Articles | Volume 20, issue 23
30 Nov 2020
Research article | 30 Nov 2020
Lignin's ability to nucleate ice via immersion freezing and its stability towards physicochemical treatments and atmospheric processing
Sophie Bogler and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
No articles found.
Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Karen Short, and Samuel Carlson
Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ESSDShort summary
This commentary describes using Earth System Science Data's open access review process as a training exercise in peer-review.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 14, 3131–3151,Short summary
To characterize atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), which involves the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with two other DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with three DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000 and add FINC.
Anna J. Miller, Killian P. Brennan, Claudia Mignani, Jörg Wieder, Assaf Zipori, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss.,
Preprint withdrawnShort summary
For characterizing atmospheric ice nuclei, we present (1) the development of our home-built droplet freezing technique (DFT), the Freezing Ice Nuclei Counter (FINC), (2) an intercomparison campaign using NX-illite and an ambient sample with three DFTs, and (3) the application of lignin as a soluble and commercial ice nuclei standard with four DFTs. We further compiled the growing number of DFTs in use for atmospheric ice nucleation since 2000, to which we add FINC.
Killian P. Brennan, Robert O. David, and Nadine Borduas-Dedekind
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 163–180,Short summary
To contribute to our understanding of the liquid water-to-ice ratio in mixed-phase clouds, this study provides a spatial and temporal dataset of ice-nucleating particle (INP) concentrations in meltwater of 88 snow samples across 17 locations in the Swiss Alps. The impact of altitude, terrain, time since last snowfall and depth on freezing temperatures was also investigated. The measured INP concentrations provide an estimate of cloud glaciation temperatures important for cloud lifetime.
Robert O. David, Maria Cascajo-Castresana, Killian P. Brennan, Michael Rösch, Nora Els, Julia Werz, Vera Weichlinger, Lin S. Boynton, Sophie Bogler, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Claudia Marcolli, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 6865–6888,Short summary
Here we present the development and applicability of the DRoplet Ice Nuclei Counter Zurich (DRINCZ). DRINCZ allows for ice nuclei in the immersion mode to be quantified between 0 and -25 °C with an uncertainty of ±0.9 °C. Furthermore, we present a new method for assessing biases in drop-freezing apparatuses and cumulative ice-nucleating-particle concentrations from snow samples collected in the Austrian Alps at the Sonnblick Observatory.
Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Rachele Ossola, Robert O. David, Lin S. Boynton, Vera Weichlinger, Zamin A. Kanji, and Kristopher McNeill
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12397–12412,Short summary
During atmospheric transport, dissolved organic matter (DOM) within aqueous aerosols undergoes photochemistry. We find that photochemical processing of DOM increases its ability to form cloud droplets but decreases its ability to form ice crystals over a simulated 4.6 days in the atmosphere. A photomineralization mechanism involving the loss of organic carbon and the production of organic acids, CO and CO2 explains the observed changes and affects the liquid-water-to-ice ratio in clouds.
Tracey Leah Laban, Pieter Gideon van Zyl, Johan Paul Beukes, Ville Vakkari, Kerneels Jaars, Nadine Borduas-Dedekind, Miroslav Josipovic, Anne Mee Thompson, Markku Kulmala, and Lauri Laakso
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 15491–15514,Short summary
Surface O3 was measured at four sites in the north-eastern interior of South Africa, which revealed that O3 is a regional problem in continental South Africa, with elevated O3 levels found at rural background and industrial sites. Increased O3 concentrations were associated with high CO levels predominantly related to regional biomass burning, while the O3 production regime was established to be predominantly VOC limited. Increased O3 is associated with strong seasonality of precursor sources.
N. Borduas, B. Place, G. R. Wentworth, J. P. D. Abbatt, and J. G. Murphy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 703–714,Short summary
HNCO is a toxic molecule and can cause cardiovascular and cataract problems through protein carbamylation once inhaled. Recently reported ambient measurements of HNCO in North America raise concerns for human exposure. To better understand HNCO's loss processes and behaviour in the atmosphere, we provide thermochemical data on HNCO. The parameters allow for more accurate predictions of its lifetime in the atmosphere and consequently help define exposure of this toxic molecule.
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Towards a chemical mechanism of the oxidation of aqueous sulfur dioxide via isoprene hydroxyl hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH)On the importance of atmospheric loss of organic nitrates by aqueous-phase ●OH oxidationBiodegradation of phenol and catechol in cloud water: comparison to chemical oxidation in the atmospheric multiphase systemIce nucleation activity of silicates and aluminosilicates in pure water and aqueous solutions – Part 2: Quartz and amorphous silicaIce nucleation activity of silicates and aluminosilicates in pure water and aqueous solutions – Part 3: AluminosilicatesAqueous reactions of organic triplet excited states with atmospheric alkenesThe quasi-liquid layer of ice revisited: the role of temperature gradients and tip chemistry in AFM studiesIce nucleation activity of silicates and aluminosilicates in pure water and aqueous solutions – Part 1: The K-feldspar microclineDirect molecular-level characterization of different heterogeneous freezing modes on mica – Part 1Chemistry of riming: the retention of organic and inorganic atmospheric trace constituentsSurface-charge-induced orientation of interfacial water suppresses heterogeneous ice nucleation on α-alumina (0001)Screening of cloud microorganisms isolated at the Puy de Dôme (France) station for the production of biosurfactantsComparing contact and immersion freezing from continuous flow diffusion chambersA better understanding of hydroxyl radical photochemical sources in cloud waters collected at the puy de Dôme station – experimental versus modelled formation ratesDeposition and immersion-mode nucleation of ice by three distinct samples of volcanic ashOrganic matter matters for ice nuclei of agricultural soil originEffect of atmospheric organic complexation on iron-bearing dust solubilityAre sesquiterpenes a good source of secondary organic cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)? Revisiting β-caryophyllene CCNIce nucleation efficiency of clay minerals in the immersion modeAtmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistryYields of hydrogen peroxide from the reaction of hydroxyl radical with organic compounds in solution and iceIn-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 1: Aqueous phase photooxidationIn-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 2: Formation of secondary organic aerosol
Eleni Dovrou, Kelvin H. Bates, Jean C. Rivera-Rios, Joshua L. Cox, Joshua D. Shutter, and Frank N. Keutsch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8999–9008,Short summary
We examined the mechanism and products of oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide with the main isomers of isoprene hydroxyl hydroperoxides, via laboratory and model analysis. Two chemical mechanism pathways are proposed and the results provide an improved understanding of the broader atmospheric chemistry and role of multifunctional organic hydroperoxides, which should be the dominant VOC oxidation products under low-NO conditions, highlighting their significant contribution to sulfate formation.
Juan Miguel González-Sánchez, Nicolas Brun, Junteng Wu, Julien Morin, Brice Temime-Roussel, Sylvain Ravier, Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Jean-Louis Clément, and Anne Monod
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4915–4937,Short summary
Organic nitrates play a crucial role in air pollution as they are considered NOx reservoirs. This work lights up the importance of their reactions with OH radicals in the aqueous phase (cloud/fog, wet aerosol), which is slower than in the gas phase. For compounds that significantly partition in water such as polyfunctional biogenic nitrates, these aqueous-phase reactions should drive their atmospheric removal, leading to a broader spatial distribution of NOx than previously accounted for.
Saly Jaber, Audrey Lallement, Martine Sancelme, Martin Leremboure, Gilles Mailhot, Barbara Ervens, and Anne-Marie Delort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 4987–4997,Short summary
Current atmospheric multiphase models do not include biotransformations of organic compounds by bacteria, although many previous studies of our and other research groups have shown microbial activity in cloud water. The current lab/model study shows that for water-soluble aromatic compounds, biodegradation by bacteria may be as efficient as chemical reactions in cloud water.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6035–6058,Short summary
This paper not only interests the atmospheric science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on a fairly abundant mineral surface
Quartz. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6059–6084,Short summary
This paper not only interests the Atmospheric Science community but has a potential to cater to a broader audience. We discuss both long- and short-term effects of various
atmospherically relevantchemical species on fairly abundant mineral surfaces like feldspars and clays. We of course discuss these chemical interactions from the perspective of fate of airborne mineral dust but the same interactions could be interesting for studies on minerals at the ground level.
Richie Kaur, Brandi M. Hudson, Joseph Draper, Dean J. Tantillo, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 5021–5032,Short summary
Organic triplets are an important class of aqueous photooxidants, but little is known about their reactions with most atmospheric organic compounds. We measured the reaction rate constants of a model triplet with 17 aliphatic alkenes; using their correlation with oxidation potential, we predicted rate constants for some atmospherically relevant alkenes. Depending on their reactivities, triplets can be minor to important sinks for isoprene- and limonene-derived alkenes in cloud or fog drops.
Julián Gelman Constantin, Melisa M. Gianetti, María P. Longinotti, and Horacio R. Corti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14965–14978,Short summary
Numerous studies have shown that ice surface is actually coated by a thin layer of water even for temperatures below melting temperature. This quasi-liquid layer is relevant in the atmospheric chemistry of clouds, polar regions, glaciers, and other cold regions. We present new results of atomic force microscopy on pure ice, which suggests a thickness for this layer below 1 nm between -7 ºC and -2 ºC. We propose that in many cases previous authors have overestimated this thickness.
Anand Kumar, Claudia Marcolli, Beiping Luo, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7057–7079,Short summary
We have performed immersion freezing experiments with microcline (most active ice nucleation, IN, K-feldspar polymorph) and investigated the effect of ammonium and non-ammonium solutes on its IN efficiency. We report increased IN efficiency of microcline in dilute ammonia- or ammonium-containing solutions, which opens up a pathway for condensation freezing occurring at a warmer temperature than immersion freezing.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10733–10741,Short summary
On the basis of supercooled SHG spectroscopy, I report molecular-level evidence for the existence of one- and two-step deposition freezing depending on the surface type and the supersaturation conditions. In addition, immersion freezing shows a transient ice phase with a lifetime of c. 1 min. This study provides new insights into atmospheric processes and can impact various industrial and research branches, particularly climate change, weather modification, and tracing water in the hydrosphere.
Alexander Jost, Miklós Szakáll, Karoline Diehl, Subir K. Mitra, and Stephan Borrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9717–9732,Short summary
During riming of graupel and hail, soluble chemical trace constituents contained in the liquid droplets could be retained while freezing onto the glaciated particle, or released back to the air potentially at other altitudes as retained. Quantification of retention constitutes a major uncertainty in numerical models for atmospheric chemistry and improvements hinge upon experimental determination of retention for carboxylic acids, aldehydes, SO2, H2O2, NH2, and others, as presented in this paper.
Ahmed Abdelmonem, Ellen H. G. Backus, Nadine Hoffmann, M. Alejandra Sánchez, Jenée D. Cyran, Alexei Kiselev, and Mischa Bonn
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7827–7837,Short summary
We report the effect of surface charge on heterogeneous immersion freezing for the atmospherically relevant sapphire surface. Combining linear and nonlinear optical techniques and investigating isolated drops, we find that charge-induced surface templating is detrimental for ice nucleation on α-alumina surface. This study provides new insights into atmospheric processes and can impact various industrial and research branches, particularly climate change and tracing of water in the hydrosphere.
Pascal Renard, Isabelle Canet, Martine Sancelme, Nolwenn Wirgot, Laurent Deguillaume, and Anne-Marie Delort
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12347–12358,Short summary
A total of 480 microorganisms collected from 39 clouds sampled in France were isolated and identified. This unique collection was screened for biosurfactant production by measuring the surface tension. 41 % of the tested strains were active producers. Pseudomonas, the most frequently detected genus in clouds, was the dominant group for the production of biosurfactants. Further, the potential impact of the production of biosurfactants by cloud microorganisms on atmospheric processes is discussed.
Baban Nagare, Claudia Marcolli, André Welti, Olaf Stetzer, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8899–8914,Short summary
The relative importance of contact freezing and immersion freezing at mixed-phase cloud temperatures is the subject of debate. We performed experiments using continuous-flow diffusion chambers to compare the freezing efficiency of ice-nucleating particles for both these nucleation modes. Silver iodide, kaolinite and Arizona Test Dust were used as ice-nucleating particles. We could not confirm the dominance of contact freezing over immersion freezing for our experimental conditions.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9191–9202,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7523–7536,Short summary
Fine volcanic ash can influence cloud glaciation and, therefore, global climate. In this work we examined the heterogeneous ice nucleation properties of three distinct types of volcanic ash. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, these volcanic ash samples have different ice nucleation properties in the immersion mode. In the deposition mode, however, they nucleate ice with similar efficiency. We show that this behavior may be due to their mineralogy.
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8521–8531,
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To study the role of organic matter in ice crystal formation, we investigated the ice nucleation ability of a subcomponent of organic aerosols, the biopolymer lignin, using a droplet-freezing technique. We found that lignin is an ice-active macromolecule with changing abilities based on dilutions. The effects of atmospheric processing and of physicochemical treatments on the ability of lignin solutions to freeze were negligible. Thus, lignin is a recalcitrant ice-nucleating macromolecule.
To study the role of organic matter in ice crystal formation, we investigated the ice nucleation...