Articles | Volume 21, issue 17
Research article 06 Sep 2021
Research article | 06 Sep 2021
Chemical composition, optical properties, and oxidative potential of water- and methanol-soluble organic compounds emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and coal
Tao Cao et al.
No articles found.
Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang, Jie Ou, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We sampled cloud water at a remote mountain site and investigate the molecular characteristics using ESI(-) FT-ICR MS. CHON and CHO are dominant in cloud water. No statistical difference of oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. Most of formulas are aliphatic and olefinic species. CHON with aromatic structures and organosulfates are abundant, especially in nighttime samples. The in-cloud and multi-phase dark reactions likely contribute to them significantly.
Long Peng, Lei Li, Guohua Zhang, Xubing Du, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Xinhui Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5605–5613,Short summary
We build a novel system that utilizes an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) combined with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) to simultaneously characterize the volume equivalent diameter (Dve), chemical compositions, and effective density (ρe) of individual particles in real time. A test of the AAC-SPAMS with both spherical and aspherical particles shows that the deviations between the measured and theoretical values are less than 6 %.
Qingqing Yu, Xiang Ding, Quanfu He, Weiqiang Yang, Ming Zhu, Sheng Li, Runqi Zhang, Ruqin Shen, Yanli Zhang, Xinhui Bi, Yuesi Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14581–14595,Short summary
We carried out a 1-year PM concurrent observation at 12 sites across six regions of China, and size-segregated PAHs were measured. We found both PAHs and BaPeq were concentrated in PM1.1, and northern China had higher PAHs' pollution and inhalation cancer risk than southern China. Nationwide increases in both PAH levels and inhalation cancer risk occurred in winter. We suggest reducing coal and biofuel consumption in the residential sector is an important option to mitigate PAHs' health risks.
Yuzhen Fu, Qinhao Lin, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Yiping Yang, Xiufeng Lian, Long Peng, Feng Jiang, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Yuanyuan Wang, Duohong Chen, Jie Ou, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Jianxi Zhu, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14063–14075,Short summary
Based on the analysis of the morphology and mixing structure of the activated and unactivated particles, our results emphasize the role of in-cloud processes in the chemistry and microphysical properties of individual activated particles. Given that organic coatings may determine the particle hygroscopicity and heterogeneous chemical reactivity, the increase of OM-shelled particles upon in-cloud processes should have considerable implications for their evolution and climate impact.
Jing Cai, Xiangying Zeng, Guorui Zhi, Sasho Gligorovski, Guoying Sheng, Zhiqiang Yu, Xinming Wang, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6115–6128,Short summary
The composition and light-induced evolution of a water-soluble organic carbon mixture from fresh biomass burning aerosols was investigated with direct infusion electrospray ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) and liquid chromatography coupled with HRMS. Our findings indicate that the water-soluble organic fraction of combustion-derived aerosols has the potential to form more oxidised organic matter, contributing to the highly oxygenated nature of atmospheric organic aerosols.
Xingjun Fan, Tao Cao, Xufang Yu, Yan Wang, Xin Xiao, Feiyue Li, Yue Xie, Wenchao Ji, Jianzhong Song, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4593–4605,Short summary
A particle-phase O3 oxidation of biomass burning (BB) smoke particles was conducted to investigate the evolution of brown carbon (BrC) therein. The O3 aging induced the decomposition of chromophores and fluorophores. EEM–PARAFAC showed a predominant decomposition of protein-like substances and a gradual increase proportion of humic-like substances for BB BrC during O3 aging. The dynamic spectral behavior of chromophores and functional groups within BrC was further explored by 2D-COS.
Jiao Tang, Jun Li, Tao Su, Yong Han, Yangzhi Mo, Hongxing Jiang, Min Cui, Bin Jiang, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Jianzhong Song, Ping'an Peng, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 2513–2532,Short summary
We investigated the light absorption, fluorescence, and molecular composition of dissolved organic carbon from the simulated combustion of biomass and coal and vehicle emissions with UV–vis spectra, EEM-PARAFAC, and FT-ICR MS. We observed high light absorption capacity from source emissions, and fluorescence spectra and molecular structures varied by source. We concluded that an EEM- and molecular-composition-based methodology could be helpful in the source apportionment of atmospheric aerosols.
Qingcai Chen, Zhen Mu, Li Xu, Mamin Wang, Jin Wang, Ming Shan, Xudong Yang, Xingjun Fan, Jianzhong Song, Yuqin Wang, Pengchuan Lin, Lixin Zhang, Zhenxing Shen, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
It is important to study the formation characteristics and mechanism of triplet state in aerosols to quantify the effect of chromophore substances on the global climate and atmospheric environmental quality. The result of this study reveals that chromophore substances contributes significantly to aerosol photochemistry and plays an important role in aerosol aging. The global models may need to include those potential effects in the future.
Qinhao Lin, Yuxiang Yang, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Feng Jiang, Long Peng, Xiufeng Lian, Fengxian Liu, Xinhui Bi, Lei Li, Duohong Chen, Mei Li, Jie Ou, Mingjin Tang, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10469–10479,Short summary
The effects of the chemical composition and size of sea-salt-containing particles on their cloud condensation nuclei activity are incompletely understood. Our results showed that submicron sea-salt-containing particles can enrich in small cloud droplets, likely due to change in the chemical composition, while supermicron sea-salt-containing particles tended in the large cloud droplets less affected by chemical composition. This difference might further influence their atmospheric residence time.
Qinhao Lin, Xinhui Bi, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Long Peng, Xiufeng Lian, Yuzhen Fu, Mei Li, Duohong Chen, Mark Miller, Ji Ou, Mingjin Tang, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1195–1206,
Guohua Zhang, Qinhao Lin, Long Peng, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Mei Li, Lei Li, Fred J. Brechtel, Jianxin Chen, Weijun Yan, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14975–14985,Short summary
The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass scavenging efficiency of BC in cloud were investigated at a mountain site (1690 m a.s.l.) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were internally mixed extensively with sulfate, and thus the number fraction of scavenged BC-containing particles is close to that of all the measured particles. BC-containing particles with higher fractions of organics were scavenged relatively less.
Xingjun Fan, Siye Wei, Mengbo Zhu, Jianzhong Song, and Ping'an Peng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13321–13340,Short summary
In the study, humic-like substances (HULIS) in smoke PM2.5 emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and fossil fuels are studied. The results indicate that both biomass burning and coal combustion are important primary sources of atmospheric HULIS. Moreover, the primary HULIS and atmospheric HULIS are similar in many properties, but some distinct features are also apparent. These results are helpful to understand the contribution and chemical nature of HULIS in combustion emissions.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Nighttime chemistry of biomass burning emissions in urban areas: A dual mobile chamber studyFormation and evolution of secondary organic aerosols derived from urban-lifestyle sources: vehicle exhaust and cooking emissionsMass spectral characterization of secondary organic aerosol from urban cooking and vehicular sourcesAn organic crystalline state in ageing atmospheric aerosol proxies: spatially resolved structural changes in levitated fatty acid particlesPhotolytically induced changes in composition and volatility of biogenic secondary organic aerosol from nitrate radical oxidation during night-to-day transitionThe driving factors of new particle formation and growth in the polluted boundary layerExploring the composition and volatility of secondary organic aerosols in mixed anthropogenic and biogenic precursor systemsAcidity and the multiphase chemistry of atmospheric aqueous particles and cloudsPhotodegradation of atmospheric chromophores: changes in oxidation state and photochemical reactivityTemperature and volatile organic compound concentrations as controlling factors for chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosolTracer-based source apportioning of atmospheric organic carbon and the influence of anthropogenic emissions on secondary organic aerosol formation in Hong KongAqueous-phase reactive species formed by fine particulate matter from remote forests and polluted urban airCharacterization of primary and aged wood burning and coal combustion organic aerosols in an environmental chamber and its implications for atmospheric aerosolsChemical composition of nanoparticles from α-pinene nucleation and the influence of isoprene and relative humidity at low temperatureRevisiting the reaction of dicarbonyls in aerosol proxy solutions containing ammonia: the case of butenedialTechnical Note: Classical and statistical thermodynamic treatment of adsorption and desorption kinetics and ratesImportance of secondary organic aerosol formation of α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol comparing day- and nighttime radical chemistrySource apportionment of carbonaceous aerosols in Beijing with radiocarbon and organic tracers: insight into the differences between urban and rural sitesSO2 and NH3 emissions enhance organosulfur compounds and fine particle formation from the photooxidation of a typical aromatic hydrocarbonOn the similarities and differences between the products of oxidation of hydrocarbons under simulated atmospheric conditions and cool flamesEnhanced secondary organic aerosol formation from the photo-oxidation of mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compoundsFormation kinetics and mechanisms of ozone and secondary organic aerosols from photochemical oxidation of different aromatic hydrocarbons: dependence on NOx and organic substituentsIncreased primary and secondary H2SO4 showing the opposing roles in secondary organic aerosol formation from ethyl methacrylate ozonolysisWater uptake of subpollen aerosol particles: hygroscopic growth, cloud condensation nuclei activation, and liquid–liquid phase separationLaboratory study of the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets – Part II: Influence of electric chargesHeterogeneous interactions between SO2 and organic peroxides in submicron aerosolTemperature and acidity dependence of secondary organic aerosol formation from α-pinene ozonolysis with a compact chamber systemProduction of HONO from NO2 uptake on illuminated TiO2 aerosol particles and following the illumination of mixed TiO2∕ammonium nitrate particlesCharacterization of secondary organic aerosol from heated-cooking-oil emissions: evolution in composition and volatilityMeasurement report: Diurnal and temporal variations of sugar compounds in suburban aerosols from the northern vicinity of Beijing, China – an influence of biogenic and anthropogenic sourcesPre-deliquescent water uptake in deposited nanoparticles observed with in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopyTechnical note: Emission factors, chemical composition, and morphology of particles emitted from Euro 5 diesel and gasoline light-duty vehicles during transient cyclesMeasurement report: Distinct emissions and volatility distribution of intermediate-volatility organic compounds from on-road Chinese gasoline vehicles: implication of high secondary organic aerosol formation potentialEmissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from domestic fuels used in Delhi, IndiaEffects of liquid–liquid phase separation and relative humidity on the heterogeneous OH oxidation of inorganic–organic aerosols: insights from methylglutaric acid and ammonium sulfate particlesMeasurement report: Sulfuric acid nucleation and experimental conditions in a photolytic flow reactorOzonolysis of fatty acid monolayers at the air–water interface: organic films may persist at the surface of atmospheric aerosolsQuantification of the role of stabilized Criegee intermediates in the formation of aerosols in limonene ozonolysisPhotochemical degradation of iron(III) citrate/citric acid aerosol quantified with the combination of three complementary experimental techniques and a kinetic process modelThe production and hydrolysis of organic nitrates from OH radical oxidation of β-ocimeneEmission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from illegal burning of different types of municipal waste in householdsKinetic modeling of formation and evaporation of secondary organic aerosol from NO3 oxidation of pure and mixed monoterpenesDirect contribution of ammonia to α-pinene secondary organic aerosol formationHygroscopic behavior of aerosols generated from solutions of 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid, its sodium salts, and its mixtures with NaClChemical composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds emitted from burning wood and charcoal in household cookstovesChemical composition and light absorption of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from crop residue burning: influence of combustion efficiencyOn mineral dust aerosol hygroscopicityDistinct chemical and mineralogical composition of Icelandic dust compared to northern African and Asian dustSecondary organic aerosol yields from the oxidation of benzyl alcoholThe Aarhus Chamber Campaign on Highly Oxygenated Organic Molecules and Aerosols (ACCHA): particle formation, organic acids, and dimer esters from α-pinene ozonolysis at different temperatures
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, Christos Kaltsonoudis, John K. Kodros, Christina Vasilakopoulou, Manuela Cirtog, Axel Fouqueau, Bénédicte Picquet-Varrault, Athanasios Nenes, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15337–15349,Short summary
We test the hypothesis that significant secondary organic aerosol production can take place even during winter nights through the oxidation of the emitted organic vapors by the nitrate radicals produced during the reaction of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our experiments, using as a starting point the ambient air of an urban area with high biomass burning activity, demonstrate that, even with sunlight, there is 20 %–70 % additional organic aerosol formed in a few hours.
Zirui Zhang, Wenfei Zhu, Min Hu, Kefan Liu, Hui Wang, Rongzhi Tang, Ruizhe Shen, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Hongming Xu, Shijin Shuai, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Jiayun Li, Yuesi Wang, and Song Guo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15221–15237,Short summary
We comprehensively investigated the mass growth potential, oxidation degree, formation pathway, and mass spectra features of typical urban-lifestyle secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) including vehicle SOAs and cooking SOAs. The mass spectra we acquired could provide necessary references to estimate the mass fractions of vehicle and cooking SOAs in the atmosphere, which would greatly decrease the uncertainty in air quality evaluation and health risk assessment in urban areas.
Wenfei Zhu, Song Guo, Zirui Zhang, Hui Wang, Ying Yu, Zheng Chen, Ruizhe Shen, Rui Tan, Kai Song, Kefan Liu, Rongzhi Tang, Yi Liu, Shengrong Lou, Yuanju Li, Wenbin Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Shijin Shuai, Hongming Xu, Shuangde Li, Yunfa Chen, Min Hu, Francesco Canonaco, and Andre S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15065–15079,Short summary
The experiments of primary emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from urban lifestyle sources (cooking and vehicles) were conducted. The mass spectral features of primary organic aerosol (POA) and SOA were characterized by using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. This work, for the first time, establishes the vehicle and cooking SOA source profiles and can be further used as source constraints in the OA source apportionment in the ambient atmosphere.
Adam Milsom, Adam M. Squires, Jacob A. Boswell, Nicholas J. Terrill, Andrew D. Ward, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15003–15021,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols can be solid, semi-solid or liquid. This phase state may impact key aerosol processes such as oxidation and water uptake, affecting cloud droplet formation and urban air pollution. We have observed a solid crystalline organic phase in a levitated proxy for cooking emissions, oleic acid. Spatially resolved structural changes were followed during ageing by X-ray scattering, revealing phase gradients, aggregate products and a markedly reduced ozonolysis reaction rate.
Cheng Wu, David M. Bell, Emelie L. Graham, Sophie Haslett, Ilona Riipinen, Urs Baltensperger, Amelie Bertrand, Stamatios Giannoukos, Janne Schoonbaert, Imad El Haddad, Andre S. H. Prevot, Wei Huang, and Claudia Mohr
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14907–14925,Short summary
Night-time reactions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and nitrate radicals can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (BSOANO3). Here, we study the impacts of light exposure on the BSOANO3 from three biogenic precursors. Our results suggest that photolysis causes photodegradation of a substantial fraction of BSOANO3, changes the chemical composition and bulk volatility, and might be a potentially important loss pathway of BSOANO3 during the night-to-day transition.
Mao Xiao, Christopher R. Hoyle, Lubna Dada, Dominik Stolzenburg, Andreas Kürten, Mingyi Wang, Houssni Lamkaddam, Olga Garmash, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Andrea Baccarini, Mario Simon, Xu-Cheng He, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Rima Baalbaki, Paulus S. Bauer, Lisa Beck, David Bell, Federico Bianchi, Sophia Brilke, Dexian Chen, Randall Chiu, António Dias, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Hamish Gordon, Victoria Hofbauer, Changhyuk Kim, Theodore K. Koenig, Janne Lampilahti, Chuan Ping Lee, Zijun Li, Huajun Mai, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Serge Mathot, Roy L. Mauldin, Wei Nie, Antti Onnela, Eva Partoll, Tuukka Petäjä, Joschka Pfeifer, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Matti Rissanen, Siegfried Schobesberger, Simone Schuchmann, Yuri Stozhkov, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, António Tomé, Miguel Vazquez-Pufleau, Andrea C. Wagner, Robert Wagner, Yonghong Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Yusheng Wu, Chao Yan, Penglin Ye, Qing Ye, Qiaozhi Zha, Xueqin Zhou, Antonio Amorim, Ken Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Armin Hansel, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Richard C. Flagan, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R. Worsnop, Jasper Kirkby, Neil M. Donahue, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, and Josef Dommen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14275–14291,Short summary
Experiments at CLOUD show that in polluted environments new particle formation (NPF) is largely driven by the formation of sulfuric acid–base clusters, stabilized by amines, high ammonia concentrations or lower temperatures. While oxidation products of aromatics can nucleate, they play a minor role in urban NPF. Our experiments span 4 orders of magnitude variation of observed NPF rates in ambient conditions. We provide a framework based on NPF and growth rates to interpret ambient observations.
Aristeidis Voliotis, Yu Wang, Yunqi Shao, Mao Du, Thomas J. Bannan, Carl J. Percival, Spyros N. Pandis, M. Rami Alfarra, and Gordon McFiggans
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14251–14273,Short summary
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from mixtures of volatile precursors can be affected by the molecular interactions of the products. Composition and volatility measurements of SOA formed from mixtures of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors reveal processes that can increase or decrease the SOA volatility. The unique products of the mixture were more oxygenated and less volatile than those from either precursor. Analytical context is provided to explore the SOA volatility in mixtures.
Andreas Tilgner, Thomas Schaefer, Becky Alexander, Mary Barth, Jeffrey L. Collett Jr., Kathleen M. Fahey, Athanasios Nenes, Havala O. T. Pye, Hartmut Herrmann, and V. Faye McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13483–13536,Short summary
Feedbacks of acidity and atmospheric multiphase chemistry in deliquesced particles and clouds are crucial for the tropospheric composition, depositions, climate, and human health. This review synthesizes the current scientific knowledge on these feedbacks using both inorganic and organic aqueous-phase chemistry. Finally, this review outlines atmospheric implications and highlights the need for future investigations with respect to reducing emissions of key acid precursors in a changing world.
Zhen Mu, Qingcai Chen, Lixin Zhang, Dongjie Guan, and Hao Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11581–11591,Short summary
Sunlight affects the life and chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols and thus alters air quality. This study demonstrated that the photo-aging process not only changed the chemical compositions of chromophoric aerosols but also changed the roles of the chromophoric organic matter in the photo-aging process of aerosol. This study adds to our understanding of how sunlight affects chromophoric aerosol aging.
Louise N. Jensen, Manjula R. Canagaratna, Kasper Kristensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Bernadette Rosati, Ricky Teiwes, Marianne Glasius, Henrik B. Pedersen, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11545–11562,Short summary
This work targets the chemical composition of α-pinene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed in the temperature range from -15 to 20°C. Experiments were conducted in an atmospheric simulation chamber. Positive matrix factorization analysis of data obtained by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer shows that the elemental aerosol composition is controlled by the initial α-pinene concentration and temperature during SOA formation.
Yubo Cheng, Yiqiu Ma, and Di Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10589–10608,Short summary
We conducted chemical characterization and source apportionment of PM2.5 in Hong Kong. Secondary formation was the leading contributor to organic carbon (OC) throughout the year. NOx processing played a key role in both daytime and nighttime secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production, and monoterpene SOA was the most abundant. Sulfate was positively related to total and secondary sulfate-related OC, and particle acidity was significantly correlated with SOC from aging of biomass burning.
Haijie Tong, Fobang Liu, Alexander Filippi, Jake Wilson, Andrea M. Arangio, Yun Zhang, Siyao Yue, Steven Lelieveld, Fangxia Shen, Helmi-Marja K. Keskinen, Jing Li, Haoxuan Chen, Ting Zhang, Thorsten Hoffmann, Pingqing Fu, William H. Brune, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Maosheng Yao, Thomas Berkemeier, Manabu Shiraiwa, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10439–10455,Short summary
We measured radical yields of aqueous PM2.5 extracts and found lower yields at higher concentrations of PM2.5. Abundances of water-soluble transition metals and aromatics in PM2.5 were positively correlated with the relative fraction of •OH but negatively correlated with the relative fraction of C-centered radicals among detected radicals. Composition-dependent reactive species yields may explain differences in the reactivity and health effects of PM2.5 in clean versus polluted air.
Amir Yazdani, Nikunj Dudani, Satoshi Takahama, Amelie Bertrand, André S. H. Prévôt, Imad El Haddad, and Ann M. Dillner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10273–10293,Short summary
Functional group compositions of primary and aged aerosols from wood burning and coal combustion sources from chamber experiments are interpreted through compounds present in the fuels and known gas-phase oxidation products. Infrared spectra of aged wood burning in the chamber and ambient biomass burning samples reveal striking similarities, and a new method for identifying burning-impacted samples in monitoring network measurements is presented.
Lucía Caudillo, Birte Rörup, Martin Heinritzi, Guillaume Marie, Mario Simon, Andrea C. Wagner, Tatjana Müller, Manuel Granzin, Antonio Amorim, Farnoush Ataei, Rima Baalbaki, Barbara Bertozzi, Zoé Brasseur, Randall Chiu, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Jonathan Duplissy, Henning Finkenzeller, Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Xu-Cheng He, Victoria Hofbauer, Weimeng Kong, Houssni Lamkaddam, Chuan P. Lee, Brandon Lopez, Naser G. A. Mahfouz, Vladimir Makhmutov, Hanna E. Manninen, Ruby Marten, Dario Massabò, Roy L. Mauldin, Bernhard Mentler, Ugo Molteni, Antti Onnela, Joschka Pfeifer, Maxim Philippov, Ana A. Piedehierro, Meredith Schervish, Wiebke Scholz, Benjamin Schulze, Jiali Shen, Dominik Stolzenburg, Yuri Stozhkov, Mihnea Surdu, Christian Tauber, Yee Jun Tham, Ping Tian, António Tomé, Steffen Vogt, Mingyi Wang, Dongyu S. Wang, Stefan K. Weber, André Welti, Wang Yonghong, Wu Yusheng, Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Urs Baltensperger, Imad El Haddad, Richard C. Flagan, Armin Hansel, Kristina Höhler, Jasper Kirkby, Markku Kulmala, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Ottmar Möhler, Harald Saathoff, Rainer Volkamer, Paul M. Winkler, Neil M. Donahue, Andreas Kürten, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We performed experiments in the CLOUD chamber at CERN at low temperatures to simulate new particle formation in the upper free troposphere (at −30 °C and −50 °C). We measured particle and gas phase and found that most of the compounds that are present in the gas phase are detected as well in the particle phase. The major compounds in the particles are C8-10 and C18-20. Specifically, we showed that C5 and C15 compounds are detected in a mixed system with isoprene and α-pinene at −30 °C, 20 % RH.
Jack C. Hensley, Adam W. Birdsall, Gregory Valtierra, Joshua L. Cox, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8809–8821,Short summary
We measured reactions of butenedial, an atmospheric dicarbonyl, in aqueous mixtures that mimic the conditions of aerosol particles. Major reaction products and rates were determined to assess their atmospheric relevance and to compare against other well-studied dicarbonyls. We suggest that the structure of the carbon backbone, not just the dominant functional group, plays a major role in dicarbonyl reactivity, influencing the fate and ability of dicarbonyls to produce brown carbon.
Daniel A. Knopf and Markus Ammann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Adsorption on and desorption of gas molecules from solid or liquid surfaces or interfaces represent the initial interaction of gas-to-condensed phase processes that can define the physicochemical evolution of the condensed phase. We apply a thermodynamic and microscopic treatment of these multiphase processes to evaluate how adsorption and desorption rates and surface accommodation depend on the choice adsorption model and standard states with implications for desorption energy and lifetime.
Anke Mutzel, Yanli Zhang, Olaf Böge, Maria Rodigast, Agata Kolodziejczyk, Xinming Wang, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8479–8498,Short summary
This study investigates secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and particle growth from α-pinene, limonene, and m-cresol oxidation through NO3 and OH radicals and the effect of relative humidity. The formed SOA is comprehensively characterized with respect to the content of OC / EC, WSOC, SOA-bound peroxides, and SOA marker compounds. The findings present new insights and implications of nighttime chemistry, which can form SOA more efficiently than OH radical reaction during daytime.
Siqi Hou, Di Liu, Jingsha Xu, Tuan V. Vu, Xuefang Wu, Deepchandra Srivastava, Pingqing Fu, Linjie Li, Yele Sun, Athanasia Vlachou, Vaios Moschos, Gary Salazar, Sönke Szidat, André S. H. Prévôt, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8273–8292,Short summary
This study provides a newly developed method which combines radiocarbon (14C) with organic tracers to enable source apportionment of primary and secondary fossil vs. non-fossil sources of carbonaceous aerosols at an urban and a rural site of Beijing. The source apportionment results were compared with those by chemical mass balance and AMS/ACSM-PMF methods. Correlations of WINSOC and WSOC with different sources of OC were also performed to elucidate the formation mechanisms of SOC.
Zhaomin Yang, Li Xu, Narcisse T. Tsona, Jianlong Li, Xin Luo, and Lin Du
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7963–7981,Short summary
The promotion effects of SO2 and NH3 on particle and organosulfur compound formation from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (TMB) photooxidation were observed for the first time. The enhanced organosulfur compounds included hitherto unidentified aromatic sulfonates and organosulfates (OSs). OSs were produced via acid-driven heterogeneous chemistry of hydroperoxides. The production of organosulfur compounds might provide a new pathway for the fate of TMB in regions with considerable SO2 emissions.
Roland Benoit, Nesrine Belhadj, Maxence Lailliau, and Philippe Dagaut
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7845–7862,Short summary
This study compares different modes of limonene oxidation (ozonolysis, photooxidation, and cool flame) on the basis of review articles and experimental results. Although the oxidation conditions are totally different, the results obtained present great similarities in the nature of the products but also specificities related to autooxidation such as the presence of keto-hydroperoxides.
Junling Li, Hong Li, Kun Li, Yan Chen, Hao Zhang, Xin Zhang, Zhenhai Wu, Yongchun Liu, Xuezhong Wang, Weigang Wang, and Maofa Ge
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7773–7789,Short summary
SOA formation from the mixed anthropogenic volatile organic compounds was enhanced compared to the predicted SOA mass concentration based on the SOA yield of single species; interaction occurred between intermediate products from the two precursors. Interactions between the intermediate products from the mixtures and the effect on SOA formation give us a further understanding of the SOA formed in the atmosphere.
Hao Luo, Jiangyao Chen, Guiying Li, and Taicheng An
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7567–7578,Short summary
The formation kinetics and mechanism of O3 and SOA from different AHs are still unclear. Thus the photochemical oxidation mechanism of nine AHs with NO2 is studied. Increased formation rate and yield of O3 and SOA are observed via promoting AH content. Raising the number of AH substituents enhances O3 formation but decreases SOA yield, which is promoted by increasing the methyl group number of AHs. Results help show conversion of AHs to secondary pollutants in the real atmospheric environment.
Peng Zhang, Tianzeng Chen, Jun Liu, Guangyan Xu, Qingxin Ma, Biwu Chu, Wanqi Sun, and Hong He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7099–7112,Short summary
This work highlights the opposing effects of primary and secondary H2SO4 on both secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and constitutes. Our findings revealed that a substantial increase in secondary H2SO4 particles promoted the SOA formation of ethyl methacrylate with increasing SO2 in the absence of seed particles. However, increased primary H2SO4 with seed acidity enhanced ethyl methacrylate uptake but reduced its SOA formation in the presence of seed particles.
Eugene F. Mikhailov, Mira L. Pöhlker, Kathrin Reinmuth-Selzle, Sergey S. Vlasenko, Ovid O. Krüger, Janine Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Christopher Pöhlker, Olga A. Ivanova, Alexey A. Kiselev, Leslie A. Kremper, and Ulrich Pöschl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6999–7022,Short summary
Subpollen particles are a relatively new subset of atmospheric aerosol particles. When pollen grains rupture, they release cytoplasmic fragments known as subpollen particles (SPPs). We found that SPPs, containing a broad spectrum of biopolymers and hydrocarbons, exhibit abnormally high water uptake. This effect may influence the life cycle of SPPs and the related direct and indirect impacts on radiation budget as well as reinforce their allergic potential.
Alexis Dépée, Pascal Lemaitre, Thomas Gelain, Marie Monier, and Andrea Flossmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6963–6984,Short summary
The present article describes a new In-Cloud Aerosol Scavenging Experiment (In-CASE) that has been conceived to measure the collection efficiency of submicron aerosol particles by cloud droplets. The present article focuses on the influence of electrostatic effects on the collection efficiency.
Shunyao Wang, Tengyu Liu, Jinmyung Jang, Jonathan P. D. Abbatt, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6647–6661,Short summary
Discrepancies between atmospheric modeling and field observations, especially in highly polluted cities, have highlighted the lack of understanding of sulfate formation mechanisms and kinetics. Here, we directly quantify the reactive uptake coefficient of SO2 onto organic peroxides and study the important governing factors. The SO2 uptake rate was observed to depend on RH, peroxide amount and reactivity, pH, and ionic strength, which provides a framework to better predict sulfate formation.
Yange Deng, Satoshi Inomata, Kei Sato, Sathiyamurthi Ramasamy, Yu Morino, Shinichi Enami, and Hiroshi Tanimoto
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5983–6003,Short summary
The temperature and acidity dependence of yields and chemical compositions of the α-pinene ozonolysis SOA were systematically investigated using a newly developed compact chamber system. Increases in SOA yields were observed with the decrease in temperature and under acidic seed conditions. The differences in chemical compositions between acidic and neutral seed conditions were characterized and explained from the viewpoints of acid-catalyzed reactions. Some organosulfates were newly detected.
Joanna E. Dyson, Graham A. Boustead, Lauren T. Fleming, Mark Blitz, Daniel Stone, Stephen R. Arnold, Lisa K. Whalley, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5755–5775,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) dominates the removal of atmospheric pollutants, with nitrous acid (HONO) recognised as a major OH source. For remote regions HONO production through the action of sunlight on aerosol surfaces can provide a source of nitrogen oxides. In this study, HONO production rates at illuminated aerosol surfaces are measured under atmospheric conditions, a model consistent with the data is developed and aerosol production of HONO in the atmosphere is shown to be significant.
Manpreet Takhar, Yunchun Li, and Arthur W. H. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5137–5149,Short summary
Our study highlights the importance of molecular composition in constraining the chemical properties of cooking SOA as well as understanding the contribution of aldehydes in formation of SOA from cooking emissions. We show that fragmentation reactions are key in atmospheric processing of cooking SOA, and aldehydes emitted from cooking emissions contribute substantially to SOA formation. Our study provides a framework to better predict SOA formation in and downwind of urban atmospheres.
Santosh Kumar Verma, Kimitaka Kawamura, Fei Yang, Pingqing Fu, Yugo Kanaya, and Zifa Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4959–4978,Short summary
We studied aerosol samples collected in autumn 2007 with day and night intervals in a rural site of Mangshan, north of Beijing, for sugar compounds (SCs) that are abundant organic aerosol components and can influence the air quality and climate. We found higher concentrations of biomass burning (BB) products at nighttime than daytime, whereas pollen tracers and other SCs showed an opposite diurnal trend, because this site is meteorologically characterized by a mountain/valley breeze.
Jack J. Lin, Kamal Raj R, Stella Wang, Esko Kokkonen, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Samuli Urpelainen, and Nønne L. Prisle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4709–4727,Short summary
We used surface-sensitive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to study laboratory-generated nanoparticles of atmospheric interest at 0–16 % relative humidity. XPS gives direct information about changes in the chemical state from the binding energies of probed elements. Our results indicate water adsorption and associated chemical changes at the particle surfaces well below deliquescence, with distinct features for different particle components and implications for atmospheric chemistry.
Evangelia Kostenidou, Alvaro Martinez-Valiente, Badr R'Mili, Baptiste Marques, Brice Temime-Roussel, Amandine Durand, Michel André, Yao Liu, Cédric Louis, Boris Vansevenant, Daniel Ferry, Carine Laffon, Philippe Parent, and Barbara D'Anna
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4779–4796,Short summary
Passenger vehicle emissions can be a significant source of particulate matter in urban areas. In this study the particle-phase emissions of seven Euro 5 passenger vehicles were characterized. Changes in engine technologies and after-treatment devices can alter the chemical composition and the size of the emitted particulate matter. The condition of the diesel particle filter (DPF) plays an important role in the emitted pollutants.
Rongzhi Tang, Quanyang Lu, Song Guo, Hui Wang, Kai Song, Ying Yu, Rui Tan, Kefan Liu, Ruizhe Shen, Shiyi Chen, Limin Zeng, Spiro D. Jorga, Zhou Zhang, Wenbin Zhang, Shijin Shuai, and Allen L. Robinson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2569–2583,Short summary
We performed chassis dynamometer experiments to investigate the emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation potential of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) from an on-road Chinese gasoline vehicle. High IVOC emission factors (EFs) and distinct volatility distribution were recognized. Our results indicate that vehicular IVOCs contribute significantly to SOA, implying the importance of reducing IVOCs when making air pollution control policies in urban areas of China.
Gareth J. Stewart, Beth S. Nelson, W. Joe F. Acton, Adam R. Vaughan, Naomi J. Farren, James R. Hopkins, Martyn W. Ward, Stefan J. Swift, Rahul Arya, Arnab Mondal, Ritu Jangirh, Sakshi Ahlawat, Lokesh Yadav, Sudhir K. Sharma, Siti S. M. Yunus, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Eiko Nemitz, Neil Mullinger, Ranu Gadi, Lokesh K. Sahu, Nidhi Tripathi, Andrew R. Rickard, James D. Lee, Tuhin K. Mandal, and Jacqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2407–2426,Short summary
Biomass burning releases many lower-molecular-weight organic species which are difficult to analyse but important for the formation of organic aerosol. This study examined a new high-resolution technique to better characterise these difficult-to-analyse organic components. Some burning sources analysed in this study, such as cow dung cake and municipal solid waste, released extremely complex mixtures containing many thousands of different lower-volatility organic compounds.
Hoi Ki Lam, Rongshuang Xu, Jack Choczynski, James F. Davies, Dongwan Ham, Mijung Song, Andreas Zuend, Wentao Li, Ying-Lung Steve Tse, and Man Nin Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2053–2066,Short summary
This work demonstrates that organic compounds present at or near the surface of aerosols can be subjected to oxidation initiated by gas-phase oxidants, such as hydroxyl radicals (OH). The heterogeneous reactivity is sensitive to their surface concentrations, which are determined by the phase separation behavior. This results of this work emphasize the effects of phase separation and potentially distinct aerosol morphologies on the chemical transformation of atmospheric aerosols.
David R. Hanson, Seakh Menheer, Michael Wentzel, and Joan Kunz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1987–2001,Short summary
We report experimental measurements of particle formation in a flow reactor that extend the results from this experiment to a total of more than 270 runs over a time period of ~3 years. This has allowed us to detect a general increase in the cleanliness of the system and improve our knowledge of its chemistry. In-house simulations allowed us to construct phenomenological free energies of molecular clusters of sulfuric acid and ammonia that are appropriate for application to the atmosphere.
Benjamin Woden, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Adam Milsom, Curtis Gubb, Armando Maestro, James Tellam, and Christian Pfrang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1325–1340,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols contain a large amount of organic compounds, whose oxidation affects their physical properties through a process known as ageing. We have simulated atmospheric ageing experimentally to elucidate the nature and behaviour of residual surface films. Our results show an increasing amount of residue at near-zero temperatures, demonstrating that an inert product film may build up during droplet ageing, even if only ordinarily short-lived reactive species are initially emitted.
Yiwei Gong and Zhongming Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 813–829,Short summary
Stabilized Criegee intermediates (SCIs) are important factors in estimating aerosol formation in the atmosphere. Here the results show that SCIs account for more than 60 % of aerosol formation in limonene ozonolysis and water is an uncertainty in SCI performances. The aerosol formation potential of SCIs under high-humidity conditions is double that under dry and low-humidity conditions, suggesting SCI reactions are still important in contributing to aerosols at high relative humidity.
Jing Dou, Peter A. Alpert, Pablo Corral Arroyo, Beiping Luo, Frederic Schneider, Jacinta Xto, Thomas Huthwelker, Camelia N. Borca, Katja D. Henzler, Jörg Raabe, Benjamin Watts, Hartmut Herrmann, Thomas Peter, Markus Ammann, and Ulrich K. Krieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 315–338,Short summary
Photochemistry of iron(III) complexes plays an important role in aerosol aging, especially in the lower troposphere. Ensuing radical chemistry leads to decarboxylation, and the production of peroxides, and oxygenated volatile compounds, resulting in particle mass loss due to release of the volatile products to the gas phase. We investigated kinetic transport limitations due to high particle viscosity under low relative humidity conditions. For quantification a numerical model was developed.
Ana C. Morales, Thilina Jayarathne, Jonathan H. Slade, Alexander Laskin, and Paul B. Shepson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 129–145,Short summary
Organic nitrates formed from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds impact both ozone and particulate matter as they remove nitrogen oxides, but they represent important aerosol precursors. We conducted a series of reaction chamber experiments that quantified the total organic nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yield from the OH-radical-initiated oxidation of ocimene, and also measured their hydrolysis lifetimes in the aqueous phase, as a function of pH.
András Hoffer, Beatrix Jancsek-Turóczi, Ádám Tóth, Gyula Kiss, Anca Naghiu, Erika Andrea Levei, Luminita Marmureanu, Attila Machon, and András Gelencsér
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 16135–16144,Short summary
Emission factors for PM10 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are reported for the first time ever for the indoor combustion of 12 common types of municipal solid waste that are frequently burned in households worldwide. We have found that waste burning emits up to 40 times more PM10 and 800 times more PAHs than the combustion of dry firewood. Our finding highlights the need for coordinated actions against illegal waste combustion and the extreme health hazard associated with it.
Thomas Berkemeier, Masayuki Takeuchi, Gamze Eris, and Nga L. Ng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15513–15535,Short summary
This paper presents how environmental chamber data of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation can be interpreted using kinetic modeling techniques. Utilizing pure and mixed precursor experiments, we show that SOA formation and evaporation can be understood by explicitly treating gas-phase chemistry, gas–particle partitioning, and, notably, particle-phase oligomerization, but some of the non-linear, non-equilibrium effects must be accredited to diffusion limitations in the particle phase.
Liqing Hao, Eetu Kari, Ari Leskinen, Douglas R. Worsnop, and Annele Virtanen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14393–14405,Short summary
Our work presents the observational results of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the presence of ammonia. The particle-phase ammonium was continuously produced even after SOA formation had ceased. The gas-phase organic acids were observed to contribute to the formed particle-phase ammonium salts. This study suggests that the presence of ammonia may change the mass and chemical composition of large-size SOA particles and can potentially alter the aerosol impact on climate change.
Li Wu, Clara Becote, Sophie Sobanska, Pierre-Marie Flaud, Emilie Perraudin, Eric Villenave, Young-Chul Song, and Chul-Un Ro
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14103–14122,Short summary
MBTCA (3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid), a second-generation product of monoterpenes, is one of the most relevant tracer compounds for biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Laboratory-generated, micrometer-sized, pure-MBTCA, mono-/di-/trisodium MBTCA salts and MBTCA–NaCl mixture aerosol particles were examined systematically to observe their hygroscopic behavior, and it was also observed that the monosodium MBTCA salt aerosols were formed through a reaction between MBTCA and NaCl.
Mingjie Xie, Zhenzhen Zhao, Amara L. Holder, Michael D. Hays, Xi Chen, Guofeng Shen, James J. Jetter, Wyatt M. Champion, and Qin'geng Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 14077–14090,Short summary
This study investigated the composition, structures, and light absorption of N-containing aromatic compounds (NACs) in PM2.5 emitted from burning red oak and charcoal in a variety of cookstoves. The results suggest that the identified NACs might have substantial fractions remaining in the gas phase. In comparison to other sources, cookstove emissions from red oak or charcoal fuels did not exhibit unique NAC structural features but had distinct NAC composition.
Yujue Wang, Min Hu, Nan Xu, Yanhong Qin, Zhijun Wu, Liwu Zeng, Xiaofeng Huang, and Lingyan He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13721–13734,Short summary
Field straw residue burning is a widespread type of biomass burning in Asia, while its emissions are poorly understood. In this study, we designed lab-controlled experiments to comprehensively investigate the emission factors, chemical compositions and light absorption properties of both water-soluble and water-insoluble carbonaceous aerosols emitted from straw burning. The results clearly highlight the significant influences of burning conditions and combustion efficiency on the emissions.
Lanxiadi Chen, Chao Peng, Wenjun Gu, Hanjing Fu, Xing Jian, Huanhuan Zhang, Guohua Zhang, Jianxi Zhu, Xinming Wang, and Mingjin Tang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13611–13626,Short summary
We investigated hygroscopic properties of a number of mineral dust particles in a quantitative manner, via measuring the sample mass at different relative humidities. The robust and comprehensive data obtained would significantly improve our knowledge of hygroscopicity of mineral dust and its impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate.
Clarissa Baldo, Paola Formenti, Sophie Nowak, Servanne Chevaillier, Mathieu Cazaunau, Edouard Pangui, Claudia Di Biagio, Jean-Francois Doussin, Konstantin Ignatyev, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Olafur Arnalds, A. Robert MacKenzie, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13521–13539,Short summary
We showed that Icelandic dust has a fundamentally different chemical and mineralogical composition from low-latitude dust. In particular, magnetite is as high as 1 %–2 % of the total dust mass. Our results suggest that Icelandic dust may have an important impact on the radiation balance in the subpolar and polar regions.
Sophia M. Charan, Reina S. Buenconsejo, and John H. Seinfeld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 13167–13190,Short summary
In urban areas, the emissions from volatile chemical products may be responsible for the formation of as much particulate matter as motor vehicles. Since exposure to particulate matter is a public health crisis, understanding its formation is critical. In this work, we investigate the secondary organic aerosol formation potential of benzyl alcohol, an important compound that is representative of some of these new emission sources, and find that more particulate matter forms than is expected.
Kasper Kristensen, Louise N. Jensen, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Sigurd Christiansen, Bernadette Rosati, Jonas Elm, Ricky Teiwes, Henrik B. Pedersen, Marianne Glasius, Mikael Ehn, and Merete Bilde
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12549–12567,Short summary
Atmospheric particles are important in relation to human health and the global climate. As the global temperature changes, so may the atmospheric chemistry controlling the formation of particles from reactions of naturally emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the current work, we show how temperatures influence the formation and chemical composition of atmospheric particles from α-pinene: a biogenic VOC largely emitted in high-latitude environments such as the boreal forests.
Alexander, D. T. L., Crozier, P. A., and Anderson, J. R.: Brown carbon spheres in East Asian outflow and their optical properties, Science, 321, 833–836, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155296, 2008.
Andrade-Eiroa, Á., Canle, M., and Cerdá, V.: Environmental Applications of Excitation-Emission Spectrofluorimetry: An In-Depth Review I, Appl. Spec. Rev., 48, 1–49, https://doi.org/10.1080/05704928.2012.692104, 2013.
Andreae, M. O. and Gelencsér, A.: Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3131–3148, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3131-2006, 2006.
Atwi, K., Mondal, A., Pant, J., Cheng, Z., El Hajj, O., Ijeli, I., Handa, H., and Saleh, R.: Physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of brown carbon produced under different combustion conditions, Atmos. Environ., 244, 117881, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117881, 2021.
Bai, Z., Zhang, L., Cheng, Y., Zhang, W., Mao, J., Chen, H., Li, L., Wang, L., and Chen, J.: Water/Methanol-Insoluble Brown Carbon Can Dominate Aerosol-Enhanced Light Absorption in Port Cities, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 14889–14898, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c03844, 2020.
Bates, J. T., Fang, T., Verma, V., Zeng, L., Weber, R. J., Tolbert, P. E., Abrams, J. Y., Sarnat, S. E., Klein, M., Mulholland, J. A., and Russell, A. G.: Review of Acellular Assays of Ambient Particulate Matter Oxidative Potential: Methods and Relationships with Composition, Sources, and Health Effects, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 4003–4019, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b03430, 2019.
Chalbot, M.-C. G., Brown, J., Chitranshi, P., Gamboa da Costa, G., Pollock, E. D., and Kavouras, I. G.: Functional characterization of the water-soluble organic carbon of size-fractionated aerosol in the southern Mississippi Valley, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6075–6088, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-6075-2014, 2014a.
Chalbot, M.-C. G. and Kavouras, I. G.: Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the functional content of organic aerosols: a review, Environ. Pollut., 191, 232–249, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.04.034, 2014b.
Chalbot, M.-C. G., Chitranshi, P., da Costa, G. G., Pollock, E., and Kavouras, I. G.: Characterization of water-soluble organic matter in urban aerosol by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy, Atmos. Environ., 128, 235–245, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.12.067, 2016.
Chen, Q., Miyazaki, Y., Kawamura, K., Matsumoto, K., Coburn, S., Volkamer, R., Iwamoto, Y., Kagami, S., Deng, Y., Ogawa, S., Ramasamy, S., Kato, S., Ida, A., Kajii, Y., and Mochida, M.: Characterization of Chromophoric Water-Soluble Organic Matter in Urban, Forest, and Marine Aerosols by HR-ToF-AMS Analysis and Excitation-Emission Matrix Spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 10351–10360, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b01643, 2016.
Chen, Q., Ikemori, F., Nakamura, Y., Vodicka, P., Kawamura, K., and Mochida, M.: Structural and Light-Absorption Characteristics of Complex Water-Insoluble Organic Mixtures in Urban Submicrometer Aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 8293–8303, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01630, 2017.
Chen, Q., Wang, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Li, Y., and Han, Y.: Oxidative Potential of Water-Soluble Matter Associated with Chromophoric Substances in PM2.5 over Xi'an, China, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 8574–8584, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01976, 2019.
Chen, Q., Li, J., Hua, X., Jiang, X., Mu, Z., Wang, M., Wang, J., Shan, M., Yang, X., Fan, X., Song, J., Wang, Y., Guan, D., and Du, L.: Identification of species and sources of atmospheric chromophores by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix with parallel factor analysis, Sci. Tot. Environ., 718, 137322, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137322, 2020.
Chen, W., Westerhoff, P., Leenheer, J. A., and Booksh, K.: Fluorescence excitation – Emission matrix regional integration to quantify spectra for dissolved organic matter, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 5701–5710, https://doi.org/10.1021/es034354c, 2003.
Chen, Y. and Bond, T. C.: Light absorption by organic carbon from wood combustion, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 1773–1787, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-1773-2010, 2010.
Cheng, Y., He, K. B., Du, Z. Y., Engling, G., Liu, J. M., Ma, Y. L., Zheng, M., and Weber, R. J.: The characteristics of brown carbon aerosol during winter in Beijing, Atmos. Environ., 127, 355–364, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.12.035, 2016.
Cui, X., Zhou, D., Fan, W., Huo, M., Crittenden, J. C., Yu, Z., Ju, P., and Wang, Y.: The effectiveness of coagulation for water reclamation from a wastewater treatment plant that has a long hydraulic and sludge retention times: A case study, Chemosphere, 157, 224–231, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.05.009, 2016.
Decesari, S., Mircea, M., Cavalli, F., Fuzzi, S., Moretti, F., Tagliavini, E., and Facchini, M. C.: Source attribution of water-soluble organic aerosol by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 2479–2484, https://doi.org/10.1021/es061711l, 2007.
Dong, Z., Jiang, N., Zhang, R., Xu, Q., Ying, Q., Li, Q., and Li, S.: Molecular characteristics, source contributions, and exposure risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the core city of Central Plains Economic Region, China: Insights from the variation of haze levels, Sci. Tot. Environ., 757, 143885, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143885, 2021.
Dou, J., Lin, P., Kuang, B. Y., and Yu, J. Z.: Reactive Oxygen Species Production Mediated by Humic-like Substances in Atmospheric Aerosols: Enhancement Effects by Pyridine, Imidazole, and Their Derivatives, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 6457–6465, https://doi.org/10.1021/es5059378, 2015.
Evangeliou, N., Kylling, A., Eckhardt, S., Myroniuk, V., Stebel, K., Paugam, R., Zibtsev, S., and Stohl, A.: Open fires in Greenland in summer 2017: transport, deposition and radiative effects of BC, OC and BrC emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1393–1411, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-1393-2019, 2019.
Fan, X. J., Song, J. Z., and Peng, P. A.: Comparison of isolation and quantification methods to measure humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric particles, Atmos. Environ., 60, 366–374, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.063, 2012.
Fan, X., Wei, S., Zhu, M., Song, J., and Peng, P.: Comprehensive characterization of humic-like substances in smoke PM2.5 emitted from the combustion of biomass materials and fossil fuels, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13321–13340, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-13321-2016, 2016.
Fan, X., Li, M., Cao, T., Cheng, C., Li, F., Xie, Y., Wei, S., Song, J., and Peng, P. a.: Optical properties and oxidative potential of water-and alkaline-soluble brown carbon in smoke particles emitted from laboratory simulated biomass burning, Atmos. Environ., 194, 48–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.09.025, 2018.
Fan, X., Yu, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, X., Li, F., Xie, Y., Wei, S., Song, J., and Peng, P. A.: The aging behaviors of chromophoric biomass burning brown carbon during dark aqueous hydroxyl radical oxidation processes in laboratory studies, Atmos. Environ., 205, 9–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.02.039, 2019.
Fan, X., Cao, T., Yu, X., Wang, Y., Xiao, X., Li, F., Xie, Y., Ji, W., Song, J., and Peng, P.: The evolutionary behavior of chromophoric brown carbon during ozone aging of fine particles from biomass burning, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4593–4605, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-4593-2020, 2020.
Hakimzadeh, M., Soleimanian, E., Mousavi, A., Borgini, A., De Marco, C., Ruprecht, A. A., and Sioutas, C.: The impact of biomass burning on the oxidative potential of PM2.5 in the metropolitan area of Milan, Atmos. Environ., 224, 117328, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117328, 2020.
He, W. and Hur, J.: Conservative behavior of fluorescence EEM-PARAFAC components in resin fractionation processes and its applicability for characterizing dissolved organic matter, Water Res., 83, 217–226, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.06.044, 2015.
Hoffer, A., Gelencsér, A., Guyon, P., Kiss, G., Schmid, O., Frank, G. P., Artaxo, P., and Andreae, M. O.: Optical properties of humic-like substances (HULIS) in biomass-burning aerosols, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 3563–3570, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-3563-2006, 2006.
Hou, C., Shao, L., Hu, W., Zhang, D., Zhao, C., Xing, J., Huang, X., and Hu, M.: Characteristics and aging of traffic-derived particles in a highway tunnel at a coastal city in southern China, Sci. Tot. Environ., 619, 1385–1393, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.165, 2018.
Huang, R. J., Yang, L., Shen, J., Yuan, W., Gong, Y., Guo, J., Cao, W., Duan, J., Ni, H., Zhu, C., Dai, W., Li, Y., Chen, Y., Chen, Q., Wu, Y., Zhang, R., Dusek, U., O'Dowd, C., and Hoffmann, T.: Water-Insoluble Organics Dominate Brown Carbon in Wintertime Urban Aerosol of China: Chemical Characteristics and Optical Properties, Environ. Sci. Technol., 54, 7836–7847, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01149, 2020.
Huo, Y. Q., Li, M., Jiang, M. H., and Qi, W. M.: Light absorption properties of HULIS in primary particulate matter produced by crop straw combustion under different moisture contents and stacking modes, Atmos. Environ., 191, 490–499, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.08.038, 2018.
Izhar, S., Gupta, T., and Panday, A. K.: Improved method to apportion optical absorption by black and brown carbon under the influence of haze and fog at Lumbini, Nepal, on the Indo-Gangetic Plains, Environ. Pollut., 263, 114640, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114640, 2020.
Jiang, H., Jang, M., Sabo-Attwood, T., and Robinson, S. E.: Oxidative potential of secondary organic aerosols produced from photooxidation of different hydrocarbons using outdoor chamber under ambient sunlight, Atmos. Environ., 131, 382–389, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.02.016, 2016.
Kim, H., Kim, J. Y., Jin, H. C., Lee, J. Y., and Lee, S. P.: Seasonal variations in the light-absorbing properties of water-soluble and insoluble organic aerosols in Seoul, Korea, Atmos. Environ., 129, 234–242, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.01.042, 2016.
Kramer, A. J., Rattanavaraha, W., Zhang, Z., Gold, A., Surratt, J. D., and Lin, Y.-H.: Assessing the oxidative potential of isoprene-derived epoxides and secondary organic aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 130, 211–218, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.018, 2016.
Kumar, N. K., Corbin, J. C., Bruns, E. A., Massabó, D., Slowik, J. G., Drinovec, L., Močnik, G., Prati, P., Vlachou, A., Baltensperger, U., Gysel, M., El-Haddad, I., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: Production of particulate brown carbon during atmospheric aging of residential wood-burning emissions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17843–17861, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-17843-2018, 2018.
Kumar, V., Rajput, P., and Goel, A.: Atmospheric abundance of HULIS during wintertime in Indo-Gangetic Plain: impact of biomass burning emissions, J. Atmos. Chem., 75, 385–398, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10874-018-9381-4, 2018.
Laskin, A., Laskin, J., and Nizkorodov, S. A.: Chemistry of atmospheric brown carbon, Chem. Rev., 115, 4335–4382, https://doi.org/10.1021/cr5006167, 2015.
Lawaetz, A. J., and Stedmon, C. A.: Fluorescence Intensity Calibration Using the Raman Scatter Peak of Water, Appl. Spec., 63, 936–940, https://doi.org/10.1366/000370209788964548, 2009.
Li, R., Han, Y., Wang, L., Shang, Y., and Chen, Y.: Differences in oxidative potential of black carbon from three combustion emission sources in China, J. Environ. Manage., 240, 57–65, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.03.070, 2019.
Li, X., Han, J., Hopke, P. K., Hu, J., Shu, Q., Chang, Q., and Ying, Q.: Quantifying primary and secondary humic-like substances in urban aerosol based on emission source characterization and a source-oriented air quality model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2327–2341, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2327-2019, 2019.
Li, J., Chen, Q., Hua, X., Chang, T., and Wang, Y.: Occurrence and sources of chromophoric organic carbon in fine particulate matter over Xi'an, China, Sci. Total Environ., 725, 138290, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138290, 2020a.
Li, J., Zhang, Q., Wang, G., Li, J., Wu, C., Liu, L., Wang, J., Jiang, W., Li, L., Ho, K. F., and Cao, J.: Optical properties and molecular compositions of water-soluble and water-insoluble brown carbon (BrC) aerosols in northwest China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4889–4904, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-4889-2020, 2020b.
Lin, M. and Yu, J. Z.: Dithiothreitol (DTT) concentration effect and its implications on the applicability of DTT assay to evaluate the oxidative potential of atmospheric aerosol samples, Environ. Pollut., 251, 938–944, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.05.074, 2019.
Lin, P. and Yu, J. Z.: Generation of reactive oxygen species mediated by humic-like substances in atmospheric aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 10362–10368, https://doi.org/10.1021/es2028229, 2011.
Lin, P., Laskin, J., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Laskin, A.: Revealing Brown Carbon Chromophores Produced in Reactions of Methylglyoxal with Ammonium Sulfate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 14257–14266, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b03608, 2015.
Lin, P., Aiona, P. K., Li, Y., Shiraiwa, M., Laskin, J., Nizkorodov, S. A., and Laskin, A.: Molecular Characterization of Brown Carbon in Biomass Burning Aerosol Particles, Environ. Sci. Technol., 50, 11815–11824, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b03024, 2016.
Ma, Y., Cheng, Y., Qiu, X., Cao, G., Fang, Y., Wang, J., Zhu, T., Yu, J., and Hu, D.: Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5607–5617, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-5607-2018, 2018.
Matos, J. T. V., Freire, S. M. S. C., Duarte, R. M. B. O., and Duarte, A. C.: Natural organic matter in urban aerosols: Comparison between water and alkaline soluble components using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and multiway data analysis, Atmos. Environ., 102, 1–10, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.11.042, 2015.
Mostofa, K. M. G., Wu, F. C., Liu, C. Q., Vione, D., Yoshioka, T., Sakugawa, H., and Tanoue, E.: Photochemical, microbial and metal complexation behavior of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the aquatic environments, Geochem. J., 45, 235–254, 2011.
Moufarrej, L., Courcot, D., and Ledoux, F.: Assessment of the PM2.5 oxidative potential in a coastal industrial city in Northern France: Relationships with chemical composition, local emissions and long range sources, Sci. Total Environ., 748, 141448, 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141448, 2020.
Mukherjee, A., Dey, S., Rana, A., Jia, S., Banerjee, S., and Sarkar, S.: Sources and atmospheric processing of brown carbon and HULIS in the Indo-Gangetic Plain: Insights from compositional analysis, Environ. Pollut., 267, 115440, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115440, 2020.
Murphy, K. R., Butler, K. D., Spencer, R. G. M., Stedmon, C. A., Boehme, J. R., and Aiken, G. R.: Measurement of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence in Aquatic Environments: An Interlaboratory Comparison, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 9405–9412, https://doi.org/10.1021/es102362t, 2010.
Murphy, K. R., Hambly, A., Singh, S., Henderson, R. K., Baker, A., Stuetz, R., and Khan, S. J.: Organic matter fluorescence in municipal water recycling schemes: toward a unified PARAFAC model, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 2909–2916, https://doi.org/10.1021/es103015e, 2011.
Murphy, K. R., Stedmon, C. A., Graeber, D., and Bro, R.: Fluorescence spectroscopy and multi-way techniques. PARAFAC, Anal. Meth., 5, 6557, https://doi.org/10.1039/c3ay41160e, 2013.
Nozière, B., González, N. J. D., Borg-Karlson, A.-K., Pei, Y., Redeby, J. P., Krejci, R., Dommen, J., Prevot, A. S. H., and Anthonsen, T.: Atmospheric chemistry in stereo: A new look at secondary organic aerosols from isoprene, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L11807, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011gl047323, 2011.
Paglione, M., Saarikoski, S., Carbone, S., Hillamo, R., Facchini, M. C., Finessi, E., Giulianelli, L., Carbone, C., Fuzzi, S., Moretti, F., Tagliavini, E., Swietlicki, E., Eriksson Stenström, K., Prévôt, A. S. H., Massoli, P., Canaragatna, M., Worsnop, D., and Decesari, S.: Primary and secondary biomass burning aerosols determined by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy during the 2008 EUCAARI campaign in the Po Valley (Italy), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5089–5110, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-5089-2014, 2014.
Park, S.-S. and Yu, J.: Chemical and light absorption properties of humic-like substances from biomass burning emissions under controlled combustion experiments, Atmos. Environ., 136, 114–122, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.04.022, 2016.
Park, S.-S., Sim, S. Y., Bae, M.-S., and Schauer, J. J.: Size distribution of water-soluble components in particulate matter emitted from biomass burning, Atmos. Environ., 73, 62–72, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.03.025, 2013.
Pietrogrande, M. C., Bertoli, I., Clauser, G., Dalpiaz, C., Dell'Anna, R., Lazzeri, P., Lenzi, W., and Russo, M.: Chemical composition and oxidative potential of atmospheric particles heavily impacted by residential wood burning in the alpine region of northern Italy, Atmos. Environ., 253, 118360, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2021.118360, 2021.
Qin, J., Zhang, L., Zhou, X., Duan, J., Mu, S., Xiao, K., Hu, J., and Tan, J.: Fluorescence fingerprinting properties for exploring water-soluble organic compounds in PM2.5 in an industrial city of northwest China, Atmos. Environ., 184, 203–211, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.04.049, 2018.
Santos, P. S., Otero, M., Duarte, R. M., and Duarte, A. C.: Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter isolated from rainwater, Chemosphere, 74, 1053–1061, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.061, 2009.
Santos, P. S., Santos, E. B., and Duarte, A. C.: First spectroscopic study on the structural features of dissolved organic matter isolated from rainwater in different seasons, Sci. Total Environ., 426, 172–179, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.023, 2012.
Seo, I., Lee, K., Bae, M. S., Park, M., Maskey, S., Seo, A., Borlaza, L. J. S., Cosep, E. M. R., and Park, K.: Comparison of physical and chemical characteristics and oxidative potential of fine particles emitted from rice straw and pine stem burning, Environ. Pollut., 267, 115599, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115599, 2020.
Shen, G., Chen, Y., Wei, S., Fu, X., Zhu, Y., and Tao, S.: Mass absorption efficiency of elemental carbon for source samples from residential biomass and coal combustions, Atmos. Environ., 79, 79–84, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.05.082, 2013.
Sun, J., Zhi, G., Hitzenberger, R., Chen, Y., Tian, C., Zhang, Y., Feng, Y., Cheng, M., Zhang, Y., Cai, J., Chen, F., Qiu, Y., Jiang, Z., Li, J., Zhang, G., and Mo, Y.: Emission factors and light absorption properties of brown carbon from household coal combustion in China, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4769–4780, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-17-4769-2017, 2017.
van der Werf, G. R., Randerson, J. T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G. J., Mu, M., Kasibhatla, P. S., Morton, D. C., DeFries, R. S., Jin, Y., and van Leeuwen, T. T.: Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997–2009), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 11707–11735, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010, 2010.
Verma, V., Rico-Martinez, R., Kotra, N., King, L., Liu, J., Snell, T. W., and Weber, R. J.: Contribution of water-soluble and insoluble components and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic subfractions to the reactive oxygen species-generating potential of fine ambient aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46, 11384–11392, https://doi.org/10.1021/es302484r, 2012.
Verma, V., Fang, T., Guo, H., King, L., Bates, J. T., Peltier, R. E., Edgerton, E., Russell, A. G., and Weber, R. J.: Reactive oxygen species associated with water-soluble PM2.5 in the southeastern United States: spatiotemporal trends and source apportionment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 12915–12930, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-12915-2014, 2014.
Verma, V., Wang, Y., El-Afifi, R., Fang, T., Rowland, J., Russell, A. G., and Weber, R. J.: Fractionating ambient humic-like substances (HULIS) for their reactive oxygen species activity – Assessing the importance of quinones and atmospheric aging, Atmos. Environ., 120, 351–359, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.09.010, 2015.
Win, M. S., Tian, Z., Zhao, H., Xiao, K., Peng, J., Shang, Y., Wu, M., Xiu, G., Lu, S., Yonemochi, S., and Wang, Q.: Atmospheric HULIS and its ability to mediate the reactive oxygen species (ROS): A review, J. Environ. Sci., 71, 13–31, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2017.12.004, 2018.
Wong, J. P. S., Tsagkaraki, M., Tsiodra, I., Mihalopoulos, N., Violaki, K., Kanakidou, M., Sciare, J., Nenes, A., and Weber, R. J.: Effects of Atmospheric Processing on the Oxidative Potential of Biomass Burning Organic Aerosols, Environ. Sci. Technol., 53, 6747–6756, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b01034, 2019.
Wu, D., Wang, Z., Chen, J., Kong, S., Fu, X., Deng, H., Shao, G., and Wu, G.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10 at a coal-based industrial city: Implication for PAH control at industrial agglomeration regions, China, Atmos. Res., 149, 217–229, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2014.06.012, 2014.
Wu, G., Wan, X., Ram, K., Li, P., Liu, B., Yin, Y., Fu, P., Loewen, M., Gao, S., Kang, S., Kawamura, K., Wang, Y., and Cong, Z.: Light absorption, fluorescence properties and sources of brown carbon aerosols in the Southeast Tibetan Plateau, Environ. Pollut., 257, 113616, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113616, 2020.
Wu, X., Liu, W., Gao, H., Alfaro, D., Sun, S., Lei, R., Jia, T., and Zheng, M.: Coordinated effects of air pollution control devices on PAH emissions in coal-fired power plants and industrial boilers, Sci. Total Environ., 756, 144063, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144063, 2021.
Yan, C., Zheng, M., Sullivan, A. P., Bosch, C., Desyaterik, Y., Andersson, A., Li, X., Guo, X., Zhou, T., Gustafsson, Ö., and Collett, J. L.: Chemical characteristics and light-absorbing property of water-soluble organic carbon in Beijing: Biomass burning contributions, Atmos. Environ., 121, 4–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.05.005, 2015.
Zhang, X., Lin, Y. H., Surratt, J. D., and Weber, R. J.: Sources, composition and absorption Angstrom exponent of light-absorbing organic components in aerosol extracts from the Los Angeles Basin, Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 3685–3693, https://doi.org/10.1021/es305047b, 2013.
Zhu, J., Chen, Y., Shang, J., and Zhu, T.: Effects of air/fuel ratio and ozone aging on physicochemical properties and oxidative potential of soot particles, Chemosphere, 220, 883–891, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.107, 2019.
Zou, C., Li, M., Cao, T., Zhu, M., Fan, X., Peng, S., Song, J., Jiang, B., Jia, W., Yu, C., Song, H., Yu, Z., Li, J., Zhang, G., and Peng, P. A.: Comparison of solid phase extraction methods for the measurement of humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric particles, Atmos. Environ., 225, 117370, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117370, 2020.
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water- and methanol-soluble organic carbon were comprehensively characterized for their optical and chemical properties, as well as oxidative potential. Moreover, the key components or functional groups that were responsible for the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity of BrC were also discussed. These findings are useful for estimation of their environmental, climate, and health impacts.
Brown carbon (BrC) fractions derived from biomass burning and coal combustion including water-...