Articles | Volume 15, issue 10
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2015. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
OClO and BrO observations in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna – implications on the chemistry of chlorine and bromine species in volcanic plumes
Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU), Kjeller, Norway
Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, University of Oslo (UiO), Oslo, Norway
Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
Earth Observation Science, Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
Institute of Environmental Physics, Heidelberg, Germany
No articles found.
Simon Warnach, Holger Sihler, Christian Borger, Nicole Bobrowski, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 5537–5573,Short summary
BrO inside volcanic gas plumes but can be used in combination with SO2 to characterize the volcanic property and its activity state. High-quality satellite observations can provide a global inventory of this important quantity. This paper investigates how to accurately detect BrO inside volcanic plumes from the satellite UV spectrum. A sophisticated novel non-volcanic background correction scheme is presented, and systematic errors including cross-interference with formaldehyde are minimized.
Markus Knoll, Martin Penz, Hannes Juchem, Christina Schmidt, Denis Pöhler, and Alexander Bergmann
Exhaust emissions from combustion-based vehicles are negatively affecting human health and our environment. In particular, a small share (< 20 %) of poorly maintained or tampered vehicles are responsible for the majority (60–90 %) of traffic-related emissions. The emissions from vehicles are currently not properly monitored during their lifetime. We present a roadside measurement technique, called point sampling, which can be used to monitor vehicle emissions throughout their life cycle.
Thomas Wagner, Simon Warnach, Steffen Beirle, Nicole Bobrowski, Adrian Jost, Janis Puķīte, and Nicolas Theys
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1609–1662,Short summary
We investigate 3D effects of volcanic plumes on the retrieval results of satellite and ground-based UV–Vis observations. With its small ground pixels of 3.5 x 5.5 km², the TROPOMI instrument can detect much smaller volcanic plumes than previous instruments. At the same time, 3D effects become important. The effect of horizontal photon paths especially can lead to a strong underestimation of the derived plume contents of up to > 50 %, which can be further increased for strong absorbers like SO2.
Henning Finkenzeller, Denis Pöhler, Martin Horbanski, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 16, 1343–1356,Short summary
Optical resonators enhance the light path in compact instruments, thereby improving their sensitivity. Determining the established path length in the instrument is a prerequisite for the accurate determination of trace gas concentrations but can be a significant complication in the use of such resonators. Here we show two calibration techniques which are relatively simple and free of consumables but still provide accurate calibrations. This facilitates the use of optical resonators.
Udo Frieß, Karin Kreher, Richard Querel, Holger Schmithüsen, Dan Smale, Rolf Weller, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3207–3232,Short summary
Reactive bromine compounds, emitted by the sea ice during polar spring, play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of the coastal regions of Antarctica. We investigate the sources and impacts of reactive bromine in detail using many years of measurements at two Antarctic sites located at opposite sides of the Antarctic continent. Using a multitude of meteorological observations, we were able to identify the main triggers and source regions for reactive bromine in Antarctica.
Maximilian Herrmann, Moritz Schöne, Christian Borger, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13495–13526,Short summary
Ozone depletion events (ODEs) are a common occurrence in the boundary layer during Arctic spring. Ozone is depleted by bromine species in an autocatalytic reaction cycle. Previous modeling studies assumed an infinite bromine source at the ground. An alternative emission scheme is presented in which a finite amount of bromide in the snow is tracked over time. The Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to study ODEs in the Arctic from February to May 2019.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, Robert Spurr, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 2077–2098,Short summary
MAX-DOAS is a widely used measurement technique for the remote detection of atmospheric aerosol and trace gases. It relies on the analysis of ultra-violet and visible radiation spectra of skylight. To date, information contained in the skylight's polarisation state has not been utilised. On the basis of synthetic data, we carried out sensitivity analyses to assess the potential of polarimetry for MAX-DOAS applications.
Leon Kuhn, Jonas Kuhn, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 1395–1414,Short summary
We present a novel instrument for imaging measurements of NO2 with high spatiotemporal resolution based on gas correlation spectroscopy, called the GCS NO2 camera. The instrument works by placing two gas cells (cuvettes) in front of two photosensor arrays, one filled with air and one filled with a high concentration of NO2, acting as a non-dispersive spectral filter. NO2 images are then generated on the basis of the signal ratio of the two channels in the spectral region of 430–445 nm.
Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, Thomas Wagner, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 7873–7892,Short summary
We propose spectrograph implementations using Fabry–Pérot interferometers for atmospheric trace gas remote sensing. Compared with widely used grating spectrographs, we find substantial light throughput and mobility advantages for high resolving powers. Besides lowering detection limits and increasing the spatial and temporal resolution of many atmospheric trace gas measurements, this approach might enable remote sensing of further important gases such as tropospheric OH radicals.
Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Jonas Kuhn, and Thomas Leisner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6867–6883,Short summary
Absorption spectroscopy of scattered sunlight is extremely useful for the analysis of atmospheric trace gas distributions. A central parameter for the achievable sensitivity of spectroscopic instruments is the light throughput, which can be enhanced in a number of ways. We present new ideas and considerations of how instruments could be optimized. Particular emphasis is on arrays of massively parallel instruments. Such arrays can reduce the size and weight of instruments by orders of magnitude.
Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 6395–6406,Short summary
Motivated by a special interest in bromine chemistry in volcanic plumes, the study presented here describes a new method for the quantitative collection of gaseous hydrogen bromide in gas diffusion denuders. The hydrogen bromide reacted during sampling with appropriate epoxides applied to the denuder walls. The denuder sampling assembly was successfully deployed in the volcanic plume of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua.
Kai Krause, Folkard Wittrock, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Andreas Weigelt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 5791–5807,Short summary
Ships are an important source of key pollutants. Usually, these are measured aboard the ship or on the coast using in situ instruments. This study shows how active optical remote sensing can be used to measure ship emissions and how to determine emission rates of individual ships out of those measurements. These emission rates are valuable input for the assessment of the influence of shipping emissions in regions close to the shipping lanes.
Florian Dinger, Timo Kleinbek, Steffen Dörner, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, Thomas Wagner, Martha Ibarra, and Eveling Espinoza
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9367–9404,Short summary
Monitoring magnitude or chemical composition of volcanic gas emissions can help to forecast volcanic eruptions and provides empirical data on the impact of volcanoes on the chemistry in the local and global atmosphere. This study reports and discusses continuous time series of the sulfur and bromine emission fluxes of Masaya from 2014 to 2020. We observed an annual cyclicity in the BrO / SO2 molar ratio, possibly caused by the annual variability in the atmospheric humidity.
Bo Galle, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Vladimir Conde, Tobias P. Fischer, Gustav Gerdes, Alexandra Gutmann, Thorsten Hoffmann, Ima Itikarai, Tomas Krejci, Emma J. Liu, Kila Mulina, Scott Nowicki, Tom Richardson, Julian Rüdiger, Kieran Wood, and Jiazhi Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 4255–4277,Short summary
Measurements of volcanic gases are important for geophysical research, risk assessment and environmental impact studies. Some gases, like SO2 and BrO, may be studied from the ground at a safe distance using remote sensing techniques. Many other gases require in situ access to the gas plume. Here, a drone may be an attractive alternative. This paper describes a drone specially adapted for volcanic gas studies and demonstrates its use in a field campaign at Manam volcano in Papua New Guinea.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Fredy Apaza, Geoffroy Avard, Charlotte Barrington, Nicole Bobrowski, Claudia Bucarey, Viviana Burbano, Mike Burton, Zoraida Chacón, Gustavo Chigna, Christian Joseph Clarito, Vladimir Conde, Fidel Costa, Maarten De Moor, Hugo Delgado-Granados, Andrea Di Muro, Deborah Fernandez, Gustavo Garzón, Hendra Gunawan, Nia Haerani, Thor H. Hansteen, Silvana Hidalgo, Salvatore Inguaggiato, Mattias Johansson, Christoph Kern, Manne Kihlman, Philippe Kowalski, Pablo Masias, Francisco Montalvo, Joakim Möller, Ulrich Platt, Claudia Rivera, Armando Saballos, Giuseppe Salerno, Benoit Taisne, Freddy Vásconez, Gabriela Velásquez, Fabio Vita, and Mathieu Yalire
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 1167–1188,Short summary
This study presents a dataset of volcanic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from 2005–2017. Measurements were obtained by Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC) scanning differential optical absorption spectrometer (ScanDOAS) instruments at 32 volcanoes and processed using a standardized procedure. We show statistics of volcanic gas emissions under a variety of conditions and compare them with averages derived from measurements from space and historical inventories.
Julian Rüdiger, Alexandra Gutmann, Nicole Bobrowski, Marcello Liotta, J. Maarten de Moor, Rolf Sander, Florian Dinger, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Martha Ibarra, Armando Saballos, María Martínez, Elvis Mendoza, Arnoldo Ferrufino, John Stix, Juan Valdés, Jonathan M. Castro, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3371–3393,Short summary
We present an innovative approach to study halogen chemistry in the plume of Masaya volcano in Nicaragua. An unique data set was collected using multiple techniques, including drones. These data enabled us to determine the fraction of activation of the respective halogens at various plume ages, where in-mixing of ambient air causes chemical reactions. An atmospheric chemistry box model was employed to further examine the field results and help our understanding of volcanic plume chemistry.
Christopher Fuchs, Jonas Kuhn, Nicole Bobrowski, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 295–307,Short summary
We present first measurements of volcanic SO2 emissions with a novel imaging technique for atmospheric trace gases in the UV and visible spectral range. Periodic spectral Fabry–Pérot interferometer transmission features are matched to differential absorption cross sections of the investigated trace gas, yielding high selectivity and sensitivity. The technique can be extended to measure many other trace gases with high spatio-temporal resolution.
Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Carlos Alberti, Marc Allaart, Arnoud Apituley, Alkis Bais, Steffen Beirle, Stijn Berkhout, Kristof Bognar, Tim Bösch, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Mirjam den Hoed, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Martina M. Friedrich, Arnoud Frumau, Lou Gast, Clio Gielen, Laura Gomez-Martín, Nan Hao, Arjan Hensen, Bas Henzing, Christian Hermans, Junli Jin, Karin Kreher, Jonas Kuhn, Johannes Lampel, Ang Li, Cheng Liu, Haoran Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Olga Puentedura, Andreas Richter, Stefan Schmitt, Elena Spinei, Deborah Stein Zweers, Kimberly Strong, Daan Swart, Frederik Tack, Martin Tiefengraber, René van der Hoff, Michel van Roozendael, Tim Vlemmix, Jan Vonk, Thomas Wagner, Yang Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Matthias Wiegner, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua Xie, Chengzhi Xing, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 1–35,Short summary
Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is a ground-based remote sensing measurement technique that derives atmospheric aerosol and trace gas vertical profiles from skylight spectra. In this study, consistency and reliability of MAX-DOAS profiles are assessed by applying nine different evaluation algorithms to spectral data recorded during an intercomparison campaign in the Netherlands and by comparing the results to colocated supporting observations.
Karin Kreher, Michel Van Roozendael, Francois Hendrick, Arnoud Apituley, Ermioni Dimitropoulou, Udo Frieß, Andreas Richter, Thomas Wagner, Johannes Lampel, Nader Abuhassan, Li Ang, Monica Anguas, Alkis Bais, Nuria Benavent, Tim Bösch, Kristof Bognar, Alexander Borovski, Ilya Bruchkouski, Alexander Cede, Ka Lok Chan, Sebastian Donner, Theano Drosoglou, Caroline Fayt, Henning Finkenzeller, David Garcia-Nieto, Clio Gielen, Laura Gómez-Martín, Nan Hao, Bas Henzing, Jay R. Herman, Christian Hermans, Syedul Hoque, Hitoshi Irie, Junli Jin, Paul Johnston, Junaid Khayyam Butt, Fahim Khokhar, Theodore K. Koenig, Jonas Kuhn, Vinod Kumar, Cheng Liu, Jianzhong Ma, Alexis Merlaud, Abhishek K. Mishra, Moritz Müller, Monica Navarro-Comas, Mareike Ostendorf, Andrea Pazmino, Enno Peters, Gaia Pinardi, Manuel Pinharanda, Ankie Piters, Ulrich Platt, Oleg Postylyakov, Cristina Prados-Roman, Olga Puentedura, Richard Querel, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Anja Schönhardt, Stefan F. Schreier, André Seyler, Vinayak Sinha, Elena Spinei, Kimberly Strong, Frederik Tack, Xin Tian, Martin Tiefengraber, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, Jeroen van Gent, Rainer Volkamer, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Shanshan Wang, Zhuoru Wang, Mark Wenig, Folkard Wittrock, Pinhua H. Xie, Jin Xu, Margarita Yela, Chengxin Zhang, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2169–2208,Short summary
In September 2016, 36 spectrometers from 24 institutes measured a number of key atmospheric pollutants during an instrument intercomparison campaign (CINDI-2) at Cabauw, the Netherlands. Here we report on the outcome of this intercomparison exercise. The three major goals were to characterise the differences between the participating instruments, to define a robust methodology for performance assessment, and to contribute to the harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods.
Ulrich Platt and Jonas Kuhn
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6259–6272,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by absorption spectroscopy are frequently supported by recording the amount of trace gas in absorption cells. These are typically small glass (or quartz) cylinders containing the gas to be studied. Here we show in the example of NO2-absorption cells that the effective amount of gas seen by the instrument can deviate greatly from expected values (by orders of magnitude in severe cases). Some suggestions for improving the situation are discussed.
Maximilian Herrmann, Le Cao, Holger Sihler, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10161–10190,Short summary
The oscillations of tropospheric ODEs in the Arctic spring is studied numerically. After the termination of an ODE, the reactive bromine is deposited onto aerosols/the snow surface, and the ozone may regenerate. The replenished ozone is available for the next autocatalytic bromine release, leading to the oscillation of an ODE. Its dependence on the NOx mixing ratio, the inversion layer strength, the ambient temperature, the aerosol density, and the solar radiation is investigated.
Jan-Marcus Nasse, Philipp G. Eger, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Udo Frieß, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 4149–4169,Short summary
We present several changes to the setup of long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) instruments, including the application of a laser-driven light source, a modified coupling of the measurement signal between components, improved stray-light suppression, and better signal homogenization measures. These changes reduce detection limits of typical trace-gas species by a factor of 3–4 compared to previous setups and enable automated long-term observations in Antarctica.
Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Lampel, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 3365–3381,Short summary
ICAD allows a precise in situ measurement of gases like NO2 in a relatively simple and compact setup. The main advantage in comparison to most other optical methods is that it does not require a stable total light intensity. This allows a simpler and mobile instrument setup and additionally it features no observed cross-interferences. We validated the high quality for an ICAD NO2 instrument in different inter-comparisons with a detection limit of 0.02 ppbv.
Florian Dinger, Stefan Bredemeyer, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 10, 725–740,Short summary
Evidence for tidal impacts on volcanism have been gathered by numerous empirical studies. This paper elucidates whether a causal link from the tidal forces to a variation in the volcanic degassing can be traced analytically. We model the response of a simplified magmatic system to the local tidal gravity variations, find that the tide-induced dynamics may significantly alter the bubble coalescence rate, and discuss the consequences for volcanic degassing behaviour.
Umar Javed, Dagmar Kubistin, Monica Martinez, Jan Pollmann, Markus Rudolf, Uwe Parchatka, Andreas Reiffs, Jim Thieser, Gerhard Schuster, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, John N. Crowley, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Hartwig Harder
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1461–1481,Short summary
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) affects the concentration of key species like ozone, hydroxyl radical, and nitrate radical in the atmosphere. In situ, direct, and interference-free NO2 measurements are important for validating our understanding of NOx chemistry related to ozone formation and the radical loss process. This article describes the important features and performance of a newly developed NO2 instrument during a field intercomparison.
Jonas Kuhn, Ulrich Platt, Nicole Bobrowski, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 735–747,Short summary
We study a novel remote-sensing technique for atmospheric trace gases absorbing in the UV and visible spectral range. Using Fabry–Perot interferometers with a spectral transmission matched to the trace gas's spectral absorption allows for imaging trace gases with high sensitivity and selectivity. The thereby achieved high spatio-temporal resolution enables the study of small-scale and dynamic processes in the atmosphere. We present sample calculations and a proof-of-concept study.
Ying Zhu, Ka Lok Chan, Yun Fat Lam, Martin Horbanski, Denis Pöhler, Johannes Boll, Ivo Lipkowitsch, Sheng Ye, and Mark Wenig
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 6719–6734,Short summary
The paper presents an investigation of spatio-temporal variability of street-level NO2 in Hong Kong using mobile cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) and long-path DOAS. Measurements were conducted in December 2010 and March 2017. A significant decreasing trend in on-road NO2 was found by comparing measurements taken in 2010 and 2017. Influences of changes in bus companies' operation strategies can also be observed from the measured NO2 concentration maps.
Jorge Saturno, Florian Ditas, Marloes Penning de Vries, Bruna A. Holanda, Mira L. Pöhlker, Samara Carbone, David Walter, Nicole Bobrowski, Joel Brito, Xuguang Chi, Alexandra Gutmann, Isabella Hrabe de Angelis, Luiz A. T. Machado, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Schneider, Christiane Schulz, Qiaoqiao Wang, Manfred Wendisch, Paulo Artaxo, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Pöschl, Meinrat O. Andreae, and Christopher Pöhlker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10391–10405,Short summary
This study uses satellite observations to track volcanic emissions in eastern Congo and their subsequent transport across the Atlantic Ocean into the Amazon Basin. Aircraft and ground-based observations are used to characterize the influence of volcanogenic aerosol on the chemical and microphysical properties of Amazonian aerosols. Further, this work is an illustrative example of the conditions and dynamics driving the transatlantic transport of African emissions to South America.
Stephen Broccardo, Klaus-Peter Heue, David Walter, Christian Meyer, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Ronald van der A, Stuart Piketh, Kristy Langerman, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2797–2819,Short summary
Measurements of nitrogen dioxide, known to originate from industrial and automotive combustion sources, have been made from space for two decades. Successive generations of instrument bring improvements in ground-pixel resolution; however features in the atmosphere are known to be smaller than what the satellites can resolve. Measurements of urban and industrial areas using a high-resolution airborne instrument allow the impact of the satellite's relatively low resolution to be evaluated.
Julian Rüdiger, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, J. Maarten de Moor, Nicole Bobrowski, Alexandra Gutmann, Marco Liuzzo, Martha Ibarra, and Thorsten Hoffmann
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 2441–2457,Short summary
Volcanic gas emission studies are important for monitoring active volcanoes, obtaining insights into subsurface processes and opening up an interesting domain for atmospheric chemistry investigations. Using an unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly called a drone, we were able to study various volcanic gases at sites which are typically too dangerous to access otherwise. The use of drones for volcano monitoring and gas measurements in harsh environments was successfully assessed.
David W. T. Griffith, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Samuel Hammer, Sanam N. Vardag, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1549–1563,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases over an open path complement in situ measurements by spatial averaging. This paper describes the first open-path measurements of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases by near-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The measurements were made in Heidelberg, Germany, for 4 months in 2014 over a 1.5 km path and compared to in situ measurements made at one end of the path. The experiment setup and methods (and the comparisons of open path to in situ) are described.
Florian Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Simon Warnach, Stefan Bredemeyer, Silvana Hidalgo, Santiago Arellano, Bo Galle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Solid Earth, 9, 247–266,Short summary
We monitored the bromine monoxide-to-sulfur dioxide molar ratio in the effusive gas plume of Cotopaxi volcano in order to gain insight into the geological processes which control the pressure regime of the volcanic system. We observed a conspicuous periodic pattern with a periodicity of about 2 weeks, which significantly correlates with the Earth tidal forcing. Our results support a possible Earth tidal impact on volcanic activity, in particular for the Cotopaxi eruption 2015.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2769–2786,Short summary
We use a state-of-the-art stratospheric aerosol model to study geoengineering through stratospheric sulfur injections. We find that the efficiency may decrease more drastically for larger injections than previously estimated and that injections at higher altitude are not more effective. This study may provide additional evidence that this proposed geoengineering technique is still more complicated, probably less effective, and may implicate stronger side effects than initially thought.
Johannes Lampel, Johannes Zielcke, Stefan Schmitt, Denis Pöhler, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1671–1683,Short summary
Previous publications on the absorptions of the oxygen dimer O2–O2 (or short: O4) list absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm, for which no spectrally resolved literature cross sections are available. As these absorptions potentially influence the spectral retrieval of various other trace gases, their shape and magnitude need to be quantified. We approximate the absorption peaks at 328 nm and 419 nm by their respective neighboring absorption peaks to estimate their magnitude and peak wavelength.
Johannes Lampel, Yang Wang, Andreas Hilboll, Steffen Beirle, Holger Sihler, Janis Puķīte, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 4819–4831,Short summary
Experience of differential atmospheric absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) shows that a spectral shift between measurement and reference spectrum is frequently required in order to achieve optimal fit results. The shift is often attributed to temporal instabilities of the instrument but implicitly solved the problem of the tilt effect discussed in this paper. The tilt effect results from the finite resolution of the measurements and amounts to 2 pm for the example data set.
Christoph Kleinschmitt, Olivier Boucher, Slimane Bekki, François Lott, and Ulrich Platt
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3359–3378,Short summary
Stratospheric aerosols play an important role in the climate system by affecting the Earth's radiative budget. In this article we present the newly developed LMDZ-S3A model and assess its performance against observations in periods of low and high aerosol loading. The model may serve as a tool to study the climate impacts of volcanic eruptions, as well as the deliberate injection of aerosols into the stratosphere, which has been proposed as a method of geoengineering to abate global warming.
William R. Simpson, Peter K. Peterson, Udo Frieß, Holger Sihler, Johannes Lampel, Ulrich Platt, Chris Moore, Kerri Pratt, Paul Shepson, John Halfacre, and Son V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9291–9309,Short summary
We investigated Arctic atmospheric bromine chemistry during March–April 2012 to improve understanding of the role of sea ice and cracks in sea ice (leads) in this phenomenon. We find that leads vertically redistribute reactive bromine but that open/re-freezing leads are not major direct reactive halogen sources. Surface ozone depletion affects the vertical distribution and amount of reactive halogens, and aerosol particles are necessary but not sufficient to maintain reactive bromine aloft.
Peter K. Peterson, Denis Pöhler, Holger Sihler, Johannes Zielcke, Stephan General, Udo Frieß, Ulrich Platt, William R. Simpson, Son V. Nghiem, Paul B. Shepson, Brian H. Stirm, Suresh Dhaniyala, Thomas Wagner, Dana R. Caulton, Jose D. Fuentes, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7567–7579,Short summary
High-spatial-resolution aircraft measurements in the Arctic showed the sustained transport of reactive bromine in a lofted layer via heterogeneous reactions on aerosol particles. This process provides an explanation for free tropospheric reactive bromine and the significant spatial extent of satellite-observed bromine monoxide. The knowledge gained herein improves our understanding of the fate and transport of atmospheric pollutants in the Arctic.
Angelika Klein, Peter Lübcke, Nicole Bobrowski, Jonas Kuhn, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 979–987,Short summary
While measuring sulfur dioxide fluxes in volcanic plumes with a UV-sensitive camera, the wind direction can influence the retrieved fluxes. If the volcanic plume is tilted in the field of view of the camera, it can lead to over- or underestimations of the determined fluxes. This paper presents a method to deal with such a circumstance. Additionally, it provides the possibility to determine the wind direction of the plume directly from the image time series themselves.
Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Herrmann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, and Rahul A. Zaveri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2103–2162,Short summary
Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds by NO3 is an important interaction between anthropogenic and natural emissions. This review results from a June 2015 workshop and includes the recent literature on kinetics, mechanisms, organic aerosol yields, and heterogeneous chemistry; advances in analytical instrumentation; the current state NO3-BVOC chemistry in atmospheric models; and critical needs for future research in modeling, field observations, and laboratory studies.
Johannes Lampel, Denis Pöhler, Oleg L. Polyansky, Aleksandra A. Kyuberis, Nikolai F. Zobov, Jonathan Tennyson, Lorenzo Lodi, Udo Frieß, Yang Wang, Steffen Beirle, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1271–1295,Short summary
Water vapour is known to absorb radiation from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum. Ab initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption near 363 nm from field measurements using data from multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and long-path (LP)-DOAS measurements.
André Butz, Anna Solvejg Dinger, Nicole Bobrowski, Julian Kostinek, Lukas Fieber, Constanze Fischerkeller, Giovanni Bruno Giuffrida, Frank Hase, Friedrich Klappenbach, Jonas Kuhn, Peter Lübcke, Lukas Tirpitz, and Qiansi Tu
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1–14,Short summary
Remote sensing of the gaseous composition of non-eruptive, passively degassing volcanic plumes can be a tool for volcano monitoring. Here, we report on a field study that demonstrates the feasibility of remotely measuring the volcanic enhancements of carbon dioxide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, and bromine monoxide in the plume of Mt. Etna using portable spectroscopic instrumentation sampling the plume several kilometers downwind of the source.
Peter Lübcke, Johannes Lampel, Santiago Arellano, Nicole Bobrowski, Florian Dinger, Bo Galle, Gustavo Garzón, Silvana Hidalgo, Zoraida Chacón Ortiz, Leif Vogel, Simon Warnach, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5677–5698,Short summary
We evaluated spectra from a scanning spectrometer network for the monitoring of volcanic gas emissions using a modelled background spectrum. Statistical methods were applied in order to improve the quality of the spectroscopic evaluation. We used this technique to assess the robustness of standard retrievals at two volcanos: Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) and Tungurahua (Ecuador).
Christoph Hörmann, Holger Sihler, Steffen Beirle, Marloes Penning de Vries, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13015–13034,Short summary
We present 10 years of bromine monoxide (BrO) satellite observations by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) over the Rann of Kutch salt marsh. The measurements reveal a typical seasonal cycle of BrO with maximum concentrations during April/May. The results indicate that the Rann of Kutch is probably one of the strongest natural point sources of reactive bromine compounds outside the polar regions and is thought to have a significant impact on local and regional ozone chemistry.
Erna Frins, Reza Shaiganfar, Ulrich Platt, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
Standard methods like in-situ measurements can hardly register NOx (= NO + NO2) emissions from aircrafts during take-off, when engines run at high load and thus an important amount of fuel is consumed and most of the harmful emissions are produced . The goal of this work is to show that it is possible to measure aircraft emissions generated during take-off (and initial part of the climb) by a remote spectroscopic method like automobile – based – Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS).
Le Cao, Ulrich Platt, Chenggang Wang, Nianwen Cao, and Qing Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submittedShort summary
A snowpack module which represents the mass transfer between the ambient air and the snowpack is implemented in a box model, aiming to clarify the influences of the snowpack on the ozone depletion events (ODEs) and the associated bromine explosion in the springtime of Arctic. The size of snow grains, volume fraction of the liquid-like layer (LLL), and the rate of the mass exchange between the snow interstitial air and the snow particles are shown to be critical parameters.
N. Sobanski, M. J. Tang, J. Thieser, G. Schuster, D. Pöhler, H. Fischer, W. Song, C. Sauvage, J. Williams, J. Fachinger, F. Berkes, P. Hoor, U. Platt, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4867–4883,Short summary
The nitrate radical (NO3) is an important nocturnal oxidant. By measuring NO3, its precursors (nitrogen dioxide and ozone) and several trace gases with which it reacts, we examined the chemical and meteorological factors influencing the lifetime of NO3 at a semi-rural mountain site. Unexpectedly long lifetimes, approaching 1 h, were observed on several nights and were associated with a low-lying residual layer. We discuss the role of other reactions that convert NO2 to NO3.
J. Thieser, G. Schuster, J. Schuladen, G. J. Phillips, A. Reiffs, U. Parchatka, D. Pöhler, J. Lelieveld, and J. N. Crowley
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 553–576,Short summary
We report on the use of thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy to detect NO2, peroxy nitrates and alkyl nitrates. We present both laboratory studies that characterise the chemical formation and loss of NO2 in the heated inlets and also result from a first field deployment.
J. Lampel, D. Pöhler, J. Tschritter, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 4329–4346,Short summary
In recent updates of the HITRAN water vapour H2O spectroscopic compilation covering the blue spectral region (here 394–-480 nm) significant changes for the absorption bands at 416 and 426 nm were reported. In order to investigate the consistency of the different cross sections calculated from these compilations, H2O vapour column density ratios for different spectral intervals were retrieved from long-path and multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy measurements.
K. D. Custard, C. R. Thompson, K. A. Pratt, P B. Shepson, J. Liao, L. G. Huey, J. J. Orlando, A. J. Weinheimer, E. Apel, S. R. Hall, F. Flocke, L. Mauldin, R. S. Hornbrook, D. Pöhler, S. General, J. Zielcke, W. R. Simpson, U. Platt, A. Fried, P. Weibring, B. C. Sive, K. Ullmann, C. Cantrell, D. J. Knapp, and D. D. Montzka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 10799–10809,
J. Lampel, U. Frieß, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 3767–3787,Short summary
In remote sensing applications, such as differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), atmospheric scattering processes need to be considered. Inelastic scattering on air molecules can lead to filling-in of absorption lines. The contribution of rotational Raman scattering is typically corrected for. The magnitude of vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) is known from theory and agrees with our first DOAS observations of this effect. Its impact on trace-gas measurements of NO2 is discussed.
P. K. Peterson, W. R. Simpson, K. A. Pratt, P. B. Shepson, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, U. Platt, S. J. Walsh, and S. V. Nghiem
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2119–2137,Short summary
We developed methods to measure the vertical distribution of bromine monoxide, a gas that oxidizes pollutants, above sea ice based upon MAX-DOAS observations from Barrow, Alaska, and find that atmospheric stability exerts a strong control on BrO's vertical distribution. Specifically, more stable (temperature inversion) situations result in BrO being closer to the ground while more neutral (not inverted) atmospheres allow BrO to ascend further aloft and grow to larger column abundance.
J. Kuhn, N. Bobrowski, P. Lübcke, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3705–3715,
S. General, D. Pöhler, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, U. Frieß, J. Zielcke, M. Horbanski, P. B. Shepson, B. H. Stirm, W. R. Simpson, K. Weber, C. Fischer, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 3459–3485,
K.-P. Heue, H. Riede, D. Walter, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Wagner, U. Frieß, U. Platt, A. Zahn, G. Stratmann, and H. Ziereis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6621–6642,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Arellano, B. Galle, G. Garzón, L. Vogel, and U. Platt
Solid Earth, 5, 409–424,
S. Bleicher, J. C. Buxmann, R. Sander, T. P. Riedel, J. A. Thornton, U. Platt, and C. Zetzsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
L. Cao, H. Sihler, U. Platt, and E. Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3771–3787,
C. Liu, S. Beirle, T. Butler, P. Hoor, C. Frankenberg, P. Jöckel, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, A. Pozzer, M. G. Lawrence, J. Lelieveld, H. Tost, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1717–1732,
D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 199–214,
R. M. Varma, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, H.-P. Dorn, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, A. A. Ruth, A. J. L. Shillings, J. Thieser, A. Wahner, and D. S. Venables
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 3115–3130,
C. Hörmann, H. Sihler, N. Bobrowski, S. Beirle, M. Penning de Vries, U. Platt, and T. Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4749–4781,
H.-P. Dorn, R. L. Apodaca, S. M. Ball, T. Brauers, S. S. Brown, J. N. Crowley, W. P. Dubé, H. Fuchs, R. Häseler, U. Heitmann, R. L. Jones, A. Kiendler-Scharr, I. Labazan, J. M. Langridge, J. Meinen, T. F. Mentel, U. Platt, D. Pöhler, F. Rohrer, A. A. Ruth, E. Schlosser, G. Schuster, A. J. L. Shillings, W. R. Simpson, J. Thieser, R. Tillmann, R. Varma, D. S. Venables, and A. Wahner
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1111–1140,
K. Großmann, U. Frieß, E. Peters, F. Wittrock, J. Lampel, S. Yilmaz, J. Tschritter, R. Sommariva, R. von Glasow, B. Quack, K. Krüger, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3363–3378,
P. Lübcke, N. Bobrowski, S. Illing, C. Kern, J. M. Alvarez Nieves, L. Vogel, J. Zielcke, H. Delgado Granados, and U. Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 677–696,
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Sources and long-term variability of carbon monoxide at Mount Kenya and in NairobiMeasurement report: Airborne measurements of NOx fluxes over Los Angeles during the RECAP-CA 2021 campaignInfluence of anthropogenic emissions on the composition of highly oxygenated organic molecules in Helsinki: a street canyon and urban background station comparisonChanges in surface ozone in South Korea on diurnal to decadal timescales for the period of 2001–2021Characterization of the nitrogen stable isotope composition (δ15N) of ship-emitted NOxVolatile organic compound fluxes in the agricultural San Joaquin Valley – spatial distribution, source attribution, and inventory comparisonExploring the amplified role of HCHO in the formation of HMS and O3 during the co-occurring PM2.5 and O3 pollution in a coastal city of southeast ChinaHigh potential for CH4 emission mitigation from oil infrastructure in one of EU's major production regionsMeasurement report: Source apportionment and environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Lhasa, a highland city in ChinaOH, HO2, and RO2 radical chemistry in a rural forest environment: measurements, model comparisons, and evidence of a missing radical sinkThe atmospheric fate of 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH): spatial patterns, seasonal variability, and deposition to Canadian coastal regionsA single-point modeling approach for the intercomparison and evaluation of ozone dry deposition across chemical transport models (Activity 2 of AQMEII4)Direct observations of NOx emissions over the San Joaquin Valley using airborne flux measurements during RECAP-CA 2021 field campaignTrends and seasonal variability in ammonia across major biomes in western and central Africa inferred from long-term series of ground-based and satellite measurementsA rise in HFC-23 emissions from eastern Asia since 2015The interhemispheric gradient of SF6 in the upper troposphereMeasurement report: Inland ship emissions and their contribution to NOx and ultrafine particle concentrations at the RhineVariation and trend of nitrate radical reactivity towards volatile organic compounds in Beijing, ChinaIntra- and interannual changes in isoprene emission from central AmazoniaLevels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Antarctic atmosphere over time (1980 to 2021) and estimation of their atmospheric half-livesAirborne observations of peroxy radicals during the EMeRGe campaign in EuropeVertical distribution of sources and sinks of volatile organic compounds within a boreal forest canopyO3 and PAN in southern Tibetan Plateau determined by distinct physical and chemical processesTechnical note: Isolating methane emissions from animal feeding operations in an interfering locationMeasurement Report: Exchange Fluxes of HONO over Agricultural Fields in the North China PlainHONO chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018: HONO formation mechanisms and impacts on O3 productionParameterizations of US wildfire and prescribed fire emission ratios and emission factors based on FIREX-AQ aircraft measurementsUndetected BVOCs from Norway spruce drive total ozone reactivity measurementsTropospheric Bromine Monoxide Vertical Profiles Retrieved Across the Alaskan Arctic in SpringtimeNitrous Acid Budgets in Coastal Atmosphere: Insights into the Absence of a Daytime Marine SourceMeasurement report: Atmospheric CH4 at regional stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration–Global Atmosphere Watch Programme: measurement, characteristics, and long-term changes of its driversMeasurement report: MAX-DOAS measurements characterise Central London ozone pollution episodes during 2022 heatwavesWeather regimes and related atmospheric composition at a Pyrenean observatory characterized by hierarchical clustering of a 5-year data setOH measurements in the coastal atmosphere of South China: possible missing OH sinks in aged air massesSource attribution of methane emissions from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, using isotopic signaturesPhotochemical aging of aerosols contributes significantly to the production of atmospheric formic acidMeasurement report: Underestimated reactive organic gases from residential combustion – insights from a near-complete speciationQuantification of fossil fuel CO2 from combined CO, δ13CO2 and Δ14CO2 observationsMeasurement Report: The Palau Atmospheric Observatory and its Ozonesonde Record - Continuous Monitoring of Tropospheric Composition and Dynamics in the Tropical West PacificMeasurement report: Hydrogen peroxide in the upper tropical troposphere over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa during the CAFE-Africa aircraft campaignA new insight into the vertical differences in NO2 heterogeneous reaction to produce HONO over inland and marginal seasEvaluation of modelled climatologies of O3, CO, water vapour and NOy in the upper troposphere – lower stratosphere using regular in situ observations by passenger aircraftChemical identification of new particle formation and growth precursors through positive matrix factorization of ambient ion measurementsSnowpack nitrate photolysis drives the summertime atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) budget in coastal AntarcticaRevealing the sources and sinks of negative cluster ions in an urban environment through quantitative analysisMeasurement report: Molecular-level investigation of atmospheric cluster ions at the tropical high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian AndesObservations of biogenic volatile organic compounds over a mixed temperate forest during the summer to autumn transitionUnexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Lhasa, the largest city in the Tibetan PlateauReal-time measurements of non-methane volatile organic compounds in the central Indo-Gangetic basin, Lucknow, India: source characterisation and their role in O3 and secondary organic aerosol formationMeasurement report: Production and loss of atmospheric formaldehyde at a suburban site of Shanghai in summertime
Leonard Kirago, Örjan Gustafsson, Samuel Mwaniki Gaita, Sophie L. Haslett, Michael J. Gatari, Maria Elena Popa, Thomas Röckmann, Christoph Zellweger, Martin Steinbacher, Jörg Klausen, Christian Félix, David Njiru, and August Andersson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14349–14357,Short summary
This study provides ground-observational evidence that supports earlier suggestions that savanna fires are the main emitters and modulators of carbon monoxide gas in Africa. Using isotope-based techniques, the study has shown that about two-thirds of this gas is emitted from savanna fires, while for urban areas, in this case Nairobi, primary sources approach 100 %. The latter has implications for air quality policy, suggesting primary emissions such as traffic should be targeted.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Bryan K. Place, Qindan Zhu, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Paul Wooldridge, Benjamin C. Schulze, Caleb Arata, Ryan Ward, Anthony Bucholtz, John H. Seinfeld, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13015–13028,Short summary
NOx is a precursor to hazardous tropospheric ozone and can be emitted from various anthropogenic sources. It is important to quantify NOx emissions in urban environments to improve the local air quality, which still remains a challenge, as sources are heterogeneous in space and time. In this study, we calculate NOx emissions over Los Angeles, based on aircraft measurements in June 2021, and compare them to a local emission inventory, which we find mostly overpredicts the measured values.
Magdalena Okuljar, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Joni Kalliokoski, Hilkka Timonen, Jarkko V. Niemi, Pauli Paasonen, Jenni Kontkanen, Yanjun Zhang, Heidi Hellén, Heino Kuuluvainen, Minna Aurela, Hanna E. Manninen, Mikko Sipilä, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Miikka Dal Maso, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12965–12983,Short summary
Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) form secondary organic aerosol that affects air quality and health. In this study, we demonstrate that in a moderately polluted city with abundant vegetation, the composition of HOMs is largely controlled by the effect of NOx on the biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation. Comparing the results from two nearby stations, we show that HOM composition and formation pathways can change considerably within small distances in urban environments.
Si-Wan Kim, Kyoung-Min Kim, Yujoo Jeong, Seunghwan Seo, Yeonsu Park, and Jeongyeon Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12867–12886,Short summary
Surface ozone is a pollutant regulated for public health. This study derived surface ozone trends over South Korea from 2001 to 2021 and highlighted that South Korea has been a nonattainment area since 2010, based on the US EPA standard. However, the occurrences of high ozone condition decreased in spring during the COVID-19 pandemic, partly due to large reductions of ozone precursor concentrations in China and South Korea.
Zeyu Sun, Zheng Zong, Yang Tan, Chongguo Tian, Zeyu Liu, Fan Zhang, Rong Sun, Yingjun Chen, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12851–12865,Short summary
This is the first report of ship-emitted nitrogen stable isotope composition (δ15N) of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The results showed that δ15N–NOx from ships was −18.5 ± 10.9 ‰ and increased monotonically with tightening emission regulations. The selective catalytic reduction system was the most vital factor. The temporal variation in δ15N–NOx was evaluated and can be used to select suitable δ15N–NOx for a more accurate assessment of the contribution of ship-emitted exhaust to atmospheric NOx.
Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Caleb Arata, Qindan Zhu, Benjamin C. Schulze, Roy Woods, John H. Seinfeld, Anthony Bucholtz, Ronald C. Cohen, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12753–12780,Short summary
The San Joaquin Valley is an agricultural area with poor air quality. Organic gases drive the formation of hazardous air pollutants. Agricultural emissions of these gases are not well understood and have rarely been quantified at landscape scale. By combining aircraft-based emission measurements with land cover information, we found mis- or unrepresented emission sources. Our results help in understanding of pollution sources and in improving predictions of air quality in agricultural regions.
Youwei Hong, Keran Zhang, Dan Liao, Gaojie Chen, Min Zhao, Yiling Lin, Xiaoting Ji, Ke Xu, Yu Wu, Ruilian Yu, Gongren Hu, Sung-Deuk Choi, Likun Xue, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10795–10807,Short summary
Particle uptakes of HCHO and the impacts on PM2.5 and O3 production remain highly uncertain. Based on the investigation of co-occurring wintertime O3 and PM2.5 pollution in a coastal city of southeast China, we found enhanced heterogeneous formation of hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) and increased ROx concentrations and net O3 production rates. The findings of this study are helpful to better explore the mechanisms of key precursors for co-occurring PM2.5 and O3 pollution.
Foteini Stavropoulou, Katarina Vinković, Bert Kers, Marcel de Vries, Steven van Heuven, Piotr Korbeń, Martina Schmidt, Julia Wietzel, Pawel Jagoda, Jaroslav M. Necki, Jakub Bartyzel, Hossein Maazallahi, Malika Menoud, Carina van der Veen, Sylvia Walter, Béla Tuzson, Jonas Ravelid, Randulph Paulo Morales, Lukas Emmenegger, Dominik Brunner, Michael Steiner, Arjan Hensen, Ilona Velzeboer, Pim van den Bulk, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Antonio Delre, Maklawe Essonanawe Edjabou, Charlotte Scheutz, Marius Corbu, Sebastian Iancu, Denisa Moaca, Alin Scarlat, Alexandru Tudor, Ioana Vizireanu, Andreea Calcan, Magdalena Ardelean, Sorin Ghemulet, Alexandru Pana, Aurel Constantinescu, Lucian Cusa, Alexandru Nica, Calin Baciu, Cristian Pop, Andrei Radovici, Alexandru Mereuta, Horatiu Stefanie, Alexandru Dandocsi, Bas Hermans, Stefan Schwietzke, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, Huilin Chen, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10399–10412,Short summary
In this study, we quantify CH4 emissions from onshore oil production sites in Romania at source and facility level using a combination of ground- and drone-based measurement techniques. We show that the total CH4 emissions in our studied areas are much higher than the emissions reported to UNFCCC, and up to three-quarters of the detected emissions are related to operational venting. Our results suggest that oil and gas production infrastructure in Romania holds a massive mitigation potential.
Chunxiang Ye, Shuzheng Guo, Weili Lin, Fangjie Tian, Jianshu Wang, Chong Zhang, Suzhen Chi, Yi Chen, Yingjie Zhang, Limin Zeng, Xin Li, Duo Bu, Jiacheng Zhou, and Weixiong Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10383–10397,Short summary
Online volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, with other O3 precursors, were used to identify key VOC and other key sources in Lhasa. Total VOCs (TVOCs), alkanes, and aromatics are half as abundant as in Beijing. Oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) consist of 52 % of the TVOCs. Alkenes and OVOCs account for 80 % of the ozone formation potential. Aromatics dominate secondary organic aerosol potential. Positive matrix factorization decomposed residential sources.
Brandon Bottorff, Michelle M. Lew, Youngjun Woo, Pamela Rickly, Matthew D. Rollings, Benjamin Deming, Daniel C. Anderson, Ezra Wood, Hariprasad D. Alwe, Dylan B. Millet, Andrew Weinheimer, Geoff Tyndall, John Ortega, Sebastien Dusanter, Thierry Leonardis, James Flynn, Matt Erickson, Sergio Alvarez, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Joshua D. Shutter, Frank Keutsch, Detlev Helmig, Wei Wang, Hannah M. Allen, Johnathan H. Slade, Paul B. Shepson, Steven Bertman, and Philip S. Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10287–10311,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxy (HO2), and organic peroxy (RO2) radicals play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and have significant air quality implications. Here, we compare measurements of OH, HO2, and total peroxy radicals (XO2) made in a remote forest in Michigan, USA, to predictions from a series of chemical models. Lower measured radical concentrations suggest that the models may be missing an important radical sink and overestimating the rate of ozone production in this forest.
Jenny Oh, Chubashini Shunthirasingham, Ying Duan Lei, Faqiang Zhan, Yuening Li, Abigaëlle Dalpé Castilloux, Amina Ben Chaaben, Zhe Lu, Kelsey Lee, Frank A. P. C. Gobas, Sabine Eckhardt, Nick Alexandrou, Hayley Hung, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10191–10205,Short summary
An emerging brominated flame retardant (BFR) called TBECH (1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane) has never been produced or imported for use in Canada yet is found to be one of the most abundant gaseous BFRs in the Canadian atmosphere. The recorded spatial and temporal variability of TBECH suggest that the release from imported consumer products containing TBECH is the most likely explanation for its environmental occurrence in Canada.
Olivia E. Clifton, Donna Schwede, Christian Hogrefe, Jesse O. Bash, Sam Bland, Philip Cheung, Mhairi Coyle, Lisa Emberson, Johannes Flemming, Erick Fredj, Stefano Galmarini, Laurens Ganzeveld, Orestis Gazetas, Ignacio Goded, Christopher D. Holmes, László Horváth, Vincent Huijnen, Qian Li, Paul A. Makar, Ivan Mammarella, Giovanni Manca, J. William Munger, Juan L. Pérez-Camanyo, Jonathan Pleim, Limei Ran, Roberto San Jose, Sam J. Silva, Ralf Staebler, Shihan Sun, Amos P. K. Tai, Eran Tas, Timo Vesala, Tamás Weidinger, Zhiyong Wu, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9911–9961,Short summary
A primary sink of air pollutants is dry deposition. Dry deposition estimates differ across the models used to simulate atmospheric chemistry. Here, we introduce an effort to examine dry deposition schemes from atmospheric chemistry models. We provide our approach’s rationale, document the schemes, and describe datasets used to drive and evaluate the schemes. We also launch the analysis of results by evaluating against observations and identifying the processes leading to model–model differences.
Qindan Zhu, Bryan Place, Eva Y. Pfannerstill, Sha Tong, Huanxin Zhang, Jun Wang, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Paul Wooldridge, Benjamin C. Schulze, Caleb Arata, Anthony Bucholtz, John H. Seinfeld, Allen H. Goldstein, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9669–9683,Short summary
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is a hazardous air pollutant, and it is the precursor of short-lived climate forcers like tropospheric ozone and aerosol particles. While NOx emissions from transportation has been strictly regulated, soil NOx emissions are overlooked. We use the airborne flux measurements to observe NOx emissions from highways and urban and cultivated soil land cover types. We show non-negligible soil NOx emissions, which are significantly underestimated in current model simulations.
Money Ossohou, Jonathan Edward Hickman, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Martin Van Damme, Marcellin Adon, Véronique Yoboué, Eric Gardrat, Maria Dias Alvès, and Corinne Galy-Lacaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9473–9494,Short summary
The updated analyses of ground-based concentrations and satellite total vertical columns of atmospheric ammonia help us to better understand 21st century ammonia dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa. We conclude that the drivers of trends are agriculture in the dry savanna of Katibougou, Mali; air temperature and agriculture in the wet savanna of Djougou, Benin, and Lamto, Côte d'Ivoire; and leaf area index, air temperature, residential, and agriculture in forests of Bomassa, Republic of Congo.
Hyeri Park, Jooil Kim, Haklim Choi, Sohyeon Geum, Yeaseul Kim, Rona L. Thompson, Jens Mühle, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Kieran M. Stanley, Simon O'Doherty, Paul J. Fraser, Peter G. Simmonds, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Ronald G. Prinn, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9401–9411,Short summary
Based on atmospheric HFC-23 observations, the first estimate of post-CDM HFC-23 emissions in eastern Asia for 2008–2019 shows that these emissions contribute significantly to the global emissions rise. The observation-derived emissions were much larger than the bottom-up estimates expected to approach zero after 2015 due to national abatement activities. These discrepancies could be attributed to unsuccessful factory-level HFC-23 abatement and inaccurate quantification of emission reductions.
Tanja J. Schuck, Johannes Degen, Eric Hintsa, Peter Hoor, Markus Jesswein, Timo Keber, Daniel Kunkel, Fred Moore, Florian Obersteiner, Matt Rigby, Thomas Wagenhäuser, Luke M. Western, Andreas Zahn, and Andreas Engel
We study the interhemispheric gradient of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), a strong long-lived greenhouse gas. Its emissions are stronger in the northern hemisphere, therefore mixing ratios in the southern hemisphere lag behind. Comparing the observations to results from a box model, the model predicts air in the southern hemisphere to be older. For a better agreement, the emissions used as model input need to be increased, their spatial pattern changed, and we need to modify north-south transport.
Philipp Eger, Theresa Mathes, Alex Zavarsky, and Lars Duester
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8769–8788,Short summary
We investigated the contribution of inland shipping to air pollution at the river Rhine in Germany. Land-based measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were carried out for more than 1 year to provide a realistic estimate for the exposure of people to air pollution close to the riverside. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter relative to the amount of fuel used, as well as their dependence on ship size, engine type and operating conditions, were examined.
Hejun Hu, Haichao Wang, Keding Lu, Jie Wang, Zelong Zheng, Xuezhen Xu, Tianyu Zhai, Xiaorui Chen, Xiao Lu, Wenxing Fu, Xin Li, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, Yuanhang Zhang, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8211–8223,Short summary
Nitrate radical chemistry is critical to the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secondary organic aerosol formation. This work investigated the level, seasonal variation, and trend of nitrate radical reactivity towards volatile organic compounds (kNO3) in Beijing. We show the key role of isoprene and styrene in regulating seasonal variation in kNO3 and rebuild a long-term record of kNO3 based on the reported VOC measurements.
Eliane Gomes Alves, Raoni Aquino Santana, Cléo Quaresma Dias-Júnior, Santiago Botía, Tyeen Taylor, Ana Maria Yáñez-Serrano, Jürgen Kesselmeier, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Jonathan Williams, Pedro Ivo Lembo Silveira de Assis, Giordane Martins, Rodrigo de Souza, Sérgio Duvoisin Júnior, Alex Guenther, Dasa Gu, Anywhere Tsokankunku, Matthias Sörgel, Bruce Nelson, Davieliton Pinto, Shujiro Komiya, Diogo Martins Rosa, Bettina Weber, Cybelli Barbosa, Michelle Robin, Kenneth J. Feeley, Alvaro Duque, Viviana Londoño Lemos, Maria Paula Contreras, Alvaro Idarraga, Norberto López, Chad Husby, Brett Jestrow, and Iván Mauricio Cely Toro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8149–8168,Short summary
Isoprene is emitted mainly by plants and can influence atmospheric chemistry and air quality. But, there are uncertainties in model emission estimates and follow-up atmospheric processes. In our study, with long-term observational datasets of isoprene and biological and environmental factors from central Amazonia, we show that isoprene emission estimates could be improved when biological processes were mechanistically incorporated into the model.
Thais Luarte, Victoria A. Gómez-Aburto, Ignacio Poblete-Castro, Eduardo Castro-Nallar, Nicolas Huneeus, Marco Molina-Montenegro, Claudia Egas, Germán Azcune, Andrés Pérez-Parada, Rainier Lohmann, Pernilla Bohlin-Nizzetto, Jordi Dachs, Susan Bengtson-Nash, Gustavo Chiang, Karla Pozo, and Cristóbal J. Galbán-Malagón
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8103–8118,Short summary
In the last 40 years, different research groups have reported on the atmospheric concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in Antarctica. In the present work, we make a compilation to understand the historical trends and estimate the atmospheric half-life of each compound. Of the compounds studied, HCB was the only one that showed no clear trend, while the rest of the studied compounds showed a significant decrease over time. This is consistent with results for polar and sub-polar zones.
Midhun George, Maria Dolores Andrés Hernández, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Yangzhuoran Liu, John Philip Burrows, Birger Bohn, Eric Förster, Florian Obersteiner, Andreas Zahn, Theresa Harlaß, Helmut Ziereis, Hans Schlager, Benjamin Schreiner, Flora Kluge, Katja Bigge, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7799–7822,Short summary
The applicability of photostationary steady-state (PSS) assumptions to estimate the amount of the sum of peroxy radicals (RO2*) during the EMeRGe airborne observations from the known radical chemistry and onboard measurements of RO2* precursors, photolysis frequencies, and other trace gases such as NOx and O3 was investigated. The comparison of the calculated RO2* with the actual measurements provides an insight into the main processes controlling their concentration in the air masses measured.
Ross Petersen, Thomas Holst, Meelis Mölder, Natascha Kljun, and Janne Rinne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7839–7858,Short summary
We investigate variability in the vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in boreal forest, determined through multiyear measurements at several heights in a boreal forest in Sweden. VOC source/sink seasonality in canopy was explored using these vertical profiles and with measurements from a collection of sonic anemometers on the station flux tower. Our results show seasonality in the source/sink distribution for several VOCs, such as monoterpenes and water-soluble compounds.
Wanyun Xu, Yuxuan Bian, Weili Lin, Yingjie Zhang, Yaru Wang, Zhiqiang Ma, Xiaoyi Zhang, Gen Zhang, Chunxiang Ye, and Xiaobin Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7635–7652,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone (O3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are both photochemical pollutants harmful to the ecological environment and human health, especially in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). However, the factors determining their variations in the TP have not been comprehensively investigated. Results from field measurements and observation-based models revealed that day-to-day variations in O3 and PAN were in fact controlled by distinct physiochemical processes.
Megan E. McCabe, Ilana B. Pollack, Emily V. Fischer, Kathryn M. Steinmann, and Dana R. Caulton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7479–7494,Short summary
Agriculture emissions, including those from beef and dairy cattle feeding operations, make up a large portion of the United States’ total greenhouse gas emissions, but many of these operations reside in areas where methane from oil and natural gas is prevalent, making it difficult to attribute methane in these areas. This work investigates two approaches to emission attribution for cattle feeding operations and provides guidance for emission attribution in other complicated regions.
Yifei Song, Chaoyang Xue, Yuanyuan Zhang, Pengfei Liu, Fengxia Bao, Xuran Li, and Yujing Mu
We present measurements of HONO flux and related parameters over an agricultural field during a whole growing season of summer Maize. This dataset allows studies on the characteristics and influencing factors of soil HONO emissions, determination of HONO emission factors, estimation of total HONO emissions at a national scale, and the discussion on future environmental policies, in terms of mitigating regional air pollution.
Can Ye, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Wanyi Qiu, Shule Li, Xinping Yang, Chaoyang Xue, Tianyu Zhai, Yuhan Liu, Xuan Li, Yang Li, Haichao Wang, Zhaofeng Tan, Xiaorui Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, Min Hu, and Yuanhang Zhang
In this study, combing comprehensive field measurements and a box model, we found NO2 conversion on the ground surface was the most important source for HONO production among the proposed heterogeneous and gas-phase HONO sources. In addition, HONO was found to evidently enhance O3 production and aggravate O3 pollution in summer in China. Our study improved our understanding of the relative importance of different HONO sources and the crucial role of HONO in O3 formation in polluted areas.
Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Matthew M. Coggon, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Hannah Allen, Eric C. Apel, Katherine Ball, Megan M. Bela, Donald R. Blake, Ilann Bourgeois, Steven S. Brown, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jason M. St. Clair, James H. Crawford, John D. Crounse, Douglas A. Day, Joshua DiGangi, Glenn Diskin, Alan Fried, Jessica Gilman, Hongyu Guo, Johnathan W. Hair, Hannah A. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem Hannun, Alan Hills, Gregory Huey, Jose L. Jimenez, Joseph M. Katich, Aaron Lamplugh, Young Ro Lee, Jin Liao, Jakob Lindaas, Stuart A. McKeen, Tomas Mikoviny, Benjamin A. Nault, James A. Neuman, John B. Nowak, Demetrios Pagonis, Jeff Peischl, Anne E. Perring, Felix Piel, Pamela S. Rickly, Michael A. Robinson, Andrew W. Rollins, Thomas B. Ryerson, Melinda K. Schueneman, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Joshua P. Schwarz, Kanako Sekimoto, Vanessa Selimovic, Taylor Shingler, David J. Tanner, Laura Tomsche, Krystal Vasquez, Patrick R. Veres, Rebecca Washenfelder, Petter Weibring, Paul O. Wennberg, Armin Wisthaler, Glenn Wolfe, Caroline Womack, Lu Xu, Robert Yokelson, and Carsten Warneke
This study reports emissions of gases and particles from wildfires. These emissions are related to chemical proxies that can be measured by satellite and incorporated into models to improve predictions of wildfire impacts on air quality and climate.
Steven Job Thomas, Toni Tykkä, Heidi Hellén, Federico Bianchi, and Arnaud P. Praplan
The study employed total ozone reactivity to demonstrate how the emissions of Norway spruce readily react with ozone and could be a major ozone sink, particularly under stress. Additionally, this approach provided insight into the limitations of current analytical techniques that measure the compounds present or emitted into the atmosphere. The study shows how the technique used was not enough to measure all compounds emitted and this could potentially underestimate various atmospheric processes
Nathaniel Brockway, Peter Peterson, Katja Bigge, Kristian Hajny, Paul Shepson, Kerri Pratt, Jose Fuentes, Tim Starn, Robert Kaeser, Brian Stirm, and William Simpson
Bromine monoxide (BrO) strongly affects atmospheric chemistry in the springtime Arctic, yet there are still many uncertainties around its sources and recycling, particularly in the context of a rapidly changing Arctic. In this study, we observed BrO as a function of altitude above the Alaskan Arctic. We found that BrO was often most concentrated near the ground, confirming the ability of snow to produce and recycle reactive bromine and identified four common vertical distributions of BrO.
Xuelian Zhong, Hengqing Shen, Min Zhao, Ji Zhang, Yue Sun, Yuhong Liu, Yingnan Zhang, Ye Shan, Hongyong Li, Jiangshan Mu, Yu Yang, Yanqiu Nie, Jinghao Tang, Can Dong, Xinfeng Wang, Yujiao Zhu, Mingzhi Guo, Wenxing Wang, and Likun Xue
We discovered that nitrous acid (HONO) - an important part of our atmosphere - behaves differently in clean coastal and marine environments compared to polluted areas. The unknown source of HONO could have significant impacts on our atmosphere. As such, our work suggests that more research is needed to understand HONO's role in marine and coastal settings.
Haeyoung Lee, Wonick Seo, Shanlan Li, Soojeong Lee, Samuel Takele Kenea, and Sangwon Joo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7141–7159,Short summary
We introduced three Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) monitoring stations with monitoring systems and measurement uncertainty. We also analyzed the regional characteristics of CH4 at each KMA station. CH4 levels measured at KMA stations are compared to those measured at other Asian stations. From the long-term records of CH4 and δ13CH4 at AMY, we confirmed that the source of CH4xs changed from the past (2006 to 2010) to recent (2016 to 2020) years in East Asia.
Robert G. Ryan, Eloise A. Marais, Eleanor Gershenson-Smith, Robbie Ramsay, Jan-Peter Muller, Jan-Lukas Tirpitz, and Udo Frieß
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7121–7139,Short summary
We describe the first data retrieval from a newly installed instrument providing measurements of vertical profiles of air pollution over Central London during heatwaves in summer 2022. We use these observations with surface air quality network measurements to support interpretation that an exponential increase in biogenic emissions of isoprene during heatwaves provides the limiting ingredient for severe ozone pollution, leading to non-compliance with the national ozone air quality standard.
Jérémy Gueffier, François Gheusi, Marie Lothon, Véronique Pont, Alban Philibert, Fabienne Lohou, Solène Derrien, Yannick Bezombes, Gilles Athier, Yves Meyerfeld, and Antoine Vial
This study investigates the link between weather regimes and atmospheric composition at a Pyrenean observatory. Five years of meteorological data were synchronized on a daily basis, then, using a clustering method, separated into 6 groups of observation days, most of them showing marked characteristics of different weather regimes (fair and disturbed weather, winter windstorms, foehn). Statistical differences in gas and particle concentrations appeared between the groups, and were discussed.
Zhouxing Zou, Qianjie Chen, Men Xia, Qi Yuan, Yi Chen, Yanan Wang, Enyu Xiong, Zhe Wang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7057–7074,Short summary
We present OH observation and model simulation results at a coastal site in Hong Kong. The model predicted the OH concentration under high-NOx well but overpredicted it under low-NOx conditions. This implies an insufficient understanding of OH chemistry under low-NOx conditions. We show evidence of missing OH sinks as a possible cause of the overprediction.
Alina Fiehn, Maximilian Eckl, Julian Kostinek, Michał Gałkowski, Christoph Gerbig, Michael Rothe, Thomas Röckmann, Malika Menoud, Hossein Maazallahi, Martina Schmidt, Piotr Korbeń, Jarosław Neçki, Mila Stanisavljević, Justyna Swolkień, Andreas Fix, and Anke Roiger
During the CoMet mission in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) ground-based and airborne air samples were taken, and analyzed for the isotopic composition of CH4 to derive the mean signature of the USCB and the source signatures of individual coal mines. Using δ2H signatures, the biogenic emissions from the USCB account for 15–50 % of total emissions, which is underestimated in common emission inventories. This demonstrates the importance of δ2H-CH4 observations for methane source attribution.
Yifan Jiang, Men Xia, Zhe Wang, Penggang Zheng, Yi Chen, and Tao Wang
This study provides the first estimate of high rates of formic acid (HCOOH) production from the photochemical aging of real ambient particles and demonstrates the potential importance of this pathway in the formation of HCOOH under ambient conditions. Incorporating this pathway significantly improved the performance of a widely used chemical model. Our solution irradiation experiments demonstrated the importance of nitrate photolysis in HCOOH production via the production of oxidants.
Yaqin Gao, Hongli Wang, Lingling Yuan, Shengao Jing, Bin Yuan, Guofeng Shen, Liang Zhu, Abigail Koss, Yingjie Li, Qian Wang, Dan Dan Huang, Shuhui Zhu, Shikang Tao, Shengrong Lou, and Cheng Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6633–6646,Short summary
A near-complete speciation of reactive organic gases from residential combustion was developed to get more insights into their atmospheric effects. Oxygenated species, higher hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing species played larger roles in these emissions compared with common hydrocarbons. Based on the near-complete speciation, these emissions were largely underestimated, leading to more underestimation of their hydroxyl radical reactivity and secondary organic aerosol formation potential.
Jinsol Kim, John B. Miller, Charles E. Miller, Scott J. Lehman, Sylvia E. Michel, Vineet Yadav, Nick E. Rollins, and William M. Berelson
In this study, we present the partitioning of CO2 signals from biogenic, petroleum and natural gas sources by combining CO, δ13CO2, and Δ14CO2 measurements. Using measurements from flask air samples at three sites in the greater Los Angels region, we find larger and positive contributions of biogenic signals in winter and smaller and negative contributions in summer. Largest contribution of natural gas combustion generally occurs in summer.
Katrin Müller, Jordis S. Tradowsky, Peter von der Gathen, Christoph Ritter, Sharon Patris, Justus Notholt, and Markus Rex
The Palau Atmospheric Observatory is introduced as an ideal site to detect changes in atmospheric composition and dynamics above the remote Tropical West Pacific. We focus on the ozone sounding program from 2016–2021, including El Nino 2016. The year-round high convective activity is reflected in dominant low tropospheric ozone and high relative humidity. The seasonal distribution of both constituents is unique compared to other tropical sites and modulated by the Intertropical Convergence Zone.
Zaneta Hamryszczak, Dirk Dienhart, Bettina Brendel, Roland Rohloff, Daniel Marno, Monica Martinez, Hartwig Harder, Andrea Pozzer, Birger Bohn, Martin Zöger, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5929–5943,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide is a key contributor to the oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere through its link to the most prominent oxidants controlling its self-cleansing capacity, HOx. During the CAFE-Africa campaign, H2O2 was measured over the Atlantic Ocean and western Africa in August/September 2018. The study gives an overview of the distribution of H2O2 in the upper tropical troposphere and investigates the impact of convective processes in the Intertropical Convergence Zone on the budget of H2O2.
Chengzhi Xing, Shiqi Xu, Yuhang Song, Cheng Liu, Yuhan Liu, Keding Lu, Wei Tan, Chengxin Zhang, Qihou Hu, Shanshan Wang, Hongyu Wu, and Hua Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5815–5834,Short summary
High RH could contribute to the secondary formation of HONO in the sea atmosphere. High temperature could promote the formation of HONO from NO2 heterogeneous reactions in the sea and coastal atmosphere. The aerosol surface plays a more important role during the above process in coastal and sea cases. The generation rate of HONO from the NO2 heterogeneous reaction in the sea cases is larger than that in inland cases in higher atmospheric layers above 600 m.
Yann Cohen, Didier Hauglustaine, Bastien Sauvage, Susanne Rohs, Patrick Konjari, Ulrich Bundke, Andreas Petzold, Valérie Thouret, Andreas Zahn, and Helmut Ziereis
The upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UT-LS) is a key region regarding the lower atmospheric composition. This study consists of a comprehensive evaluation of an up-to-date chemistry-climate model in this layer, using regular in situ measurements based on passenger aircraft. For this purpose, a specific software (Interpol-IAGOS) has been updated and made publicly available. The model reproduces particularly well the carbon monoxide peaks due to biomass burning over the continental tropics.
Daniel John Katz, Aroob Abdelhamid, Harald Stark, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Eleanor C. Browne
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5567–5585,Short summary
Ambient ion chemical composition measurements provide insight into trace gases that are precursors for the formation and growth of new aerosol particles. We use a new data analysis approach to increase the chemical information from these measurements. We analyze results from an agricultural region, a little studied land use type that is ~41 % of global land use, and find that the composition of gases important for aerosol formation and growth differs significantly from that in other ecosystems.
Amelia M. H. Bond, Markus M. Frey, Jan Kaiser, Jörg Kleffmann, Anna E. Jones, and Freya A. Squires
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5533–5550,Short summary
Atmospheric nitrous acid (HONO) amount fractions measured at Halley Research Station, Antarctica, were found to be low. Vertical fluxes of HONO from the snow were also measured and agree with the estimated HONO production rate from photolysis of snow nitrate. In a simple box model of HONO sources and sinks, there was good agreement between the measured flux and amount fraction. HONO was found to be an important OH radical source at Halley.
Rujing Yin, Xiaoxiao Li, Chao Yan, Runlong Cai, Ying Zhou, Juha Kangasluoma, Nina Sarnela, Janne Lampilahti, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5279–5296,Short summary
Atmospheric cluster ions are important constituents in the atmosphere. However, the quantitative research on their compositions is still limited, especially in urban environments. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of an in situ quantification method of cluster ions measured by a high-resolution mass spectrometer and reveal their governing factors, sources, and sinks in urban Beijing through quantitative analysis of cluster ions, reagent ions, neutral molecules, and condensation sink.
Qiaozhi Zha, Wei Huang, Diego Aliaga, Otso Peräkylä, Liine Heikkinen, Alkuin Maximilian Koenig, Cheng Wu, Joonas Enroth, Yvette Gramlich, Jing Cai, Samara Carbone, Armin Hansel, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Douglas Worsnop, Victoria Sinclair, Radovan Krejci, Marcos Andrade, Claudia Mohr, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4559–4576,Short summary
We investigate the chemical composition of atmospheric cluster ions from January to May 2018 at the high-altitude research station Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.) in the Bolivian Andes. With state-of-the-art mass spectrometers and air mass history analysis, the measured cluster ions exhibited distinct diurnal and seasonal patterns, some of which contributed to new particle formation. Our study will improve the understanding of atmospheric ions and their role in high-altitude new particle formation.
Michael P. Vermeuel, Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Megan S. Claflin, Brian M. Lerner, Amy M. Trowbridge, Jonathan Thom, Patricia A. Cleary, Ankur R. Desai, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4123–4148,Short summary
Reactive carbon species emitted from natural sources such as forests play an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Predictions of these emissions are based on plant responses during the growing season and do not consider potential effects from seasonal changes. To address this, we made measurements of reactive carbon over a forest during the summer to autumn transition. We learned that observed concentrations and emissions for some key species are larger than model predictions.
Huiming Lin, Yindong Tong, Long Chen, Chenghao Yu, Zhaohan Chu, Qianru Zhang, Xiufeng Yin, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junfeng Liu, James Schauer, Benjamin de Foy, and Xuejun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3937–3953,Short summary
Lhasa is the largest city in the Tibetan Plateau, and its atmospheric mercury concentrations represent the highest level of pollution in this region. Unexpectedly high concentrations of atmospheric mercury species were found. Combined with the trajectory analysis, the high atmospheric mercury concentrations may have originated from external long-range transport. Local sources, especially special mercury-related sources, are important factors influencing the variability of atmospheric mercury.
Vaishali Jain, Nidhi Tripathi, Sachchida N. Tripathi, Mansi Gupta, Lokesh K. Sahu, Vishnu Murari, Sreenivas Gaddamidi, Ashutosh K. Shukla, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3383–3408,Short summary
This research chemically characterises 173 different NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds) measured in real time for three seasons in the city of the central Indo-Gangetic basin of India, Lucknow. Receptor modelling is used to analyse probable sources of NMVOCs and their crucial role in forming ozone and secondary organic aerosols. It is observed that vehicular emissions and solid fuel combustion are the highest contributors to the emission of primary and secondary NMVOCs.
Yizhen Wu, Juntao Huo, Gan Yang, Yuwei Wang, Lihong Wang, Shijian Wu, Lei Yao, Qingyan Fu, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2997–3014,Short summary
Based on a field campaign in a suburban area of Shanghai during summer 2021, we calculated formaldehyde (HCHO) production rates from 24 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In addition, HCHO photolysis, reactions with OH radicals, and dry deposition were considered for the estimation of HCHO loss rates. Our results reveal the key precursors of HCHO and suggest that HCHO wet deposition may be an important loss term on cloudy and rainy days, which needs to be further investigated.
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