Articles | Volume 16, issue 8
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season
TERRA, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, 5030, Belgium
TERRA, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, 5030, Belgium
Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Uccle, 1180, Belgium
Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Uccle, 1180, Belgium
AGRO-BIO-CHEM, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, 5030, Belgium
TERRA, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, 5030, Belgium
TERRA, Gembloux Agro-Bio-Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux, 5030, Belgium
No articles found.
Alkuin M. Koenig, Olivier Magand, Bert Verreyken, Jerome Brioude, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Aurélie Colomb, Beatriz Ferreira Araujo, Michel Ramonet, Mahesh K. Sha, Jean-Pierre Cammas, Jeroen E. Sonke, and Aurélien Dommergue
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1309–1328,Short summary
The global distribution of mercury, a potent neurotoxin, depends on atmospheric transport, chemistry, and interactions between the Earth’s surface and the air. Our understanding of these processes is still hampered by insufficient observations. Here, we present new data from a mountain observatory in the Southern Hemisphere. We give insights into mercury concentrations in air masses coming from aloft, and we show that tropical mountain vegetation may be a daytime source of mercury to the air.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Jean-François Müller, Jérôme Brioude, Nicolas Kumps, Christian Hermans, Jean-Marc Metzger, Aurélie Colomb, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12965–12988,Short summary
We present a 2-year dataset of trace gas concentrations, specifically an array of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), recorded at the Maïdo observatory, a remote tropical high-altitude site located on a small island in the southwest Indian Ocean. We found that island-scale transport is an important driver for the daily cycle of VOC concentrations. During the day, surface emissions from the island affect the atmospheric composition at Maïdo greatly, while at night this impact is strongly reduced.
Bert Verreyken, Crist Amelynck, Jérôme Brioude, Jean-François Müller, Niels Schoon, Nicolas Kumps, Aurélie Colomb, Jean-Marc Metzger, Christopher F. Lee, Theodore K. Koenig, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14821–14845,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) plumes arriving at the Maïdo observatory located in the south-west Indian Ocean during August 2018 and August 2019 are studied using trace gas measurements, Lagrangian transport models and the CAMS near-real-time atmospheric composition service. We investigate (i) secondary production of volatile organic compounds during transport, (ii) efficacy of the CAMS model to reproduce the chemical makeup of BB plumes and (iii) the impact of BB on the remote marine boundary layer.
Chris R. Flechard, Andreas Ibrom, Ute M. Skiba, Wim de Vries, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Nancy B. Dise, Janne F. J. Korhonen, Nina Buchmann, Arnaud Legout, David Simpson, Maria J. Sanz, Marc Aubinet, Denis Loustau, Leonardo Montagnani, Johan Neirynck, Ivan A. Janssens, Mari Pihlatie, Ralf Kiese, Jan Siemens, André-Jean Francez, Jürgen Augustin, Andrej Varlagin, Janusz Olejnik, Radosław Juszczak, Mika Aurela, Daniel Berveiller, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Ulrich Dämmgen, Nicolas Delpierre, Vesna Djuricic, Julia Drewer, Eric Dufrêne, Werner Eugster, Yannick Fauvel, David Fowler, Arnoud Frumau, André Granier, Patrick Gross, Yannick Hamon, Carole Helfter, Arjan Hensen, László Horváth, Barbara Kitzler, Bart Kruijt, Werner L. Kutsch, Raquel Lobo-do-Vale, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Michal V. Marek, Giorgio Matteucci, Marta Mitosinkova, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Jean-Marc Ourcival, Kim Pilegaard, Gabriel Pita, Francisco Sanz, Jan K. Schjoerring, Maria-Teresa Sebastià, Y. Sim Tang, Hilde Uggerud, Marek Urbaniak, Netty van Dijk, Timo Vesala, Sonja Vidic, Caroline Vincke, Tamás Weidinger, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Eiko Nemitz, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1583–1620,Short summary
Experimental evidence from a network of 40 monitoring sites in Europe suggests that atmospheric nitrogen deposition to forests and other semi-natural vegetation impacts the carbon sequestration rates in ecosystems, as well as the net greenhouse gas balance including other greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Excess nitrogen deposition in polluted areas also leads to other environmental impacts such as nitrogen leaching to groundwater and other pollutant gaseous emissions.
Chris R. Flechard, Marcel van Oijen, David R. Cameron, Wim de Vries, Andreas Ibrom, Nina Buchmann, Nancy B. Dise, Ivan A. Janssens, Johan Neirynck, Leonardo Montagnani, Andrej Varlagin, Denis Loustau, Arnaud Legout, Klaudia Ziemblińska, Marc Aubinet, Mika Aurela, Bogdan H. Chojnicki, Julia Drewer, Werner Eugster, André-Jean Francez, Radosław Juszczak, Barbara Kitzler, Werner L. Kutsch, Annalea Lohila, Bernard Longdoz, Giorgio Matteucci, Virginie Moreaux, Albrecht Neftel, Janusz Olejnik, Maria J. Sanz, Jan Siemens, Timo Vesala, Caroline Vincke, Eiko Nemitz, Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Klaus Butterbach-Bahl, Ute M. Skiba, and Mark A. Sutton
Biogeosciences, 17, 1621–1654,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere to unfertilized terrestrial vegetation such as forests can increase carbon dioxide uptake and favour carbon sequestration by ecosystems. However the data from observational networks are difficult to interpret in terms of a carbon-to-nitrogen response, because there are a number of other confounding factors, such as climate, soil physical properties and fertility, and forest age. We propose a model-based method to untangle the different influences.
Maite Bauwens, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Jean-François Müller, Bert Van Schaeybroeck, Lesley De Cruz, Rozemien De Troch, Olivier Giot, Rafiq Hamdi, Piet Termonia, Quentin Laffineur, Crist Amelynck, Niels Schoon, Bernard Heinesch, Thomas Holst, Almut Arneth, Reinhart Ceulemans, Arturo Sanchez-Lorenzo, and Alex Guenther
Biogeosciences, 15, 3673–3690,Short summary
Biogenic isoprene fluxes are simulated over Europe with the MEGAN–MOHYCAN model for the recent past and end-of-century climate at high spatiotemporal resolution (0.1°, 3 min). Due to climate change, fluxes increased by 40 % over 1979–2014. Climate scenarios for 2070–2099 suggest an increase by 83 % due to climate, and an even stronger increase when the potential impact of CO2 fertilization is considered (up to 141 %). Accounting for CO2 inhibition cancels out a large part of these increases.
Yiying Chen, James Ryder, Vladislav Bastrikov, Matthew J. McGrath, Kim Naudts, Juliane Otto, Catherine Ottlé, Philippe Peylin, Jan Polcher, Aude Valade, Andrew Black, Jan A. Elbers, Eddy Moors, Thomas Foken, Eva van Gorsel, Vanessa Haverd, Bernard Heinesch, Frank Tiedemann, Alexander Knohl, Samuli Launiainen, Denis Loustau, Jérôme Ogée, Timo Vessala, and Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 2951–2972,Short summary
In this study, we compiled a set of within-canopy and above-canopy measurements of energy and water fluxes, and used these data to parametrize and validate the new multi-layer energy budget scheme for a range of forest types. An adequate parametrization approach has been presented for the global-scale land surface model (ORCHIDEE-CAN). Furthermore, model performance of the new multi-layer parametrization was compared against the existing single-layer scheme.
Marc Aubinet, Lilian Joly, Denis Loustau, Anne De Ligne, Henri Chopin, Julien Cousin, Nicolas Chauvin, Thomas Decarpenterie, and Patrick Gross
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 1361–1367,Short summary
Laboratory and field experiments were carried out in order to define suitable configuration ranges for the gas sampling systems of infrared gas analyzers used in eddy covariance measurements. They show that filters may have a strong impact on the pressure drop in the GSS but no significant impact on cut-off frequency. Conversely, the rain cup design was found to be the main limiting factor of cut-off frequency in the field. Its impact on pressure drop was also found to be noteworthy.
X. Wu, N. Vuichard, P. Ciais, N. Viovy, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, X. Wang, V. Magliulo, M. Wattenbach, L. Vitale, P. Di Tommasi, E. J. Moors, W. Jans, J. Elbers, E. Ceschia, T. Tallec, C. Bernhofer, T. Grünwald, C. Moureaux, T. Manise, A. Ligne, P. Cellier, B. Loubet, E. Larmanou, and D. Ripoche
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 857–873,Short summary
The response of crops to changing climate and atmospheric CO2 could have large effects on food production, terrestrial carbon, water, energy fluxes and the climate feedbacks. We developed a new process-oriented terrestrial biogeochemical model named ORCHIDEE-CROP (v0), which integrates a generic crop phenology and harvest module into the land surface model ORCHIDEE. Our model has good ability to capture the spatial gradients of crop phenology, carbon and energy-related variables across Europe.
L. Wingate, J. Ogée, E. Cremonese, G. Filippa, T. Mizunuma, M. Migliavacca, C. Moisy, M. Wilkinson, C. Moureaux, G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, L. Hörtnagl, C. Gimeno, A. Porcar-Castell, M. Galvagno, T. Nakaji, J. Morison, O. Kolle, A. Knohl, W. Kutsch, P. Kolari, E. Nikinmaa, A. Ibrom, B. Gielen, W. Eugster, M. Balzarolo, D. Papale, K. Klumpp, B. Köstner, T. Grünwald, R. Joffre, J.-M. Ourcival, M. Hellstrom, A. Lindroth, C. George, B. Longdoz, B. Genty, J. Levula, B. Heinesch, M. Sprintsin, D. Yakir, T. Manise, D. Guyon, H. Ahrends, A. Plaza-Aguilar, J. H. Guan, and J. Grace
Biogeosciences, 12, 5995–6015,Short summary
The timing of plant development stages and their response to climate and management were investigated using a network of digital cameras installed across different European ecosystems. Using the relative red, green and blue content of images we showed that the green signal could be used to estimate the length of the growing season in broadleaf forests. We also developed a model that predicted the seasonal variations of camera RGB signals and how they relate to leaf pigment content and area well.
G. Wohlfahrt, C. Amelynck, C. Ammann, A. Arneth, I. Bamberger, A. H. Goldstein, L. Gu, A. Guenther, A. Hansel, B. Heinesch, T. Holst, L. Hörtnagl, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, A. Neftel, K. McKinney, J. W. Munger, S. G. Pallardy, G. W. Schade, R. Seco, and N. Schoon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7413–7427,Short summary
Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates. Here we present micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight sites in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial methanol exchange.
N. Unger, K. Harper, Y. Zheng, N. Y. Kiang, I. Aleinov, A. Arneth, G. Schurgers, C. Amelynck, A. Goldstein, A. Guenther, B. Heinesch, C. N. Hewitt, T. Karl, Q. Laffineur, B. Langford, K. A. McKinney, P. Misztal, M. Potosnak, J. Rinne, S. Pressley, N. Schoon, and D. Serça
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10243–10269,
Related subject area
Subject: Biosphere Interactions | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Residence times of air in a mature forest: observational evidence from a free-air CO2 enrichment experimentEnergy and mass exchange at an urban site in mountainous terrain – the Alpine city of InnsbruckDynamics of aerosol, humidity, and clouds in air masses travelling over Fennoscandian boreal forestsObservations of aerosol–vapor pressure deficit–evaporative fraction coupling over IndiaBiogeochemical and biophysical responses to episodes of wildfire smoke from natural ecosystems in southwestern British Columbia, CanadaTraces of urban forest in temperature and CO2 signals in monsoon East AsiaTechnical note: Uncertainties in eddy covariance CO2 fluxes in a semiarid sagebrush ecosystem caused by gap-filling approachesSimulating the spatiotemporal variations in aboveground biomass in Inner Mongolian grasslands under environmental changesConcentrations and biosphere–atmosphere fluxes of inorganic trace gases and associated ionic aerosol counterparts over the Amazon rainforestCharacterization of the radiative impact of aerosols on CO2 and energy fluxes in the Amazon deforestation arch using artificial neural networksNew particle formation events observed at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic Peninsula – Part 2: Link with the oceanic biological activitiesVertical observations of the atmospheric boundary layer structure over Beijing urban area during air pollution episodesCharacterisation of short-term extreme methane fluxes related to non-turbulent mixing above an Arctic permafrost ecosystemCharacterization of ozone deposition to a mixed oak–hornbeam forest – flux measurements at five levels above and inside the canopy and their interactions with nitric oxideDirect effect of aerosols on solar radiation and gross primary production in boreal and hemiboreal forestsThe monsoon effect on energy and carbon exchange processes over a highland lake in the southwest of ChinaTurbulent transport of energy across a forest and a semiarid shrublandStudy of the daily and seasonal atmospheric CH4 mixing ratio variability in a rural Spanish region using 222Rn tracerNighttime wind and scalar variability within and above an Amazonian canopyEstimating regional-scale methane flux and budgets using CARVE aircraft measurements over AlaskaCanopy uptake dominates nighttime carbonyl sulfide fluxes in a boreal forestNet ecosystem exchange and energy fluxes measured with the eddy covariance technique in a western Siberian bogBiophysical effects on the interannual variation in carbon dioxide exchange of an alpine meadow on the Tibetan PlateauQuantifying the contribution of land use change to surface temperature in the lower reaches of the Yangtze RiverOverview of mercury dry deposition, litterfall, and throughfall studiesScalar turbulent behavior in the roughness sublayer of an Amazonian forestSurface–atmosphere exchange of ammonia over peatland using QCL-based eddy-covariance measurements and inferential modelingCharacterization of total ecosystem-scale biogenic VOC exchange at a Mediterranean oak–hornbeam forestStep changes in persistent organic pollutants over the Arctic and their implicationsEstimating surface fluxes using eddy covariance and numerical ogive optimizationNitrous oxide emissions from a commercial cornfield (Zea mays) measured using the eddy covariance techniqueObservations of the scale-dependent turbulence and evaluation of the flux–gradient relationship for sensible heat for a closed Douglas-fir canopy in very weak wind conditionsThe effect of atmospheric aerosol particles and clouds on net ecosystem exchange in the AmazonAcetaldehyde exchange above a managed temperate mountain grasslandSurface response to rain events throughout the West African monsoonThe role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhoodAir-surface exchange measurements of gaseous elemental mercury over naturally enriched and background terrestrial landscapes in AustraliaFour-year (2006–2009) eddy covariance measurements of CO2 flux over an urban area in BeijingMomentum and scalar transport within a vegetation canopy following atmospheric stability and seasonal canopy changes: the CHATS experimentCoupling processes and exchange of energy and reactive and non-reactive trace gases at a forest site – results of the EGER experimentAbiotic and biotic control of methanol exchanges in a temperate mixed forestAnalysis of coherent structures and atmosphere-canopy coupling strength during the CABINEX field campaignMethane flux, vertical gradient and mixing ratio measurements in a tropical forestThe effects of clouds and aerosols on net ecosystem CO2 exchange over semi-arid Loess Plateau of Northwest ChinaSize-dependent aerosol deposition velocities during BEARPEX'07Day-time concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds in a boreal forest canopy and their relation to environmental and biological factors
Edward J. Bannister, Mike Jesson, Nicholas J. Harper, Kris M. Hart, Giulio Curioni, Xiaoming Cai, and A. Rob MacKenzie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2145–2165,Short summary
In forests, the residence time of air influences canopy chemistry and atmospheric exchange. However, there have been few field observations. We use long-term open-air CO2 enrichment measurements to show median daytime residence times are twice as long when the trees are in leaf versus when they are not. Residence times increase with increasing atmospheric stability and scale inversely with turbulence. Robust parametrisations for large-scale models are available using common distributions.
Helen Claire Ward, Mathias Walter Rotach, Alexander Gohm, Martin Graus, Thomas Karl, Maren Haid, Lukas Umek, and Thomas Muschinski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6559–6593,Short summary
This study examines how cities and their surroundings influence turbulent exchange processes responsible for weather and climate. Analysis of a 4-year observational dataset for the Alpine city of Innsbruck reveals several similarities with other (flat) city centre sites. However, the mountain setting leads to characteristic daily and seasonal flow patterns (valley winds) and downslope windstorms that have a marked effect on temperature, wind speed, turbulence and pollutant concentration.
Meri Räty, Larisa Sogacheva, Helmi-Marja Keskinen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuomo Nieminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Ekaterina Ezhova, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We utilised back-trajectories to identify the source region of air masses arriving in Hyytiälä, Finland, and their travel time over forests. Combined with atmospheric observations, they revealed how air mass transport over the Fennoscandian boreal forest during the growing season produced an accumulation of cloud condensation nuclei and humidity, promoting cloudiness and precipitation. By 60 hours of transport, air masses appeared to reach a balanced state with the forest environment.
Chandan Sarangi, TC Chakraborty, Sachchidanand Tripathi, Mithun Krishnan, Ross Morrison, Jonathan Evans, and Lina M. Mercado
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3615–3629,Short summary
Transpiration fluxes by vegetation are reduced under heat stress to conserve water. However, in situ observations over northern India show that the strength of the inverse association between transpiration and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit is weakening in the presence of heavy aerosol loading. This finding not only implicates the significant role of aerosols in modifying the evaporative fraction (EF) but also warrants an in-depth analysis of the aerosol–plant–temperature–EF continuum.
Sung-Ching Lee, Sara H. Knox, Ian McKendry, and T. Andrew Black
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2333–2349,Short summary
Wildfire smoke alters land–atmosphere exchange. Here, measurements in a forest and a wetland during four smoke episodes over four summers showed that impacts on radiation and heat budget were the greatest when smoke arrived in late summer. Both sites sequestered more CO2 under smoky days, partly due to diffuse light, but emitted CO2 when smoke was dense. This kind of field study is important for validating predictions of smoke–productivity feedbacks and has climate change implications.
Keunmin Lee, Je-Woo Hong, Jeongwon Kim, Sungsoo Jo, and Jinkyu Hong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17833–17853,Short summary
This study examine two benefits of urban forest, thermal mitigation and carbon uptake. Our analysis indicates that the urban forest reduces both the warming trend and urban heat island intensity. Urban forest is a net CO2 source despite larger photosynthetic carbon uptake because of strong contribution of ecosystem respiration, which can be attributed to the substantial amount of soil organic carbon by intensive historical soil use and warm temperature in a city.
Jingyu Yao, Zhongming Gao, Jianping Huang, Heping Liu, and Guoyin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15589–15603,Short summary
Gap-filling usually accounts for a large source of uncertainties in the annual CO2 fluxes, though gap-filling CO2 fluxes is challenging at dryland sites due to small fluxes. Using data collected from a semiarid site, four machine learning methods are evaluated with different lengths of artificial gaps. The artificial neural network and random forest methods outperform the other methods. With these methods, uncertainties in the annual CO2 flux at this site are estimated to be within 16 g C m−2.
Guocheng Wang, Zhongkui Luo, Yao Huang, Wenjuan Sun, Yurong Wei, Liujun Xiao, Xi Deng, Jinhuan Zhu, Tingting Li, and Wen Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3059–3071,Short summary
We simulate the spatiotemporal dynamics of aboveground biomass (AGB) in Inner Mongolian grasslands using a machine-learning-based approach. Under climate change, on average, compared with the historical AGB (average of 1981–2019), the AGB at the end of this century (average of 2080–2100) would decrease by 14 % under RCP4.5 and 28 % under RCP8.5. The decrease in AGB might be mitigated or even reversed by positive carbon dioxide enrichment effects on plant growth.
Robbie Ramsay, Chiara F. Di Marco, Matthias Sörgel, Mathew R. Heal, Samara Carbone, Paulo Artaxo, Alessandro C. de Araùjo, Marta Sá, Christopher Pöhlker, Jost Lavric, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Eiko Nemitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15551–15584,Short summary
The Amazon rainforest is a unique
laboratoryto study the processes which govern the exchange of gases and aerosols to and from the atmosphere. This study investigated these processes by measuring the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases and particles at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. We found that the long-range transport of pollutants can affect the atmospheric composition above the Amazon rainforest and that the gases ammonia and nitrous acid can be emitted from the rainforest.
Renato Kerches Braghiere, Marcia Akemi Yamasoe, Nilton Manuel Évora do Rosário, Humberto Ribeiro da Rocha, José de Souza Nogueira, and Alessandro Carioca de Araújo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3439–3458,Short summary
We evaluate how the interaction of smoke with sun light impacts the exchange of energy and mass between vegetation and the atmosphere using a machine learning technique. We found an effect of the smoke on CO2, energy, and water fluxes, linking the effects of smoke with temperature, humidity, and winds. CO2 exchange increased by up to 55 % in the presence of smoke. A decrease of 12 % was observed for a site with simpler vegetation. Energy fluxes were negatively impacted for all study sites.
Eunho Jang, Ki-Tae Park, Young Jun Yoon, Tae-Wook Kim, Sang-Bum Hong, Silvia Becagli, Rita Traversi, Jaeseok Kim, and Yeontae Gim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7595–7608,Short summary
We reported long-term observations (from 2009 to 2016) of the nanoparticles measured at the Antarctic Peninsula (62.2° S, 58.8° W), and satellite-derived estimates of the biological characteristics were analyzed to identify the link between new particle formation and marine biota. The key finding from this research is that the formation of nanoparticles was strongly associated not only with the biomass of phytoplankton but, more importantly, also its taxonomic composition in the Antarctic Ocean.
Linlin Wang, Junkai Liu, Zhiqiu Gao, Yubin Li, Meng Huang, Sihui Fan, Xiaoye Zhang, Yuanjian Yang, Shiguang Miao, Han Zou, Yele Sun, Yong Chen, and Ting Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6949–6967,Short summary
Urban boundary layer (UBL) affects the physical and chemical processes of the pollutants, and UBL structure can also be altered by pollutants. This paper presents the interactions between air pollution and the UBL structure by using the field data mainly collected from a 325 m meteorology tower, as well as from a Doppler wind lidar, during a severe heavy pollution event that occurred during 1–4 December 2016 in Beijing.
Carsten Schaller, Fanny Kittler, Thomas Foken, and Mathias Göckede
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4041–4059,Short summary
Methane emissions from biogenic sources, e.g. Arctic permafrost ecosystems, are associated with uncertainties due to the high variability of fluxes in both space and time. Besides the traditional eddy covariance method, we evaluated a method based on wavelet analysis, which does not require a stationary time series, to calculate fluxes. The occurrence of extreme methane flux events was strongly correlated with the soil temperature. They were triggered by atmospheric non-turbulent mixing.
Angelo Finco, Mhairi Coyle, Eiko Nemitz, Riccardo Marzuoli, Maria Chiesa, Benjamin Loubet, Silvano Fares, Eugenio Diaz-Pines, Rainer Gasche, and Giacomo Gerosa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17945–17961,Short summary
A 1-month field campaign of ozone (O3) flux measurements along a five-level vertical profile of a mature broadleaf forest highlighted that the biosphere–atmosphere exchange of this pollutant is modulated by complex diel dynamics occurring within and below the canopy. The canopy removed nearly 80 % of the O3 deposited to the forest; only a minor part was removed by the soil and the understorey (2 %), while the remaining 18.2 % was removed by chemical reactions with NO mostly emitted from soil.
Ekaterina Ezhova, Ilona Ylivinkka, Joel Kuusk, Kaupo Komsaare, Marko Vana, Alisa Krasnova, Steffen Noe, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Sung-Bin Park, Jošt Valentin Lavrič, Martin Heimann, Tuukka Petäjä, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Jaana Bäck, Üllar Rannik, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17863–17881,Short summary
Understanding the connections between aerosols, solar radiation and photosynthesis in terrestrial ecosystems is important for estimates of the CO2 balance in the atmosphere. Atmospheric aerosols and clouds influence solar radiation. In this study, we quantify the aerosol effect on solar radiation in boreal forests and study forest ecosystems response to this change in the radiation conditions. The analysis is based on atmospheric observations from several remote stations in Eurasian forests.
Qun Du, Huizhi Liu, Lujun Xu, Yang Liu, and Lei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15087–15104,Short summary
Erhai Lake is a subtropical highland shallow lake on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, which is influenced by both South Asian and East Asian summer monsoons. The substantial difference in atmospheric properties during monsoon and non-monsoon periods has a large effect in regulating turbulent heat and carbon dioxide exchange processes over Erhai Lake. Large difference are found for the factors controlling sensible heat and carbon dioxide flux during monsoon and non-monsoon periods.
Tirtha Banerjee, Peter Brugger, Frederik De Roo, Konstantin Kröniger, Dan Yakir, Eyal Rotenberg, and Matthias Mauder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10025–10038,Short summary
We studied the nature of turbulent transport over a well-defined surface heterogeneity (approximate scale 7 km) comprising a shrubland and a forest in the Yatir semiarid area in Israel. Using eddy covariance and Doppler lidar measurements, we studied the variations in the turbulent kinetic energy budget and turbulent fluxes, focusing especially on transport terms. We also confirmed the role of large-scale secondary circulations that transport energy between the shrubland and the forest.
Claudia Grossi, Felix R. Vogel, Roger Curcoll, Alba Àgueda, Arturo Vargas, Xavier Rodó, and Josep-Anton Morguí
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5847–5860,Short summary
To gain a full picture of the Spanish (and European) GHG balance, understanding of CH4 emissions in different regions is a critical challenge, as is the improvement of bottom-up inventories for all European regions. This study uses, among other elements, GHG, meteorological and 222Rn tracer data from a Spanish region to understand the main causes of temporal variability of GHG mixing ratios. The study can offer new insights into regional emissions by identifying the impacts of changing sources.
Pablo E. S. Oliveira, Otávio C. Acevedo, Matthias Sörgel, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Stefan Wolff, Alessandro C. Araújo, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, Marta O. Sá, Antônio O. Manzi, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3083–3099,Short summary
Carbon dioxide and latent heat fluxes within the canopy are dominated by low-frequency (nonturbulent) processes. There is a striking contrast between fully turbulent and intermittent nights, such that turbulent processes dominate the total nighttime exchange during the former, while nonturbulent processes are more relevant in the latter. In very stable nights, during which intermittent exchange prevails, the stable boundary layer may be shallower than the highest observational level at 80 m.
Sean Hartery, Róisín Commane, Jakob Lindaas, Colm Sweeney, John Henderson, Marikate Mountain, Nicholas Steiner, Kyle McDonald, Steven J. Dinardo, Charles E. Miller, Steven C. Wofsy, and Rachel Y.-W. Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 185–202,Short summary
Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas but its emissions from northern regions are still poorly constrained. This study uses aircraft measurements of methane from Alaska to estimate surface emissions. We found that methane emission rates depend on the soil temperature at depths where its production was taking place, and that total emissions were similar between tundra and boreal regions. These results provide a simple way to predict methane emissions in this region.
Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Kadmiel Maseyk, Ulli Seibt, Wu Sun, Timo Vesala, Ivan Mammarella, Pasi Kolari, Juho Aalto, Alessandro Franchin, Roberta Vecchi, Gianluigi Valli, and Huilin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11453–11465,Short summary
Carbon cycle studies rely on the accuracy of models to estimate the amount of CO2 being taken up by vegetation. The gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) can serve as a tool to estimate the vegetative CO2 uptake by scaling the ecosystem uptake of COS to that of CO2. Here we investigate the nighttime fluxes of COS. The relationships found in this study will aid in implementing nighttime COS uptake in models, which is key to obtain accurate estimates of vegetative CO2 uptake with the use of COS.
Pavel Alekseychik, Ivan Mammarella, Dmitry Karpov, Sigrid Dengel, Irina Terentieva, Alexander Sabrekov, Mikhail Glagolev, and Elena Lapshina
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9333–9345,Short summary
West Siberian peatlands occupy a large fraction of land area in the region, and yet little is known about their interaction with the atmosphere. We took the first measurements of CO2 and energy surface balances over a typical bog of West Siberian middle taiga, in the vicinity of the Mukhrino field station (Khanty–Mansiysk). The May–August study in a wet year (2015) revealed a relatively large photosynthetic sink of CO2 that was close to the high end of estimates at bog sites elsewhere.
Lei Wang, Huizhi Liu, Jihua Sun, and Yaping Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5119–5129,Short summary
This study found that the seasonal variation in CO2 exchange over an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau was primarily affected by the seasonal pattern of air temperature, especially in spring and autumn. The annual net ecosystem exchange decreased with mean annual temperature, and then increased when the gross primary production became saturated. This study contributes to the response of the alpine meadow ecosystem to global warming.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4989–4996,Short summary
Land use or cover change is a fundamental anthropogenic forcing for climate change. Based on field observations, we quantified the contributions of different factors to surface temperature change and deepened the understanding of its mechanisms. We found evaporative cooling plays the most important role in the temperature change, while radiative forcing, which is traditionally emphasized, is not significant. This study provided firsthand evidence to verify the model results in IPCC AR5.
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The current knowledge concerning mercury dry deposition is reviewed, including dry deposition algorithms used in chemical transport models and at monitoring sites, measurement methods and studies for quantifying dry deposition of oxidized mercury, and measurement studies of litterfall and throughfall mercury. Over all the regions, dry deposition, estimated as the sum of litterfall and throughfall minus open-field wet deposition, is more dominant than wet deposition for Hg deposition.
Einara Zahn, Nelson L. Dias, Alessandro Araújo, Leonardo D. A. Sá, Matthias Sörgel, Ivonne Trebs, Stefan Wolff, and Antônio Manzi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11349–11366,Short summary
Preliminary data from the ATTO project were analyzed to characterize the exchange of heat, water vapor, and CO2 between the Amazon forest and the atmosphere. The forest roughness makes estimation of their fluxes difficult, and even measurements at 42 m above the canopy show a lot of scatter. Still, measurements made around noon showed much better conformity with standard theories for the exchange of these quantities, opening the possibility of good flux estimates when the sun is high.
Undine Zöll, Christian Brümmer, Frederik Schrader, Christof Ammann, Andreas Ibrom, Christophe R. Flechard, David D. Nelson, Mark Zahniser, and Werner L. Kutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11283–11299,Short summary
Accurate quantification of atmospheric ammonia concentration and exchange fluxes with the land surface has been a major metrological challenge. We demonstrate the applicability of a novel laser device to identify concentration and flux patterns over a peatland ecosystem influenced by nearby agricultural practices. Results help to strengthen air quality monitoring networks, lead to better understanding of ecosystem functionality and improve parameterizations in air chemistry and transport models.
Simon Schallhart, Pekka Rantala, Eiko Nemitz, Ditte Taipale, Ralf Tillmann, Thomas F. Mentel, Benjamin Loubet, Giacomo Gerosa, Angelo Finco, Janne Rinne, and Taina M. Ruuskanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 7171–7194,Short summary
We present ecosystem exchange fluxes from a mixed oak–hornbeam forest in the Po Valley, Italy. Detectable fluxes were observed for 29 compounds, dominated by isoprene, which comprised over 60 % of the upward flux. Methanol seemed to be deposited to dew, as the deposition happened in the early morning. We estimated that up to 30 % of the upward flux of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein originated from atmospheric oxidation of isoprene.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3479–3495,Short summary
After several decades of declining persistent organic pollutants in the arctic environment due to their global use restriction, some of these toxic chemicals increased in the mid-2000s and undertook statistically significant step changes which coincided with arctic sea ice melting. Results provide statistical evidence for the releasing of toxic chemicals from their reservoirs in the Arctic due to the rapid change in the arctic environment.
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An EC system was assembled with a sonic anemometer and a new fast-response N2O analyzer and applied in a cornfield during a growing season. This N2O EC system provided reliable N2O flux measurements. The average flux was about 63% higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. Seasonal fluxes were highly dependent on soil moisture rather than soil temperature.
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This research focuses on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) exchanges between a maize field and the atmosphere. Indeed, few BVOC studies have already investigated agricultural ecosystems. We found that the maize field emitted mainly methanol, that both soil and plants contributed to the net exchange, that exchanges were lower than in other studies and than considered by models. Our work tends thus to lower the impact of maize on terrestrial BVOC exchanges.
This research focuses on Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) exchanges between a maize...