Articles | Volume 12, issue 4
Research article 16 Feb 2012
Research article | 16 Feb 2012
Gravity wave variances and propagation derived from AIRS radiances
J. Gong et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Remote Sensing | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Record low ozone values over the Arctic in boreal spring 2020New insights into Rossby wave packet properties in the extratropical UTLS using GNSS radio occultationsSuperposition of gravity waves with different propagation characteristics observed by airborne and space-borne infrared soundersDirect inversion of circulation from tracer measurements – Part 2: Sensitivity studies and model recovery testsFirst measurements of tides in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere by ground-based Doppler microwave wind radiometryGravity waves in the winter stratosphere over the Southern Ocean: high-resolution satellite observations and 3-D spectral analysisComparison of equatorial wave activity in the tropical tropopause layer and stratosphere represented in reanalysesInvestigation of Arctic middle-atmospheric dynamics using 3 years of H2O and O3 measurements from microwave radiometers at Ny-ÅlesundInfluence of ENSO and MJO on the zonal structure of tropical tropopause inversion layer using high-resolution temperature profiles retrieved from COSMIC GPS Radio OccultationHow well do stratospheric reanalyses reproduce high-resolution satellite temperature measurements?First tomographic observations of gravity waves by the infrared limb imager GLORIAShift of subtropical transport barriers explains observed hemispheric asymmetry of decadal trends of age of airExploring gravity wave characteristics in 3-D using a novel S-transform technique: AIRS/Aqua measurements over the Southern Andes and Drake PassageA decadal satellite record of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere to study polar stratospheric cloud formationEvolution of the eastward shift in the quasi-stationary minimum of the Antarctic total ozone columnTropical temperature variability and Kelvin-wave activity in the UTLS from GPS RO measurementsThe major stratospheric final warming in 2016: dispersal of vortex air and termination of Arctic chemical ozone lossThe tropical tropopause inversion layer: variability and modulation by equatorial wavesSatellite observations of middle atmosphere gravity wave absolute momentum flux and of its vertical gradient during recent stratospheric warmingsStratospheric gravity waves at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots: 2003–2014 AIRS/Aqua observationsGlobal temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data setsReassessment of MIPAS age of air trends and variabilityEnhanced internal gravity wave activity and breaking over the northeastern Pacific–eastern Asian regionGlobal distributions of overlapping gravity waves in HIRDLS dataThe southern stratospheric gravity wave hot spot: individual waves and their momentum fluxes measured by COSMIC GPS-ROMethane as a diagnostic tracer of changes in the Brewer–Dobson circulation of the stratosphereThe influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño–Southern Oscillation on mean and extreme values of column ozone over the United StatesShort vertical-wavelength inertia-gravity waves generated by a jet–front system at Arctic latitudes – VHF radar, radiosondes and numerical modellingA climatology of the diurnal variations in stratospheric and mesospheric ozone over Bern, SwitzerlandLong-term changes in the upper stratospheric ozone at Syowa, AntarcticaEstimates of turbulent diffusivities and energy dissipation rates from satellite measurements of spectra of stratospheric refractivity perturbationsObservations of filamentary structures near the vortex edge in the Arctic winter lower stratosphereImpact of land convection on temperature diurnal variation in the tropical lower stratosphere inferred from COSMIC GPS radio occultationsObservation of horizontal winds in the middle-atmosphere between 30° S and 55° N during the northern winter 2009–2010Variability in the speed of the Brewer–Dobson circulation as observed by Aura/MLSSimultaneous occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds and upper-tropospheric clouds caused by blocking anticyclones in the Southern HemisphereQuantification of structural uncertainty in climate data records from GPS radio occultationQuantifying the deep convective temperature signal within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL)Variability in upwelling across the tropical tropopause and correlations with tracers in the lower stratosphereObservations of middle atmospheric H2O and O3 during the 2010 major sudden stratospheric warming by a network of microwave radiometersObserved temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 periodQuasi-stationary planetary waves in late winter Antarctic stratosphere temperature as a possible indicator of spring total ozoneVertical structure of MJO-related subtropical ozone variations from MLS, TES, and SHADOZ dataObservations of in-situ generated gravity waves during a stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) eventThe Arctic vortex in March 2011: a dynamical perspectiveUncertainty of the stratospheric/tropospheric temperature trends in 1979–2008: multiple satellite MSU, radiosonde, and reanalysis datasetsProbability density functions of long-lived tracer observations from satellite in the subtropical barrier region: data intercomparisonAnalysis of a rapid increase of stratospheric ozone during late austral summer 2008 over Kerguelen (49.4° S, 70.3° E)Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundingsOn the seasonal dependence of tropical lower-stratospheric temperature trends
Martin Dameris, Diego G. Loyola, Matthias Nützel, Melanie Coldewey-Egbers, Christophe Lerot, Fabian Romahn, and Michel van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 617–633,Short summary
Record low ozone values were observed in March 2020. Dynamical and chemical circumstances leading to low ozone values in spring 2020 are discussed and are compared to similar dynamical conditions in the Northern Hemisphere in 1996/1997 and 2010/2011. 2019/2020 showed an unusual persistent polar vortex with low stratospheric temperatures, which were permanently below 195 K at 50 hPa. This enabled enhanced formation of polar stratospheric clouds and a subsequent clear reduction of total ozone.
Robin Pilch Kedzierski, Katja Matthes, and Karl Bumke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11569–11592,Short summary
Rossby wave packet (RWP) dynamics are crucial for weather forecasting, climate change projections and stratosphere–troposphere interactions. Our study is a first attempt to describe RWP behavior in the UTLS with global coverage directly from observations, using GNSS-RO data. Our novel results show an interesting relation of RWP vertical propagation with sudden stratospheric warmings and provide very useful information to improve RWP diagnostics in models and reanalysis.
Isabell Krisch, Manfred Ern, Lars Hoffmann, Peter Preusse, Cornelia Strube, Jörn Ungermann, Wolfgang Woiwode, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11469–11490,Short summary
In 2016, a scientific research flight above Scandinavia acquired various atmospheric data (temperature, gas composition, etc.). Through advanced 3-D reconstruction methods, a superposition of multiple gravity waves was identified. An in-depth analysis enabled the characterisation of these waves as well as the identification of their sources. This work will enable a better understanding of atmosphere dynamics and could lead to improved climate projections.
Thomas von Clarmann and Udo Grabowski
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The direct inversion of the 2D continuity equation allows to infer the effective meridional transport of trace gases in the middle stratosphere. This method exploits the information both given by the displacement of patterns in measured trace gas distributions and by the approximate balance between sinks and horizontal as well as vertical advection. The robustness of this method has been tested and characterized using model recovery tests and sensitivity studies.
Jonas Hagen, Klemens Hocke, Gunter Stober, Simon Pfreundschuh, Axel Murk, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2367–2386,Short summary
The middle atmosphere (30 to 70 km altitude) is stratified and, despite very strong horizontal winds, there is less mixing between the horizontal layers. An important driver for the energy exchange between the layers in this regime is atmospheric tides, which are waves that are driven by the diurnal cycle of solar heating. We measure these tides in the wind field for the first time using a ground-based passive instrument. Ultimately, such measurements could be used to improve atmospheric models.
Neil P. Hindley, Corwin J. Wright, Nathan D. Smith, Lars Hoffmann, Laura A. Holt, M. Joan Alexander, Tracy Moffat-Griffin, and Nicholas J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 15377–15414,Short summary
In this study, a 3–D Stockwell transform is applied to AIRS–Aqua satellite observations in the first extended 3–D study of stratospheric gravity waves over the Southern Ocean during winter. A dynamic environment is revealed that contains some of the most intense gravity wave sources on Earth. A particularly striking result is a large–scale meridional convergence of gravity wave momentum flux towards latitudes near 60 °S, something which is not normally considered in model parameterisations.
Young-Ha Kim, George N. Kiladis, John R. Albers, Juliana Dias, Masatomo Fujiwara, James A. Anstey, In-Sun Song, Corwin J. Wright, Yoshio Kawatani, François Lott, and Changhyun Yoo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10027–10050,Short summary
Reanalyses are widely used products of meteorological variables, generated using observational data and assimilation systems. We compare six modern reanalyses, with focus on their representation of equatorial waves which are important in stratospheric variability and stratosphere–troposphere exchange. Agreement/spreads among the reanalyses in the spectral properties and spatial distributions of the waves are examined, and satellite impacts on the wave representation in reanalyses are discussed.
Franziska Schranz, Brigitte Tschanz, Rolf Rüfenacht, Klemens Hocke, Mathias Palm, and Niklaus Kämpfer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9927–9947,Short summary
The dynamics of the Arctic middle atmosphere above Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (79° N, 12° E) is investigated using 3 years of H2O and O3 measurements from ground-based microwave radiometers. We found the signals of atmospheric phenomena like sudden stratospheric warmings, polar vortex shifts, effective descent rates of water vapour and periodicities in our data. Additionally, a comprehensive intercomparison is performed with models and measurements from ground-based, in situ and satellite instruments.
Noersomadi, Toshitaka Tsuda, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6985–7000,Short summary
Characteristics of static stability (N2) in the tropical tropopause are analyzed using 0.1 km vertical resolution temperature profiles retrieved from COSMIC GNSS-RO. We define the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) by the sharp increase in N2 across the cold point tropopause (CPT) and the thickness of the enhanced peak in N2 just above the CPT. We investigated the TIL at the intraseasonal to interannual timescales above the Maritime Continent and Pacific Ocean with different land–sea distribution.
Corwin J. Wright and Neil P. Hindley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13703–13731,Short summary
Reanalyses (RAs) are models which assimilate observations and are widely used as proxies for the true atmospheric state. Here, we resample six leading RAs using the weighting functions of four high-res satellite instruments, allowing a like-for-like comparison. We find that the RAs generally reproduce the satellite data well, except at high altitudes and in the tropics. However, we also find that the RAs more tightly correlate with each other than with observations, even those they assimilate.
Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Stephen D. Eckermann, Manfred Ern, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Martin Kaufmann, Hermann Oelhaf, Markus Rapp, Cornelia Strube, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14937–14953,Short summary
Using the infrared limb imager GLORIA, the 3-D structure of mesoscale gravity waves in the lower stratosphere was measured for the first time, allowing for a complete 3-D characterization of the waves. This enables the precise determination of the sources of the waves in the mountain regions of Iceland with backward ray tracing. Forward ray tracing shows oblique propagation, an effect generally neglected in global atmospheric models.
Gabriele P. Stiller, Federico Fierli, Felix Ploeger, Chiara Cagnazzo, Bernd Funke, Florian J. Haenel, Thomas Reddmann, Martin Riese, and Thomas von Clarmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11177–11192,Short summary
The discrepancy between modelled and observed 25-year trends of the strength of the stratospheric Brewer–Dobson circulation (BDC) is still not resolved. With our paper we trace the observed hemispheric dipole structure of age of air trends back to natural variability in shorter-term (decadal) time frames. Beyond this we demonstrate that after correction for the decadal natural variability the remaining trend for the first decade of the 21st century is consistent with model simulations.
Corwin J. Wright, Neil P. Hindley, Lars Hoffmann, M. Joan Alexander, and Nicholas J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8553–8575,Short summary
We introduce a novel 3-D method of measuring atmospheric gravity waves, based around a 3-D Stockwell transform. Our method lets us measure new properties, including wave intrinsic frequencies and phase and group velocities. We apply it to data from the AIRS satellite instrument over the Southern Andes for two consecutive winters. Our results show clear evidence that the waves measured are primarily orographic in origin, and that their group velocity vectors are focused into the polar night jet.
Lars Hoffmann, Reinhold Spang, Andrew Orr, M. Joan Alexander, Laura A. Holt, and Olaf Stein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2901–2920,Short summary
We introduce a 10-year record (2003–2012) of AIRS/Aqua observations of gravity waves in the polar lower stratosphere. The data set was optimized to study the impact of gravity waves on the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). We discuss the temporal and spatial patterns of gravity wave activity, validate explicitly resolved small-scale temperature fluctuations in the ECMWF data, and present a survey of gravity-wave-induced PSC formation events using joint AIRS and MIPAS observations.
Asen Grytsai, Andrew Klekociuk, Gennadi Milinevsky, Oleksandr Evtushevsky, and Kane Stone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1741–1758,Short summary
Twenty years ago we discovered that the ozone hole shape is asymmetric. This asymmetry is minimum over the Weddell Sea region and maximum over the Ross Sea area. Later we detected that the position of the ozone minimum is shifting east. We have continued to follow this event, and a couple years ago we revealed that the shift is slowing down and starting to move back. We connect all this movement with ozone hole increase; since 2000 the ozone layer has been stabilizing and recently recovering.
Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, William J. Randel, and Joowan Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 793–806,Short summary
Tropical temperature variability and associated Kelvin-wave activity are investigated from 10 km to 30 km using 13 years of high-resolution observational data. Strongest temperature variability is found in the tropical tropopause region between about 16 km and 20 km, where peaks of Kelvin-wave activity are irregularly distributed in time. Detailed knowledge of dynamical processes in the tropical tropopause region is an essential part of better understanding climate variability and change.
Gloria L. Manney and Zachary D. Lawrence
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15371–15396,Short summary
The 2015/16 Arctic winter stratosphere was the coldest on record through late February, raising the possibility of extensive chemical ozone loss. However, a major final sudden stratospheric warming in early March curtailed ozone destruction. We used Aura MLS satellite trace gas data and MERRA-2 meteorological data to show the details of transport, mixing, and dispersal of chemically processed air during the major final warming, and how these processes limited Arctic chemical ozone loss.
Robin Pilch Kedzierski, Katja Matthes, and Karl Bumke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11617–11633,Short summary
This study provides a detailed overview of the daily variability of the tropopause inversion layer (TIL) in the tropics, where TIL research had focused little. The vertical and horizontal structures of this atmospheric layer are described and linked to near-tropopause horizontal wind divergence, the QBO and especially to equatorial waves. Our results increase the knowledge about the observed properties of the tropical TIL, mainly using satellite GPS radio-occultation measurements.
Manfred Ern, Quang Thai Trinh, Martin Kaufmann, Isabell Krisch, Peter Preusse, Jörn Ungermann, Yajun Zhu, John C. Gille, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell III, Michael J. Schwartz, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9983–10019,Short summary
Sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) influence the atmospheric circulation over a large range of altitudes and latitudes. We investigate the global distribution of small-scale gravity waves (GWs) during SSWs as derived from 13 years of satellite observations. We find that GWs may play an important role for triggering SSWs by preconditioning the polar vortex, as well as during long-lasting vortex recovery phases after SSWs. The GW distribution during SSWs displays strong day-to-day variability.
Lars Hoffmann, Alison W. Grimsdell, and M. Joan Alexander
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9381–9397,Short summary
We present a 12-year record (2003-2014) of stratospheric gravity wave activity at Southern Hemisphere orographic hotspots as observed by the AIRS/Aqua satellite instrument. We introduce a method to discriminate between gravity waves from orographic or other sources and propose a simple model to predict the occurrence of mountain waves using zonal wind thresholds. The prediction model can help to disentangle upper level wind effects from low level source and other influences.
M. Fujiwara, T. Hibino, S. K. Mehta, L. Gray, D. Mitchell, and J. Anstey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13507–13518,Short summary
This paper evaluates the temperature response in the troposphere and the stratosphere to the three major volcanic eruptions between the 1960s and the 1990s by comparing nine reanalysis data sets. It was found that the volcanic temperature response patterns differ among the major eruptions and that in general, more recent reanalysis data sets show a more consistent response pattern.
F. J. Haenel, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, B. Funke, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, U. Grabowski, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, and T. Reddmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13161–13176,Short summary
Stratospheric circulation is thought to change as a consequence of climate change. Empirical evidence, however, is sparse. In this paper we present latitude- and altitude-resolved trends of the mean age of stratospheric air as derived from SF6 measurements performed by the MIPAS satellite instrument. The mean of the age of stratospheric air is a measure of the intensity of the Brewer-Dobson circulation. In this paper we discuss differences with respect to a preceding analysis by Stiller et al.
P. Šácha, A. Kuchař, C. Jacobi, and P. Pišoft
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13097–13112,Short summary
In this study, we present a discovery of an internal gravity wave activity and breaking hotspot collocated with an area of anomalously low annual cycle amplitude and specific dynamics in the stratosphere over the Northeastern Pacific/Eastern Asia coastal region. The reasons why this particular IGW activity hotspot was not discovered before nor the specific dynamics of this region pointed out are discussed together with possible consequences on the middle atmospheric dynamics and transport.
C. J. Wright, S. M. Osprey, and J. C. Gille
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 8459–8477,Short summary
Data from the HIRDLS instrument are used to study the numerical variability of gravity waves. Observed distributions are dominated by long-vertical-short-horizontal-wavelength waves, with a similar spectral form at all locations. We further divide our data into subspecies by wavelength, and investigate variation in these subspecies in time and space. We show that the variations associated with particular phenomena arise due to changes in specific parts of the spectrum.
N. P. Hindley, C. J. Wright, N. D. Smith, and N. J. Mitchell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7797–7818,Short summary
In nearly all GCMs, unresolved gravity wave (GW) drag may cause the southern stratospheric winter polar vortex to break down too late. Here, we characterise GWs in this region of the atmosphere using GPS radio occultation. We find GWs may propagate into the region from other latitudes. We develop a new quantitative wave identification method to learn about regional wave populations. We also find intense GW momentum fluxes over the southern Andes and Antarctic Peninsula GW hot spot.
E. E. Remsberg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3739–3754,Short summary
Time series of the satellite-observed stratospheric tracer, CH4, are analyzed to see whether they indicate a significant trend for the hemispheric Brewer--Dobson circulation (BDC) for 1992-2005. Trends in CH4 for the lower stratosphere are generally positive and equivalent to those of the troposphere. However, the Northern Hemisphere BDC is clearly accelerated in the mid-stratosphere (20 to 7hPa). Corresponding trends for the Southern Hemisphere are smaller and less significant.
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