Articles | Volume 22, issue 11
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The relationship between PM2.5 and anticyclonic wave activity during summer over the United States
College of General Aviation and Flight, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA
now at: BloomSky Inc., Burlingame, CA, USA
Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Y. Wang, X. Yan, and Z. Wang
Ann. Geophys., 31, 995–1004,
Weiming Ma, Hailong Wang, Gang Chen, Yun Qian, Ian Baxter, Yiling Huo, and Mark W. Seefeldt
Extreme warming events with temperatures above 0 °C can occur in the winter high Arctic. Using reanalysis data from 1980–2021, we found that these events occur less than once per winter over most of the impacted regions, typically lasting less than a day. A dipole pressure system, comprising high and low systems, is a key driver of these events. In recent decades, these events have become more frequent, longer-lasting, and stronger, impacting sea ice, the hydrological cycle, and the ecosystem.
María Gonçalves Ageitos, Vincenzo Obiso, Ron L. Miller, Oriol Jorba, Martina Klose, Matt Dawson, Yves Balkanski, Jan Perlwitz, Sara Basart, Enza Di Tomaso, Jerónimo Escribano, Francesca Macchia, Gilbert Montané, Natalie M. Mahowald, Robert O. Green, David R. Thompson, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8623–8657,Short summary
Dust aerosols affect our climate differently depending on their mineral composition. We include dust mineralogy in an atmospheric model considering two existing soil maps, which still have large associated uncertainties. The soil data and the distribution of the minerals in different aerosol sizes are key to our model performance. We find significant regional variations in climate-relevant variables, which supports including mineralogy in our current models and the need for improved soil maps.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Gregory S. Okin, Catherine Prigent, Martina Klose, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Laurent Menut, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, and Marcelo Chamecki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6487–6523,Short summary
Desert dust modeling is important for understanding climate change, as dust regulates the atmosphere's greenhouse effect and radiation. This study formulates and proposes a more physical and realistic desert dust emission scheme for global and regional climate models. By considering more aeolian processes in our emission scheme, our simulations match better against dust observations than existing schemes. We believe this work is vital in improving dust representation in climate models.
Natalie Marie Mahowald, Longlei Li, Samuel Albani, Douglas Stephen Hamilton, and Jasper Kok
Estimating the past aerosol radiative effects and their uncertainties is an important topic in climate science. Aerosol radiative effects propagate into large uncertainties in estimates of how present and future climate evolves with changing greenhouse gas emissions. A deeper understanding of how aerosols interacted with the atmospheric energy budget under past climates is hindered in part by a lack of relevant paleo observations and in part because less attention has been paid to the problem.
Danny M. Leung, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, David M. Lawrence, Simone Tilmes, Erik Kluzek, Martina Klose, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
This study uses a premier Earth system model to evaluate a new desert dust emission scheme proposed in our companion paper. We show that our scheme accounts for more dust emission physics, hence matching better against observations than other existing dust emission schemes do. Our scheme's dust emissions also couple tightly with meteorology, hence likely improving the modeled dust sensitivity to climate change. We believe this work is vital for improving dust representation in climate models.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Jasper F. Kok, Xiaohong Liu, Mingxuan Wu, Danny M. Leung, Douglas S. Hamilton, Louisa K. Emmons, Yue Huang, Neil Sexton, Jun Meng, and Jessica Wan
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 8181–8219,Short summary
This study advances mineral dust parameterizations in the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM; version 6.1). Efforts include 1) incorporating a more physically based dust emission scheme; 2) updating the dry deposition scheme; and 3) revising the gravitational settling velocity to account for dust asphericity. Substantial improvements achieved with these updates can help accurately quantify dust–climate interactions using CAM, such as the dust-radiation and dust–cloud interactions.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Money Ossohou, and Corinne Galy-Lacaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1883–1904,Short summary
Ammonia is one of the main components of nitrogen deposition. Here we use a new model to assess the ammonia emissions from agriculture, the largest anthropogenic source of ammonia. The model results are consistent with earlier estimates over industrialized regions in agreement with observations. However, the model predicts much higher emissions over sub-Saharan Africa compared to earlier estimates. Available observations from surface stations and satellites support these higher emissions.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Danny M. Leung, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, Jessica S. Wan, and Chloe A. Whicker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8127–8167,Short summary
Desert dust interacts with virtually every component of the Earth system, including the climate system. We develop a new methodology to represent the global dust cycle that integrates observational constraints on the properties and abundance of desert dust with global atmospheric model simulations. We show that the resulting representation of the global dust cycle is more accurate than what can be obtained from a large number of current climate global atmospheric models.
Jasper F. Kok, Adeyemi A. Adebiyi, Samuel Albani, Yves Balkanski, Ramiro Checa-Garcia, Mian Chin, Peter R. Colarco, Douglas S. Hamilton, Yue Huang, Akinori Ito, Martina Klose, Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Vincenzo Obiso, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Adriana Rocha-Lima, and Jessica S. Wan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8169–8193,Short summary
The many impacts of dust on the Earth system depend on dust mineralogy, which varies between dust source regions. We constrain the contribution of the world’s main dust source regions by integrating dust observations with global model simulations. We find that Asian dust contributes more and that North African dust contributes less than models account for. We obtain a dataset of each source region’s contribution to the dust cycle that can be used to constrain dust impacts on the Earth system.
Longlei Li, Natalie M. Mahowald, Ron L. Miller, Carlos Pérez García-Pando, Martina Klose, Douglas S. Hamilton, Maria Gonçalves Ageitos, Paul Ginoux, Yves Balkanski, Robert O. Green, Olga Kalashnikova, Jasper F. Kok, Vincenzo Obiso, David Paynter, and David R. Thompson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3973–4005,Short summary
For the first time, this study quantifies the range of the dust direct radiative effect due to uncertainty in the soil mineral abundance using all currently available information. We show that the majority of the estimated direct radiative effect range is due to uncertainty in the simulated mass fractions of iron oxides and thus their soil abundance, which is independent of the model employed. We therefore prove the necessity of considering mineralogy for understanding dust–climate interactions.
Julius Vira, Peter Hess, Jeff Melkonian, and William R. Wieder
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 4459–4490,Short summary
Mostly emitted by the agricultural sector, ammonia has an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We developed a model to simulate how ammonia emissions respond to changes in temperature and soil moisture, and we evaluated agricultural ammonia emissions globally. The simulated emissions agree with earlier estimates over many regions, but the results highlight the variability of ammonia emissions and suggest that emissions in warm climates may be higher than previously thought.
Wenxiu Sun, Peter Hess, Gang Chen, and Simone Tilmes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12917–12933,Short summary
Using both observations and a chemistry climate–model we establish that in most locations changes in the waviness of the 500 hPa flow field, as measured by the local anticyclonic wave activity (AWA), explain a significant fraction of the interannual variability in surface ozone over the United States. In addition, we find that the change in AWA in a future climate (circa 2100) is predicted to cause a change in surface ozone ranging between –6 ppb and 6 ppb.
Douglas S. Hamilton, Rachel A. Scanza, Yan Feng, Joseph Guinness, Jasper F. Kok, Longlei Li, Xiaohong Liu, Sagar D. Rathod, Jessica S. Wan, Mingxuan Wu, and Natalie M. Mahowald
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 3835–3862,Short summary
MIMI v1.0 was designed for use within Earth system models to simulate the 3-D emission, atmospheric processing, and deposition of iron and its soluble fraction. Understanding the iron cycle is important due to its role as an essential micronutrient for ocean phytoplankton; its supply limits primary productivity in many of the world's oceans. Human activity has perturbed the iron cycle, and MIMI is capable of diagnosing many of these impacts; hence, it is important for future climate studies.
Susan J. Cheng, Peter G. Hess, William R. Wieder, R. Quinn Thomas, Knute J. Nadelhoffer, Julius Vira, Danica L. Lombardozzi, Per Gundersen, Ivan J. Fernandez, Patrick Schleppi, Marie-Cécile Gruselle, Filip Moldan, and Christine L. Goodale
Biogeosciences, 16, 2771–2793,Short summary
Nitrogen deposition and fertilizer can change how much carbon is stored in plants and soils. Understanding how much added nitrogen is recovered in plants or soils is critical to estimating the size of the future land carbon sink. We compared how nitrogen additions are recovered in modeled soil and plant stocks against data from long-term nitrogen addition experiments. We found that the model simulates recovery of added nitrogen into soils through a different process than found in the field.
George S. Fanourgakis, Maria Kanakidou, Athanasios Nenes, Susanne E. Bauer, Tommi Bergman, Ken S. Carslaw, Alf Grini, Douglas S. Hamilton, Jill S. Johnson, Vlassis A. Karydis, Alf Kirkevåg, John K. Kodros, Ulrike Lohmann, Gan Luo, Risto Makkonen, Hitoshi Matsui, David Neubauer, Jeffrey R. Pierce, Julia Schmale, Philip Stier, Kostas Tsigaridis, Twan van Noije, Hailong Wang, Duncan Watson-Parris, Daniel M. Westervelt, Yang Yang, Masaru Yoshioka, Nikos Daskalakis, Stefano Decesari, Martin Gysel-Beer, Nikos Kalivitis, Xiaohong Liu, Natalie M. Mahowald, Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Roland Schrödner, Maria Sfakianaki, Alexandra P. Tsimpidi, Mingxuan Wu, and Fangqun Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8591–8617,Short summary
Effects of aerosols on clouds are important for climate studies but are among the largest uncertainties in climate projections. This study evaluates the skill of global models to simulate aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNCs). Model results show reduced spread in CDNC compared to CCN due to the negative correlation between the sensitivities of CDNC to aerosol number concentration (air pollution) and updraft velocity (atmospheric dynamics).
Stelios Myriokefalitakis, Akinori Ito, Maria Kanakidou, Athanasios Nenes, Maarten C. Krol, Natalie M. Mahowald, Rachel A. Scanza, Douglas S. Hamilton, Matthew S. Johnson, Nicholas Meskhidze, Jasper F. Kok, Cecile Guieu, Alex R. Baker, Timothy D. Jickells, Manmohan M. Sarin, Srinivas Bikkina, Rachel Shelley, Andrew Bowie, Morgane M. G. Perron, and Robert A. Duce
Biogeosciences, 15, 6659–6684,Short summary
The first atmospheric iron (Fe) deposition model intercomparison is presented in this study, as a result of the deliberations of the United Nations Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection (GESAMP; http://www.gesamp.org/) Working Group 38. We conclude that model diversity over remote oceans reflects uncertainty in the Fe content parameterizations of dust aerosols, combustion aerosol emissions and the size distribution of transported aerosol Fe.
Arlene M. Fiore, Emily V. Fischer, George P. Milly, Shubha Pandey Deolal, Oliver Wild, Daniel A. Jaffe, Johannes Staehelin, Olivia E. Clifton, Dan Bergmann, William Collins, Frank Dentener, Ruth M. Doherty, Bryan N. Duncan, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Peter G. Hess, Larry W. Horowitz, Alexandru Lupu, Ian A. MacKenzie, Rokjin Park, Ludwig Ries, Michael G. Sanderson, Martin G. Schultz, Drew T. Shindell, Martin Steinbacher, David S. Stevenson, Sophie Szopa, Christoph Zellweger, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15345–15361,Short summary
We demonstrate a proof-of-concept approach for applying northern midlatitude mountaintop peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN) measurements and a multi-model ensemble during April to constrain the influence of continental-scale anthropogenic precursor emissions on PAN. Our findings imply a role for carefully coordinated multi-model ensembles in helping identify observations for discriminating among widely varying (and poorly constrained) model responses of atmospheric constituents to changes in emissions.
Rachel A. Scanza, Douglas S. Hamilton, Carlos Perez Garcia-Pando, Clifton Buck, Alex Baker, and Natalie M. Mahowald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14175–14196,Short summary
Soluble iron input to remote oceans from dust and combustion aerosols may significantly impact the ability of the ocean to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In this paper, the processing of insoluble iron during atmospheric transport is simulated using parameterizations that can be implemented in most Earth system models. Our mechanism reasonably matches observations and is computationally efficient, enabling the study of trends and climate impacts due to the Fe–C cycle.
Pakawat Phalitnonkiat, Peter G. M. Hess, Mircea D. Grigoriu, Gennady Samorodnitsky, Wenxiu Sun, Ellie Beaudry, Simone Tilmes, Makato Deushi, Beatrice Josse, David Plummer, and Kengo Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11927–11948,Short summary
The co-occurrence of heat waves and pollution events and the resulting high mortality rates emphasize the importance of the co-occurrence of pollution and temperature extremes. We analyze ozone and temperature extremes and their joint occurrence over the United States during the summer months (JJA) in measurement data and in model simulations of the present and future climates.
Masa Kageyama, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Alan M. Haywood, Johann H. Jungclaus, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Chris Brierley, Michel Crucifix, Aisling Dolan, Laura Fernandez-Donado, Hubertus Fischer, Peter O. Hopcroft, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Fabrice Lambert, Daniel J. Lunt, Natalie M. Mahowald, W. Richard Peltier, Steven J. Phipps, Didier M. Roche, Gavin A. Schmidt, Lev Tarasov, Paul J. Valdes, Qiong Zhang, and Tianjun Zhou
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 1033–1057,Short summary
The Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) takes advantage of the existence of past climate states radically different from the recent past to test climate models used for climate projections and to better understand these climates. This paper describes the PMIP contribution to CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, 6th phase) and possible analyses based on PMIP results, as well as on other CMIP6 projects.
Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Daniel J. Lunt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Emilie Capron, Anders E. Carlson, Andrea Dutton, Hubertus Fischer, Heiko Goelzer, Aline Govin, Alan Haywood, Fortunat Joos, Allegra N. LeGrande, William H. Lipscomb, Gerrit Lohmann, Natalie Mahowald, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Francesco S. R. Pausata, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Steven J. Phipps, Hans Renssen, and Qiong Zhang
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 3979–4003,Short summary
The PMIP4 and CMIP6 mid-Holocene and Last Interglacial simulations provide an opportunity to examine the impact of two different changes in insolation forcing on climate at times when other forcings were relatively similar to present. This will allow exploration of the role of feedbacks relevant to future projections. Evaluating these simulations using paleoenvironmental data will provide direct out-of-sample tests of the reliability of state-of-the-art models to simulate climate changes.
Masa Kageyama, Samuel Albani, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Peter O. Hopcroft, Ruza F. Ivanovic, Fabrice Lambert, Olivier Marti, W. Richard Peltier, Jean-Yves Peterschmitt, Didier M. Roche, Lev Tarasov, Xu Zhang, Esther C. Brady, Alan M. Haywood, Allegra N. LeGrande, Daniel J. Lunt, Natalie M. Mahowald, Uwe Mikolajewicz, Kerim H. Nisancioglu, Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Hans Renssen, Robert A. Tomas, Qiong Zhang, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Patrick J. Bartlein, Jian Cao, Qiang Li, Gerrit Lohmann, Rumi Ohgaito, Xiaoxu Shi, Evgeny Volodin, Kohei Yoshida, Xiao Zhang, and Weipeng Zheng
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4035–4055,Short summary
The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21000 years ago) is an interval when global ice volume was at a maximum, eustatic sea level close to a minimum, greenhouse gas concentrations were lower, atmospheric aerosol loadings were higher than today, and vegetation and land-surface characteristics were different from today. This paper describes the implementation of the LGM numerical experiment for the PMIP4-CMIP6 modelling intercomparison projects and the associated sensitivity experiments.
Molly B. Smith, Natalie M. Mahowald, Samuel Albani, Aaron Perry, Remi Losno, Zihan Qu, Beatrice Marticorena, David A. Ridley, and Colette L. Heald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3253–3278,Short summary
Using different meteorology reanalyses to drive dust in climate modeling can produce dissimilar global dust distributions, especially in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). It may therefore not be advisable for SH dust studies to base results on simulations driven by one reanalysis. Northern Hemisphere dust varies mostly on seasonal timescales, while SH dust varies on interannual timescales. Dust is an important part of climate modeling, and we hope this contributes to understanding these simulations.
Bette L. Otto-Bliesner, Pascale Braconnot, Sandy P. Harrison, Daniel J. Lunt, Ayako Abe-Ouchi, Samuel Albani, Patrick J. Bartlein, Emilie Capron, Anders E. Carlson, Andrea Dutton, Hubertus Fischer, Heiko Goelzer, Aline Govin, Alan Haywood, Fortunat Joos, Allegra N. Legrande, William H. Lipscomb, Gerrit Lohmann, Natalie Mahowald, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Jean-Yves Peterschmidt, Francesco S.-R. Pausata, Steven Phipps, and Hans Renssen
Clim. Past Discuss.,
Robert Raiswell, Jon R. Hawkings, Liane G. Benning, Alex R. Baker, Ros Death, Samuel Albani, Natalie Mahowald, Michael D. Krom, Simon W. Poulton, Jemma Wadham, and Martyn Tranter
Biogeosciences, 13, 3887–3900,Short summary
Iron is an essential nutrient for plankton growth. One important source of iron is wind-blown dust. The polar oceans are remote from dust sources but melting icebergs supply sediment that contains iron which is potentially available to plankton. We show that iceberg sediments contain more potentially bioavailable iron than wind-blown dust. Iceberg sources will become increasingly important with climate change and increased plankton growth can remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Stuart Riddick, Daniel Ward, Peter Hess, Natalie Mahowald, Raia Massad, and Elisabeth Holland
Biogeosciences, 13, 3397–3426,Short summary
Future increases are predicted in the amount of nitrogen produced as manure or used as synthetic fertilizer in agriculture. However, the impact of climate on the subsequent fate of this nitrogen has not been evaluated. Here we describe, analyze and evaluate the FAN (flows of agricultural nitrogen) process model that simulates the the climate-dependent flows of nitrogen from agriculture. The FAN model is suitable for use within a global terrestrial climate model.
Natalie Mahowald, Fiona Lo, Yun Zheng, Laura Harrison, Chris Funk, Danica Lombardozzi, and Christine Goodale
Earth Syst. Dynam., 7, 211–229,Short summary
This paper evaluates the model predictions of leaf area index in the current climate, compared against satellite observations. It also summarizes the predicted changes in leaf area index in the future, and identifies whether some of the uncertainty in future predictions can be decreased.
J. Müller, R. Paudel, C. A. Shoemaker, J. Woodbury, Y. Wang, and N. Mahowald
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 3285–3310,Short summary
We tune the CH4-related parameters of the Community Land Model (CLM) using surrogate global optimization in order to reduce the discrepancies between the CLM predictions and observed CH4 emissions. This is the first application of a surrogate optimization method to calibrate a global climate model. We found that the observation data drives the model to predict more CH4 emissions in the northern latitudes and less in the tropics.
Y. Zhang, N. Mahowald, R. A. Scanza, E. Journet, K. Desboeufs, S. Albani, J. F. Kok, G. Zhuang, Y. Chen, D. D. Cohen, A. Paytan, M. D. Patey, E. P. Achterberg, J. P. Engelbrecht, and K. W. Fomba
Biogeosciences, 12, 5771–5792,Short summary
A new technique to determine a size-fractionated global soil elemental emission inventory based on a global soil and mineralogical data set is introduced. Spatial variability of mineral dust elemental fractions (8 elements, e.g., Ca, Fe, Al) is identified on a global scale, particularly for Ca. The Ca/Al ratio ranged between 0.1 and 5.0 and is confirmed as an indicator of dust source regions by a global dust model. Total and soluble dust element fluxes into different ocean basins are estimated.
L. Meng, R. Paudel, P. G. M. Hess, and N. M. Mahowald
Biogeosciences, 12, 4029–4049,
S. Albani, N. M. Mahowald, G. Winckler, R. F. Anderson, L. I. Bradtmiller, B. Delmonte, R. François, M. Goman, N. G. Heavens, P. P. Hesse, S. A. Hovan, S. G. Kang, K. E. Kohfeld, H. Lu, V. Maggi, J. A. Mason, P. A. Mayewski, D. McGee, X. Miao, B. L. Otto-Bliesner, A. T. Perry, A. Pourmand, H. M. Roberts, N. Rosenbloom, T. Stevens, and J. Sun
Clim. Past, 11, 869–903,Short summary
We propose an innovative framework to organize paleodust records, formalized in a publicly accessible database, and discuss the emerging properties of the global dust cycle during the Holocene by integrating our analysis with simulations performed with the Community Earth System Model. We show how the size distribution of dust is intrinsically related to the dust mass accumulation rates and that only considering a consistent size range allows for a consistent analysis of the global dust cycle.
D. S. Ward and N. M. Mahowald
Earth Syst. Dynam., 6, 175–194,Short summary
The radiative forcing of land use and land cover change activities has recently been computed for a set of forcing agents including long-lived greenhouse gases, short-lived agents (ozone and aerosols), and land surface albedo change. Here we address where the global forcing comes from and what land use activities, such as deforestation or agriculture, contribute the most forcing. We find that changes in forest and crop area can be used to predict the land use radiative forcing in some regions.
P. Hess, D. Kinnison, and Q. Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 2341–2365,Short summary
Using a series of model simulations, we find that at widespread NH extratropical locations, interannual tropospheric ozone variability is largely determined by the transport of ozone from the stratosphere. This has implications in the interpretation of measured tropospheric ozone variability in light of changes in the emissions of ozone precursors and in the response of tropospheric ozone to climate change.
R. A. Scanza, N. Mahowald, S. Ghan, C. S. Zender, J. F. Kok, X. Liu, Y. Zhang, and S. Albani
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 537–561,Short summary
The main purpose of this study was to build a framework in the Community Atmosphere Models version 4 and 5 within the Community Earth System Model to simulate dust aerosols as their component minerals. With this framework, we investigate the direct radiative forcing that results from the mineral speciation. We find that adding mineralogy results in a small positive forcing at the top of the atmosphere, while simulations without mineralogy have a small negative forcing.
J. F. Kok, N. M. Mahowald, G. Fratini, J. A. Gillies, M. Ishizuka, J. F. Leys, M. Mikami, M.-S. Park, S.-U. Park, R. S. Van Pelt, and T. M. Zobeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13023–13041,Short summary
We developed an improved model for the emission of dust particulates ("aerosols") emitted by wind erosion from the world's deserts. The implementation of our improved dust emission model into a climate model improves its agreement against measurements. We furthermore find that dust emissions are substantially more sensitive to the soil state than most current climate models account for.
D. S. Ward, N. M. Mahowald, and S. Kloster
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12701–12724,Short summary
While climate change mitigation policy often focuses on the energy sector, we find that 40% of the historical human-caused change in the Earth’s radiative balance can be attributed to land use activities, such as deforestation and agriculture. Since pressure on land resources is expected to increase, we compute a theoretical upper bound on the radiative balance impacts from future land use which suggests that both energy policy and land policy are necessary to minimize future climate change.
W. Sun, P. Hess, and B. Tian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11775–11790,
B. Foereid, D. S. Ward, N. Mahowald, E. Paterson, and J. Lehmann
Earth Syst. Dynam., 5, 211–221,
S. K. Clark, D. S. Ward, and N. M. Mahowald
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Y. Wang, X. Yan, and Z. Wang
Ann. Geophys., 31, 995–1004,
D. A. Belikov, S. Maksyutov, M. Krol, A. Fraser, M. Rigby, H. Bian, A. Agusti-Panareda, D. Bergmann, P. Bousquet, P. Cameron-Smith, M. P. Chipperfield, A. Fortems-Cheiney, E. Gloor, K. Haynes, P. Hess, S. Houweling, S. R. Kawa, R. M. Law, Z. Loh, L. Meng, P. I. Palmer, P. K. Patra, R. G. Prinn, R. Saito, and C. Wilson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 1093–1114,
L. K. Emmons, P. G. Hess, J.-F. Lamarque, and G. G. Pfister
Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1531–1542,
Related subject area
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and nighttimeFormation of highly oxygenated organic molecules from the oxidation of limonene by OH radical: significant contribution of H-abstraction pathwayMeasurement report: Atmospheric aging of combustion-derived particles – impact on stable free radical concentration and its ability to produce reactive oxygen species in aqueous mediaPhotoaging of phenolic secondary organic aerosol in the aqueous phase: evolution of chemical and optical properties and effects of oxidantsGas-particle partitioning of toluene oxidation products: an experimental and modeling studyAn intercomparison study of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticlesLow Temperature Ice Nucleation of Sea Spray and Secondary Marine Aerosols under Cirrus Cloud ConditionsVariability in grain size, mineralogy, and mode of occurrence of Fe in surface sediments of preferential dust-source inland drainage basins: The case of the Lower Drâa Valley, S MoroccoSimultaneous formation of sulfate and nitrate via co-uptake of SO2 and NO2 by aqueous NaCl droplets: combined effect of nitrate photolysis and chlorine chemistryPhoto-induced shrinking of aqueous glycine aerosol dropletsSeasonal variations in photooxidant formation and light absorption in aqueous extracts of ambient particlesSulfate formation via aerosol-phase SO2 oxidation by model biomass burning photosensitizers: 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, vanillin and syringaldehyde using single-particle mixing-state analysisYields and molecular composition of gas-phase and secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of the volatile consumer product benzyl alcohol: formation of highly oxygenated and hydroxy nitro-aromatic compoundsA combined gas- and particle-phase analysis of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysisComparison of aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) product distributions from guaiacol oxidation by non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers in the absence and presence of ammonium nitrateTechnical note: Chemical composition and source identification of fluorescent components in atmospheric water-soluble brown carbon by excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis – potential limitations and applicationsInsoluble lipid film mediates transfer of soluble saccharides from the sea to the atmosphere: the role of hydrogen bondingMagnetic fraction of the atmospheric dust in Kraków – physicochemical characteristics and possible environmental impactModeling daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol formation via multiphase reactions of biogenic hydrocarbonsSO2 enhances aerosol formation from anthropogenic volatile organic compound ozonolysis by producing sulfur-containing compoundsIsothermal evaporation of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol particles formed under low NOx and high NOx conditionsChemical characterization of organic compounds involved in iodine-initiated new particle formation from coastal macroalgal emissionThe Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 2: Unraveling the relationship between soil dust composition and ice nucleation activityWinter brown carbon over six of China's megacities: light absorption, molecular characterization, and improved source apportionment revealed by multilayer perceptron neural networkChamber investigation of the formation and transformation of secondary organic aerosol in mixtures of biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsNot all types of secondary organic aerosol mix: two phases observed when mixing different secondary organic aerosol typesComprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from heavy-duty diesel vehicles using two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry
Jun Zhang, Kun Li, Tiantian Wang, Erlend Gammelsæter, Rico K. Y. Cheung, Mihnea Surdu, Sophie Bogler, Deepika Bhattu, Dongyu S. Wang, Tianqu Cui, Lu Qi, Houssni Lamkaddam, Imad El Haddad, Jay G. Slowik, Andre S. H. Prevot, and David M. Bell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14561–14576,Short summary
We conducted burning experiments to simulate various types of solid fuel combustion, including residential burning, wildfires, agricultural burning, cow dung, and plastic bag burning. The chemical composition of the particles was characterized using mass spectrometers, and new potential markers for different fuels were identified using statistical analysis. This work improves our understanding of emissions from solid fuel burning and offers support for refined source apportionment.
Hyun Gu Kang, Yanfang Chen, Yoojin Park, Thomas Berkemeier, and Hwajin Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14307–14323,Short summary
D5 is an emerging anthropogenic pollutant that is ubiquitous in indoor and urban environments, and the OH oxidation of D5 forms secondary organosiloxane aerosol (SOSiA). Application of a kinetic box model that uses a volatility basis set (VBS) showed that consideration of oxidative aging (aging-VBS) predicts SOSiA formation much better than using a standard-VBS model. Ageing-dependent parameterization is needed to accurately model SOSiA to assess the implications of siloxanes for air quality.
Kai Song, Rongzhi Tang, Jingshun Zhang, Zichao Wan, Yuan Zhang, Kun Hu, Yuanzheng Gong, Daqi Lv, Sihua Lu, Yu Tan, Ruifeng Zhang, Ang Li, Shuyuan Yan, Shichao Yan, Baoming Fan, Wenfei Zhu, Chak K. Chan, Maosheng Yao, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13585–13595,Short summary
Incense burning is common in Asia, posing threats to human health and air quality. However, less is known about its emissions and health risks. Full-volatility organic species from incense-burning smoke are detected and quantified. Intermediate-volatility volatile organic compounds (IVOCs) are crucial organics accounting for 19.2 % of the total emission factors (EFs) and 40.0 % of the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) estimation, highlighting the importance of incorporating IVOCs into SOA models.
Qianqian Gao, Shengqiang Zhu, Kaili Zhou, Jinghao Zhai, Shaodong Chen, Qihuang Wang, Shurong Wang, Jin Han, Xiaohui Lu, Hong Chen, Liwu Zhang, Lin Wang, Zimeng Wang, Xin Yang, Qi Ying, Hongliang Zhang, Jianmin Chen, and Xiaofei Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13049–13060,Short summary
Dust is a major source of atmospheric aerosols. Its chemical composition is often assumed to be similar to the parent soil. However, this assumption has not been rigorously verified. Dust aerosols are mainly generated by wind erosion, which may have some chemical selectivity. Mn, Cd and Pb were found to be highly enriched in fine-dust (PM2.5) aerosols. In addition, estimation of heavy metal emissions from dust generation by air quality models may have errors without using proper dust profiles.
Daniel C. O. Thornton, Sarah D. Brooks, Elise K. Wilbourn, Jessica Mirrielees, Alyssa N. Alsante, Gerardo Gold-Bouchot, Andrew Whitesell, and Kiana McFadden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12707–12729,Short summary
A major uncertainty in our understanding of clouds and climate is the sources and properties of the aerosol on which clouds grow. We found that aerosol containing organic matter from fast-growing marine phytoplankton was a source of ice-nucleating particles (INPs). INPs facilitate freezing of ice crystals at warmer temperatures than otherwise possible and therefore change cloud formation and properties. Our results show that ecosystem processes and the properties of sea spray aerosol are linked.
Adam Milsom, Shaojun Qi, Ashmi Mishra, Thomas Berkemeier, Zhenyu Zhang, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10835–10843,Short summary
Aerosols and films are found indoors and outdoors. Our study measures and models reactions of a cooking aerosol proxy with the atmospheric oxidant ozone relying on a low-cost but sensitive technique based on mass changes and film rigidity. We found that film morphology changed and film rigidity increased with evidence of surface crust formation during ozone exposure. Our modelling results demonstrate clear potential to take this robust method to the field for reaction monitoring.
Shan Zhang, Lin Du, Zhaomin Yang, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Kun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10809–10822,Short summary
In this study, we have investigated the distinct impacts of humidity on the ozonolysis of two structurally different monoterpenes (limonene and Δ3-carene). We found that the molecular structure of precursors can largely influence the SOA formation under high RH by impacting the multi-generation reactions. Our results could advance knowledge on the roles of water content in aerosol formation and inform ongoing research on particle environmental effects and applications in models.
Junting Qiu, Xinlin Shen, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
To expand source of N-containing compounds, we studied reaction of secondary ozonides (SOZs) with amines. SOZs formed from ozonolysis of β-caryophyllene and α-humulene are found reactive to ethylamine and methylamine. Products from SOZs with various conformations reacting with same amine had different functional groups. Our findings indicate interaction of SOZs with amines in atmosphere is very complicated, that is potentially a hitherto unrecognized source of N-containing compound formation.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Steven Sai Hang Ho, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Open burning of municipal solid waste emits a variety of chemical species that are harmful to the environment. This paper reports source profiles and emission factors for PM2.5 species as well as acidic and alkali gases measured from laboratory combustion of ten waste categories that represent open burning in South Africa. Results will be useful for health and climate impact assessments, speciated emission inventories, source-oriented dispersion models, and receptor-based source apportionment.
Yangzhihao Zhan, Min Xie, Wei Zhao, Tijian Wang, Da Gao, Pulong Chen, Jun Tian, Kuanguang Zhu, Shu Li, Bingliang Zhuang, Mengmeng Li, Yi Luo, and Runqi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9837–9852,Short summary
Although the main source contribution of pollution is secondary inorganic aerosols in Nanjing, health risks mainly come from industry sources and vehicle emissions. Therefore, the development of megacities should pay more attention to the health burden of vehicle emissions, coal combustion, and industrial processes. This study provides new insight into assessing the relationship between source apportionment and health risks and can provide valuable insight into air pollution strategies.
Jonathan P. D. Abbatt and A. R. Ravishankara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9765–9785,Short summary
With important climate and air quality impacts, atmospheric multiphase chemistry involves gas interactions with aerosol particles and cloud droplets. We summarize the status of the field and discuss potential directions for future growth. We highlight the importance of a molecular-level understanding of the chemistry, along with atmospheric field studies and modeling, and emphasize the necessity for atmospheric multiphase chemists to interact widely with scientists from neighboring disciplines.
Zhancong Liang, Zhihao Cheng, Ruifeng Zhang, Yiming Qin, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9585–9595,Short summary
In this study, we found that the photolysis of sodium nitrate leads to a much quicker decay of free amino acids (FAAs, with glycine as an example) in the particle phase than ammonium nitrate photolysis, which is likely due to the molecular interactions between FAAs and different nitrate salts. Since sodium nitrate likely co-exists with FAAs in the coarse-mode particles, particulate nitrate photolysis can possibly contribute to a rapid decay of FAAs and affect atmospheric nitrogen cycling.
Matthew B. Goss and Jesse H. Kroll
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidizes in the marine atmosphere to form a major source of sulfate particles, but the chemistry that drives this process is poorly constrained. We oxidized two related compounds (dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethyl disulfide) in the laboratory and measured the gas- and particle-phase products. These results demonstrate that both the OH addition and OH abstraction pathways for DMS oxidation contribute to rapid particle formation (not proceeding through SO2 oxidation).
Julian Resch, Kate Wolfer, Alexandre Barth, and Markus Kalberer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9161–9171,Short summary
Detailed chemical analysis of organic aerosols is necessary to better understand their effects on climate and health. Aerosol samples are often stored for days to months before analysis. We examined the effects of storage conditions (i.e., time, temperature, and aerosol storage on filters or as solvent extracts) on composition and found significant changes in the concentration of individual compounds, indicating that sample storage can strongly affect the detailed chemical particle composition.
Bartłomiej Witkowski, Priyanka Jain, Beata Wileńska, and Tomasz Gierczak
This article reports the results of the kinetic measurements for the aqueous oxidation of the 28 aliphatic alcohols by hydroxyl radical (OH) at different temperatures. The data acquired and the literature data were used to optimize a model for predicting the aqueous OH reactivity of alcohols and carboxylic acids and to estimate the atmospheric lifetimes of five terpenoic alcohols. The kinetic data provided new insights into the mechanism of aqueous oxidation of aliphatic molecules by the OH.
Xiaoliang Wang, Hatef Firouzkouhi, Judith C. Chow, John G. Watson, Warren Carter, and Alexandra S. M. De Vos
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8921–8937,Short summary
Open burning of household and municipal solid waste is a common practice in developing countries and is a significant source of air pollution. However, few studies have measured emissions from open burning of waste. This study determined gas and particulate emissions from open burning of 10 types of household solid-waste materials. These results can improve emission inventories, air quality management, and assessment of the health and climate effects of open burning of household waste.
Anita M. Avery, Mariam Fawaz, Leah R. Williams, Tami Bond, and Timothy B. Onasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8837–8854,Short summary
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of fuels like wood which occurs during combustion or as an isolated process. During combustion, some pyrolysis products are emitted directly, while others are oxidized in the combustion process. This work describes the chemical composition of particle-phase pyrolysis products in order to investigate both the uncombusted emissions from wildfires and the fuel that participates in combustion.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Chrystal Guzman, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8805–8821,Short summary
Although photooxidants are important in airborne particles, little is known of their concentrations. By measuring oxidants in a series of particle dilutions, we predict their concentrations in aerosol liquid water (ALW). We find •OH concentrations in ALW are on the order of 10−15 M, similar to their cloud/fog values, while oxidizing triplet excited states and singlet molecular oxygen have ALW values of ca. 10−13 M and 10−12 M, respectively, roughly 10–100 times higher than in cloud/fog drops.
Daniel A. Knopf, Peiwen Wang, Benny Wong, Jay M. Tomlin, Daniel P. Veghte, Nurun N. Lata, Swarup China, Alexander Laskin, Ryan C. Moffet, Josephine Y. Aller, Matthew A. Marcus, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8659–8681,Short summary
Ambient particle populations and associated ice-nucleating particles (INPs) were examined from particle samples collected on board aircraft in the marine boundary layer and free troposphere in the eastern North Atlantic during summer and winter. Chemical imaging shows distinct differences in the particle populations seasonally and with sampling altitudes, which are reflected in the INP types. Freezing parameterizations are derived for implementation in cloud-resolving and climate models.
Dandan Liu, Yun Zhang, Shujun Zhong, Shuang Chen, Qiaorong Xie, Donghuan Zhang, Qiang Zhang, Wei Hu, Junjun Deng, Libin Wu, Chao Ma, Haijie Tong, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8383–8402,Short summary
Based on ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis, we found that β-pinene oxidation-derived highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) exhibit higher yield at high ozone concentration, while limonene oxidation-derived HOMs exhibit higher yield at moderate ozone concentration. The distinct molecular response of HOMs and low-volatile species in different biogenic secondary organic aerosols to ozone concentrations provides a new clue for more accurate air quality prediction and management.
Mengying Bao, Yan-Lin Zhang, Fang Cao, Yihang Hong, Yu-Chi Lin, Mingyuan Yu, Hongxing Jiang, Zhineng Cheng, Rongshuang Xu, and Xiaoying Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8305–8324,Short summary
The interaction between the sources and molecular compositions of humic-like substances (HULIS) at Nanjing, China, was explored. Significant fossil fuel source contributions to HULIS were found in the 14C results from biomass burnng and traffic emissions. Increasing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products and anthropogenic aromatic compounds were detected in summer and winter, respectively.
Molly Frauenheim, Jason D. Surratt, Zhenfa Zhang, and Avram Gold
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7859–7866,Short summary
We report synthesis of the isoprene-derived photochemical oxidation products trans- and cis-β-epoxydiols in high overall yields from inexpensive, readily available starting compounds. Protection/deprotection steps or time-consuming purification is not required, and the reactions can be scaled up to gram quantities. The procedures provide accessibility of these important compounds to atmospheric chemistry laboratories with only basic capabilities in organic synthesis.
Xiangyun Zhang, Jun Li, Sanyuan Zhu, Junwen Liu, Ping Ding, Shutao Gao, Chongguo Tian, Yingjun Chen, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7495–7502,Short summary
The results show that 14C elemental carbon (EC) was not only related to the isolation method but also to the types and proportions of the biomass sources in the sample. The hydropyrolysis (Hypy) method, which can be used to isolate a highly stable portion of ECHypy and avoid charring, is a more effective and stable approach for the matrix-independent 14C quantification of EC in aerosols, and the 13C–ECHypy and non-fossil ECHypy values of SRM1649b were –24.9 ‰ and 11 %, respectively.
Amir Yazdani, Satoshi Takahama, John K. Kodros, Marco Paglione, Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, Spiro D. Jorga, Spyros N. Pandis, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7461–7477,Short summary
Organic aerosols directly emitted from wood and pellet stove combustion are found to chemically transform (approximately 15 %–35 % by mass) under daytime aging conditions simulated in an environmental chamber. A new marker for lignin-like compounds is found to degrade at a different rate than previously identified biomass burning markers and can potentially provide indication of aging time in ambient samples.
Hao Luo, Luc Vereecken, Hongru Shen, Sungah Kang, Iida Pullinen, Mattias Hallquist, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Wahner, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Thomas F. Mentel, and Defeng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7297–7319,Short summary
Oxidation of limonene, an element emitted by trees and chemical products, by OH, a daytime oxidant, forms many highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), including C10-20 compounds. HOMs play an important role in new particle formation and growth. HOM formation can be explained by the chemistry of peroxy radicals. We found that a minor branching ratio initial pathway plays an unexpected, significant role. Considering this pathway enables accurate simulations of HOMs and other concentrations.
Heather L. Runberg and Brian J. Majestic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7213–7223,Short summary
Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFRs in the soot were measured and found to be unchanged. However, it was also found that the ability of soot to form hydroxyl radicals was stronger for fresh soot.
Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Cort Anastasio, and Qi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7103–7120,Short summary
We studied how aqueous-phase secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) form and evolve from a phenolic carbonyl commonly present in biomass burning smoke. The composition and optical properties of the aqSOA are significantly affected by photochemical reactions and are dependent on the oxidants' concentration and identity in water. During photoaging, the aqSOA initially becomes darker, but prolonged aging leads to the formation of volatile products, resulting in significant mass loss and photobleaching.
Victor Lannuque, Barbara D'Anna, Evangelia Kostenidou, Florian Couvidat, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Philipp Eichler, Armin Wisthaler, Markus Müller, Brice Temime-Roussel, Richard Valorso, and Karine Sartelet
Large uncertainties remain in understanding secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from toluene oxidation. In this study, speciation measurements in gaseous and particulate phases were carried out, providing partitioning and volatility data of individual toluene SOA components at different temperatures. A new detailed oxidation mechanism was developed to improve modeled speciation and effects of different processes involved in gas-particle partitioning at the molecular scale are explored.
Lucía Caudillo, Mihnea Surdu, Brandon Lopez, Mingyi Wang, Markus Thoma, Steffen Bräkling, Angela Buchholz, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Martin Heinritzi, Antonio Amorim, David M. Bell, Zoé Brasseur, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Xu-Cheng He, Houssni Lamkaddam, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Guillaume Marie, Ruby Marten, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Antti Onnela, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Birte Rörup, Wiebke Scholz, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Christian Tauber, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Dongyu S. Wang, Yonghong Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Douglas R. Worsnop, Imad El Haddad, Neil M. Donahue, Alexander L. Vogel, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6613–6631,Short summary
In this study, we present an intercomparison of four different techniques for measuring the chemical composition of nanoparticles. The intercomparison was performed based on the observed chemical composition, calculated volatility, and analysis of the thermograms. We found that the methods generally agree on the most important compounds that are found in the nanoparticles. However, they do see different parts of the organic spectrum. We suggest potential explanations for these differences.
Ryan Patnaude, Kathryn Moore, Russell Perkins, Thomas Hill, Paul DeMott, and Sonia Kreidenweis
In this study, we examined the effect of atmospheric aging on sea spray aerosols (SSA) to form ice at cirrus temperatures (< -38 ºC), and how newly formed secondary marine aerosols (SMA) produced from gas-phase emissions may freeze in the cirrus regime. Results show that SSA freeze at different relative humidities (RHs) depending the on the temperature and are not affected by atmospheric aging. SMA are shown to freeze at high RHs and likely have very little effect on cirrus cloud formation.
Adolfo González-Romero, Cristina González-Florez, Agnesh Panta, Jesús Yus-Díez, Cristina Reche, Patricia Córdoba, Andres Alastuey, Konrad Kandler, Martina Klose, Clarissa Baldo, Roger N. Clark, Zong Bo Shi, Xavier Querol, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
The effect of dust emitted from desertic surfaces upon climate and ecosystems depends on their size and mineralogy, but, data from soil mineral atlases of desert soils is scarce. We performed particle size distribution, mineralogy and Fe speciation at S Morocco. Results show coarser particles, with high quartz proportion are near the elevated areas, meanwhile in depressed areas, finer sizes and higher proportions of clays and nano Fe-oxides. This differences are important for dust modelling.
Ruifeng Zhang and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6113–6126,Short summary
Research into sulfate and nitrate formation from co-uptake of NO2 and SO2, especially under irradiation, is rare. We studied the co-uptake of NO2 and SO2 by NaCl droplets under various conditions, including irradiation and dark, and RHs, using Raman spectroscopy flow cell and kinetic model simulation. Significant nitrate formation from NO2 hydrolysis can be photolyzed to generate OH radicals that can further react with chloride to produce reactive chlorine species and promote sulfate formation.
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Oliver Reich, Grégory David, and Ruth Signorell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5393–5402,Short summary
Photosensitizers play an important role in the photochemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Our study provides evidence that mesoscopic glycine clusters forming in aqueous droplets act as unconventional photosensitizers in the visible light spectrum. We observed the influence of these photoactive molecular aggregates in single optically trapped aqueous droplets. Such mesoscopic photosensitizers might be more important for aerosol photochemistry than previously anticipated.
Lan Ma, Reed Worland, Laura Heinlein, Chrystal Guzman, Wenqing Jiang, Christopher Niedek, Keith J. Bein, Qi Zhang, and Cort Anastasio
We measured concentrations of three photooxidants – hydroxyl radical, triplet excited states of organic carbon, and singlet molecular oxygen – in fine particles collected over a year. Concentrations are highest in extracts of fresh biomass burning particles, largely because they have the highest particle concentrations and highest light absorption. When normalized by light absorption, rates of formation for each oxidant are generally similar for the four particle types we observed.
Liyuan Zhou, Zhancong Liang, Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Rosemarie Ann Infante Cuevas, Rongzhi Tang, Mei Li, Chunlei Cheng, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5251–5261,Short summary
This study reveals the sulfate formation in photosensitized particles from biomass burning under UV and SO2, of which the relative atmospheric importance in sulfate production was qualitatively compared to nitrate photolysis. On the basis of single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry measurements, the number percentage of sulfate-containing particles and relative peak area of sulfate in single-particle spectra exhibited a descending order of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde > vanillin > syringaldehyde.
Mohammed Jaoui, Kenneth S. Docherty, Michael Lewandowski, and Tadeusz E. Kleindienst
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4637–4661,Short summary
VCPs are a class of chemicals widely used in industrial and consumer products (e.g., coatings, adhesives, inks, personal care products) and are an important component of total VOCs in urban atmospheres. This study provides SOA yields and detailed chemical analysis of the gas- and aerosol-phase products of the photooxidation of one of these VCPs, benzyl alcohol. These results will allow better links between characterized sources and their resulting criteria for pollutant formation.
Jian Zhao, Ella Häkkinen, Frans Graeffe, Jordan E. Krechmer, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Douglas R. Worsnop, Juha Kangasluoma, and Mikael Ehn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3707–3730,Short summary
Based on the combined measurements of gas- and particle-phase highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs) from α-pinene ozonolysis, enhancement of dimers in particles was observed. We conducted experiments wherein the dimer to monomer (D / M) ratios of HOMs in the gas phase were modified (adding CO / NO) to investigate the effects of the corresponding D / M ratios in the particles. These results are important for a better understanding of secondary organic aerosol formation in the atmosphere.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Yalin Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2859–2875,Short summary
We compared non-phenolic and phenolic methoxybenzaldehydes as photosensitizers for aqueous secondary organic aerosol (aqSOA) formation under cloud and fog conditions. We showed that the structural features of photosensitizers affect aqSOA formation. We also elucidated potential interactions between photosensitization and ammonium nitrate photolysis. Our findings are useful for evaluating the importance of photosensitized reactions on aqSOA formation, which could improve aqSOA predictive models.
Tao Cao, Meiju Li, Cuncun Xu, Jianzhong Song, Xingjun Fan, Jun Li, Wanglu Jia, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2613–2625,Short summary
This work comprehensively investigated the fluorescence data of light-absorbing organic compounds, water-soluble organic matter in different types of aerosol samples, soil dust, and fulvic and humic acids using an excitation–emission matrix (EEM) method and parallel factor modeling. The results revealed which light-absorbing species can be detected by EEM and also provided important information for identifying the chemical composition and possible sources of these species in atmospheric samples.
Minglan Xu, Narcisse Tsona Tchinda, Jianlong Li, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2235–2249,Short summary
The promotion of soluble saccharides on sea spray aerosol (SSA) generation and the changes in particle morphology were observed. On the contrary, the coexistence of surface insoluble fatty acid film and soluble saccharides significantly inhibited the production of SSA. This is the first demonstration that hydrogen bonding mediated by surface-insoluble fatty acids contributes to saccharide transfer in seawater, providing a new mechanism for saccharide enrichment in SSA.
Jan M. Michalik, Wanda Wilczyńska-Michalik, Łukasz Gondek, Waldemar Tokarz, Jan Żukrowski, Marta Gajewska, and Marek Michalik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1449–1464,Short summary
The magnetic fraction of the aerosols in Kraków was collected and analysed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectrometry, and magnetometry. It contains metallic Fe or Fe-rich alloy and Fe oxides. The occurrence of nanometre-scale Fe3O4 particles (predominantly of anthropogenic origin) is shown. Our results can help to determine the sources and transport of pollutants, potential harmful effects, etc.
Sanghee Han and Myoseon Jang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1209–1226,Short summary
The diurnal pattern in biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is simulated by using the UNIPAR model, which predicts SOA growth via multiphase reactions of hydrocarbons under varying NOx levels, aerosol acidity, humidity, and temperature. The simulation suggests that nighttime SOA formation, even in urban environments, where anthropogenic emission is high, is dominated by products from ozonolysis and NO3-initiated oxidation of biogenic hydrocarbons.
Zhaomin Yang, Kun Li, Narcisse T. Tsona, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 417–430,Short summary
SO2 significantly promotes particle formation during cyclooctene ozonolysis. Carboxylic acids and their dimers were major products in particles formed in the absence of SO2. SO2 can induce production of organosulfates with stronger particle formation ability than their precursors, leading to the enhancement in particle formation. Formation mechanisms and structures of organosulfates were proposed, which is helpful for better understanding how SO2 perturbs the formation and fate of particles.
Zijun Li, Angela Buchholz, Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Liqing Hao, Iida Pullinen, Siegfried Schobesberger, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 203–220,Short summary
Interaction between NOx and biogenic emissions can be important in suburban areas. Our study showed that the addition of NOx during α-pinene SOA formation produced considerable amounts of organic nitrates and affected the composition of non-nitrated organic compounds. The compositional difference consequently altered the primary type of aqueous-phase processes during the isothermal particle evaporation.
Yibei Wan, Xiangpeng Huang, Chong Xing, Qiongqiong Wang, Xinlei Ge, and Huan Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15413–15423,Short summary
The organic compounds involved in continental new particle formation have been investigated in depth in the last 2 decades. In contrast, no prior work has studied the exact chemical composition of organic compounds and their role in coastal new particle formation. We present a complementary study to the ongoing laboratory and field research on iodine nucleation in the coastal atmosphere. This study provided a more complete story of coastal I-NPF from low-tide macroalgal emission.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Kristian Klumpp, Debora Thöny, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14931–14956,Short summary
Dust aerosols from dried lakebeds contain mineral particles, as well as soluble salts and (bio-)organic compounds. Here, we investigate ice nucleation (IN) activity of dust samples from Lake Urmia playa, Iran. We find high IN activity of the untreated samples that decreases after organic matter removal but increases after removing soluble salts and carbonates, evidencing inhibiting effects of soluble salts and carbonates on the IN activity of organic matter and minerals, especially microcline.
Diwei Wang, Zhenxing Shen, Qian Zhang, Yali Lei, Tian Zhang, Shasha Huang, Jian Sun, Hongmei Xu, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14893–14904,Short summary
The optical properties and molecular structure of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) in winter of several megacities in China were analyzed, and the source contribution of brown carbon was improved by using positive matrix factorization coupled with a multilayer perceptron neural network. These results can provide a basis for the more effective control of BrC to reduce its impacts on regional climates and human health.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Mao Du, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, M. Rami Alfarra, Thomas J. Bannan, Dawei Hu, Kelly L. Pereira, Jaqueline F. Hamilton, Mattias Hallquist, Thomas F. Mentel, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14147–14175,Short summary
Mixing experiments are crucial and highly beneficial for our understanding of atmospheric chemical interactions. However, interpretation quickly becomes complex, and both the experimental design and evaluation need to be scrutinised carefully. Advanced online and offline compositional measurements can reveal substantial additional information to aid in the interpretation of yield data, including components uniquely found in mixtures and property changes in SOA formed from mixtures of VOCs.
Fabian Mahrt, Long Peng, Julia Zaks, Yuanzhou Huang, Paul E. Ohno, Natalie R. Smith, Florence K. A. Gregson, Yiming Qin, Celia L. Faiola, Scot T. Martin, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Markus Ammann, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13783–13796,Short summary
The number of condensed phases in mixtures of different secondary organic aerosol (SOA) types determines their impact on air quality and climate. Here we observe the number of phases in individual particles that contain mixtures of two different types of SOA. We find that SOA mixtures can form one- or two-phase particles, depending on the difference in the average oxygen-to-carbon (O / C) ratios of the two SOA types that are internally mixed within individual particles.
Xiao He, Xuan Zheng, Shaojun Zhang, Xuan Wang, Ting Chen, Xiao Zhang, Guanghan Huang, Yihuan Cao, Liqiang He, Xubing Cao, Yuan Cheng, Shuxiao Wang, and Ye Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13935–13947,Short summary
With the use of two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC ToF-MS), we successfully give a comprehensive characterization of particulate intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) emitted from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. I/SVOCs are speciated, identified, and quantified based on the patterns of the mass spectrum, and the gas–particle partitioning is fully addressed.
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PM2.5 is positively related to anticyclonic wave activity (AWA) changes close to the observing sites. Changes between current and future climates in AWA can explain up to 75 % of PM2.5 variability at some stations using a linear regression model. Our analysis indicates that higher PM2.5 concentrations occur when a positive AWA anomaly is prominent, which could be critical for understanding how pollutants respond to changing atmospheric circulation and for developing robust pollution projections.
PM2.5 is positively related to anticyclonic wave activity (AWA) changes close to the observing...