Bulk, J. A. Elbers, S. Haapanala, J. Holst, T. Laurila, A. Lindroth, E. Nemitz, T. Röckmann, A. T. Vermeulen, and I. Mammarella
Biogeosciences, 11, 3163–3186,
A. Hirsikko, E. J. O'Connor, M. Komppula, K. Korhonen, A. Pfüller, E. Giannakaki, C. R. Wood, M. Bauer-Pfundstein, A. Poikonen, T. Karppinen, H. Lonka, M. Kurri, J. Heinonen, D. Moisseev, E. Asmi, V. Aaltonen, A. Nordbo, E. Rodriguez, H. Lihavainen, A. Laaksonen, K. E. J. Lehtinen, T. Laurila, T. Petäjä, M. Kulmala, and Y. Viisanen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 1351–1375,
A. Virkkula, J. Levula, T. Pohja, P. P. Aalto, P. Keronen, S. Schobesberger, C. B. Clements, L. Pirjola, A.-J. Kieloaho, L. Kulmala, H. Aaltonen, J. Patokoski, J. Pumpanen, J. Rinne, T. Ruuskanen, M. Pihlatie, H. E. Manninen, V. Aaltonen, H. Junninen, T. Petäjä, J. Backman, M. Dal Maso, T. Nieminen, T. Olsson, T. Grönholm, J. Aalto, T. H. Virtanen, M. Kajos, V.-M. Kerminen, D. M. Schultz, J. Kukkonen, M. Sofiev, G. De Leeuw, J. Bäck, P. Hari, and M. Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4473–4502,
M. Koskinen, K. Minkkinen, P. Ojanen, M. Kämäräinen, T. Laurila, and A. Lohila
Biogeosciences, 11, 347–363,
L. Pirjola, A. Pajunoja, J. Walden, J.-P. Jalkanen, T. Rönkkö, A. Kousa, and T. Koskentalo
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 149–161,
L. Johansson, J.-P. Jalkanen, J. Kalli, and J. Kukkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11375–11389,
A. Berchet, I. Pison, F. Chevallier, P. Bousquet, S. Conil, M. Geever, T. Laurila, J. Lavrič, M. Lopez, J. Moncrieff, J. Necki, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, M. Steinbacher, and J. Tarniewicz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7115–7132,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Temporal variability of tropospheric ozone and ozone profiles in the Korean Peninsula during the East Asian summer monsoon: insights from multiple measurements and reanalysis datasetsRetrieving CH4-emission rates from coal mine ventilation shafts using UAV-based AirCore observations and the genetic algorithm–interior point penalty function (GA-IPPF) modelMeasurement report: Atmospheric mercury in a coastal city of Southeast China – inter-annual variations and influencing factorsTropospheric and stratospheric ozone profiles during the 2019 TROpomi vaLIdation eXperiment (TROLIX-19)Enhanced Natural Releases of Mercury in Response to Reduction of Anthropogenic Emissions during the COVID-19 Lockdown by Explainable Machine LearningHow adequately are elevated moist layers represented in reanalysis and satellite observations?Evaluation of correlated Pandora column NO2 and in situ surface NO2 measurements during GMAP campaignTransport of substantial stratospheric ozone to the surface by a dying typhoon and shallow convectionFactors that influence the temporal variability of atmospheric methane emission from Upper Silesia coal mines: A case study from CoMet missionObservational constraints on methane emissions from Polish coal mines using a ground-based remote sensing networkContinuous CH4 and δ13CH4 measurements in London demonstrate under-reported natural gas leakageLong-term fluxes of carbonyl sulfide and their seasonality and interannual variability in a boreal forestDeclines and peaks in NO2 pollution during the multiple waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the New York metropolitan areaLimitations of the radon tracer method (RTM) to estimate regional greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions – a case study for methane in HeidelbergPositive and negative influences of typhoons on tropospheric ozone over southern ChinaSpatial and temporal variations of CO2 mole fractions observed at Beijing, Xianghe, and Xinglong in North ChinaThe CO2 integral emission by the megacity of St Petersburg as quantified from ground-based FTIR measurements combined with dispersion modellingAnthropogenic and natural controls on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 variations in the Yangtze River delta: insights from a carbon isotope modeling frameworkQuantifying variability, source, and transport of CO in the urban areas over the Himalayas and Tibetan PlateauNew methodology shows short atmospheric lifetimes of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen due to dry depositionUncertainties in eddy covariance air–sea CO2 flux measurements and implications for gas transfer velocity parameterisationsConvergent evidence for the pervasive but limited contribution of biomass burning to atmospheric ammonia in peninsular Southeast AsiaConcurrent variation in oil and gas methane emissions and oil price during the COVID-19 pandemicOzone variability induced by synoptic weather patterns in warm seasons of 2014–2018 over the Yangtze River Delta region, ChinaSeasonal patterns of atmospheric mercury in tropical South America as inferred by a continuous total gaseous mercury record at Chacaltaya station (5240 m) in BoliviaA mass-weighted isentropic coordinate for mapping chemical tracers and computing atmospheric inventoriesMethane mapping, emission quantification, and attribution in two European cities: Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE)Ozone affected by a succession of four landfall typhoons in the Yangtze River Delta, China: major processes and health impacts4D dispersion of total gaseous mercury derived from a mining source: identification of criteria to assess risks related to high concentrations of atmospheric mercuryEstimating CH4, CO2 and CO emissions from coal mining and industrial activities in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin using an aircraft-based mass balance approachProfiling of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon: normalized excess mixing ratios and related emission factors in biomass burning plumesMeasurement report: Leaf-scale gas exchange of atmospheric reactive trace species (NO2, NO, O3) at a northern hardwood forest in MichiganA dedicated flask sampling strategy developed for Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) stations based on CO2 and CO measurements and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modellingThe increasing atmospheric burden of the greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)Understanding nighttime methane signals at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO)Background heterogeneity and other uncertainties in estimating urban methane flux: results from the Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX)Methane emissions from the Munich OktoberfestA study of the influence of tropospheric subsidence on spring and summer surface ozone concentrations at the JRC Ispra station in northern ItalyLocal and synoptic meteorological influences on daily variability in summertime surface ozone in eastern ChinaVariability in a four-network composite of atmospheric CO2 differences between three primary baseline sitesQuantifying the impact of synoptic circulation patterns on ozone variability in northern China from April to October 2013–2017Multivariate statistical air mass classification for the high-alpine observatory at the Zugspitze Mountain, GermanyEvolution of anthropogenic air pollutant emissions in Guangdong Province, China, from 2006 to 2015Speciated atmospheric mercury and sea–air exchange of gaseous mercury in the South China SeaMethane emissions from oil and gas platforms in the North SeaAssessing London CO2, CH4 and CO emissions using aircraft measurements and dispersion modelling2005–2017 ozone trends and potential benefits of local measures as deduced from air quality measurements in the north of the Barcelona metropolitan areaCountry-scale greenhouse gas budgets using shipborne measurements: a case study for the UK and IrelandIntercomparison of midlatitude tropospheric and lower-stratospheric water vapor measurements and comparison to ECMWF humidity dataEddy flux measurements of sulfur dioxide deposition to the sea surface
Juseon Bak, Eun-Ji Song, Hyo-Jung Lee, Xiong Liu, Ja-Ho Koo, Joowan Kim, Wonbae Jeon, Jae-Hwan Kim, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14177–14187,Short summary
Our study investigates the temporal variations of ozone profiles at Pohang in the Korean Peninsula from multiple ozone products. We discuss the quantitative relationships between daily surface measurements and key meteorological variables, different seasonality of ozone between the troposphere and stratosphere, and interannual changes in the lower tropospheric ozone, linked by the weather pattern driven by the East Asian summer monsoon.
Tianqi Shi, Zeyu Han, Ge Han, Xin Ma, Huilin Chen, Truls Andersen, Huiqin Mao, Cuihong Chen, Haowei Zhang, and Wei Gong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13881–13896,Short summary
CH4 works as the second-most important greenhouse gas, its reported emission inventories being far less than CO2. In this study, we developed a self-adjusted model to estimate the CH4 emission rate from strong point sources by the UAV-based AirCore system. This model would reduce the uncertainty in CH4 emission rate quantification accrued by errors in measurements of wind and concentration. Actual measurements on Pniówek coal demonstrate the high accuracy and stability of our developed model.
Jiayan Shi, Yuping Chen, Lingling Xu, Youwei Hong, Mengren Li, Xiaolong Fan, Liqian Yin, Yanting Chen, Chen Yang, Gaojie Chen, Taotao Liu, Xiaoting Ji, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11187–11202,Short summary
Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) was observed in Southeast China over the period 2012–2020. The observed GEM concentrations showed no distinct inter-annual variation trends. The interpretation rate of transportation and meteorology on GEM variations displayed an increasing trend. In contrast, anthropogenic emissions have shown a decreasing interpretation rate since 2012, indicating the effectiveness of emission mitigation measures in reducing GEM concentrations in the study region.
John T. Sullivan, Arnoud Apituley, Nora Mettig, Karin Kreher, K. Emma Knowland, Marc Allaart, Ankie Piters, Michel Van Roozendael, Pepijn Veefkind, Jerry R. Ziemke, Natalya Kramarova, Mark Weber, Alexei Rozanov, Laurence Twigg, Grant Sumnicht, and Thomas J. McGee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11137–11153,Short summary
A TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) validation campaign (TROLIX-19) was held in the Netherlands in September 2019. The research presented here focuses on using ozone lidars from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center to better evaluate the characterization of ozone throughout TROLIX-19 as compared to balloon-borne, space-borne and ground-based passive measurements, as well as a global coupled chemistry meteorology model.
Xiaofei Qin, Shengqian Zhou, Hao Li, Guochen Wang, Cheng Chen, Chengfeng Liu, Xiaohao Wang, Juntao Huo, Yanfen Lin, Jia Chen, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Kan Huang, and Congrui Deng
By using artificial neural network modeling and an explainable analysis approach, natural surface emission was identified as the main driver of GEM variations during the COVID-19 lockdown. A sharp drop in GEM concentrations due to a significant reduction in anthropogenic emissions may disrupt the surface - air exchange balance of mercury, leading to increase in natural surface emissions. This study implies natural surface release may pose challenge to the future control on mercury pollution.
Marc Prange, Stefan A. Buehler, and Manfred Brath
We investigate the representation of elevated moist layers (EMLs) in two satellite retrieval products and ERA5 reanalysis. EMLs occur in the vicinity of tropical convective storms and are thought to have an impact on their evolution through radiative heating. We provide a first dedicated assessment of EMLs in long-term data products in terms of moist layer strength, vertical thickness and altitude by comparing to collocated radiosondes over the Western Pacific, a region where EMLs often occur.
Lim-Seok Chang, Donghee Kim, Hyunkee Hong, Deok-Rae Kim, Jeong-Ah Yu, Kwangyul Lee, Hanlim Lee, Daewon Kim, Jinkyu Hong, Hyun-Young Jo, and Cheol-Hee Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10703–10720,Short summary
Our study explored the synergy of combined column and surface measurements during GMAP (GEMS Map of Air Pollution) campaign. It has several points to note for vertical distribution analysis. Particularly under prevailing local wind meteorological conditions, Pandora-based vertical structures sometimes showed negative correlations between column and surface measurements. Vertical analysis should be done carefully in some local meteorological conditions when employing either surface or columns.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xiushu Qie, Xugeng Cheng, Yukun Shen, Mengmiao Yang, Rubin Jiang, and Xiangke Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8221–8240,Short summary
A vigorous surface ozone surge event of stratospheric origin occurred in the North China Plain at night. Surface ozone concentrations were 40–50 ppbv higher than the corresponding monthly mean, whereas surface carbon monoxide concentrations declined abruptly, which confirmed the direct stratospheric intrusions to the surface. We further addressed the notion that a combined effect of the dying typhoon and mesoscale convective systems was responsible for this vigorous ozone surge.
Justyna Swolkień, Andreas Fix, and Michał Gałkowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Determination of emissions on the local scale from coal mines, requires instantaneous data. We analyzed temporal emission data for ventilation shafts and factors influencing their variability. They were saturation of the seams with methane, the permeability of the rock-mass and coal output. The data for the verification should reflect the actual values of emissions from point sources. It is recommended to achieve this by using a standardized emission measurement system for all coal mines.
Andreas Luther, Julian Kostinek, Ralph Kleinschek, Sara Defratyka, Mila Stanisavljević, Andreas Forstmaier, Alexandru Dandocsi, Leon Scheidweiler, Darko Dubravica, Norman Wildmann, Frank Hase, Matthias M. Frey, Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Jarosław Nȩcki, Justyna Swolkień, Christoph Knote, Sanam N. Vardag, Anke Roiger, and André Butz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5859–5876,Short summary
Coal mining is an extensive source of anthropogenic methane emissions. In order to reduce and mitigate methane emissions, it is important to know how much and where the methane is emitted. We estimated coal mining methane emissions in Poland based on atmospheric methane measurements and particle dispersion modeling. In general, our emission estimates suggest higher emissions than expected by previous annual emission reports.
Eric Saboya, Giulia Zazzeri, Heather Graven, Alistair J. Manning, and Sylvia Englund Michel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3595–3613,Short summary
Continuous measurements of atmospheric methane concentrations and its carbon-13 isotope have been made in central London since early 2018. These measurements were used to evaluate methane emissions reported in global and UK-specific emission inventories for the London area. Compared to atmospheric methane measurements from March 2018 to October 2020, both inventories are under-reporting natural gas leakage for the London area.
Timo Vesala, Kukka-Maaria Kohonen, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Arnaud P. Praplan, Lenka Foltýnová, Pasi Kolari, Markku Kulmala, Jaana Bäck, David Nelson, Dan Yakir, Mark Zahniser, and Ivan Mammarella
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2569–2584,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) provides new insights into carbon cycle research. We present an easy-to-use flux parameterization and the longest existing time series of forest–atmosphere COS exchange measurements, which allow us to study both seasonal and interannual variability. We observed only uptake of COS by the forest on an annual basis, with 37 % variability between years. Upscaling the boreal COS uptake using a biosphere model indicates a significant missing COS sink at high latitudes.
Maria Tzortziou, Charlotte F. Kwong, Daniel Goldberg, Luke Schiferl, Róisín Commane, Nader Abuhassan, James J. Szykman, and Lukas C. Valin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2399–2417,Short summary
The COVID-19 pandemic created an extreme natural experiment in which sudden changes in human behavior significantly impacted urban air quality. Using a combination of model, satellite, and ground-based data, we examine the impact of multiple waves and phases of the pandemic on atmospheric nitrogen pollution in the New York metropolitan area, and address the role of weather as a key driver of high pollution episodes observed even during – and despite – the stringent early lockdowns.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Samuel Hammer, Julian DellaColetta, Fabian Maier, and Maksym Gachkivskyi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17907–17926,Short summary
The radon tracer method is applied to atmospheric methane and radon observations from the upper Rhine valley to independently estimate methane emissions from the region. Comparison of our top-down results with bottom-up inventory data requires high-resolution footprint modelling and representative radon flux data. In agreement with inventories, observed emissions decreased, but only until 2005. A limitation of this method is that point-source emissions are not captured or not fully captured.
Zhixiong Chen, Jane Liu, Xugeng Cheng, Mengmiao Yang, and Hong Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16911–16923,Short summary
Using a large ensemble of typhoons, we investigate the impacts of evolving typhoons on tropospheric ozone and address the linkages between typhoon-affected meteorological conditions and ozone variations. The influences of typhoon-induced stratospheric intrusions on lower-troposphere ozone are also quantified. Thus, the results obtained in this study have important implications for a full understanding of the multifaced roles of typhoons in modulating tropospheric ozone variation.
Yang Yang, Minqiang Zhou, Ting Wang, Bo Yao, Pengfei Han, Denghui Ji, Wei Zhou, Yele Sun, Gengchen Wang, and Pucai Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11741–11757,Short summary
This study introduces the in situ CO2 measurement system installed in Beijing (urban), Xianghe (suburban), and Xinglong (rural) in North China for the first time. The spatial and temporal variations in CO2 mole fractions at the three sites between June 2018 and April 2020 are discussed on both seasonal and diurnal scales.
Dmitry V. Ionov, Maria V. Makarova, Frank Hase, Stefani C. Foka, Vladimir S. Kostsov, Carlos Alberti, Thomas Blumenstock, Thorsten Warneke, and Yana A. Virolainen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10939–10963,Short summary
Megacities are a significant source of emissions of various substances in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, which is the most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas. In 2019–2020, the Emission Monitoring Mobile Experiment was carried out in St Petersburg, which is the second-largest industrial city in Russia. The results of this experiment, coupled with numerical modelling, helped to estimate the amount of CO2 emitted by the city. This value was twice as high as predicted.
Cheng Hu, Jiaping Xu, Cheng Liu, Yan Chen, Dong Yang, Wenjing Huang, Lichen Deng, Shoudong Liu, Timothy J. Griffis, and Xuhui Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10015–10037,Short summary
Seventy percent of global CO2 emissions were emitted from urban landscapes. The Yangtze River delta (YRD) ranks as one of the most densely populated regions in the world and is an anthropogenic CO2 hotspot. Besides anthropogenic factors, natural ecosystems and croplands act as significant CO2 sinks and sources. Independent quantification of the fossil and cement CO2 emission and assessment of their impact on atmospheric δ13C-CO2 have potential to improve our understanding of urban CO2 cycling.
Youwen Sun, Hao Yin, Yuan Cheng, Qianggong Zhang, Bo Zheng, Justus Notholt, Xiao Lu, Cheng Liu, Yuan Tian, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9201–9222,Short summary
We quantified the variability, source, and transport of urban CO over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP) by using measurement, model simulation, and the analysis of meteorological fields. Urban CO over the HTP is dominated by anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from local, South Asia and East Asia, and oxidation sources. The decreasing trends in surface CO since 2015 in most cities over the HTP are attributed to the reduction in local and transported CO emissions in recent years.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Yuanxu Dong, Mingxi Yang, Dorothee C. E. Bakker, Vassilis Kitidis, and Thomas G. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8089–8110,Short summary
Eddy covariance (EC) is the most direct method for measuring air–sea CO2 flux from ships. However, uncertainty in EC air–sea CO2 fluxes has not been well quantified. Here we show that with the state-of-the-art gas analysers, instrumental noise no longer contributes significantly to the CO2 flux uncertainty. Applying an appropriate averaging timescale (1–3 h) and suitable air–sea CO2 fugacity threshold (at least 20 µatm) to EC flux data enables an optimal analysis of the gas transfer velocity.
Yunhua Chang, Yan-Lin Zhang, Sawaeng Kawichai, Qian Wang, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Tippawan Prapamontol, and Moritz F. Lehmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7187–7198,Short summary
In this study, we integrated satellite constraints on atmospheric NH3 levels and fire intensity, discrete NH3 concentration measurement, and N isotopic analysis of NH3 in order to assess the regional-scale contribution of biomass burning to ambient atmospheric NH3 in the heartland of Southeast Asia. The combined approach provides a valuable cross-validation framework for source apportioning of NH3 in the lower atmosphere and will thus help to ameliorate predictions of biomass burning emissions.
David R. Lyon, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, Mark Omara, Katherine A. Roberts, Zachary R. Barkley, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Vanessa C. Monteiro, Scott J. Richardson, Stephen Conley, Mackenzie L. Smith, Daniel J. Jacob, Lu Shen, Daniel J. Varon, Aijun Deng, Xander Rudelis, Nikhil Sharma, Kyle T. Story, Adam R. Brandt, Mary Kang, Eric A. Kort, Anthony J. Marchese, and Steven P. Hamburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6605–6626,Short summary
The Permian Basin (USA) is the world’s largest oil field. We use tower- and aircraft-based approaches to measure how methane emissions in the Permian Basin changed throughout 2020. In early 2020, 3.3 % of the region’s gas was emitted; then in spring 2020, the loss rate temporarily dropped to 1.9 % as oil price crashed. We find this short-term reduction to be a result of reduced well development, less gas flaring, and fewer abnormal events despite minimal reductions in oil and gas production.
Da Gao, Min Xie, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Chaoqun Ma, Haokun Bai, Xing Chen, Mengmeng Li, Bingliang Zhuang, and Shu Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5847–5864,Short summary
O3 has been increasing in recent years over the Yangtze River Delta region of China and is closely associated with dominant weather systems. Still, the study on the impact of changes in synoptic weather patterns (SWPs) on O3 variation is quite limited. This work aims to reveal the unique features of changes in each SWP under O3 variation and quantifies the effects of meteorological conditions on O3 variation. Our findings could be helpful in strategy planning for O3 pollution control.
Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Olivier Magand, Paolo Laj, Marcos Andrade, Isabel Moreno, Fernando Velarde, Grover Salvatierra, René Gutierrez, Luis Blacutt, Diego Aliaga, Thomas Reichler, Karine Sellegri, Olivier Laurent, Michel Ramonet, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3447–3472,Short summary
The environmental cycling of atmospheric mercury, a harmful global contaminant, is still not sufficiently constrained, partly due to missing data in remote regions. Here, we address this issue by presenting 20 months of atmospheric mercury measurements, sampled in the Bolivian Andes. We observe a significant seasonal pattern, whose key features we explore. Moreover, we deduce ratios to constrain South American biomass burning mercury emissions and the mercury uptake by the Amazon rainforest.
Yuming Jin, Ralph F. Keeling, Eric J. Morgan, Eric Ray, Nicholas C. Parazoo, and Britton B. Stephens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 217–238,Short summary
We propose a new atmospheric coordinate (Mθe) based on equivalent potential temperature (θe) but with mass as the unit. This coordinate is useful in studying the spatial and temporal distribution of long-lived chemical tracers (CO2, CH4, O2 / N2, etc.) from sparse data, like airborne observation. Using this coordinate and sparse airborne observation (HIPPO and ATom), we resolve the Northern Hemisphere mass-weighted average CO2 seasonal cycle with high accuracy.
Hossein Maazallahi, Julianne M. Fernandez, Malika Menoud, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Zachary D. Weller, Stefan Schwietzke, Joseph C. von Fischer, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14717–14740,Short summary
Methane accounts for ∼ 25 % of current climate warming. The current lack of methane measurements is a barrier for tracking major sources, which are key for near-term climate mitigation. We use mobile measurements to identify and quantify methane emission sources in Utrecht (NL) and Hamburg (DE) with a focus on natural gas pipeline leaks. The measurements resulted in fixing the major leaks by the local utility, but coordinated efforts are needed at national levels for further emission reductions.
Chenchao Zhan, Min Xie, Chongwu Huang, Jane Liu, Tijian Wang, Meng Xu, Chaoqun Ma, Jianwei Yu, Yumeng Jiao, Mengmeng Li, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Ming Zhao, and Dongyang Nie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13781–13799,Short summary
The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region has been suffering from severe ozone (O3) pollution in recent years. Synoptic systems, like typhoons, can have a significant effect on O3 episodes. However, research on landfall typhoons affecting O3 in the YRD is limited. This work aims to reveal the main processes of landfall typhoons affecting surface O3 and estimate health impacts of O3 during the study period in the YRD, which can be useful for taking reasonable pollution control measures in this area.
José M. Esbrí, Pablo L. Higueras, Alba Martínez-Coronado, and Rocío Naharro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12995–13010,Short summary
The aim of this work was to identify criteria to obtain the minimum amount of data with the maximum meaning and representativeness in order to delimit risk areas, both in a spatial and temporal respect. We have constructed a model of vertical mercury movements which could be used to predict the location and timing of mercury inhalation risk. Also, we have designed a monitoring strategy to identify the relevant criteria, which involved the measurement of gaseous mercury in a vertical section.
Alina Fiehn, Julian Kostinek, Maximilian Eckl, Theresa Klausner, Michał Gałkowski, Jinxuan Chen, Christoph Gerbig, Thomas Röckmann, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Pawel Jagoda, Norman Wildmann, Christian Mallaun, Rostyslav Bun, Anna-Leah Nickl, Patrick Jöckel, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12675–12695,Short summary
A severe reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is necessary to fulfill the Paris Agreement. We use aircraft- and ground-based in situ observations of trace gases and wind speed from two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, for independent emission estimation. The derived methane emission estimates are within the range of emission inventories, carbon dioxide estimates are in the lower range and carbon monoxide emission estimates are slightly higher than emission inventory values.
Flora Kluge, Tilman Hüneke, Matthias Knecht, Michael Lichtenstern, Meike Rotermund, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12363–12389,Short summary
The presented study reports on airborne measurements of formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and CO over the Amazon basin and lays a special focus on the influence of biomass burning emissions on the atmospheric profiles of these carbonyl compounds within the planetary boundary layer as well as in the free and upper troposphere.
Wei Wang, Laurens Ganzeveld, Samuel Rossabi, Jacques Hueber, and Detlev Helmig
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11287–11304,Short summary
Trees exchange with the atmosphere nitrogen oxides and ozone, affecting the tropospheric composition and consequently air quality and ecosystem health. We examined the leaf-level gas exchanges for four typical tree species (pine, maple, oak, aspen) found in northern Michigan, US. The leaves largely absorb the gases, showing little evidence of emission. We measured the uptake rates that can be used to improve model studies of the source and sink processes controlling these gases in forests.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Markus Eritt, Fabian Maier, Sabrina Arnold, Daniel Rzesanke, Samuel Hammer, Michel Ramonet, Gabriela Vítková, Sebastien Conil, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, and Matthias Lindauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11161–11180,Short summary
Based on observations and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling, a sampling strategy has been developed for tall tower stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure atmospheric station network. This strategy allows independent quality control of in situ measurements, provides representative coverage of the influence area of the sites, and is capable of automated targeted sampling of fossil fuel CO2 emission hotspots.
Peter G. Simmonds, Matthew Rigby, Alistair J. Manning, Sunyoung Park, Kieran M. Stanley, Archie McCulloch, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Michela Maione, Jgor Arduini, Stefan Reimann, Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, Paul B. Krummel, Paul J. Fraser, Ray F. Weiss, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Mi-Kyung Park, Hyeri Park, Tim Arnold, Chris Rennick, L. Paul Steele, Blagoj Mitrevski, Ray H. J. Wang, and Ronald G. Prinn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7271–7290,Short summary
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a potent greenhouse gas which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol. From a 40-year record of measurements, collected at five global monitoring sites and archived air samples, we show that its concentration in the atmosphere has steadily increased. Using modelling techniques, we estimate that global emissions have increased by about 24 % over the past decade. We find that this increase is driven by the demand for SF6-insulated switchgear in developing countries.
Santiago Botía, Christoph Gerbig, Julia Marshall, Jost V. Lavric, David Walter, Christopher Pöhlker, Bruna Holanda, Gilberto Fisch, Alessandro Carioca de Araújo, Marta O. Sá, Paulo R. Teixeira, Angélica F. Resende, Cleo Q. Dias-Junior, Hella van Asperen, Pablo S. Oliveira, Michel Stefanello, and Otávio C. Acevedo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6583–6606,Short summary
A long record of atmospheric methane concentrations in central Amazonia was analyzed. We describe events in which concentrations at 79 m are higher than at 4 m. These events are more frequent during the nighttime of dry season, but we found no association with fire signals. Instead, we suggest that a combination of nighttime transport and a nearby source could explain such events. Our research gives insights into how methane is transported in the complex nocturnal atmosphere in Amazonia.
Nikolay V. Balashov, Kenneth J. Davis, Natasha L. Miles, Thomas Lauvaux, Scott J. Richardson, Zachary R. Barkley, and Timothy A. Bonin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4545–4559,Short summary
An accurate independent verification methodology to estimate methane (a powerful greenhouse gas) emissions is essential for the effective implementation of policies that aim to reduce the impacts of climate change. In this paper, four uncertainties that complicate the independent estimation of urban methane emissions are identified: the definition of urban domain, background heterogeneity, emissions temporal variability, and missing sources. Ways to improve emission estimates are suggested.
Jia Chen, Florian Dietrich, Hossein Maazallahi, Andreas Forstmaier, Dominik Winkler, Magdalena E. G. Hofmann, Hugo Denier van der Gon, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3683–3696,Short summary
We demonstrate for the first time that large festivals can be significant methane sources, though they are not included in emission inventories. We combined in situ measurements with a Gaussian plume model to determine the Oktoberfest emissions and show that they are not due solely to human biogenic emissions, but are instead primarily fossil fuel related. Our study provides the foundation to develop reduction policies for such events and new pathways to mitigate fossil fuel methane emissions.
Pavlos Kalabokas, Niels Roland Jensen, Mauro Roveri, Jens Hjorth, Maxim Eremenko, Juan Cuesta, Gaëlle Dufour, Gilles Foret, and Matthias Beekmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1861–1885,Short summary
The influence of tropospheric ozone on the surface measurements at a regional air pollution station in the pre-Alpine area of northern Italy is investigated. During such episodes the local air pollution parameters show generally very low values, while the ozone levels reach high values, occasionally exceeding the ozone air quality standards. Better understanding of ozone variability over the examined region will help in the formulation of more effective policies for the environment and climate.
Han Han, Jane Liu, Lei Shu, Tijian Wang, and Huiling Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 203–222,Short summary
We statistically assessed the impacts of local and synoptic meteorology on daily surface ozone in eastern China in summer during 2013–2018. The results show that the meteorology described by a multiple linear regression model explains 43 % of variations in surface ozone. The most important local meteorological factors vary with location in eastern China. The maximum impact of the predominant synoptic pattern on surface ozone can reach ± 8 µg m-3 or ± 16 % of the daily mean over some regions.
Roger J. Francey, Jorgen S. Frederiksen, L. Paul Steele, and Ray L. Langenfelds
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14741–14754,Short summary
25-year composites of interhemispheric baseline CO2 differences demonstrate close agreement between 4 monitoring networks. Variability from monthly to multiyear time frames mostly reflects variability in upper troposphere dynamical indices chosen to represent eddy and mean transport interhemispheric exchange. Monthly interhemispheric atmospheric fluxes are much larger than air–surface terrestrial exchanges. The composite differences offer unusual constraints on transport in global carbon models.
Jingda Liu, Lili Wang, Mingge Li, Zhiheng Liao, Yang Sun, Tao Song, Wenkang Gao, Yonghong Wang, Yan Li, Dongsheng Ji, Bo Hu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yuesi Wang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14477–14492,Short summary
We analyzed the surface ozone variation characteristics and quantified the impact of synoptic and local meteorological factors on northern China during the warm season based on multi-city, in situ ozone and meteorological data, as well as meteorological reanalysis. The results of quantitative exploration on synoptic and local meteorological factors influencing both interannual and day-to-day ozone variations will provide the scientific basis for evaluating emission reduction measures.
Armin Sigmund, Korbinian Freier, Till Rehm, Ludwig Ries, Christian Schunk, Anette Menzel, and Christoph K. Thomas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12477–12494,Short summary
Air masses at the Schneefernerhaus mountain site at Zugspitze Mountain, Germany, were classified with respect to the atmospheric layer from which they originated and their degree of pollution. Measurements of several gases, particulate matter, and standard meteorological quantities indicated that polluted air was lifted to the site in 31 % of cases and clean air descended to the site in approximately 14 % cases while most of the remaining cases were ambiguous.
Yahui Bian, Zhijiong Huang, Jiamin Ou, Zhuangmin Zhong, Yuanqian Xu, Zhiwei Zhang, Xiao Xiao, Xiao Ye, Yuqi Wu, Xiaohong Yin, Cheng Li, Liangfu Chen, Min Shao, and Junyu Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11701–11719,Short summary
During 2006–2015, emissions of SO2, NOx, PM2.5 and PM10 saw an obvious downtrend. However, most emissions still have large reduction potential. On-road mobile sources and solvent use are the two key sources that should receive more effective control measures in GD. Also, controls measures on VOC and NH3 should be weighted since they still increased in 2006–2015. Since most control measures focused on PRD rather than non-PRD in GD, emissions in non-PRD were increasingly important.
Chunjie Wang, Zhangwei Wang, Fan Hui, and Xiaoshan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10111–10127,Short summary
A low GEM level indicated that the SCS suffered less anthropogenic influence. There was no significant difference in GEM and HgP2.5 values between day and night, but the RGM level was higher in daytime than in nighttime. The size distribution of HgP in PM10 was observed to be bi-modal, but the coarse modal was the dominant size. The annual emission flux of Hg0 from the SCS was estimated to be 159 ton yr-1. The dry deposition was an important pathway for the input of atmospheric Hg to the SCS.
Stuart N. Riddick, Denise L. Mauzerall, Michael Celia, Neil R. P. Harris, Grant Allen, Joseph Pitt, John Staunton-Sykes, Grant L. Forster, Mary Kang, David Lowry, Euan G. Nisbet, and Alistair J. Manning
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9787–9796,Short summary
Currently, bottom-up methods estimate that 0.13 % of methane produced by UK North Sea oil and gas installations is lost. Here we measure emissions from eight platforms in the North Sea and, when considered collectively, the methane loss is estimated at 0.19 % of gas production. As this ambient loss is not explicitly accounted for in the bottom-up approach, these measured emissions represent significant additional emissions above previous estimates.
Joseph R. Pitt, Grant Allen, Stéphane J.-B. Bauguitte, Martin W. Gallagher, James D. Lee, Will Drysdale, Beth Nelson, Alistair J. Manning, and Paul I. Palmer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8931–8945,Short summary
This paper presents a new method to assess inventory estimates of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions for large cities and their surrounding regions. A case study using data sampled by a research aircraft around London was used to test the method. We found that the UK national inventory agrees with our observations for CO but needed lower emissions for CH4 to agree with the measured data. Repeated studies could help determine how these emissions vary on different timescales.
Jordi Massagué, Cristina Carnerero, Miguel Escudero, José María Baldasano, Andrés Alastuey, and Xavier Querol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7445–7465,
Carole Helfter, Neil Mullinger, Massimo Vieno, Simon O'Doherty, Michel Ramonet, Paul I. Palmer, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3043–3063,Short summary
We present a novel approach to estimate the annual budgets of carbon dioxide (881.0 ± 128.5 Tg) and methane (2.55 ± 0.48 Tg) of the British Isles from shipborne measurements taken over a 3-year period (2015–2017). This study brings independent verification of the emission budgets estimated using alternative products and investigates the seasonality of these emissions, which is usually not possible.
Stefan Kaufmann, Christiane Voigt, Romy Heller, Tina Jurkat-Witschas, Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Martin Zöger, Andreas Giez, Bernhard Buchholz, Volker Ebert, Troy Thornberry, and Ulrich Schumann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16729–16745,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of the airborne water vapor measurements during the ML-CIRRUS mission. Although the agreement of the hygrometers significantly improved compared to studies from recent decades, systematic differences remain under specific meteorological conditions. We compare the measurements to model data, where we observe a model wet bias in the lower stratosphere close to the tropopause, likely caused by a blurred humidity gradient in the model tropopause.
Jack G. Porter, Warren De Bruyn, and Eric S. Saltzman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15291–15305,Short summary
Deposition to the sea surface is a major loss pathway for highly soluble atmospheric trace gases. These fluxes are important to biogeochemical cycles, climate, and air quality. Here we report measurements of air–sea fluxes of sulfur dioxide, sensible heat, and momentum to coastal waters. Transfer velocities derived from the data show a dependence on molecular diffusivity, demonstrating the importance of diffusion in the interfacial layer on the atmospheric side of the air–sea interface.
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Bendat, J. S. and Piersol, A. G.: Random Data; Analysis and Measurement Procedures, 4th Edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2010.
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Ship emissions play an important role in the deposition of gaseous compounds and nanoparticles (Ntot), affecting climate, human health (especially in coastal areas), and eutrophication. Micrometeorological methods showed that ship emissions were mainly responsible for the deposition of Ntot, whereas they only accounted for a minor proportion of CO2 deposition. An uncertainty analysis applied to the fluxes and fuel sulfur content results demonstrated the reliability of the results.
Ship emissions play an important role in the deposition of gaseous compounds and nanoparticles...