Articles | Volume 16, issue 3
15 Feb 2016
Research article | 15 Feb 2016
Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong
C. Sun et al.
No articles found.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud/fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings would be useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA-predictive models.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3017–3044,Short summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. This paper comprehensively reviews the applications of such a technique in studying atmospheric particles, especially for their physicochemical processing.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Ting Wang, Jing Duan, Jie Guo, Haiyan Ni, Yang Chen, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Ulrike Dusek, Colin O'Dowd, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3685–3697,Short summary
We characterized the seasonal variations in nitrated aromatic compounds (NACs) in composition, sources, and their light absorption contribution to brown carbon (BrC) aerosol in Xi'an, Northwest China. Our results show that secondary formation and vehicular emission were dominant sources in summer (~80 %), and biomass burning and coal combustion were major sources in winter (~75 %), and they indicate that the composition and sources of NACs have a profound impact on the light absorption of BrC
Yee Ka Wong, X. H. Hilda Huang, Peter K. K. Louie, Alfred L. C. Yu, Damgy H. L. Chan, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9871–9882,Short summary
We present an approach to track separate contributions to PM2.5 by gasoline and diesel vehicles through a positive matrix factorization analysis of online monitoring data measurable by relatively inexpensive analytical instruments. They are PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, C2–C9 volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide concentrations. The method was demonstrated to be effective by applying monitoring data spanning 6 years (2011–2017) from a roadside environment in Hong Kong.
Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Keren Liao, Yaowei Li, Yong Jie Li, Ru-Jin Huang, Weiwei Hu, Ying Liu, Tong Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2457–2472,Short summary
This paper provides important information to help researchers to understand the mass quantification and source apportionment by Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometers.
Wei Yuan, Ru-Jin Huang, Lu Yang, Jie Guo, Ziyi Chen, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Haiyan Ni, Yongming Han, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yang Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5129–5144,Short summary
We characterized light-absorbing properties, chromophore composition and sources of brown carbon (BrC) in Xi'an; identified three groups of light-absorbing organics; and quantified their contribution to overall BrC absorption. Our results showed that vehicle emissions and secondary formation are major sources of BrC in spring, coal combustion and vehicle emissions are major sources in fall, biomass burning and coal combustion become major sources in winter, and secondary BrC dominates in summer.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Yang Chen, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Meng Wang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Chunying Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3793–3807,Short summary
We characterized secondary aerosol formation in Beijing. Our results showed that relative humidity (RH) and Ox have opposite effects on sulfate and nitrate formation in summer and winter. The wintertime more-oxidized OOA (MO-OOA) showed a good correlation with aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Meanwhile, the dependence of less-oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and the mass ratio of LO-OOA to MO-OOA in Ox both degraded when RH > 60 %, suggesting that RH or ALWC may also affect LO-OOA formation.
Liyuan Zhou, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mattias Hallquist, Christian M. Salvador, Samuel M. Gaita, Åke Sjödin, Martin Jerksjö, Håkan Salberg, Ingvar Wängberg, Johan Mellqvist, Qianyun Liu, Berto P. Lee, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1701–1722,Short summary
The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Carly L. Reddington, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Ben J. Silver, Yong J. Li, Chak K. Chan, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11887–11910,Short summary
We use a high-resolution model over South and East Asia to explore air quality and human health benefits of eliminating emissions from six man-made pollution sources. We find that preventing emissions from either residential energy use, industry, or open biomass burning yields the largest reductions in ground-level particulate matter pollution and its associated disease burden over this region. We also summarize previous estimates of the source-specific disease burden in China and India.
Zhujie Li, Haobo Tan, Jun Zheng, Li Liu, Yiming Qin, Nan Wang, Fei Li, Yongjie Li, Mingfu Cai, Yan Ma, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11669–11685,Short summary
Comprehensive field measurements were conducted to investigate aerosol compositions, optical properties, source origins, and radiative forcing effects in Guangzhou. Particulate brown carbon (BrC) light absorption was differentiated from that of black carbon. BrC was mostly due to primary emissions, such as straw burning, rather than secondary formation. BrC may cause ∼2.3 W m−2 radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and contribute to ∼15.8 % of the aerosol warming effect.
Meng Wang, Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Wenting Dai, Jiamao Zhou, Chunshui Lin, Haiyan Ni, Jing Duan, Ting Wang, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Imad El Haddad, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4779–4789,Short summary
The analytical performances of SE-GC-MS and TD-GC-MS for the determination of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes were evaluated and compared. The two methods show a good agreement with a high correlation efficient (R2 > 0.98) and a slope close to unity. The concentrations of n-alkanes, PAHs and hopanes are found to be much higher in Beijing than those in Chengdu, Shanghai and Guangzhou, most likely due to emissions from coal combustion for wintertime heating in Beijing.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wenting Dai, Meng Wang, Yifang Gu, Ying Wang, Haobin Zhong, Yan Zheng, Haiyan Ni, Uli Dusek, Yang Chen, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Douglas R. Worsnop, Colin D. O'Dowd, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10319–10334,Short summary
We present the seasonal distinction of secondary aerosol formation in urban Beijing. Both photochemical oxidation and aqueous-phase processing played important roles in SOA (secondary organic aerosol) formation during all three seasons; while for sulfate formation, gas-phase photochemical oxidation was the major pathway in late summer, aqueous-phase reactions were more responsible during early winter, and both processes had contributions during autumn.
Xinning Wang, Yin Shen, Yanfen Lin, Jun Pan, Yan Zhang, Peter K. K. Louie, Mei Li, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6315–6330,Short summary
Shipping emissions were measured online at Shanghai Port, and their impacts on local air quality at the port and in the surrounding area were quantitatively assessed. Ship emission plumes were readily detectable before they dissipated. We captured ship emission plumes using synchronized peaks of SO2 and vanadium particles. By measuring the pollutant concentrations during plumes and their occurrence frequency, we made quantitative estimations of ship emission impacts on port air quality.
Ru-Jin Huang, Yichen Wang, Junji Cao, Chunshui Lin, Jing Duan, Qi Chen, Yongjie Li, Yifang Gu, Jin Yan, Wei Xu, Roman Fröhlich, Francesco Canonaco, Carlo Bozzetti, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Manjula R. Canagaratna, John Jayne, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El-Haddad, André S. H. Prévôt, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2283–2298,Short summary
We found that in wintertime Shijiazhuang fine PM was mostly from primary emissions without sufficient atmospheric aging. In addition, secondary inorganic and organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under high-RH conditions, likely due to enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry, whereas primary organic aerosol dominated in pollution events under low-RH and stagnant conditions. Our results also highlighted the importance of meteorological conditions for PM pollution in this highly polluted city.
Mingjin Tang, Wenjun Gu, Qingxin Ma, Yong Jie Li, Cheng Zhong, Sheng Li, Xin Yin, Ru-Jin Huang, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2247–2258,
Liya Guo, Wenjun Gu, Chao Peng, Weigang Wang, Yong Jie Li, Taomou Zong, Yujing Tang, Zhijun Wu, Qinhao Lin, Maofa Ge, Guohua Zhang, Min Hu, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2115–2133,Short summary
In this work, hygroscopic properties of eight Ca- and Mg-containing salts were systematically investigated using two complementary techniques. The results largely improve our knowledge of the physicochemical properties of mineral dust and sea salt aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Haobo Tan, Chak K. Chan, Yiming Qin, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16419–16437,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play a critical role in cloud formation which affects solar radiation and climate. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition and used them to predict CCN activity. Our results found that the CCN activity was largely dependent on the hygroscopicity parameter and the surface tension of the particles. Our study highlights the need for evaluating the effects of organics in order to accurately predict CCN activity.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Zhu Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, Cheng Wu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16409–16418,Short summary
We developed the relationship between the chemical and optical characteristics of BrC in Guangzhou, China. We determined wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients of organic aerosol with different sources. The BrC absorption coefficient was associated with N-containing ion fragments and depended on their degrees of unsaturation/cyclization and oxygenation.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Yangxi Chu, Erin Evoy, Saeid Kamal, Young Chul Song, Jonathan P. Reid, Chak K. Chan, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4809–4822,Short summary
The viscosity of erythritol, a tetrol found in aerosol particles, is highly uncertain. To help resolve this uncertainty, we measured the viscosities of erythritol–water particles using rectangular-area fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and aerosol optical tweezers techniques. These results should help improve the understanding of the viscosity of secondary organic aerosol particles. In addition, we present an intercomparison of techniques for measuring the viscosity of particles.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Chunlei Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Chak K. Chan, Yangxi Chu, Mei Li, Tao Zhang, Yubo Ou, Duohong Chen, Peng Cheng, Lei Li, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Bo Huang, Zhong Fu, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9147–9159,Short summary
Particulate amines play an important role for the particle acidity and hygroscopicity. We found amines were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate at a rural site in the PRD, China, suggesting the formation of aminium sulfate and nitrate salts. The ammonium-poor state of amine particles in summer was associated with the low emission sources of ammonia and a possible contribution of ammonium–amine exchange reactions. Amines could be a buffer for the particle acidity of ammonium-poor particles.
Ru-Jin Huang, Junji Cao, Yang Chen, Lu Yang, Jincan Shen, Qihua You, Kai Wang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Bo Gao, Yongjie Li, Qi Chen, Thorsten Hoffmann, Colin D. O'Dowd, Merete Bilde, and Marianne Glasius
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 3447–3456,
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Berto Paul Lee, Peter Kwok Keung Louie, Connie Luk, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15121–15135,Short summary
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Masao Gen and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14025–14037,Short summary
We propose electrospray-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (ES-SERS) for measuring the surface chemical compositions of atmospherically relevant particles. The observations of surface aqueous sulfate and adsorbed water demonstrate a possible role of the water in facilitating the dissolution of sulfate from the bulk phase into its water layers. ES-SERS of submicron ambient aerosol particles collected in Hong Kong indicated an enrichment of sulfate and organic matter on the particle surface.
Berto Paul Lee, Hao Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13605–13624,Short summary
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
Wenjun Gu, Yongjie Li, Jianxi Zhu, Xiaohong Jia, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Xiang Ding, Wei Song, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 3821–3832,Short summary
In this work we describe a method to directly quantify water adsorption and mass hygroscopic growth of atmospheric particles as a function of RH at different temperature, using a commercial vapor sorption analyzer. We have demonstrated that this commercial instrument provides a simple, sensitive, and robust method to determine water adsorption and hygroscopicity of atmospheric particles.
Mingjin Tang, Xin Huang, Keding Lu, Maofa Ge, Yongjie Li, Peng Cheng, Tong Zhu, Aijun Ding, Yuanhang Zhang, Sasho Gligorovski, Wei Song, Xiang Ding, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11727–11777,Short summary
We provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is also assessed. In addition, we have outlined major open questions and challenges in this field and discussed research strategies to address them.
Yu Wang, Hao Wang, Hai Guo, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng, Zhenhao Ling, Peter K. K. Louie, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10919–10935,Short summary
Though the Hong Kong government has made great efforts toward a reduction in emissions, ambient O3 levels have presented an increasing trend in the past decade. Data analysis and model simulations indicated that the locally produced O3 in Hong Kong varied by seasons, while regional transport from the PRD region made a substantial contribution to ambient O3 in Hong Kong and even increased in autumn. This long-term study has important implications for other Chinese cities to reduce O3 pollution.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Chak K. Chan, Haijie Tong, Changhong Chen, Duohong Chen, Dui Wu, Lei Li, Cheng Wu, Peng Cheng, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Xue Li, Zhijuan Zhang, Zhong Fu, Yanru Bi, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9519–9533,Short summary
Oxalic acid is an abundant and ubiquitous constituent in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can be an effective tracer for the oxidative processes leading to the formation of SOA. In this work photochemical reactions have a significant contribution to oxalic acid formation in summer, while in winter the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.
James W. Grayson, Erin Evoy, Mijung Song, Yangxi Chu, Adrian Maclean, Allena Nguyen, Mary Alice Upshur, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Chak K. Chan, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8509–8524,Short summary
The viscosities of four polyols and three saccharides mixed with water were determined. The results from the polyol studies suggest viscosity increases by 1–2 orders of magnitude with the addition of an OH functional group to a carbon backbone. The results from the saccharide studies suggest that the viscosity of highly oxidized compounds is strongly dependent on molar mass and oligomerization of highly oxidized compounds in atmospheric SOM could lead to large increases in viscosity.
Tengyu Liu, Zijun Li, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7333–7344,Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. In these experiments, SOA was lightly oxidized.
Meike Sauerwein and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6323–6339,Short summary
Heterogeneous uptake is one of the mechanisms influencing the amounts of alkylamines and ammonia in atmospheric particles. The present study investigates the simultaneous uptake of dimethylamine and ammonia at different gas molar ratios into sulfuric and oxalic acid particles at low and high relative humidity. Results showed that the particulate dimethylaminium/ammonium molar ratios changed substantially during the uptake process, depending on the extent of neutralisation and phase state.
Long Cui, Zhou Zhang, Yu Huang, Shun Cheng Lee, Donald Ray Blake, Kin Fai Ho, Bei Wang, Yuan Gao, Xin Ming Wang, and Peter Kwok Keung Louie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5763–5779,Short summary
In this manuscript, the effect of ambient RH and T on HCHO measurements by PTR-MS was investigated, and the Poly 2-D regression was found to be a good nonlinear surface simulation of R (RH, T) for correcting measured HCHO concentration. Intercomparisons between PTR-MS and other OVOC and VOC measuring techniques were conducted through a field study in urban roadside areas of Hong Kong primarily, and good agreements were found between these different techniques.
Yi Ming Qin, Yong Jie Li, Hao Wang, Berto Paul Yok Long Lee, Dan Dan Huang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14131–14145,Short summary
The source, formation, transformation mechanisms and mixing state of particulate matter (PM) in high episodic events under different meteorological conditions in Hong Kong remain unclear. With high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric measurement, we successfully demonstrated the dynamic and complex nature of PM transformation during high-PM episodes. This study revealed that not only regional transport but also local secondary formation is the culprit for high PM levels.
Likun Xue, Rongrong Gu, Tao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Sandra Saunders, Donald Blake, Peter K. K. Louie, Connie W. Y. Luk, Isobel Simpson, Zheng Xu, Zhe Wang, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9891–9903,Short summary
The chemical budgets and principal sources of ROx and NO3 radicals during a multi-day photochemical smog episode in Hong Kong are elucidated by an observation-constrained MCM model. NO3 was shown to be an important oxidant even during daytime in a pollution case when high aerosol loading attenuated the solar irradiation. This study suggests the potential important role of daytime NO3 chemistry in polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs, and aerosols.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, Peter K. K. Louie, Zhenhao Ling, Yu Wang, Ming Liu, Connie W. Y. Luk, Nan Wang, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6609–6626,Short summary
In this study, the effectiveness of a LPG converter replacement program was evaluated. It was found that LPG-related VOCs and NOx decreased significantly due to the implementation of the program. Source apportionment also revealed the reduction of VOCs and NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. From before to during the program, O3 increased slightly, mainly due to the reduction of NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. To retain zero O3 increment, the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs / NOx was determined.
Y. J. Li, B. P. Lee, L. Su, J. C. H. Fung, and C.K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 37–53,Short summary
(1) NR-PM1 at the HKUST Supersite was highly aged, with a high sulfate content and highly oxygenated organics. (2) Seasonal variation in NR-PM1 concentration was not obvious, but the relative fractions of different species showed strong seasonal dependence. (3) Both NR-PM1 concentrations and the relative fractions showed a strong dependence on air mass origin. (4) Both locally produced and regionally transported organic aerosols contribute to the organic content of PM at this site.
J. W. Meng, M. C. Yeung, Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10267–10282,
X. H. H. Huang, Q. J. Bian, P. K. K. Louie, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9279–9293,
Y. J. Li, D. D. Huang, H. Y. Cheung, A. K. Y. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2871–2885,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
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chemical characterisation of aerosols in low-income urban settlements in South AfricaMeasurement report: Large contribution of biomass burning and aqueous-phase processes to the wintertime secondary organic aerosol formation in Xi'an, Northwest ChinaPM10 variation, composition, and source analysis in Tuscany (Italy) following the COVID-19 lockdown restrictionsEmissions of organic compounds from western US wildfires and their near-fire transformationsA comprehensive study about the in-cloud processing of nitrate through coupled measurements of individual cloud residuals and cloud waterIron (Fe) speciation in size-fractionated aerosol particles in the Pacific Ocean: The role of organic complexation of Fe with humic-like substances in controlling Fe solubilityMeasurement report: On the contribution of long-distance transport to the secondary aerosol formation and agingFactors controlling atmospheric DMS and its oxidation products (MSA and nssSO42−) in the aerosol at Terra Nova Bay, AntarcticaParticle phase-state variability in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summertime is determined by atmospheric transport patterns and sourcesPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the atmosphere over the Mediterranean and Middle East seasNine-year trends of PM10 sources and oxidative potential in a rural background site in FranceDramatic changes in atmospheric pollution source contributions for a coastal megacity in northern China from 2011 to 2020Understanding aerosol composition in a tropical inter-Andean valley impacted by agro-industrial and urban emissionsExamination of Brown Carbon Absorption from Wildfires in the Western U.S. During the WE-CAN StudyMeasurement report: The importance of biomass burning in light extinction and direct radiative effect of urban aerosol during the COVID-19 lockdown in Xi'an, ChinaChemical properties, sources and size-resolved hygroscopicity of submicron black-carbon-containing aerosols in urban ShanghaiMeasurement report: Effects of anthropogenic emissions and environmental factors on the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) in a coastal city of southeastern ChinaHighly time-resolved chemical speciation and source apportionment of organic aerosol components in Delhi, India, using extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometryThe chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles and the implications on light absorption enhancementEvidence of haze-driven secondary production of supermicrometer aerosol nitrate and sulfate in size distribution data in South KoreaSpatial variability of air pollutants in a megacity characterized by mobile measurementsLinking Switzerland's PM10 and PM2.5 oxidative potential (OP) with emission sourcesReversible and irreversible gas–particle partitioning of dicarbonyl compounds observed in the real atmosphereMolecular characteristics, sources, and formation pathways of organosulfur compounds in ambient aerosol in Guangzhou, South ChinaEvolution of source attributed organic aerosols and gases in a megacity of central ChinaMeasurement report: Hygroscopic growth of ambient fine particles measured at five sites in ChinaMeasurement report: Optical properties and sources of water-soluble brown carbon in Tianjin, North China – insights from organic molecular compositionsMeasurement report: characterization and sources of the ambient secondary organic carbon in a Chinese megacity over five years from 2016 to 2020Trends in secondary inorganic aerosol pollution in China and its responses to emission controls of precursors in wintertimeMeasurement report: Source apportionment of carbonaceous aerosol using dual-carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) and levoglucosan in three northern Chinese cities during 2018–2019Source Apportionment and Evolution of N-containing Aerosols at a Rural Cloud Forest in Taiwan by Isotope AnalysisChemically speciated mass size distribution, particle density, shape and origin of non-refractory PM1 measured at a rural background site in central EuropeOffline analysis of the chemical composition and hygroscopicity of submicrometer aerosol at an Asian outflow receptor site and comparison with online measurementsHigh number concentrations of transparent exopolymer particles in ambient aerosol particles and cloud water – a case study at the tropical Atlantic OceanMicro-spectroscopic and freezing characterization of ice-nucleating particles collected in the marine boundary layer in the eastern North AtlanticOxidation pathways and emission sources of atmospheric particulate nitrate in Seoul: based on δ15N and Δ17O measurementsMeasurement report: Characterization and source apportionment of coarse particulate matter in Hong Kong: insights into the constituents of unidentified mass and source origins in a coastal city in southern ChinaThe optical properties and in-situ observational evidence for the formation of brown carbon in cloudsHigh atmospheric oxidation capacity drives wintertime nitrate pollution in the eastern Yangtze River Delta of ChinaDevelopment and evolution of an anomalous Asian dust event across Europe in March 2020Contributions of primary sources to submicron organic aerosols in Delhi, IndiaWhat caused a record high PM10 episode in northern Europe in October 2020?Sensitivity of low-level clouds and precipitation to anthropogenic aerosol emission in southern West Africa: a DACCIWA case study
Chao Yan, Yicheng Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lubna Dada, Ximeng Qi, Simo Hakala, Anu-Maija Sundström, Yishuo Guo, Antti Lipponen, Tom V. Kokkonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Runlong Cai, Jing Cai, Tommy Chan, Liangduo Chen, Biwu Chu, Chenjuan Deng, Wei Du, Xiaolong Fan, Xu-Cheng He, Juha Kangasluoma, Joni Kujansuu, Mona Kurppa, Chang Li, Yiran Li, Zhuohui Lin, Yiliang Liu, Yuliang Liu, Yiqun Lu, Wei Nie, Jouni Pulliainen, Xiaohui Qiao, Yonghong Wang, Yifan Wen, Ye Wu, Gan Yang, Lei Yao, Rujing Yin, Gen Zhang, Shaojun Zhang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Antti Arola, Johanna Tamminen, Pauli Paasonen, Yele Sun, Lin Wang, Neil M. Donahue, Yongchun Liu, Federico Bianchi, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Douglas R. Worsnop, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Aijun Ding, Jingkun Jiang, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12207–12220,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is a dominant source of atmospheric ultrafine particles. In urban environments, traffic emissions are a major source of primary pollutants, but their contribution to NPF remains under debate. During the COVID-19 lockdown, traffic emissions were significantly reduced, providing a unique chance to examine their relevance to NPF. Based on our comprehensive measurements, we demonstrate that traffic emissions alone are not able to explain the NPF in Beijing.
Sini Isokääntä, Paul Kim, Santtu Mikkonen, Thomas Kühn, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Liine Heikkinen, Krista Luoma, Tuukka Petäjä, Zak Kipling, Daniel Partridge, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11823–11843,Short summary
This research employs air mass history analysis and observations to study how clouds and precipitation affect atmospheric aerosols during transport to a boreal forest site. The mass concentrations of studied chemical species showed exponential decrease as a function of accumulated rain along the air mass route. Our analysis revealed in-cloud sulfate formation, while no major changes in organic mass were seen. Most of the in-cloud-formed sulfate could be assigned to particle sizes above 200 nm.
Huikun Liu, Qiyuan Wang, Suixin Liu, Bianhong Zhou, Yao Qu, Jie Tian, Ting Zhang, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11739–11757,Short summary
Atmospheric motions play an important role in the mass concentration and the direct radiative effect (DRE) of black carbon (BC). The finding from this study elaborated the impacts of different scales of atmospheric motion on source-specific BC and its DREs, which revealed the nonlinear change between BC mass concentration and its DREs and emphasizes the importance of regionally transported BC for potential climatic effects.
Wing Sze Chow, Kezheng Liao, X. H. Hilda Huang, Ka Fung Leung, Alexis K. H. Lau, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11557–11577,Short summary
Long-term monitoring data of PM2.5 chemical composition provide essential information for evaluation and planning of control measures. Here we present a 10-year (2008–2017) time series of PM2.5, its major components, and select source markers in an urban site in Hong Kong. The dataset verified the success of local vehicular emission control measures as well as reduction of sulfate and regional sources such as industrial and coal combustion and crop residue burning emissions over the decade.
Hwanmi Lim, Sanna Silvergren, Silvia Spinicci, Farshid Mashayekhy Rad, Ulrika Nilsson, Roger Westerholm, and Christer Johansson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11359–11379,Short summary
Air pollutants from wood burning become more important as other regulated emissions are being reduced, e.g. combustion of diesel. We analysed particles in residential areas and found that local wood burning was the most important source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Specific tracers were used to separate wood combustion from other contributions. Calculations of population exposure showed that the mix of PAHs may cause 13 cancer cases per 0.1 million inhabitants.
Qiongqiong Wang, Shan Wang, Yuk Ying Cheng, Hanzhe Chen, Zijing Zhang, Jinjian Li, Dasa Gu, Zhe Wang, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11239–11253,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is often enhanced during fine-particulate-matter (PM2.5) episodes. We examined bi-hourly measurements of SOA molecular tracers in suburban Hong Kong during 11 city-wide PM2.5 episodes. The tracers showed regional characteristics for both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA as well as biomass-burning-derived SOA. Multiple tracers of the same precursor revealed the dominance of low-NOx formation pathways for isoprene SOA and less-aged monoterpene SOA during winter.
Zhiqiang Zhang, Yele Sun, Chun Chen, Bo You, Aodong Du, Weiqi Xu, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Lu Lei, Wei Zhou, Jiaxing Sun, Yanmei Qiu, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10409–10423,Short summary
We present a comprehensive characterization of water-soluble organic aerosol and the first mass spectral characterization of water-insoluble organic aerosol in the cold season in Beijing by integrating online and offline aerosol mass spectrometer measurements. WSOA comprised dominantly secondary OA and showed large changes during the transition season from autumn to winter. WIOA was characterized by prominent hydrocarbon ions series, low oxidation states, and significant day–night differences.
Constance K. Segakweng, Pieter G. van Zyl, Cathy Liousse, Johan P. Beukes, Jan-Stefan Swartz, Eric Gardrat, Maria Dias-Alves, Brigitte Language, Roelof P. Burger, and Stuart J. Piketh
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10291–10317,Short summary
A detailed size-resolved assessment of the chemical characteristics of outdoor and indoor aerosols collected in low-income urban settlements in South Africa indicated the significance of household combustion for cooking and space heating – an important source of pollutants in the developing world – to atmospheric chemical composition. The regional impact of industrial sources in the highly industrialised and densely populated north-eastern interior of South Africa was also evident.
Jing Duan, Ru-Jin Huang, Yifang Gu, Chunshui Lin, Haobin Zhong, Wei Xu, Quan Liu, Yan You, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, Thorsten Hoffmann, and Colin O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10139–10153,Short summary
Biomass-burning-influenced oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA-BB), formed from the photochemical oxidation and aging of biomass burning OA (BBOA), was resolved in urban Xi’an. The aqueous-phase processed oxygenated OA (aq-OOA) concentration was more dependent on secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) content and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). The increased aq-OOA contribution during SIA-enhanced periods likely reflects OA evolution due to the addition of alcohol or peroxide groups
Fabio Giardi, Silvia Nava, Giulia Calzolai, Giulia Pazzi, Massimo Chiari, Andrea Faggi, Bianca Patrizia Andreini, Chiara Collaveri, Elena Franchi, Guido Nincheri, Alessandra Amore, Silvia Becagli, Mirko Severi, Rita Traversi, and Franco Lucarelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9987–10005,Short summary
The restriction measures adopted to contain the COVID-19 virus offered a unique opportunity to study urban particulate emissions in the near absence of traffic, which is one of the main emission sources in the urban environment. However, the drastic decrease in this source of particulate matter during the months of national lockdown did not lead to an equal decrease in the total particulate load. This is due to the inverse behavior shown by different sources, especially secondary sources.
Yutong Liang, Christos Stamatis, Edward C. Fortner, Rebecca A. Wernis, Paul Van Rooy, Francesca Majluf, Tara I. Yacovitch, Conner Daube, Scott C. Herndon, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Kelley C. Barsanti, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9877–9893,Short summary
This article reports the measurements of organic compounds emitted from western US wildfires. We identified and quantified 240 particle-phase compounds and 72 gas-phase compounds emitted in wildfire and related the emissions to the modified combustion efficiency. Higher emissions of diterpenoids and monoterpenes were observed, likely due to distillation from unburned heated vegetation. Our results can benefit future source apportionment and modeling studies as well as exposure assessments.
Guohua Zhang, Xiaodong Hu, Wei Sun, Yuxiang Yang, Ziyong Guo, Yuzhen Fu, Haichao Wang, Shengzhen Zhou, Lei Li, Mingjin Tang, Zongbo Shi, Duohong Chen, Xinhui Bi, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9571–9582,Short summary
We show a significant enhancement of nitrate mass fraction in cloud water and relative intensity of nitrate in the cloud residual particles and highlight that hydrolysis of N2O5 serves as the critical route for the in-cloud formation of nitrate, even during the daytime. Given that N2O5 hydrolysis acts as a major sink of NOx in the atmosphere, further model updates may improve our understanding about the processes contributing to nitrate production in cloud and the cycling of odd nitrogen.
Kohei Sakata, Minako Kurisu, Yasuo Takeichi, Aya Sakaguchi, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yusuke Tamenori, Atsushi Matsuki, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9461–9482,Short summary
Iron (Fe) species in size-fractionated aerosol particles collected in the western Pacific Ocean were determined to identify factors controlling fractional Fe solubility. We found that labile Fe was mainly present in submicron aerosol particles, and the Fe species were ferric organic complexes combined with humic-like substances (Fe(III)-HULIS). The Fe(III)-HULIS was formed by atmospheric processes. Thus, atmospheric processes play a significant role in controlling Fe solubility.
Haobin Zhong, Ru-Jin Huang, Chunshui Lin, Wei Xu, Jing Duan, Yifang Gu, Wei Huang, Haiyan Ni, Chongshu Zhu, Yan You, Yunfei Wu, Renjian Zhang, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Darius Ceburnis, and Colin D. O'Dowd
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9513–9524,Short summary
To investigate the physico-chemical properties of aerosol transported from major pollution regions in China, observations were conducted ~200 m above the ground at the junction location of the two key pollution areas. We found that the formation efficiency, oxidation state and production rate of secondary aerosol were different in the transport sectors from different pollution regions, and they were largely enhanced by the regional long-distance transport.
Silvia Becagli, Elena Barbaro, Simone Bonamano, Laura Caiazzo, Alcide di Sarra, Matteo Feltracco, Paolo Grigioni, Jost Heintzenberg, Luigi Lazzara, Michel Legrand, Alice Madonia, Marco Marcelli, Chiara Melillo, Daniela Meloni, Caterina Nuccio, Giandomenico Pace, Ki-Tae Park, Suzanne Preunkert, Mirko Severi, Marco Vecchiato, Roberta Zangrando, and Rita Traversi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9245–9263,Short summary
Measurements of phytoplanktonic dimethylsulfide and its oxidation products in the Antarctic atmosphere allow us to understand the role of the oceanic (sea ice melting, Chl α and dimethylsulfoniopropionate) and atmospheric (wind direction and speed, humidity, solar radiation and transport processes) factors in the biogenic aerosol formation, concentration and characteristic ratio between components in an Antarctic coastal site facing the polynya of the Ross Sea.
Zezhen Cheng, Megan Morgenstern, Bo Zhang, Matthew Fraund, Nurun Nahar Lata, Rhenton Brimberry, Matthew A. Marcus, Lynn Mazzoleni, Paulo Fialho, Silvia Henning, Birgit Wehner, Claudio Mazzoleni, and Swarup China
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9033–9057,Short summary
We observed a high abundance of liquid and internally mixed particles in samples collected in the North Atlantic free troposphere during summer. We also found several solid and semisolid particles for different emission sources and transport patterns. Our results suggest that considering the mixing state, emission source, and transport patterns of particles is necessary to estimate their phase state in the free troposphere, which is critical for predicting their effects on climate.
Marco Wietzoreck, Marios Kyprianou, Benjamin A. Musa Bandowe, Siddika Celik, John N. Crowley, Frank Drewnick, Philipp Eger, Nils Friedrich, Minas Iakovides, Petr Kukučka, Jan Kuta, Barbora Nežiková, Petra Pokorná, Petra Přibylová, Roman Prokeš, Roland Rohloff, Ivan Tadic, Sebastian Tauer, Jake Wilson, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, Ulrich Pöschl, Euripides G. Stephanou, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8739–8766,Short summary
A unique dataset of concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated, oxygenated and nitrated derivatives, in total 74 individual species, in the marine atmosphere is presented. Exposure to these substances poses a major health risk. We found very low concentrations over the Arabian Sea, while both local and long-range-transported pollution caused elevated levels over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arabian Gulf.
Lucille Joanna Borlaza, Samuël Weber, Anouk Marsal, Gaëlle Uzu, Véronique Jacob, Jean-Luc Besombes, Mélodie Chatain, Sébastien Conil, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8701–8723,Short summary
A 9-year dataset of the chemical and oxidative potential (OP) of PM10 was investigated at a rural background site. Extensive source apportionment led to identification of differences in source impacts between mass and OP, underlining the importance of PM redox activity when considering health effects. The influence of mixing and ageing processes was also tackled. Traffic contributions have decreased here over the years, attributed to regulations limiting vehicular emissions in bigger cities.
Baoshuang Liu, Yanyang Wang, He Meng, Qili Dai, Liuli Diao, Jianhui Wu, Laiyuan Shi, Jing Wang, Yufen Zhang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8597–8615,Short summary
Understanding effectiveness of air pollution regulatory measures is critical for control policy. Machine learning and dispersion-normalized approaches were applied to decouple meteorologically deduced variations in Qingdao, China. Most pollutant concentrations decreased substantially after the Clean Air Action Plan. The largest emission reduction was from coal combustion and steel-related smelting. Qingdao is at risk of increased emissions from increased vehicular population and ozone pollution.
Lady Mateus-Fontecha, Angela Vargas-Burbano, Rodrigo Jimenez, Nestor Y. Rojas, German Rueda-Saa, Dominik van Pinxteren, Manuela van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8473–8495,Short summary
This study reports the chemical composition of regionally representative PM2.5 in an area densely populated and substantially industrialized, located in the inter-Andean valley, with the highest sugarcane yield in the world and where sugarcane is burned and harvested year round. We found that sugarcane burning is not portrayed as a distinguishable sample composition component. Instead, the composition analysis revealed multiple associations among sugarcane burning components and other sources.
Amy P. Sullivan, Rudra P. Pokhrel, Yingjie Shen, Shane M. Murphy, Darin W. Toohey, Teresa Campos, Jakob Lindaas, Emily V. Fischer, and Jeffrey L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
During the WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) Study brown carbon (BrC) absorption was measured on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft using a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler and Photoacoustic Aerosol Absorption Spectrometer. Approximately 45 % of the BrC absorption in wildfires was observed to be due to water-soluble species. The ratio of BrC absorption to WSOC or ΔCO showed no clear dependence on fire dynamics or the time since emission over 9 h.
Jie Tian, Qiyuan Wang, Huikun Liu, Yongyong Ma, Suixin Liu, Yong Zhang, Weikang Ran, Yongming Han, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8369–8384,Short summary
We investigated aerosol optical properties and the direct radiative effect (DRE) at an urban site in China before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. The total light extinction coefficient (bext) decreased under emission control measures; however, bext from biomass burning increased due to the undiminished need for residential cooking and heating. Biomass burning, rather than traffic-related emissions, became the largest positive effect contributor to aerosol DRE in the lockdown.
Shijie Cui, Dan Dan Huang, Yangzhou Wu, Junfeng Wang, Fuzhen Shen, Jiukun Xian, Yunjiang Zhang, Hongli Wang, Cheng Huang, Hong Liao, and Xinlei Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8073–8096,Short summary
Refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols are important to air quality and climate change. rBC can mix with many other species, which can significantly change its properties and impacts. We used a specific set of techniques to exclusively characterize rBC-containing (rBCc) particles in Shanghai. We elucidated their composition, sources and size distributions and factors that affect their properties. Our findings are very valuable for advancing the understanding of BC and controlling BC pollution.
Youwei Hong, Xinbei Xu, Dan Liao, Taotao Liu, Xiaoting Ji, Ke Xu, Chunyang Liao, Ting Wang, Chunshui Lin, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7827–7841,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) simulation remains uncertain, due to the unknown SOA formation mechanisms. Aerosol samples with a 4 h time resolution were collected, along with online measurements of aerosol chemical compositions and meteorological parameters. We found that anthropogenic emissions, atmospheric oxidation capacity and halogen chemistry have significant effects on the formation of biogenic SOA (BSOA). The findings of this study are helpful to better explore the missed SOA sources.
Varun Kumar, Stamatios Giannoukos, Sophie L. Haslett, Yandong Tong, Atinderpal Singh, Amelie Bertrand, Chuan Ping Lee, Dongyu S. Wang, Deepika Bhattu, Giulia Stefenelli, Jay S. Dave, Joseph V. Puthussery, Lu Qi, Pawan Vats, Pragati Rai, Roberto Casotto, Rangu Satish, Suneeti Mishra, Veronika Pospisilova, Claudia Mohr, David M. Bell, Dilip Ganguly, Vishal Verma, Neeraj Rastogi, Urs Baltensperger, Sachchida N. Tripathi, André S. H. Prévôt, and Jay G. Slowik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7739–7761,Short summary
Here we present source apportionment results from the first field deployment in Delhi of an extractive electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (EESI-TOF). The EESI-TOF is a recently developed instrument capable of providing uniquely detailed online chemical characterization of organic aerosol (OA), in particular the secondary OA (SOA) fraction. Here, we are able to apportion not only primary OA but also SOA to specific sources, which is performed for the first time in Delhi.
Jiaxing Sun, Yele Sun, Conghui Xie, Weiqi Xu, Chun Chen, Zhe Wang, Lei Li, Xubing Du, Fugui Huang, Yan Li, Zhijie Li, Xiaole Pan, Nan Ma, Wanyun Xu, Pingqing Fu, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7619–7630,Short summary
We analyzed the chemical composition and mixing state of BC-containing particles at urban and rural sites in winter in the North China Plain and evaluated their impact on light absorption enhancement. BC was dominantly mixed with organic carbon, nitrate, and sulfate, and the mixing state evolved significantly as a function of relative humidity (RH) at both sites. The absorption enhancement depended strongly on coated secondary inorganic aerosol and was up to ~1.3–1.4 during aging processes.
Joseph S. Schlosser, Connor Stahl, Armin Sorooshian, Yen Thi-Hoang Le, Ki-Joon Jeon, Peng Xian, Carolyn E. Jordan, Katherine R. Travis, James H. Crawford, Sung Yong Gong, Hye-Jung Shin, In-Ho Song, and Jong-sang Youn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7505–7522,Short summary
During a major haze pollution episode in March 2019, anthropogenic emissions were dominant in the boundary layer over Incheon and Seoul, South Korea. Using supermicrometer and submicrometer size- and chemistry-resolved aerosol particle measurements taken during this haze pollution period, this work shows that local emissions and a shallow boundary layer, enhanced humidity, and low temperature promoted local heterogeneous formation of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol species.
Reza Bashiri Khuzestani, Keren Liao, Ying Liu, Ruqian Miao, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Tianjiao Jia, Xin Li, Shiyi Chen, Guancong Huang, and Qi Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7389–7404,Short summary
This work characterized the spatial variabilities of air pollutants in a megacity by advanced mobile measurements. The results show a large spatial heterogeneity in the distributions of PM2.5 composition and volatile organic compounds under non-haze conditions, and relatively uniform spatial distributions under haze conditions that may indicate a chemical homogeneity on an intracity scale. The findings improve our understanding of urban air pollution.
Stuart K. Grange, Gaëlle Uzu, Samuël Weber, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, and Christoph Hueglin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7029–7050,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP), a biologically relevant metric for particulate matter (PM), was linked to PM10 and PM2.5 sources and constituents across Switzerland between 2018 and 2019. Wood burning and non-exhaust traffic emissions were identified as key processes that led to enhanced OP. Therefore, the make-up of the PM mix was very important for OP. The results highlight the importance of the management of wood burning and non-exhaust emissions to reduce OP, and presumably biological harm.
Jingcheng Hu, Zhongming Chen, Xuan Qin, and Ping Dong
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6971–6987,Short summary
The gas–particle partitioning process of glyoxal and methylglyoxal could contribute to secondary organic aerosol formation. Here, we launched five observations in different seasons and simultaneously measured glyoxal and methylglyoxal in the gas and particle phases. Compared to reversible pathways, irreversible pathways played a dominant role with a proportion of more than 90 % in the ambient atmosphere, and the proportion was influenced by relative humidity and inorganic components in aerosols.
Hongxing Jiang, Jun Li, Jiao Tang, Min Cui, Shizhen Zhao, Yangzhi Mo, Chongguo Tian, Xiangyun Zhang, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Yingjun Chen, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6919–6935,Short summary
We conducted field observation employing Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry to characterize the molecular composition and major formation pathways or sources of organosulfur compounds in Guangzhou, where is heavily influenced by biogenic–anthropogenic interactions and has high relative humidity and temperature. We suggested that heterogeneous reactions such as SO2 uptake and heterogeneous oxidations are important to the molecular variations of organosulfur compounds.
Siyuan Li, Dantong Liu, Shaofei Kong, Yangzhou Wu, Kang Hu, Huang Zheng, Yi Cheng, Shurui Zheng, Xiaotong Jiang, Shuo Ding, Dawei Hu, Quan Liu, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, and Jiujiang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6937–6951,Short summary
The understanding of secondary organic aerosols is hindered by the aerosol–gas evolution by different oxidation mechanisms. By concurrently measuring detailed mass spectra of aerosol and gas phases in a megacity online, we identified the primary and secondary source sectors and investigated the transformation between gas and aerosol phases influenced by photooxidation and moisture. The results will help us to understand the respective evolution of major sources in a typical urban environment.
Lu Chen, Fang Zhang, Dongmei Zhang, Xinming Wang, Wei Song, Jieyao Liu, Jingye Ren, Sihui Jiang, Xue Li, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6773–6786,Short summary
Aerosol hygroscopicity is critical when evaluating its effect on visibility and climate. Here, the size-resolved particle hygroscopicity at five sites in China is characterized using field measurements. We show the distinct behavior of hygroscopic particles during pollution evolution among the five sites. Moreover, different hygroscopic behavior during NPF events were also observed. The dataset is helpful for understanding the spatial variability in particle composition and formation mechanisms.
Junjun Deng, Hao Ma, Xinfeng Wang, Shujun Zhong, Zhimin Zhang, Jialei Zhu, Yanbing Fan, Wei Hu, Libin Wu, Xiaodong Li, Lujie Ren, Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Xiaole Pan, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6449–6470,Short summary
Light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC) plays an important role in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Here we investigated the seasonal and diurnal variations in water-soluble BrC in PM2.5 in the megacity Tianjin in coastal China. Results of the source apportionments from the combination with organic molecular compositions and optical properties of water-soluble BrC reveal a large contribution from primary bioaerosol particles to BrC in the urban atmosphere.
Meng Wang, Yusen Duan, Wei Xu, Qiyuan Wang, Zhuozhi Zhang, Qi Yuan, Xinwei Li, Shuwen Han, Haijie Tong, Juntao Huo, Jia Chen, Shan Gao, Zhongbiao Wu, Long Cui, Yu Huang, Guangli Xiu, Junji Cao, Qingyan Fu, and Shun-cheng Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In this study, we report a long-term measurement of organic carbon (OC) and elementary carbon (EC) in PM2.5 with hourly time resolution conducted at a regional site in Shanghai from 2016 to 2020. The results from this study provide critical information about the long-term trend of carbonaceous aerosol, in particular SOC, in one of the largest megacities in the world and are helpful to develop pollution control measures from a long-term planning perspective.
Fanlei Meng, Yibo Zhang, Jiahui Kang, Mathew R. Heal, Stefan Reis, Mengru Wang, Lei Liu, Kai Wang, Shaocai Yu, Pengfei Li, Jing Wei, Yong Hou, Ying Zhang, Xuejun Liu, Zhenling Cui, Wen Xu, and Fusuo Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6291–6308,Short summary
PM2.5 pollution is a pressing environmental issue threatening human health and food security globally. We combined a meta-analysis of nationwide measurements and air quality modeling to identify efficiency gains by striking a balance between controlling NH3 and acid gas emissions. Persistent secondary inorganic aerosol pollution in China is limited by acid gas emissions, while an additional control on NH3 emissions would become more important as reductions in SO2 and NOx emissions progress.
Huiyizhe Zhao, Zhenchuan Niu, Weijian Zhou, Sen Wang, Xue Feng, Shugang Wu, Xuefeng Lu, and Hua Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6255–6274,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the characteristics and changes in the sources of carbonaceous aerosols in northern Chinese cities using dual-carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) and levoglucosan during 2018 to 2019 and compared them with the research in previous decades. The results show that the contribution of fossil sources has decreased (6–16%) significantly, and non-fossil sources have become the main part of carbonaceous aerosols, which verified the effectiveness of air quality management.
Ting-Yu Chen, Chia-Li Chen, Yi-Chi Chen, Charles C.-K. Chou, Haojia Ren, and Hui-Ming Hung
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The anthropogenic influence on aerosol composition in a downstream river-valley forest was investigated using FT-IR and isotope analysis. A higher N-containing species concentration during daytime fog events indicates that a stronger inversion leads to higher pollutant concentrations, and the fog enhances the aqueous-phase chemical processes. Moreover, the observed size-dependent oxygen isotope suggests the contribution of organic peroxyl radicals to local nitrate formation for small particles.
Petra Pokorná, Naděžda Zíková, Petr Vodička, Radek Lhotka, Saliou Mbengue, Adéla Holubová Šmejkalová, Véronique Riffault, Jakub Ondráček, Jaroslav Schwarz, and Vladimír Ždímal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5829–5858,Short summary
By examining individual episodes of high mass and number concentrations, we show that the seasonality in the physicochemical properties of aerosol particles was caused by the sources' diversity and was related to the different air masses and meteorology. We also confirmed the relation between particle size and age that is reflected in oxidation state and shape (difference in densities; effective vs. material). The results have general validity and thus transcend the study regional character.
Yange Deng, Hiroaki Fujinari, Hikari Yai, Kojiro Shimada, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Dhananjay K. Deshmukh, Kimitaka Kawamura, Tomoki Nakayama, Shiori Tatsuta, Mingfu Cai, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Haobo Tan, Sho Ohata, Yutaka Kondo, Akinori Takami, Shiro Hatakeyama, and Michihiro Mochida
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5515–5533,Short summary
Offline analyses of the hygroscopicity and composition of atmospheric aerosols are complementary to online analyses in view of the applicability to broader sizes, specific compound groups, and investigations at remote sites. This offline study characterized the composition of water-soluble matter in aerosols and their humidity-dependent hygroscopicity on Okinawa, a receptor site of East Asian outflow. Further, comparison with online analyses showed the appropriateness of the offline method.
Manuela van Pinxteren, Tiera-Brandy Robinson, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Xianda Gong, Enno Bahlmann, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Nadja Triesch, Frank Stratmann, Oliver Wurl, Anja Engel, Heike Wex, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5725–5742,Short summary
A class of marine particles (transparent exopolymer particles, TEPs) that is ubiquitously found in the world oceans was measured for the first time in ambient marine aerosol particles and marine cloud waters in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. TEPs are likely to have good properties for influencing clouds. We show that TEPs are transferred from the ocean to the marine atmosphere via sea-spray formation and our results suggest that they can also form directly in aerosol particles and in cloud water.
Daniel A. Knopf, Joseph C. Charnawskas, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Matthew Fraund, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Mary K. Gilles, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, Shira Raveh-Rubin, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5377–5398,Short summary
Marine boundary layer aerosols collected in the remote region of the eastern North Atlantic induce immersion freezing and deposition ice nucleation under typical mixed-phase and cirrus cloud conditions. Corresponding ice nucleation parameterizations for model applications have been derived. Chemical imaging of ambient aerosol and ice-nucleating particles demonstrates that the latter is dominated by sea salt and organics while also representing a major particle type in the particle population.
Saehee Lim, Meehye Lee, Joel Savarino, and Paolo Laj
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5099–5115,Short summary
We determined δ15N(NO3−) and Δ17O(NO3−) of PM2.5 in Seoul during 2018–2019 and estimated quantitatively the contribution of oxidation pathways to NO3− formation and NOx emission sources. The nighttime pathway played a significant role in NO3− formation during the winter, and its contribution further increased up to 70 % on haze days when PM2.5 was greater than 75 µg m−3. Vehicle emissions were confirmed as a main NO3− source with an increasing contribution from coal combustion in winter.
Yee Ka Wong, Kin Man Liu, Claisen Yeung, Kenneth K. M. Leung, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5017–5031,Short summary
Coarse particulate matter (PM) has been shown to cause adverse health impacts, but compared to PM2.5, the source of coarse PM is less studied through field measurements. We collected chemical composition data for coarse PM in Hong Kong for a 1-year period. Using statistical models, we found that regional transport of fugitive dust is responsible for the elevated coarse PM. This work sets an example of how field measurements can be effectively utilized for evidence-based policymaking.
Ziyong Guo, Yuxiang Yang, Xiaodong Hu, Xiaocong Peng, Yuzhen Fu, Wei Sun, Guohua Zhang, Duohong Chen, Xinhui Bi, Xinming Wang, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4827–4839,Short summary
We show that in-cloud aqueous processing facilitates the formation of brown carbon (BrC), based on the simultaneous measurements of the light-absorption properties of the cloud residuals, cloud interstitial, and cloud-free particles. While extensive laboratory evidence indicated the formation of BrC in aqueous phase, our study represents the first attempt to show the possibility in real clouds, which would have potential implications in the atmospheric evolution and radiation forcing of BrC.
Han Zang, Yue Zhao, Juntao Huo, Qianbiao Zhao, Qingyan Fu, Yusen Duan, Jingyuan Shao, Cheng Huang, Jingyu An, Likun Xue, Ziyue Li, Chenxi Li, and Huayun Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4355–4374,Short summary
Particulate nitrate plays an important role in wintertime haze pollution in eastern China, yet quantitative constraints on detailed nitrate formation mechanisms remain limited. Here we quantified the contributions of the heterogeneous N2O5 hydrolysis (66 %) and gas-phase OH + NO2 reaction (32 %) to nitrate formation in this region and identified the atmospheric oxidation capacity (i.e., availability of O3 and OH radicals) as the driving factor of nitrate formation from both processes.
Laura Tositti, Erika Brattich, Claudio Cassardo, Pietro Morozzi, Alessandro Bracci, Angela Marinoni, Silvana Di Sabatino, Federico Porcù, and Alessandro Zappi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4047–4073,Short summary
We present a thorough investigation of an anomalous transport of mineral dust over a region renowned for excess airborne particulate matter, the Italian Po Valley, which occurred in late March 2021. Both the origin of this dust outbreak, which was localized in central Asia (i.e., the so-called Aralkum Desert), and the upstream synoptic conditions, investigated here in extreme detail using multiple integrated observations including in situ measurements and remote sensing, were atypical.
Sahil Bhandari, Zainab Arub, Gazala Habib, Joshua S. Apte, and Lea Hildebrandt Ruiz
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Here we determine the sources of primary organic aerosol in Delhi, India, in two different seasons. In winter, the main sources are traffic and biomass burning; in the summer, the main sources are traffic and cooking. We obtain this result by conducting source apportionment resolved by time of day, using data from and aerosol chemical speciation monitor. Results from this work can be used to better design policies that target sources of organic aerosol.
Christine D. Groot Zwaaftink, Wenche Aas, Sabine Eckhardt, Nikolaos Evangeliou, Paul Hamer, Mona Johnsrud, Arve Kylling, Stephen M. Platt, Kerstin Stebel, Hilde Uggerud, and Karl Espen Yttri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3789–3810,Short summary
We investigate causes of a poor-air-quality episode in northern Europe in October 2020 during which EU health limits for air quality were vastly exceeded. Such episodes may trigger measures to improve air quality. Analysis based on satellite observations, transport simulations, and surface observations revealed two sources of pollution. Emissions of mineral dust in Central Asia and biomass burning in Ukraine arrived almost simultaneously in Norway, and transport continued into the Arctic.
Adrien Deroubaix, Laurent Menut, Cyrille Flamant, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Anneke Batenburg, Joel Brito, Cyrielle Denjean, Cheikh Dione, Régis Dupuy, Valerian Hahn, Norbert Kalthoff, Fabienne Lohou, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Guillaume Siour, Paolo Tuccella, and Christiane Voigt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3251–3273,Short summary
During the summer monsoon in West Africa, pollutants emitted in urbanized areas modify cloud cover and precipitation patterns. We analyze these patterns with the WRF-CHIMERE model, integrating the effects of aerosols on meteorology, based on the numerous observations provided by the Dynamics-Aerosol-Climate-Interactions campaign. This study adds evidence to recent findings that increased pollution levels in West Africa delay the breakup time of low-level clouds and reduce precipitation.
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Aiken, A. C., de Foy, B., Wiedinmyer, C., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Wehrli, M. N., Szidat, S., Prevot, A. S. H., Noda, J., Wacker, L., Volkamer, R., Fortner, E., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., Querol, X., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico city aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the non-fossil carbon fraction, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5315–5341, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5315-2010, 2010.
Allan, J. D., Williams, P. I., Morgan, W. T., Martin, C. L., Flynn, M. J., Lee, J., Nemitz, E., Phillips, G. J., Gallagher, M. W., and Coe, H.: Contributions from transport, solid fuel burning and cooking to primary organic aerosols in two UK cities, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 647–668, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-647-2010, 2010.
Bougiatioti, A., Stavroulas, I., Kostenidou, E., Zarmpas, P., Theodosi, C., Kouvarakis, G., Canonaco, F., Prévôt, A. S. H., Nenes, A., Pandis, S. N., and Mihalopoulos, N.: Processing of biomass-burning aerosol in the eastern Mediterranean during summertime, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4793–4807, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4793-2014, 2014.
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Canonaco, F., Crippa, M., Slowik, J. G., Baltensperger, U., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: SoFi, an IGOR-based interface for the efficient use of the generalized multilinear engine (ME-2) for the source apportionment: ME-2 application to aerosol mass spectrometer data, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3649–3661, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-6-3649-2013, 2013.
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Crenn, V., Sciare, J., Croteau, P. L., Verlhac, S., Fröhlich, R., Belis, C. A., Aas, W., Äijälä, M., Alastuey, A., Artiñano, B., Baisnée, D., Bonnaire, N., Bressi, M., Canagaratna, M., Canonaco, F., Carbone, C., Cavalli, F., Coz, E., Cubison, M. J., Esser-Gietl, J. K., Green, D. C., Gros, V., Heikkinen, L., Herrmann, H., Lunder, C., Minguillón, M. C., Mocnik, G., O'Dowd, C. D., Ovadnevaite, J., Petit, J.-E., Petralia, E., Poulain, L., Priestman, M., Riffault, V., Ripoll, A., Sarda-Estève, R., Slowik, J. G., Setyan, A., Wiedensohler, A., Baltensperger, U., Prévôt, A. S. H., Jayne, J. T., and Favez, O.: ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison – Part 1: Reproducibility of concentration and fragment results from 13 individual Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitors (Q-ACSM) and consistency with co-located instruments, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5063–5087, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-5063-2015, 2015.
Cubison, M. J., Ortega, A. M., Hayes, P. L., Farmer, D. K., Day, D., Lechner, M. J., Brune, W. H., Apel, E., Diskin, G. S., Fisher, J. A., Fuelberg, H. E., Hecobian, A., Knapp, D. J., Mikoviny, T., Riemer, D., Sachse, G. W., Sessions, W., Weber, R. J., Weinheimer, A. J., Wisthaler, A., and Jimenez, J. L.: Effects of aging on organic aerosol from open biomass burning smoke in aircraft and laboratory studies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 12049–12064, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-12049-2011, 2011.
DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Crounse, J., de Foy, B., Dunlea, E. J., Aiken, A. C., Knapp, D., Weinheimer, A. J., Campos, T., Wennberg, P. O., and Jimenez, J. L.: Investigation of the sources and processing of organic aerosol over the Central Mexican Plateau from aircraft measurements during MILAGRO, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5257–5280, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-5257-2010, 2010.
Fröhlich, R., Crenn, V., Setyan, A., Belis, C. A., Canonaco, F., Favez, O., Riffault, V., Slowik, J. G., Aas, W., Aijälä, M., Alastuey, A., Artiñano, B., Bonnaire, N., Bozzetti, C., Bressi, M., Carbone, C., Coz, E., Croteau, P. L., Cubison, M. J., Esser-Gietl, J. K., Green, D. C., Gros, V., Heikkinen, L., Herrmann, H., Jayne, J. T., Lunder, C. R., Minguillón, M. C., Mocnik, G., O'Dowd, C. D., Ovadnevaite, J., Petralia, E., Poulain, L., Priestman, M., Ripoll, A., Sarda-Estève, R., Wiedensohler, A., Baltensperger, U., Sciare, J., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: ACTRIS ACSM intercomparison – Part 2: Intercomparison of ME-2 organic source apportionment results from 15 individual, co-located aerosol mass spectrometers, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 2555–2576, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-8-2555-2015, 2015.
Ge, X., Setyan, A., Sun, Y., and Zhang, Q.: Primary and secondary organic aerosols in Fresno, California during wintertime: Results from high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19301, https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jd018026, 2012.
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He, L. Y., Huang, X. F., Xue, L., Hu, M., Lin, Y., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., and Zhang, Y. H.: Submicron aerosol analysis and organic source apportionment in an urban atmosphere in Pearl River Delta of China using high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D12304, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010jd014566, 2011.
Huang, D. D., Li, Y. J., Lee, B. P., and Chan, C. K.: Analysis of Organic Sulfur Compounds in Atmospheric Aerosols at the HKUST Supersite in Hong Kong Using HR-ToF-AMS, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 3672–3679, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5056269, 2015.
Huang, X.-F., He, L.-Y., Hu, M., Canagaratna, M. R., Sun, Y., Zhang, Q., Zhu, T., Xue, L., Zeng, L.-W., Liu, X.-G., Zhang, Y.-H., Jayne, J. T., Ng, N. L., and Worsnop, D. R.: Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric submicron particles during 2008 Beijing Olympic Games using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 8933–8945, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-8933-2010, 2010.
Huang, X.-F., He, L.-Y., Hu, M., Canagaratna, M. R., Kroll, J. H., Ng, N. L., Zhang, Y.-H., Lin, Y., Xue, L., Sun, T.-L., Liu, X.-G., Shao, M., Jayne, J. T., and Worsnop, D. R.: Characterization of submicron aerosols at a rural site in Pearl River Delta of China using an Aerodyne High-Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 1865–1877, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-1865-2011, 2011.
Huang, X. H. H., Bian, Q. J., Louie, P. K. K., and Yu, J. Z.: Contributions of vehicular carbonaceous aerosols to PM2.5 in a roadside environment in Hong Kong, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9279–9293, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-9279-2014, 2014.
Huang, Y., Ho, S. S. H., Ho, K. F., Lee, S. C., Yu, J. Z., and Louie, P. K. K.: Characteristics and health impacts of VOCs and carbonyls associated with residential cooking activities in Hong Kong, J. Hazard. Mater., 186, 344–351, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.11.003, 2011.
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Lee, B. P., Li, Y. J., Yu, J. Z., Louie, P. K. K., and Chan, C. K.: Physical and chemical characterization of ambient aerosol by HR-ToF-AMS at a suburban site in Hong Kong during springtime 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 8625–8639, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50658, 2013.
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Li, Y. J., Lee, B. Y. L., Yu, J. Z., Ng, N. L., and Chan, C. K.: Evaluating the degree of oxygenation of organic aerosol during foggy and hazy days in Hong Kong using high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometry (HR-ToF-AMS), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-8739-2013, 2013.
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This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The...