Articles | Volume 19, issue 24
Research article
16 Dec 2019
Research article |  | 16 Dec 2019

Lateral facet growth of ice and snow – Part 1: Observations and applications to secondary habits

Jon Nelson and Brian D. Swanson

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Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)
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Cited articles

Asakawa, H., Sazaki, G., Yokoyama, E., Nagashima, K., Nakatsubo, S., and Furukawa, Y.: Roles of Surface/Volume Diffusion in the Growth Kinetics of Elementary Spiral Steps on Ice Basal Faces Grown from Water Vapor, Cryst. Growth Des., 14, 3210–3220, 2014. a, b, c
Avramov, I.: Kinetics of growth of nanowhiskers (nanowires and nanotubes), Nanoscale Res Lett., 2, 235–239, 2007. a
Bacon, N. J., Baker, M. B., and Swanson, B. D.: Initial stages in the morphological evolution of vapor grown ice crystals: A laboratory investigation, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 129, 1903–1927, 2003. a, b
Bailey, M. and Hallett, J.: Growth rates and habits of ice crystals between −20 and −70 C, J. Atmos. Sci., 61, 514–544, 2004. a
Baker, B., Baker, M. B., Jayaratne, E. R., Latham, J., and Saunders, C. P. R.: The influence of diffusional growth rates on the charge transfer accompanying rebounding collisions between ice crystals and soft hailstones, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 113, 1193–1215, 1987. a
Short summary
Ice crystals in clouds have a wide variety. But many crystal forms are inexplicable using the common approach of modeling the growth rates normal to the crystal faces. Instead of using only this normal-growth approach, we suggest including lateral facet growth processes. Using such lateral processes, backed up by new experiments, we give explanations for some of these puzzling forms. The forms include the center droxtal in stellar crystals, scrolls, capped columns, sheath bundles, and trigonals.
Final-revised paper