Articles | Volume 22, issue 3
03 Feb 2022
Research article | 03 Feb 2022
Distinct evolutions of haze pollution from winter to the following spring over the North China Plain: role of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies
Linye Song et al.
No articles found.
Seoung Soo Lee, Jinho Choi, Goun Kim, Kyung-Ja Ha, Kyong-Hwan Seo, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Youtong Zheng, Jianping Guo, Sang-Keun Song, Yun Gon Lee, and Nobuyuki Utsumi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9059–9081,Short summary
This study investigates how aerosols affect clouds and precipitation and how the aerosol effects vary with varying types of clouds that are characterized by cloud depth in two metropolitan areas in East Asia. As cloud depth increases, the enhancement of precipitation amount transitions to no changes in precipitation amount with increasing aerosol concentrations. This indicates that cloud depth needs to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Chen Schwartz, Chaim I. Garfinkel, Priyanka Yadav, Wen Chen, and Daniela I. V. Domeisen
Weather Clim. Dynam., 3, 679–692,Short summary
Eleven operational forecast models that run on subseasonal timescales (up to 2 months) are examined to assess errors in their simulated large-scale stationary waves in the Northern Hemisphere winter. We found that models with a more finely resolved stratosphere generally do better in simulating the waves in both the stratosphere (10–50 km) and troposphere below. Moreover, a connection exists between errors in simulated time-mean convection in tropical regions and errors in the simulated waves.
Seoung Soo Lee, Junshik Um, Won Jun Choi, Kyung-Ja Ha, Chang Hoon Jung, Jianping Guo, and Youtong Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
This paper elaborates on process-level mechanisms how the interception of radiation by aerosols interacts with the surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability in warm cumulus clouds. This paper elucidates how these mechanisms vary with the relative location of an aerosol layer to a layer of warm cumulus clouds. This elucidation indicates that the relative location of aerosol layers should be taken into account for parameterizations of aerosol-cloud interactions.
Peilin Song, Yongqiang Zhang, Jianping Guo, Jiancheng Shi, Tianjie Zhao, and Bing Tong
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 2613–2637,Short summary
Soil moisture information is crucial for understanding the earth surface, but currently available satellite-based soil moisture datasets are imperfect either in their spatiotemporal resolutions or in ensuring image completeness from cloudy weather. In this study, therefore, we developed one soil moisture data product over China that has tackled most of the above problems. This data product has the potential to promote the investigation of earth hydrology and be extended to the global scale.
Xiadong An, Wen Chen, Peng Hu, Shangfeng Chen, and Lifang Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6507–6521,Short summary
The intraseasonal NAAA usually establishes quickly on day −3 with a life span of 8 days. Further results revealed that the probability of regional PM2.5 pollution related to the NAAA for at least 2 days in the NCP is 80% in NDJ period 2000–2021. Particularly, air quality in the NCP tends to deteriorate on day 2 prior to the peak day of the NAAA and reaches a peak on day −1 with a life cycle of 4 days. The corresponding meteorological conditions support these conclusions.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Tianmeng Chen, Kaixu Bai, Jia Shao, Yuping Sun, Ning Li, Jingyan Wu, Rui Li, Jian Li, Qiyun Guo, Jason B. Cohen, Panmao Zhai, Xiaofeng Xu, and Fei Hu
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
A global continental merged high-resolution (PBLH) dataset with a good accuracy compared to radiosonde is generated via machine learning algorithms, covering a time period from 2011 to 2021 with a 3-hour and 0.25º resolution in space and time. The machine learning model takes parameters derived from the ERA5 reanalysis and GLDAS product as input while PBLH biases between radiosonde and ERA5 as the learning targets. The merged PBLH is the sum of the predicted PBLH bias and the PBLH from ERA5.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Mingliang Ma, Kaitao Li, Zhengqiang Li, Jianping Guo, Ni-Bin Chang, Zhuo Tan, and Di Han
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 14, 907–927,Short summary
The Long-term Gap-free High-resolution Air Pollutant concentration dataset, providing gap-free aerosol optical depth (AOD) and PM2.5 and PM10 concentration with a daily 1 km resolution for 2000–2020 in China, is generated and made publicly available. This is the first long-term gap-free high-resolution aerosol dataset in China and has great potential to trigger multidisciplinary applications in Earth observations, climate change, public health, ecosystem assessment, and environment management.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Publication in AMT not foreseenShort summary
Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is the comparison of wind speed on a large scale between the Aeolus, ERA5 and RS , shedding important light on the data application of Aeolus wind products.
Jianping Guo, Jian Zhang, Kun Yang, Hong Liao, Shaodong Zhang, Kaiming Huang, Yanmin Lv, Jia Shao, Tao Yu, Bing Tong, Jian Li, Tianning Su, Steve H. L. Yim, Ad Stoffelen, Panmao Zhai, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17079–17097,Short summary
The planetary boundary layer (PBL) is the lowest part of the troposphere, and boundary layer height (BLH) is the depth of the PBL and is of critical importance to the dispersion of air pollution. The study presents the first near-global BLH climatology by using high-resolution (5-10 m) radiosonde measurements. The variations in BLH exhibit large spatial and temporal dependence, with a peak at 17:00 local solar time. The most promising reanalysis product is ERA-5 in terms of modeling BLH.
Seoung Soo Lee, Kyung-Ja Ha, Manguttathil Gopalakrishnan Manoj, Mohammad Kamruzzaman, Hyungjun Kim, Nobuyuki Utsumi, Youtong Zheng, Byung-Gon Kim, Chang Hoon Jung, Junshik Um, Jianping Guo, Kyoung Ock Choi, and Go-Un Kim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16843–16868,Short summary
Using a modeling framework, a midlatitude stratocumulus cloud system is simulated. It is found that cloud mass in the system becomes very low due to interactions between ice and liquid particles compared to that in the absence of ice particles. It is also found that interactions between cloud mass and aerosols lead to a reduction in cloud mass in the system, and this is contrary to an aerosol-induced increase in cloud mass in the absence of ice particles.
Ifeanyichukwu C. Nduka, Chi-Yung Tam, Jianping Guo, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13443–13454,Short summary
This study analyzed the nature, mechanisms and drivers for hot-and-polluted episodes (HPEs) in the Pearl River Delta, China. A total of eight HPEs were identified and can be grouped into three clusters of HPEs that were respectively driven (1) by weak subsidence and convection induced by approaching tropical cyclones, (2) by calm conditions with low wind speed in the lower atmosphere and (3) by the combination of both aforementioned conditions.
Tianmeng Chen, Zhanqing Li, Ralph A. Kahn, Chuanfeng Zhao, Daniel Rosenfeld, Jianping Guo, Wenchao Han, and Dandan Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6199–6220,Short summary
A convective cloud identification process is developed using geostationary satellite data from Himawari-8. Convective cloud fraction is generally larger before noon and smaller in the afternoon under polluted conditions, but megacities and complex topography can influence the pattern. A robust relationship between convective cloud and aerosol loading is found. This pattern varies with terrain height and is modulated by varying thermodynamic, dynamical, and humidity conditions during the day.
Andrey V. Koval, Wen Chen, Ksenia A. Didenko, Tatiana S. Ermakova, Nikolai M. Gavrilov, Alexander I. Pogoreltsev, Olga N. Toptunova, Ke Wei, Anna N. Yarusova, and Anton S. Zarubin
Ann. Geophys., 39, 357–368,Short summary
Numerical modelling is used to simulate atmospheric circulation and calculate residual mean meridional circulation (RMC) during sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events. Calculating the RMC is used to take into account wave effects on the transport of atmospheric quantities and gas species in the meridional plane. The results show that RMC undergoes significant changes at different stages of SSW and contributes to SSW development.
Jianping Guo, Boming Liu, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, Yingying Ma, Jian Zhang, Tianmeng Chen, Kaixu Bai, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2945–2958,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China have thus far not been evaluated by in situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Yong Zhang, Lijuan Shi, Yingying Ma, Jian Li, Xiaoran Guo, Ad Stoffelen, Gerrit de Leeuw, and Xiaofeng Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. Aeolus is the first satellite mission to directly observe wind profile information on a global scale. However, Aeolus wind products over China were thus far not evaluated by in-situ comparison. This work is expected to let the public and science community better know the Aeolus wind products and to encourage use of these valuable data in future researches and applications.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Chengbo Wu, Ni-Bin Chang, and Jianping Guo
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 12, 3067–3080,Short summary
PM2.5 data from the national air quality monitoring network in China suffered from significant inconsistency and inhomogeneity issues. To create a coherent PM2.5 concentration dataset to advance our understanding of haze pollution and its impact on weather and climate, we homogenized this PM2.5 dataset between 2015 and 2019 after filling in the data gaps. The homogenized PM2.5 data is found to better characterize the variation of aerosol in space and time compared to the original dataset.
Yang Yang, Min Chen, Xiujuan Zhao, Dan Chen, Shuiyong Fan, Jianping Guo, and Shaukat Ali
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12527–12547,Short summary
This study analyzed the impacts of aerosol–radiation interaction on radiation and meteorological forecasts using the offline coupling of WRF and high-frequency updated AOD simulated by WRF-Chem. The results revealed that aerosol–radiation interaction had a positive influence on the improvement of predictive accuracy, including 2 m temperature (~ 73.9 %) and horizontal wind speed (~ 7.8 %), showing potential prospects for its application in regional numerical weather prediction in northern China.
Ruqian Miao, Qi Chen, Yan Zheng, Xi Cheng, Yele Sun, Paul I. Palmer, Manish Shrivastava, Jianping Guo, Qiang Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Zhaofeng Tan, Xuefei Ma, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12265–12284,Short summary
In this study we evaluated the model performances for simulating secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and organic aerosol (OA) in PM2.5 in China against comprehensive datasets. The potential biases from factors related to meteorology, emission, chemistry, and atmospheric removal are systematically investigated. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of modeling PM2.5, which is important for studies on the effectiveness of emission control strategies.
Boming Liu, Jianping Guo, Wei Gong, Lijuan Shi, Yong Zhang, and Yingying Ma
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 4589–4600,Short summary
Vertical wind profiles are crucial to a wide range of atmospheric disciplines. However, the wind profile across China remains poorly understood. Here we reveal the salient features of winds from the radar wind profile of China, including the main instruments, spatial coverage and sampling frequency. This work is expected to allow the public and scientific community to be more familiar with the nationwide network and encourage the use of these valuable data in future research and applications.
Haofei Wang, Zhengqiang Li, Yang Lv, Ying Zhang, Hua Xu, Jianping Guo, and Philippe Goloub
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8839–8854,Short summary
Lidar shows good performance in calculating the convective layer height in the daytime and the residual layer height at night, as well as having the potential to describe the stable layer height at night. The MLH seasonal change in Beijing indicates that it is low in winter and autumn and high in spring and summer. From 2014 to 2018, the magnitude of the diurnal cycle of MLH increased year by year. MLH from lidar shows better accuracy than a radiosonde when calculating surface pollution.
Haipeng Lin, Xu Feng, Tzung-May Fu, Heng Tian, Yaping Ma, Lijuan Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Robert M. Yantosca, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Elizabeth W. Lundgren, Jiawei Zhuang, Qiang Zhang, Xiao Lu, Lin Zhang, Lu Shen, Jianping Guo, Sebastian D. Eastham, and Christoph A. Keller
Geosci. Model Dev., 13, 3241–3265,Short summary
Online coupling of meteorology and chemistry models often presents maintenance issues with hard-wired coding. We present WRF-GC, an one-way online coupling of the WRF meteorological model and GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model for regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality modeling. Our coupling structure allows future versions of either parent model to be immediately integrated into WRF-GC. The WRF-GC model was able to well reproduce regional PM2.5 with greater computational efficiency.
Wenchao Han, Zhanqing Li, Fang Wu, Yuwei Zhang, Jianping Guo, Tianning Su, Maureen Cribb, Jiwen Fan, Tianmeng Chen, Jing Wei, and Seoung-Soo Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6479–6493,Short summary
Observational data and model simulation were used to analyze the daytime urban heat island intensity (UHII) under polluted and clean conditions in China. We found that aerosols reduce the UHII in summer but increase the UHII in winter. Two mechanisms, the aerosol radiative effect (ARE) and the aerosol dynamic effect (ADE), behave differently in summer and winter. In summer, the UHII is mainly affected by the ARE, and the ADE is weak, and the opposite is the case in winter.
Tianning Su, Zhanqing Li, Chengcai Li, Jing Li, Wenchao Han, Chuanyang Shen, Wangshu Tan, Jing Wei, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3713–3724,Short summary
We study the role of aerosol vertical distribution in thermodynamic stability and PBL development. Under different aerosol vertical structures, the diurnal cycles of PBLH and PM2.5 show distinct characteristics. Large differences in the heating rate affect atmospheric buoyancy and stability differently under different aerosol structures. As a result, the aerosol–PBL interaction can be strengthened by the inverse aerosol structure and potentially neutralized by the decreasing structure.
Jing Wei, Zhanqing Li, Maureen Cribb, Wei Huang, Wenhao Xue, Lin Sun, Jianping Guo, Yiran Peng, Jing Li, Alexei Lyapustin, Lei Liu, Hao Wu, and Yimeng Song
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 3273–3289,Short summary
This study introduced an enhanced space–time extremely randomized trees (STET) approach to improve the 1 km resolution ground-level PM2.5 estimates across China using the remote sensing technology. The STET model shows high accuracy and strong predictive power and appears to outperform most models reported by previous studies. Thus, it is of great importance for future air pollution studies at medium- or small-scale areas and will be applied to generate the historical PM2.5 dataset across China.
Kaixu Bai, Ke Li, Jianping Guo, Yuanjian Yang, and Ni-Bin Chang
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 1213–1226,Short summary
A novel gap-filling method called the diurnal-cycle-constrained empirical orthogonal function (DCCEOF) is proposed. Cross validation indicates that this method gives high accuracy in predicting missing values in daily PM2.5 time series by accounting for the local diurnal phases, especially by reconstructing daily extrema that cannot be accurately restored by other approaches. The DCCEOF method can be easily applied to other data sets because of its self-consistent capability.
Zhen Liu, Yi Ming, Chun Zhao, Ngar Cheung Lau, Jianping Guo, Massimo Bollasina, and Steve Hung Lam Yim
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 223–241,Short summary
OH and HO2 radicals are important trace constituents of the atmosphere that are closely coupled via several types of reaction. This paper describes a new laboratory method to simultaneously determine OH kinetics and HO2 yields from chemical processes. The instrument also provides some time resolution on HO2 detection allowing one to separate HO2 produced from the target reaction from HO2 arising from secondary chemistry. Examples of applications are presented.
Chun Zhao, Mingyue Xu, Yu Wang, Meixin Zhang, Jianping Guo, Zhiyuan Hu, L. Ruby Leung, Michael Duda, and William Skamarock
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 2707–2726,Short summary
Simulations at global uniform and variable resolutions share similar characteristics of precipitation and wind in the refined region. The experiments reveal the significant impacts of resolution on simulating the distribution and intensity of precipitation and updrafts. This study provides evidence supporting the use of convection-permitting global variable-resolution simulations to study extreme precipitation.
Jing Wei, Yiran Peng, Rashed Mahmood, Lin Sun, and Jianping Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 7183–7207,Short summary
This study evaluates the suitability of 11 satellite-derived aerosol products in describing the spatio-temporal variations over the world. Our results show similar global patterns among these products but noticeable spatial heterogeneity and numerical differences over land regions. In general, MODIS products perform best at reflecting the spatial distributions and capturing the temporal trends of aerosol. This study help readers select a suitable aerosol dataset for their studies.
Martin Belluš, Florian Weidle, Christoph Wittmann, Yong Wang, Simona Taşku, and Martina Tudor
Adv. Sci. Res., 16, 63–68,Short summary
A meso-scale ensemble system Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational - Limited Area Ensemble Forecasting (ALADIN-LAEF) based on the limited area model ALADIN has been developed in the framework of Regional Cooperation for Limited Area modelling in Central Europe (RC LACE) consortium, focusing on short range probabilistic forecasts and profiting from advanced multi-scale ALARO physics. Its main purpose is to provide probabilistic forecast on daily basis for the national weat
Clemens Wastl, Yong Wang, Aitor Atencia, and Christoph Wittmann
Geosci. Model Dev., 12, 261–273,Short summary
Ensemble forecasting at the convection-permitting scale (< 3 km) requires new methodologies in representing model uncertainties. In this paper a new stochastic scheme is proposed and tested in the complex terrain of the Alps. In this scheme the tendencies of the physical parametrizations are perturbed separately, which sustains a physically consistent relationship between the processes. This scheme increases the stability of the model and leads to improvements in the probabilistic performance.
Jianping Guo, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Daniel Rosenfeld, Mengjiao Jiang, Weixin Xu, Jonathan H. Jiang, Jing He, Dandan Chen, Min Min, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13329–13343,Short summary
Objective analysis has been used to discriminate between the local- and synoptic-scale precipitations based on wind and pressure fields at 500 hPa. Aerosol is found to be linked with changes in the vertical structure of precipitation, depending on precipitation regimes. There has been some success in separating aerosol and meteorological influences on precipitation.
Qianqian Wang, Zhanqing Li, Jianping Guo, Chuanfeng Zhao, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 12797–12816,Short summary
Based on 11-year data of lightning flashes, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and composion, and meteorological variables, we investigated the roles of aerosol and meteorological variables in lightning. Pronounced differences in lightning were found between clean and polluted conditions. Systematic changes of boomerang shape were found in lightning frequency with AOD, with a turning point around AOD = 0.3, beyond which lightning activity is saturated for smoke aerosols but always suppressed by dust.
Xiaowan Zhu, Guiqian Tang, Jianping Guo, Bo Hu, Tao Song, Lili Wang, Jinyuan Xin, Wenkang Gao, Christoph Münkel, Klaus Schäfer, Xin Li, and Yuesi Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4897–4910,Short summary
Our study first conducted a long-term observation of mixing layer height (MLH) with high resolution on the North China Plain (NCP), analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of regional MLH, investigated the reasons for MLH differences in the NCP and revealed the meteorological reasons for heavy haze pollution in southern Hebei. The study results provide scientific suggestions for regional industrial structure readjustment and have great importance for achieving the integrated development goals.
Piet Termonia, Claude Fischer, Eric Bazile, François Bouyssel, Radmila Brožková, Pierre Bénard, Bogdan Bochenek, Daan Degrauwe, Mariá Derková, Ryad El Khatib, Rafiq Hamdi, Ján Mašek, Patricia Pottier, Neva Pristov, Yann Seity, Petra Smolíková, Oldřich Španiel, Martina Tudor, Yong Wang, Christoph Wittmann, and Alain Joly
Geosci. Model Dev., 11, 257–281,Short summary
This paper describes the ALADIN System that has been developed by the international ALADIN consortium of 16 European and northern African partners since its creation in 1990. The paper also describes how its model configurations are used by the consortium partners for their operational weather forecasting applications and for weather and climate research.
Mengjiao Jiang, Jinqin Feng, Zhanqing Li, Ruiyu Sun, Yu-Tai Hou, Yuejian Zhu, Bingcheng Wan, Jianping Guo, and Maureen Cribb
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13967–13982,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions have been recognized as playing an important role in precipitation. As a benchmark evaluation of model results that exclude aerosol effects, the operational precipitation forecast (before any aerosol effects included) is evaluated using multiple datasets with the goal of determining if there is any link between the model bias and aerosol loading. The forecast model overestimates light and underestimates heavy rain. Aerosols suppress light rain and enhance heavy rain.
Yucong Miao, Jianping Guo, Shuhua Liu, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Wanchun Zhang, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3097–3110,Short summary
Three synoptic patterns associated with heavy aerosol pollution in Beijing were identified using an objective classification approach. Relationships between synoptic patterns, aerosol pollution, and boundary layer height in Beijing during summer were revealed as well. Further, factors/mechanisms leading to the low BLHs in Beijing were unraveled. The key findings have implications for understanding the crucial roles that meteorological factors play in forecasting aerosol pollution in Beijing.
Theresa Schellander-Gorgas, Yong Wang, Florian Meier, Florian Weidle, Christoph Wittmann, and Alexander Kann
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 35–56,Short summary
Ensemble forecasting offers a useful method to simulate the uncertainty of a numerical forecast model for each individual forecast run. This study compares ALADIN-LAEF, a 16-member ensemble with a resolution of 11 km that combines several perturbation methods, with AROME-EPS, which downscales the members of ALADIN-LAEF to 2.5 km resolution. The verification shows that there are benefits of a higher-resolution ensemble, especially for highly localized precipitation and for mountainous terrain.
Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Yong Zhang, Huan Liu, Zhanqing Li, Wanchun Zhang, Jing He, Mengyun Lou, Yan Yan, Lingen Bian, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13309–13319,Short summary
The large-scale PBL climatology from sounding observations is still lacking in China. This work investigated the BLH characterization at diurnal, monthly and seasonal timescales throughout China, showing large geographic and meteorological dependences. BLH is, on average, negatively (positively) associated with the surface pressure and lower tropospheric stability (wind speed and temperature). Cloud tends to suppress the development of the PBL, which has implications for air quality forecasts.
Wanchun Zhang, Jianping Guo, Yucong Miao, Huan Liu, Yong Zhang, Zhengqiang Li, and Panmao Zhai
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9951–9963,Short summary
The PBL height retrieval from CALIOP aboard CALIPSO can significantly complement the traditional ground-based methods, which is only for one site. Our study, to our current knowledge, is the first intercomparison study of PBLH on a large scale using long-term radiosonde observations in China. Three matchup schemes were proposed based on the position of radiosondes relative to CALIPSO ground tracks in China. Results indicate that CALIOP is promising for reliable PBLH retrievals.
Yahui Che, Yong Xue, Linlu Mei, Jie Guang, Lu She, Jianping Guo, Yincui Hu, Hui Xu, Xingwei He, Aojie Di, and Cheng Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9655–9674,Short summary
Remotely sensed data could provide continuous spatial coverage of aerosol property over the pan-Eurasian area for PEEX program. The AATSR data can be used to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD). The Aerosol_cci project provides users with three AOD retrieval algorithms for AATSR data. Because China is vast in territory and has great differences in terms of land surfaces, the combination of the AERONET and CARSNET data can validate the Level 2 AOD products from AATSR data more comprehensively.
Y. Q. Yang, J. Z. Wang, S. L. Gong, X. Y. Zhang, H. Wang, Y. Q. Wang, J. Wang, D. Li, and J. P. Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1353–1364,Short summary
A new model, PLAM/h, has been developed and used in near-real-time air quality forecasts by considering both meteorology and pollutant emissions, based on the two-dimensional probability density function diagnosis model for emissions. The results show that combining the influence of regular meteorological conditions and emission factors together in the PLAM/h parameterization scheme is very effective in improving the forecasting ability for fog-haze weather in North China.
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Parameterizing the aerodynamic effect of trees in street canyons for the street network model MUNICH using the CFD model Code_SaturneQuantifying the impact of meteorological uncertainty on emission estimates and the risk to aviation using source inversion for the Raikoke 2019 eruptionAcceleration of the southern African easterly jet driven by the radiative effect of biomass burning aerosols and its impact on transport during AEROCLO-sAThe Sun's role in decadal climate predictability in the North AtlanticFuture projections of daily haze-conducive and clear weather conditions over the North China Plain using a perturbed parameter ensembleModelling approaches for atmospheric ion-dipole collisions: all-atom trajectory simulations and central field methodsRefining an ensemble of volcanic ash forecasts using satellite retrievals: Raikoke 2019Ship-based estimates of momentum transfer coefficient over sea ice and recommendations for its parameterizationRevising the definition of anthropogenic heat flux from buildings: role of human activities and building storage heat fluxAn assessment of tropopause characteristics of the ERA5 and ERA-Interim meteorological reanalysesThe foehn effect during easterly flow over SvalbardEffect of rainfall-induced diabatic heating over southern China on the formation of wintertime haze on the North China PlainAnthropogenic aerosol effects on tropospheric circulation and sea surface temperature (1980–2020): separating the role of zonally asymmetric forcingsLightning-ignited wildfires and long continuing current lightning in the Mediterranean Basin: preferential meteorological conditionsIdentifying source regions of air masses sampled at the tropical high-altitude site of Chacaltaya using WRF-FLEXPART and cluster analysisModelling spatiotemporal variations of the canopy layer urban heat island in Beijing at the neighbourhood scaleDispersion of particulate matter (PM2.5) from wood combustion for residential heating: optimization of mitigation actions based on large-eddy simulationsMeasurement report: Effect of wind shear on PM10 concentration vertical structure in the urban boundary layer in a complex terrainThe effect of forced change and unforced variability in heat waves, temperature extremes, and associated population risk in a CO2-warmed worldConvective self–aggregation in a mean flowThe potential for geostationary remote sensing of NO2 to improve weather predictionRobust winter warming over Eurasia under stratospheric sulfate geoengineering – the role of stratospheric dynamicsParameterizing the vertical downward dispersion of ship exhaust gas in the near fieldAnthropogenic aerosol forcing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and the associated mechanisms in CMIP6 modelsSensitivities of the Madden–Julian oscillation forecasts to configurations of physics in the ECMWF global modelSensitivity of modeled Indian monsoon to Chinese and Indian aerosol emissionsThe spring transition of the North Pacific jet and its relation to deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass transport over western North AmericaVery long-period oscillations in the atmosphere (0–110 km)Identification of molecular cluster evaporation rates, cluster formation enthalpies and entropies by Monte Carlo methodThe “urban meteorology island”: a multi-model ensemble analysisValidation of reanalysis Southern Ocean atmosphere trends using sea ice dataRevisiting the trend in the occurrences of the “warm Arctic–cold Eurasian continent” temperature patternA microphysics guide to cirrus – Part 2: Climatologies of clouds and humidity from observationsCeilometers as planetary boundary layer height detectors and a corrective tool for COSMO and IFS modelsUsing a coupled large-eddy simulation–aerosol radiation model to investigate urban haze: sensitivity to aerosol loading and meteorological conditionsConfinement of air in the Asian monsoon anticyclone and pathways of convective air to the stratosphere during the summer seasonOn the climate sensitivity and historical warming evolution in recent coupled model ensemblesSurface processes in the 7 November 2014 medicane from air–sea coupled high-resolution numerical modellingHadley cell expansion in CMIP6 modelsAtmospheric teleconnection processes linking winter air stagnation and haze extremes in China with regional Arctic sea ice declineDehydration and low ozone in the tropopause layer over the Asian monsoon caused by tropical cyclones: Lagrangian transport calculations using ERA-Interim and ERA5 reanalysis dataCharacterization of the air–sea exchange mechanisms during a Mediterranean heavy precipitation event using realistic sea state modellingTransport of short-lived halocarbons to the stratosphere over the Pacific OceanA very high-resolution assessment and modelling of urban air qualitySurface temperature response to the major volcanic eruptions in multiple reanalysis data setsRole of eyewall and rainband eddy forcing in tropical cyclone intensificationA double ITCZ phenomenology of wind errors in the equatorial Atlantic in seasonal forecasts with ECMWF modelsAnalysis of total column CO2 and CH4 measurements in Berlin with WRF-GHGQuantifying the contribution of anthropogenic influence to the East Asian winter monsoon in 1960–2012Land cover and its transformation in the backward trajectory footprint region of the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory
Alice Maison, Cédric Flageul, Bertrand Carissimo, Yunyi Wang, Andrée Tuzet, and Karine Sartelet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9369–9388,Short summary
This paper presents a parameterization of the tree crown effect on air flow and pollutant dispersion in a street network model used to simulate air quality at the street level. The new parameterization is built using a finer-scale model (computational fluid dynamics). The tree effect increases with the leaf area index and the crown volume fraction of the trees; the street horizontal velocity is reduced by up to 68 % and the vertical transfer into or out of the street by up to 23 %.
Natalie J. Harvey, Helen F. Dacre, Cameron Saint, Andrew T. Prata, Helen N. Webster, and Roy G. Grainger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8529–8545,Short summary
In the event of a volcanic eruption, airlines need to make decisions about which routes are safe to operate and ensure that airborne aircraft land safely. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of a statistical technique that best combines ash information from satellites and a suite of computer forecasts of ash concentration to provide a range of plausible estimates of how much volcanic ash emitted from a volcano is available to undergo long-range transport.
Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Laurent Labbouz, Cyrille Flamant, and Alma Hodzic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8639–8658,Short summary
Ground-based, spaceborne and rare airborne observations of biomass burning aerosols (BBAs) during the AEROCLO-sA field campaign in 2017 are complemented with convection-permitting simulations with online trajectories. The results show that the radiative effect of the BBA accelerates the southern African easterly jet and generates upward motions that transport the BBAs to higher altitudes and farther southwest.
Annika Drews, Wenjuan Huo, Katja Matthes, Kunihiko Kodera, and Tim Kruschke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7893–7904,Short summary
Solar irradiance varies with a period of approximately 11 years. Using a unique large chemistry–climate model dataset, we investigate the solar surface signal in the North Atlantic and European region and find that it changes over time, depending on the strength of the solar cycle. For the first time, we estimate the potential predictability associated with including realistic solar forcing in a model. These results may improve seasonal to decadal predictions of European climate.
Shipra Jain, Ruth M. Doherty, David Sexton, Steven Turnock, Chaofan Li, Zixuan Jia, Zongbo Shi, and Lin Pei
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7443–7460,Short summary
We provide a range of future projections of winter haze and clear conditions over the North China Plain (NCP) using multiple simulations from a climate model for the high-emission scenario (RCP8.5). The frequency of haze conducive weather is likely to increase whereas the frequency of clear weather is likely to decrease in future. The total number of hazy days for a given winter can be as much as ˜3.5 times higher than the number of clear days over the NCP.
Ivo Neefjes, Roope Halonen, Hanna Vehkamäki, and Bernhard Reischl
Collisions between ionic and dipolar molecules and clusters facilitate the formation of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect global climate and air quality. We compared often used classical approaches for calculating ion-dipole collision rates with robust atomistic computer simulations. While classical approaches work for simple ions and dipoles only, our modelling approach can also efficiently calculate reasonable collision properties for more complex systems.
Antonio Capponi, Natalie J. Harvey, Helen F. Dacre, Keith Beven, Cameron Saint, Cathie Wells, and Mike R. James
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6115–6134,Short summary
Forecasts of the dispersal of volcanic ash in the atmosphere are hampered by uncertainties in parameters describing the characteristics of volcanic plumes. Uncertainty quantification is vital for making robust flight-planning decisions. We present a method using satellite data to refine a series of volcanic ash dispersion forecasts and quantify these uncertainties. We show how we can improve forecast accuracy and potentially reduce the regions of high risk of volcanic ash relevant to aviation.
Piyush Srivastava, Ian M. Brooks, John Prytherch, Dominic J. Salisbury, Andrew D. Elvidge, Ian A. Renfrew, and Margaret J. Yelland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4763–4778,Short summary
The parameterization of surface turbulent fluxes over sea ice remains a weak point in weather forecast and climate models. Recent theoretical developments have introduced more extensive physics but these descriptions are poorly constrained due to a lack of observation data. Here we utilize a large dataset of measurements of turbulent fluxes over sea ice to tune the state-of-the-art parameterization of wind stress, and compare it with a previous scheme.
Yiqing Liu, Zhiwen Luo, and Sue Grimmond
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4721–4735,Short summary
Anthropogenic heat emission from buildings is important for atmospheric modelling in cities. The current building anthropogenic heat flux is simplified by building energy consumption. Our research proposes a novel approach to determine ‘real’ building anthropogenic heat emission from the changes in energy balance fluxes between occupied and unoccupied buildings. We hope to provide new insights into future parameterisations of building anthropogenic heat flux in urban climate models.
Lars Hoffmann and Reinhold Spang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 4019–4046,Short summary
We present an intercomparison of 2009–2018 lapse rate tropopause characteristics as derived from ECMWF's ERA5 and ERA-Interim reanalyses. Large-scale features are similar, but ERA5 shows notably larger variability, which we mainly attribute to UTLS temperature fluctuations due to gravity waves being better resolved by ECMWF's IFS forecast model. Following evaluation with radiosondes and GPS data, we conclude ERA5 will be a more suitable asset for tropopause-related studies in future work.
Anna A. Shestakova, Dmitry G. Chechin, Christof Lüpkes, Jörg Hartmann, and Marion Maturilli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1529–1548,Short summary
This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the easterly orographic wind episode which occurred over Svalbard on 30–31 May 2017. This wind caused a significant temperature rise on the lee side of the mountains and greatly intensified the snowmelt. This episode was investigated on the basis of measurements collected during the ACLOUD/PASCAL field campaigns with the help of numerical modeling.
Xiadong An, Lifang Sheng, Chun Li, Wen Chen, Yulian Tang, and Jingliang Huangfu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 725–738,Short summary
The North China Plain (NCP) suffered many periods of haze in winter during 1985–2015, related to the rainfall-induced diabatic heating over southern China. The haze over the NCP is modulated by an anomalous anticyclone caused by the Rossby wave and a north–south circulation (NSC) induced mainly by diabatic heating. As a Rossby wave source, rainfall-induced diabatic heating supports waves and finally strengthens the anticyclone over the NCP. These changes favor haze over the NCP.
Chenrui Diao, Yangyang Xu, and Shang-Ping Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18499–18518,Short summary
Anthropogenic aerosol (AA) emission has shown a zonal redistribution since the 1980s, with a decline in the Western Hemisphere (WH) high latitudes and an increase in the Eastern Hemisphere (EH) low latitudes. This study compares the role of zonally asymmetric forcings affecting the climate. The WH aerosol reduction dominates the poleward shift of the Hadley cell and the North Pacific warming, while the EH AA forcing is largely confined to the emission domain and induces local cooling responses.
Francisco J. Pérez-Invernón, Heidi Huntrieser, Sergio Soler, Francisco J. Gordillo-Vázquez, Nicolau Pineda, Javier Navarro-González, Víctor Reglero, Joan Montanyà, Oscar van der Velde, and Nikos Koutsias
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17529–17557,Short summary
Lightning-ignited fires tend to occur in remote areas and can spread significantly before suppression. Long continuing current (LCC) lightning, preferably taking place in dry thunderstorms, is believed to be the main precursor of lightning-ignited fires. We analyze fire databases of lightning-ignited fires in the Mediterranean basin and report the shared meteorological conditions of fire- and LCC-lightning-producing thunderstorms. These results can be useful to improve fire forecasting methods.
Diego Aliaga, Victoria A. Sinclair, Marcos Andrade, Paulo Artaxo, Samara Carbone, Evgeny Kadantsev, Paolo Laj, Alfred Wiedensohler, Radovan Krejci, and Federico Bianchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16453–16477,Short summary
We investigate the origin of air masses sampled at Mount Chacaltaya, Bolivia. Three-quarters of the measured air has not been influenced by the surface in the previous 4 d. However, it is rare that, at any given time, the sampled air has not been influenced at all by the surface, and often the sampled air has multiple origins. The influence of the surface is more prevalent during day than night. Furthermore, during the 6-month study, one-third of the air masses originated from Amazonia.
Michael Biggart, Jenny Stocker, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, David Carruthers, Sue Grimmond, Yiqun Han, Pingqing Fu, and Simone Kotthaus
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13687–13711,Short summary
Heat-related illnesses are of increasing concern in China given its rapid urbanisation and our ever-warming climate. We examine the relative impacts that land surface properties and anthropogenic heat have on the urban heat island (UHI) in Beijing using ADMS-Urban. Air temperature measurements and satellite-derived land surface temperatures provide valuable means of evaluating modelled spatiotemporal variations. This work provides critical information for urban planners and UHI mitigation.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12463–12477,Short summary
House heating by wood-burning stoves is cozy and needed in boreal cities, e.g., Bergen, Norway. But smoke (aerosols) from stoves may reduce urban air quality. It can be transported over long distance excessively polluting some neighborhoods. Who will suffer the most? Our modelling study looks at urban pollution in unprecedented meter-sized details tracing smoke pathways and turbulent dispersion in a typical city. We prototype effective policy scenarios to mitigate urban air quality problems.
Piotr Sekuła, Anita Bokwa, Jakub Bartyzel, Bogdan Bochenek, Łukasz Chmura, Michał Gałkowski, and Mirosław Zimnoch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12113–12139,Short summary
The wind shear generated on a local scale by the diversified relief’s impact can be a factor which significantly modifies the spatial pattern of PM10 concentration. The vertical profile of PM10 over a city located in a large valley during the events with high surface-level PM10 concentrations may show a sudden decrease with height not only due to the increase in wind speed, but also due to the change in wind direction alone. Vertical aerosanitary urban zones can be distinguished.
Jangho Lee, Jeffrey C. Mast, and Andrew E. Dessler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11889–11904,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of global warming on heat and humidity extremes. There are three major findings in this study. We quantify how unforced variability in the climate impacts can lead to large variations where heat waves occur, we find that all heat extremes increase as the climate warms, especially between 1.5 and 2.0 °C of the average global warming, and we show that the economic inequity of facing extreme heat will worsen in a warmer world.
Hyunju Jung, Ann Kristin Naumann, and Bjorn Stevens
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10337–10345,Short summary
We analyze the behavior of organized convection in a large-scale flow by imposing a mean flow to idealized simulations. In the mean flow, organized convection initially propagates slower than the mean wind speed and becomes stationary. The initial upstream and downstream difference in surface fluxes becomes symmetric as the surface momentum flux acts as a drag, resulting in the stationarity. Meanwhile, the surface enthalpy flux has a minor role in the propagation of the convection.
Xueling Liu, Arthur P. Mizzi, Jeffrey L. Anderson, Inez Fung, and Ronald C. Cohen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9573–9583,Short summary
Observations of winds in the planetary boundary layer remain sparse, making it challenging to simulate and predict the atmospheric conditions that are most important for describing and predicting urban air quality. Here we investigate the application of data assimilation of NO2 columns as will be observed from geostationary orbit to improve predictions and retrospective analysis of wind fields in the boundary layer.
Antara Banerjee, Amy H. Butler, Lorenzo M. Polvani, Alan Robock, Isla R. Simpson, and Lantao Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6985–6997,Short summary
We find that simulated stratospheric sulfate geoengineering could lead to warmer Eurasian winters alongside a drier Mediterranean and wetting to the north. These effects occur due to the strengthening of the Northern Hemisphere stratospheric polar vortex, which shifts the North Atlantic Oscillation to a more positive phase. We find the effects in our simulations to be much more significant than the wintertime effects of large tropical volcanic eruptions which inject much less sulfate aerosol.
Ronny Badeke, Volker Matthias, and David Grawe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5935–5951,Short summary
This work aims to describe the physical distribution of ship exhaust gases in the near field, e.g., inside of a harbor. Results were calculated with a mathematical model for different meteorological and technical conditions. It has been shown that large vessels like cruise ships have a significant effect of up to 55 % downward movement of exhaust gas, as they can disturb the ground near wind circulation. This needs to be considered in urban air pollution studies.
Taufiq Hassan, Robert J. Allen, Wei Liu, and Cynthia A. Randles
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5821–5846,Short summary
State-of-the-art climate models yield robust, externally forced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), the bulk of which are due to anthropogenic aerosol perturbations to net surface shortwave radiation and sea surface temperature. AMOC-related feedbacks act to reinforce this aerosol-forced response, largely due to changes in sea surface salinity (and hence sea surface density), with temperature- and cloud-related feedbacks acting to mute the initial response.
Jun-Ichi Yano and Nils P. Wedi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4759–4778,Short summary
Sensitivities of forecasts of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) to various different configurations of the physics are examined with the global model of ECMWF's Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). The motivation for the study was to simulate the MJO as a nonlinear free wave. To emulate free dynamics in the IFS, various momentum dissipation terms (
friction) as well as diabatic heating were selectively turned off over the tropics for the range of the latitudes from 20° S to 20° N.
Peter Sherman, Meng Gao, Shaojie Song, Alex T. Archibald, Nathan Luke Abraham, Jean-François Lamarque, Drew Shindell, Gregory Faluvegi, and Michael B. McElroy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3593–3605,Short summary
The aims here are to assess the role of aerosols in India's monsoon precipitation and to determine the relative contributions from Chinese and Indian emissions using CMIP6 models. We find that increased sulfur emissions reduce precipitation, which is primarily dynamically driven due to spatial shifts in convection over the region. A significant increase in precipitation (up to ~ 20 %) is found only when both Indian and Chinese sulfate emissions are regulated.
Melissa L. Breeden, Amy H. Butler, John R. Albers, Michael Sprenger, and Andrew O'Neil Langford
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2781–2794,Short summary
Prior research has found a maximum in deep stratosphere-to-troposphere mass/ozone transport over the western United States in boreal spring, which can enhance surface ozone concentrations, reducing air quality. We find that the winter-to-summer evolution of the north Pacific jet increases the frequency of stratospheric intrusions that drive transport, helping explain the observed maximum. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation affects the timing of the spring jet transition and therefore transport.
Dirk Offermann, Christoph Kalicinsky, Ralf Koppmann, and Johannes Wintel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1593–1611,Short summary
Atmospheric oscillations with periods of up to several 100 years exist at altitudes up to 110 km. They are also seen in computer models (GCMs) of the atmospheric. They are often attributed to external influences from the sun, from the oceans, or from atmospheric constituents. This is difficult to verify as the atmosphere cannot be manipulated in an experiment. However, a GCM can be changed arbitrarily. Doing so, we find that long-period oscillations may be excited internally in the atmosphere.
Anna Shcherbacheva, Tracey Balehowsky, Jakub Kubečka, Tinja Olenius, Tapio Helin, Heikki Haario, Marko Laine, Theo Kurtén, and Hanna Vehkamäki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15867–15906,Short summary
Atmospheric new particle formation and cluster growth to aerosol particles is an important field of research, in particular due to the climate change phenomenon. Evaporation rates are very difficult to account for but they are important to explain the formation and growth of particles. Different quantum chemistry (QC) methods produce substantially different values for the evaporation rates. We propose a novel approach for inferring evaporation rates of clusters from available measurements.
Jan Karlický, Peter Huszár, Tereza Nováková, Michal Belda, Filip Švábik, Jana Ďoubalová, and Tomáš Halenka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15061–15077,Short summary
Cities are characterized by their impact on various meteorological variables. Our study aims to generalize these modifications into a single phenomenon – the urban meteorology island (UMI). A wide ensemble of Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and Regional Climate Model (RegCM) simulations investigated urban-induced modifications as individual UMI components. Significant changes are found in most of the discussed meteorological variables with a strong impact of specific model simulations.
William R. Hobbs, Andrew R. Klekociuk, and Yuhang Pan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14757–14768,Short summary
Reanalysis products are an invaluable tool for representing variability and long-term trends in regions with limited in situ data. However, validation of these products is difficult because of that lack of station data. Here we present a novel assessment of eight reanalyses over the polar Southern Ocean, leveraging the close relationship between trends in sea ice cover and surface air temperature, that provides clear guidance on the most reliable product for Antarctic research.
Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Cuijuan Sui, and Bo Sun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13753–13770,Short summary
The recent increasing trend of "warm Arctic, cold continents" has attracted much attention, but it remains debatable as to what forces are behind this phenomenon. Sea surface temperature (SST) over the central North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans influences the trend. On an interdecadal timescale, the recent increase in the occurrences of the warm Arctic–cold Eurasia pattern is a fragment of the interdecadal variability of SST over the Atlantic Ocean and over the central Pacific Ocean.
Martina Krämer, Christian Rolf, Nicole Spelten, Armin Afchine, David Fahey, Eric Jensen, Sergey Khaykin, Thomas Kuhn, Paul Lawson, Alexey Lykov, Laura L. Pan, Martin Riese, Andrew Rollins, Fred Stroh, Troy Thornberry, Veronika Wolf, Sarah Woods, Peter Spichtinger, Johannes Quaas, and Odran Sourdeval
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12569–12608,Short summary
To improve the representations of cirrus clouds in climate predictions, extended knowledge of their properties and geographical distribution is required. This study presents extensive airborne in situ and satellite remote sensing climatologies of cirrus and humidity, which serve as a guide to cirrus clouds. Further, exemplary radiative characteristics of cirrus types and also in situ observations of tropical tropopause layer cirrus and humidity in the Asian monsoon anticyclone are shown.
Leenes Uzan, Smadar Egert, Pavel Khain, Yoav Levi, Elyakom Vadislavsky, and Pinhas Alpert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12177–12192,Short summary
Detection of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is crucial to various fields, from air pollution assessment to weather prediction. We examined the diurnal summer PBL height by eight ceilometers in Israel, radiosonde profiles, the global IFS, and regional COSMO models. Our analysis utilized the bulk Richardson number method, the parcel method, and the wavelet covariance transform method. A novel correction tool to improve model results against in-situ ceilometer measurements is introduced.
Jessica Slater, Juha Tonttila, Gordon McFiggans, Paul Connolly, Sami Romakkaniemi, Thomas Kühn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11893–11906,Short summary
The feedback effect between aerosol particles, radiation and meteorology reduces turbulent motion and results in increased surface aerosol concentrations during Beijing haze. Observational analysis and regional modelling studies have examined the feedback effect but these studies are limited. In this work, we set up a high-resolution model for the Beijing environment to examine the sensitivity of the aerosol feedback effect to initial meteorological conditions and aerosol loading.
Bernard Legras and Silvia Bucci
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11045–11064,Short summary
The Asian monsoon is the most active region bringing surface compounds by convection to the stratosphere during summer. We study the transport pathways and the trapping within the upper-layer anticyclonic circulation. Above 15 km, the confinement can be represented by a uniform ascent over continental Asia of about 200 m per day and a uniform loss to other regions with a characteristic time of 2 weeks. We rule out the presence of a
chimneyproposed in previous studies over the Tibetan Plateau.
Clare Marie Flynn and Thorsten Mauritsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7829–7842,Short summary
The range of climate sensitivity of models participating in CMIP6 has increased relative to models participating in CMIP5 due to decreases in the total feedback parameter. This is caused by increases in the shortwave all-sky and clear-sky feedbacks, particularly over the Southern Ocean. These shifts between CMIP6 and CMIP5 did not arise by chance. Both CMIP5 and CMIP6 models are found to exhibit aerosol forcing that is too strong, causing too much cooling relative to observations.
Marie-Noëlle Bouin and Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6861–6881,Short summary
A coupled, kilometre-scale simulation of a medicane is used to assess the impact of the ocean feedback and role of surface fluxes. Sea surface temperature (SST) drop is much weaker than for tropical cyclones, resulting in no impact on the cyclone. Surface fluxes depend mainly on wind and SST for evaporation and on air temperature for sensible heat. Processes in the Mediterranean, like advection of continental air, rain evaporation and dry air intrusion, play a role in cyclone development.
Kevin M. Grise and Sean M. Davis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 5249–5268,Short summary
As Earth's climate warms, the tropical overturning circulation (Hadley circulation) is projected to expand, potentially pushing subtropical dry zones further poleward. This study examines projections of the Hadley circulation from the latest generation of computer models and finds several notable differences from older models. For example, the Northern Hemisphere circulation has expanded northward at a greater rate in recent decades than would be expected from increasing greenhouse gases alone.
Yufei Zou, Yuhang Wang, Zuowei Xie, Hailong Wang, and Philip J. Rasch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4999–5017,Short summary
We analyze the relationship between winter air stagnation and pollution extremes over eastern China and preceding Arctic sea ice loss based on climate modeling and dynamic diagnoses. We find significant increases in both the probability and intensity of air stagnation extremes in the modeling result driven by regional sea ice and sea surface temperature changes over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. We reveal the considerable impact of the Arctic climate change on mid-latitude weather extremes.
Dan Li, Bärbel Vogel, Rolf Müller, Jianchun Bian, Gebhard Günther, Felix Ploeger, Qian Li, Jinqiang Zhang, Zhixuan Bai, Holger Vömel, and Martin Riese
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4133–4152,Short summary
Low ozone and low water vapour signatures in the UTLS were investigated using balloon-borne measurements and trajectory calculations. The results show that deep convection in tropical cyclones over the western Pacific transports boundary air parcels with low ozone into the tropopause region. Subsequently, these air parcels are dehydrated when passing the lowest temperature region (< 190 K) during quasi-horizontal advection.
César Sauvage, Cindy Lebeaupin Brossier, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, and Véronique Ducrocq
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1675–1699,Short summary
Air–sea exchanges during Mediterranean heavy precipitation events are key and their representation must be improved for high-resolution weather forecasts. This study investigates the mechanisms acting at the air–sea interface during a case that occurred in southern France. To focus on the impact of sea state, we developed and used an original coupled air–wave model. Results show modifications of the forecast for the air–sea fluxes, the near-surface wind and the location of precipitation.
Michal T. Filus, Elliot L. Atlas, Maria A. Navarro, Elena Meneguz, David Thomson, Matthew J. Ashfold, Lucy J. Carpenter, Stephen J. Andrews, and Neil R. P. Harris
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1163–1181,Short summary
The effectiveness of transport of short-lived halocarbons to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere remains an important unknown in quantifying the supply of ozone-depleting substances to the stratosphere. In early 2014, a major field campaign in Guam in the western Pacific, involving UK and US research aircraft, sampled the tropical troposphere and lower stratosphere. The resulting measurements of CH3I, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 are compared here with calculations from a Lagrangian model.
Tobias Wolf, Lasse H. Pettersson, and Igor Esau
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 625–647,Short summary
Exceedances of legal thresholds for urban air pollution are of wide concern. We demonstrate the usefulness of very high-resolution modelling for the assessment of air pollution in the urban space on the example of Bergen, Norway. Vulnerability maps highlight areas with high pollutant loading and pathways for pollutant dispersion. This supports the understanding of urban air pollution beyond existing, scarce monitoring networks and possibly the mitigation of impacts on the local population.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Patrick Martineau, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 345–374,Short summary
The global response of surface air temperature (SST) to the eruptions of Mount Agung in 1963, El Chichón in 1982, and Mount Pinatubo in 1991 is investigated using 11 global atmospheric reanalysis data sets. Multiple linear regression is applied, with a set of climatic indices orthogonalized, and the residuals are investigated. It is found that careful treatment of tropical SST variability is necessary to evaluate the surface response to volcanic eruptions in observations and reanalyses.
Ping Zhu, Bryce Tyner, Jun A. Zhang, Eric Aligo, Sundararaman Gopalakrishnan, Frank D. Marks, Avichal Mehra, and Vijay Tallapragada
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14289–14310,Short summary
Producing timely and accurate intensity forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) continues to be one of the most difficult challenges in numerical weather prediction. The difficulty stems from the fact that TC intensification is not only modulated by environmental conditions but also largely depends on TC internal dynamics. The study shows that asymmetric eyewall and rainband eddy forcing above the boundary layer plays an important role in spinning up a TC vortex including rapid intensification.
Jonathan K. P. Shonk, Teferi D. Demissie, and Thomas Toniazzo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11383–11399,Short summary
Modern climate models are affected by systematic biases that harm their ability to produce reliable seasonal forecasts and climate projections. In this study, we investigate causes of biases in wind patterns over the tropical Atlantic during northern spring in three related models. We find that the wind biases are associated with an increase in excess rainfall and convergence in the tropical western Atlantic at the start of April, leading to the redirection of trade winds away from the Equator.
Xinxu Zhao, Julia Marshall, Stephan Hachinger, Christoph Gerbig, Matthias Frey, Frank Hase, and Jia Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11279–11302,Short summary
The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), coupled with greenhouse gas (GHG) modules (WRF-GHG), is considered to be a suitable basis for precise GHG transport analysis in urban areas, especially when combined with differential column methodology (DCM). DCM is an effective method not only for comparing models to observations independently of biases caused, for example, by initial conditions, but also for detecting and understanding sources of GHG emissions quantitatively in urban areas.
Xin Hao, Shengping He, Huijun Wang, and Tingting Han
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 9903–9911,Short summary
The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) can be greatly influenced by many factors that can be classified as anthropogenic forcing and natural forcing. Our results show that the increasing anthropogenic emissions in the past decades may have contributed to the weakening of the EAWM, the frequency of occurrence of strong EAWM may have decreased by 45 % due to the anthropogenic forcing, and the anthropogenic forcing is a dominant contributor to the occurrence of a weak EAWM.
Christopher Pöhlker, David Walter, Hauke Paulsen, Tobias Könemann, Emilio Rodríguez-Caballero, Daniel Moran-Zuloaga, Joel Brito, Samara Carbone, Céline Degrendele, Viviane R. Després, Florian Ditas, Bruna A. Holanda, Johannes W. Kaiser, Gerhard Lammel, Jošt V. Lavrič, Jing Ming, Daniel Pickersgill, Mira L. Pöhlker, Maria Praß, Nina Löbs, Jorge Saturno, Matthias Sörgel, Qiaoqiao Wang, Bettina Weber, Stefan Wolff, Paulo Artaxo, Ulrich Pöschl, and Meinrat O. Andreae
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8425–8470,Short summary
The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established to monitor the rain forest's biosphere–atmosphere exchange, which experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change. This work is meant to be a reference study, which characterizes various geospatial properties of the ATTO footprint region and shows how the human-made transformation of Amazonia may impact future atmospheric observations at ATTO.
Cai, W. J., Li, K., Liao, H., Wang, H. J., and Wu, L. X.: Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 7, 257–263, 2017.
Chang, L., Xu, J., Tie, X., and Wu, J.: Impact of the 2015 El Niño event on winter air quality in China, Sci. Rep., 6, 34275, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep34275, 2016.
Che, H., Zhang, X., Li, Y., Zhou, Z., Qu, J., and Hao, X.: Haze trends over the capital cities of 31 provinces in China, 1981–2005, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 97, 235–242, 2009.
Chen, G. S. and Huang, R. H.: Excitation mechanisms of the teleconnection patterns affecting the July precipitation in Northwest China, J. Climate, 25, 7834–7851, 2012.
Chen, S., Wu, R., and Chen, W.: The changing relationship between interannual variations of the North Atlantic Oscillation and northern tropical Atlantic SST, J. Climate, 28, 485–504, 2015.
Chen, S., Wu, R., and Liu, Y.: Dominant modes of interannual variability in Eurasian surface air temperature during boreal spring, J. Climate, 29, 1109–1125, 2016.
Chen, S., Guo, J., Song, L., Li, J., Liu, L., and Cohen, J.: Interannual variation of the spring haze pollution over the North China Plain: Roles of atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature, Int. J. Climatol., 39, 783–798, 2019.
Chen, S., Guo, J., Song, L., Cohen, J., and Wang, Y.: Temporal disparity of the atmospheric systems contributing to interannual variation of wintertime haze pollution in the North China Plain, Int. J. Climatol., 40, 128–144, 2020.
Cheng, J., Su, J., Cui, T., Li, X., Dong, X., Sun, F., Yang, Y., Tong, D., Zheng, Y., Li, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Q., and He, K.: Dominant role of emission reduction in PM2.5 air quality improvement in Beijing during 2013–2017: a model-based decomposition analysis, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6125–6146, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-6125-2019, 2019.
Climate Prediction Center (CPC): Climate Prediction Center atmospheric teleconnections, CPC [data set], available at: https://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/teledoc/telecontents.shtml, last access: 6 February 2021.
Cohen, A., Brauer, M., Burnett, R., Anderson, H., Frostad, J., Estep, K., Balakrishnan, K., Brunekreef, B., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Feigin, V., Freedman, G., Hubbell, B., Jobling, A., Kan, H., Knibbs, L., Liu, Y., Martin, R., Morawska, L., Pope, C., Shin, H., Straif, K., Shaddick, G., Thomas, M., Dingenen, R., Donkelaar, A., Vos, T., Murray, C., and Forouzanfar, M.: Estimates and 25-year trends of the global burden of disease attributable to ambient air pollution: An analysis of data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2015, Lancet, 389, 1907–1918, 2017.
Craig, C. D. and Faulkenberry, G. D.: The application of ridit analysis to detect trends in visibility, Atmos. Environ., 13, 1617–1622, 1979.
Czaja, A. and Frankignoul, C.: Influence of the North Atlantic SST on the atmospheric circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2969–2972, 1999.
Czaja, A. and Frankignoul, C.: Observed impact of Atlantic SST anomalies on the North Atlantic oscillation, J. Climate, 15, 606–623, 2002.
Czaja, A., van der Vaart P., and Marshall, J.: A diagnostic study of the role of remote forcing in tropical Atlantic variability, J. Climate, 15, 3280–3290, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<3280:ADSOTR>2.0.CO;2, 2002.
Czaja, A., Robertson, A. W., and Huck, T.: The role of Atlantic ocean–atmosphere coupling in affecting North Atlantic Oscillation variability. The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact, edited by: Hurrell, J. W., Geophys. Monogr., vol. 134, Amer. Geophys. Union, 147–172, 2003.
Dang, R. and Liao, H.: Severe winter haze days in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region from 1985 to 2017 and the roles of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10801–10816, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-10801-2019, 2019.
Ding, Y. H. and Liu, Y. J.: Analysis of long-term variations of fog and haze in China in recent 50 years and their relations with atmospheric humidity, Sci. China Earth Sci., 57, 36–46, 2014.
Ding, Y., Wu, P., Liu, Y., and Song, Y.: Environmental and dynamic conditions for the occurrence of persistent haze events in North China, Engineering, 3, 266–271, 2017.
Fu, G. Q., Xu, W. Y., Yang, R. F., Li, J. B., and Zhao, C. S.: The distribution and trends of fog and haze in the North China Plain over the past 30 years, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11949–11958, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-11949-2014, 2014.
Guo, J., Liu, H., Li, Z., Rosenfeld, D., Jiang, M., Xu, W., Jiang, J. H., He, J., Chen, D., Min, M., and Zhai, P.: Aerosol-induced changes in the vertical structure of precipitation: a perspective of TRMM precipitation radar, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13329–13343, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-13329-2018, 2018.
Guo, J. P., Su, T., Li, Z., Miao, Y., Li, J., Liu, H., Xu, H., Cribb, M., and Zhai, P.: Declining frequency of summertime local-scale precipitation over eastern China from 1970 to 2010 and its potential link to aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 5700–5708, 2017.
He, C., Liu, R., Wang, X., Liu, S. C., Zhou, T., and Liao, W.: How does El Niño-Southern Oscillation modulate the interannual variability of winter haze days over eastern China?, Sci. Total Environ., 651, 1892–1902, 2019.
Hennigan, C. J., Bergin, M. H., Dibb, J. E., and Weber, R. J.: Enhanced secondary organic aerosol formation due to water uptake by fine particles, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L18801, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL035046, 2008.
Hodson, D. L. R., Sutton, R. T., Cassou, C., Keenlyside, N., Okumura, Y., and Zhou, T. J.: Climate impacts of recent multidecadal changes in Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperature: A multimodel comparison, Clim. Dynam., 34, 1041–1058, 2010.
Hu, Z.-Z. and Huang, B.: On the significance of the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation in early winter and Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12103, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006339, 2006.
Huang, B. and Shukla, J.: Ocean–atmosphere interactions in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Ocean. J. Climate, 18, 1652–1672, 2005.
Huang B., Thorne P. W., Banzon, V. F., Boyer, T., Chepurin, G., Lawrimore, J. H., Menne, M. J., Smith, T. M., Vose, R. S., and Zhang, H. M.: Extended reconstructed sea surface temperature, version 5 (ERSSTv5): Upgrades, validations, and intercomparisons, J. Climate, 30, 8179–8205, https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0836.1, 2017.
Hurrell, J. W.: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation, Science, 269, 676–679, 1995.
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Jenne, R., and Joseph, D.: The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437–471, 1996.
Kerr, R. A.: A North Atlantic climate pacemaker for the centuries, Science, 288, 1984–1986, 2000.
Koren, I., Altaratz, O., Remer, L. A., Feingold, G., Martins, J. V., and Heiblum, R. H.: Aerosol-induced intensification of precipitation from the Tropics to the mid-latitudes, Nat. Geosci., 5, 118–122, 2012.
Koschmieder, H.: Theorie der horizontalen Sichtweite Beit, Physics of the Atmosphere, 12, 33–55, 1926.
Li, J., Li, C., and Zhao, C.: Different trends in extreme and median surface aerosol extinction coefficients over China inferred from quality-controlled visibility data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3289–3298, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-3289-2018, 2018.
Li, Q., Zhang, R., and Wang, Y.: Interannual variation of the wintertime fog-haze days across central and eastern China and its relation with East Asian winter monsoon, Int. J. Climatol., 36, 346–354, 2016.
Li, T., Wang, B., Wu, B., and Zhou, T.: Theories on formation of an anomalous anticyclone in Western North Pacific during El Niño: a review, J. Meteorol. Res. 31, 987–1006, 2017.
Li, X., Yu, C., Deng, X., He, D., Zhao, Z., Mo, H., Mo, J., and Wu, Y.: Mechanism for synoptic and intra-seasonal oscillation of visibility in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 143, 1005–1015, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-020-03466-z, 2021.
Liu, T., Gong, S., He, J., Yu, M., Wang, Q., Li, H., Liu, W., Zhang, J., Li, L., Wang, X., Li, S., Lu, Y., Du, H., Wang, Y., Zhou, C., Liu, H., and Zhao, Q.: Attributions of meteorological and emission factors to the 2015 winter severe haze pollution episodes in China's Jing-Jin-Ji area, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2971–2980, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-2971-2017, 2017.
Lu, X., Lin, C., Li, W., Chen, Y., Huang, Y., Fung, J., and Lau, A.: Analysis of the adverse health effects of PM2.5 from 2001 to 2017 in China and the role of urbanization in aggravating the health burden, Sci. Total Environ., 652, 683–695, 2019.
Ma, J. and Zhang, R.: Opposite interdecadal variations of wintertime haze occurrence over North China Plain and Yangtze River Delta regions in 1980–2013, Sci. Total Environ., 732, 139240, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139240, 2020.
Mantua, N. J., Hare, S. R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., and Francis, R. C.: A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production, B. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 78, 1069–1079, 1997.
NCEP-NCAR: Monthly and daily mean atmospheric reanalysis data, NCEP-NCAR [data set], available at: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.ncep.reanalysis.html, last access: 6 February 2021.
NOAA: NOAA Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (SST) V5 data sets, NOAA [data set], available at: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.v5.html, last access: 6 February 2021.
O'Reilly, C. H., Woollings, T., and Zanna, L.: The impact of tropical precipitation on summertime Euro-Atlantic circulation via a circumglobal wave train, J. Climate, 31, 6481–6504, 2018.
Pan, L.-L.: Observed positive feedback between the NAO and the North Atlantic SSTA tripole, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L06707, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005GL022427, 2005.
Peng, S., Robinson, W. A., and Li, S.: Mechanisms for the NAO responses to the North Atlantic SST tripole, J. Climate, 16, 1987–2004, 2003.
Rodwell, M. J. and Folland, C. K.: Atlantic air–sea interaction and seasonal predictability, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 128, 1413–1443, 2002.
Rosenfeld, D., Dai, J., Yu, X., Yao, Z., Xu, X., Yang, X., and Du, C.: Inverse relations between amounts of air pollution and orographic precipitation, Science, 315, 1396–1398, 2007.
Sardeshmukh, P. D. and Hoskins, B. J.: The generation of global rotational flow by steady idealized tropical divergence, J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1228–1251, 1988.
Takaya, K. and Nakamura, H.: A formulation of a phaseindependent wave activity flux for stationary and migratory quasigeostrophic eddies on a zonally varying basic flow, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 608–627, 2001.
Tie, X., Huang, R., and Dai, W.: Effect of heavy haze and aerosol pollution on rice and wheat productions in China, Sci. Rep., 6, 29612, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep29612, 2016.
Ting, M. F.: Steady linear response to tropical heating in barotropic and baroclinic models, J. Atmos. Sci., 53, 1698–1709, 1996.
Visbeck, M., Chassignet, E., Curry, R., and Delworth, T.: The ocean's response to North Atlantic variability. The North Atlantic Oscillation, edited by: Hurrell, J., Kushnir, Y., Ottersen, G., and Visbeck, M., Geophys. Monogr., 134, 113–145, 2003.
Wang, B., Wu, R. G., and Fu, X. H.: Pacific–East Asian teleconnection: how does ENSO affect East Asian climate?, J. Climate, 13, 1517–1536, 2000.
Wang, F., Guo, J., Wu, Y., Zhang, X., Deng, M., Li, X., Zhang, J., and Zhao, J.: Satellite observed aerosol-induced variability in warm cloud properties under different meteorological conditions over eastern China, Atmos. Environ., 84, 122–132, 2014.
Wang, H.-J. and Chen, H.-P.: Understanding the recent trend of haze pollution in eastern China: roles of climate change, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4205–4211, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-4205-2016, 2016.
Wang, H.-J., Chen, H.-P., and Liu, J.-P.: Arctic sea ice decline intensified haze pollution in eastern China, Atmos. Ocean. Sci. Lett., 8, 1–9, https://doi.org/10.3878/AOSL20140081, 2015.
Wang, L., Liu, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, W., and Chen, S.: Time-varying structure of the wintertime Eurasian pattern: Role of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and atmospheric mean flow, Clim. Dynam., 52, 2467–2479, 2019.
Wang, X., Wei, W., Cheng, S., Li, J., Zhang, H., and Lv, Z.: Characteristics and classification of PM2.5 pollution episodes in Beijing from 2013 to 2015, Sci. Total Environ., 612, 170–179, 2018.
Wang, Y., Zhang, R., and Saravanan, R.: Asian pollution climatically modulates mid-latitude cyclones following hierarchical modeling and observational analysis, Nat. Commun., 5, 3098, https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms4098, 2014.
Watanabe, M.: Asian jet waveguide and a downstream extension of the North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Climate, 17, 4674–4691, 2004.
Wu, G., Li, Z.-Q., Fu, C., Zhang, X., Zhang, R.-Y., Zhang, R., Zhou, T., Li, J., Li, J., Zhou, D., Wu, L., Zhou, L., He, B., and Huang, R.: Advances in studying interactions between aerosols and monsoon in China, Sci. China Earth Sci., 59, 1–16, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-015-5198-z, 2016.
Wu, L. and Liu, Z.: North Atlantic decadal variability: Air–sea coupling, oceanic memory, and potential Northern Hemisphere resonance, J. Climate, 18, 331–349, 2005.
Wu, R., Yang, S., Liu, S., Sun, L., Lian, Y., and Gao, Z.: Northeast China summer temperature and North Atlantic SST, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D16116, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JD015779, 2011.
Wu, Z., Wang, B., Li, J., and Jin, F.-F.: An empirical seasonal prediction model of the East Asian summer monsoon using ENSO and NAO, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D18120, https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JD011733, 2009.
Xiao, D., Li, Y., Fan, S., Zhang, R., Sun, J., and Wang, Y.: Plausible influence of Atlantic Ocean SST anomalies on winter haze in China, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 122, 249–257, 2014.
Yin, Z. and Wang, H.: The relationship between the subtropical western Pacific SST and haze over north-central North China Plain, Int. J. Climatol., 36, 3479–3491, https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.4570, 2016.
Yin, Z. and Wang, H.: Role of atmospheric circulations in haze pollution in December 2016, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11673–11681, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-11673-2017, 2017.
Yin, Z. and Wang, H.: The strengthening relationship between Eurasian snow cover and December haze days in central North China after the mid-1990s, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4753–4763, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-4753-2018, 2018.
Yin, Z., Wang, H., and Guo, W.: Climatic change features of fog and haze in winter over North China and Huang-Huai Area, Sci. China Earth Sci., 58, 1370–1376, 2015.
Yu, J. Z., Huang, X. F., Xu, J., and Hu, M.: When aerosol sulfate goes up, so does oxalate: implication for the formation mechanisms of oxalate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 128–133, 2005.
Zhang, J., Liu, J., Ren, L., Wei, J., Duan, J., Zhang, L., Zhou, X., and Sun, Z.: PM2.5 induces male reproductive toxicity via mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage and RIPK1 mediated apoptotic signaling pathway, Sci. Total Environ., 634, 1435–1444, 2018.
Zhang, R. H., Min, Q. Y., and Su, J. Z.: Impact of El Niño on atmospheric circulations over East Asia and rainfall in China: role of the anomalous western North Pacific anticyclone, Sci. China Earth Sci., 60, 1124–1132, 2017.
Zhang, X., Huang, Y., Zhu, W., and Rao, R.: Aerosol characteristics during summer haze episodes from different source regions over the coast city of North China Plain, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Ra., 122, 180–193, 2013.
Zhang, Y., Wallace, J. M., and Battisti, D. S.: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900–93, J. Climate, 10, 1004–1020, 1997.
Zhang, Y., Yin, Z., and Wang, H.: Roles of climate variability on the rapid increases of early winter haze pollution in North China after 2010, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12211–12221, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-12211-2020, 2020.
Zhang, Z., Zhang, X., Gong, D., Kim, S.-J., Mao, R., and Zhao, X.: Possible influence of atmospheric circulations on winter haze pollution in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region, northern China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 561–571, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-561-2016, 2016.
Zhao, S., Li, J., and Sun, C.: Decadal variability in the occurrence of wintertime haze in central eastern China tied to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Sci. Rep., 6, 27424, https://doi.org/10.1038/srep27424, 2016.
Zhao, W., Chen, S., Chen, W., Yao, S., Nath, D., and Yu, B.: Interannual variations of the rainy season withdrawal of the monsoon transitional zone in China, Clim. Dynam., 53, 2031–2046, 2019.
Zuo, J., Li, W., Sun, C., Xu, L., and Ren, H.: Impact of the North Atlantic sea surface temperature tripole on the East Asian summer monsoon, Adv. Atmos. Sci., 30, 1173–1186, 2013.
This study shows that in most years when haze pollution (HP) over the North China Plain (NCP) is more (less) serious in winter, air conditions in the following spring are also worse (better) than normal. Conversely, there are some years when HP in the following spring is opposed to that in winter. It is found that North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies play important roles in HP evolution over the NCP. Thus North Atlantic SST is an important preceding signal for NCP HP evolution.
This study shows that in most years when haze pollution (HP) over the North China Plain (NCP) is...