Articles | Volume 18, issue 21
08 Nov 2018
Research article | 08 Nov 2018
Drivers of atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at European high-altitude sites
Lourdes Arellano et al.
No articles found.
Aleix Cortina-Guerra, Juan José Gomez-Navarro, Belen Martrat, Juan Pedro Montávez, Alessandro Incarbona, Joan O. Grimalt, Marie-Alexandrine Sicre, and P. Graham Mortyn
Clim. Past, 17, 1523–1532,Short summary
During late 20th century a singular Mediterranean circulation episode called the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) event occurred. It involved changes on the seawater physical and biogeochemical properties, which can impact areas broadly. Here, using paleosimulations for the last 1000 years we found that the East Atlantic/Western Russian atmospheric mode was the main driver of the EMT-type events in the past, and enhancement of this mode was coetaneous with low solar insolation.
M. Isabel García, Barend L. van Drooge, Sergio Rodríguez, and Andrés Alastuey
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8939–8958,Short summary
Speciation of organic aerosol was performed in the westerlies and in the Saharan Air Layer, where biogenic secondary organic aerosol (oxidation of isoprene and alpha-pinene) and primary combustion compounds (hopanes and PAHs) were observed. In the Saharan Air Layer, species (saccharides) linked to soil emission – plant tissues and microorganisms – in the inner Sahara were also identified, whereas in the westerlies biomass burning compounds (e.g. levoglucosan) from North America also occurred.
Mercè Cisneros, Isabel Cacho, Jaime Frigola, Miquel Canals, Pere Masqué, Belen Martrat, Marta Casado, Joan O. Grimalt, Leopoldo D. Pena, Giulia Margaritelli, and Fabrizio Lirer
Clim. Past, 12, 849–869,Short summary
We present a high-resolution multi-proxy study about the evolution of sea surface conditions along the last 2700 yr in the north-western Mediterranean Sea based on five sediment records from two different sites north of Minorca. The novelty of the results and the followed approach, constructing stack records from the studied proxies to preserve the most robust patterns, provides a special value to the study. This complex period appears to have significant regional changes in the climatic signal.
Dunia H. Urrego, Henry Hooghiemstra, Oscar Rama-Corredor, Belen Martrat, Joan O. Grimalt, Lonnie Thompson, Mark B. Bush, Zaire González-Carranza, Jennifer Hanselman, Bryan Valencia, and César Velásquez-Ruiz
Clim. Past, 12, 697–711,Short summary
We compare eight pollen records reflecting environmental change in the tropical Andes over the past 30 000 years. Our analysis focuses on the signature of millennial-scale climate variability in the tropical Andes: Heinrich stadials (HS) and Greenland interstadials (GI). We identify rapid responses of the tropical vegetation, with downslope upper forest line (UFL) migrations and cooling during HS and the Younger Dryas.
O. Rama-Corredor, B. Martrat, J. O. Grimalt, G. E. López-Otalvaro, J. A. Flores, and F. Sierro
Clim. Past, 11, 1297–1311,Short summary
The alkenone sea surface temperatures in the Guiana Basin show a rapid transmission of the climate variability from arctic to tropical latitudes during the last two interglacials (MIS1 and MIS5e) and warm long interstadials (MIS5d-a). In contrast, the abrupt variability of the glacial interval does follow the North Atlantic climate but is also shaped by precessional changes. This arctic to tropical decoupling occurs when the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation is substantially reduced.
B. L. van Drooge and J. O. Grimalt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7735–7752,Short summary
Molecular organic tracer compounds were analyzed in six particle sizes in an urban background site (Barcelona) and in a rural site in Spain. The results improve considerably our current understanding on the composition and particle-size distribution of organic air pollution in traffic intensive urban areas and rural sites where combustion of biomass plays an important role on the local and regional air quality, either by emissions from open fires or from domestic heating.
L. Arellano, P. Fernández, R. Fonts, N. L. Rose, U. Nickus, H. Thies, E. Stuchlík, L. Camarero, J. Catalan, and J. O. Grimalt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6069–6085,Short summary
Despite the regulations in the use of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), an increase in atmospheric deposition fluxes of these pollutants in high-altitude mountain areas of Europe is observed for the period between 1996 and 2006. In contrast, atmospheric deposition of organochlorine pesticides showed a strong decrease. Volatilization from soils or melting glaciers related to climate change and the differences in physical–chemical properties between compounds may explain the observed temporal trend.
L. Arellano, P. Fernández, J. F. López, N. L. Rose, U. Nickus, H. Thies, E. Stuchlik, L. Camarero, J. Catalan, and J. O. Grimalt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4441–4457,
M. Alier, B. L. van Drooge, M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, J. O. Grimalt, and R. Tauler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10353–10371,
M. Dall'Osto, X. Querol, A. Alastuey, M. C. Minguillon, M. Alier, F. Amato, M. Brines, M. Cusack, J. O. Grimalt, A. Karanasiou, T. Moreno, M. Pandolfi, J. Pey, C. Reche, A. Ripoll, R. Tauler, B. L. Van Drooge, M. Viana, R. M. Harrison, J. Gietl, D. Beddows, W. Bloss, C. O'Dowd, D. Ceburnis, G. Martucci, N. L. Ng, D. Worsnop, J. Wenger, E. Mc Gillicuddy, J. Sodeau, R. Healy, F. Lucarelli, S. Nava, J. L. Jimenez, F. Gomez Moreno, B. Artinano, A. S. H. Prévôt, L. Pfaffenberger, S. Frey, F. Wilsenack, D. Casabona, P. Jiménez-Guerrero, D. Gross, and N. Cots
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8991–9019,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Free amino acid quantification in cloud water at the Puy de Dôme station (France)Wet deposition in the remote western and central Mediterranean as a source of trace metals to surface seawaterInsights into tropical cloud chemistry in Réunion (Indian Ocean): results from the BIO-MAÏDO campaignMeasurement report: Molecular characteristics of cloud water in southern China and insights into aqueous-phase processes from Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometryTotal organic carbon and the contribution from speciated organics in cloud water: airborne data analysis from the CAMP2Ex field campaignA link between the ice nucleation activity and the biogeochemistry of seawaterImpact of convection on the upper-tropospheric composition (water vapor and ozone) over a subtropical site (Réunion island; 21.1° S, 55.5° E) in the Indian OceanChemical characteristics of cloud water and the impacts on aerosol properties at a subtropical mountain site in Hong Kong SARDiurnal cycle of iodine, bromine, and mercury concentrations in Svalbard surface snowWet deposition of inorganic ions in 320 cities across China: spatio-temporal variation, source apportionment, and dominant factorsDeposition of ionic species and black carbon to the Arctic snowpack: combining snow pit observations with modelingMercury and trace metal wet deposition across five stations in Alaska: controlling factors, spatial patterns, and source regionsCloud scavenging of anthropogenic refractory particles at a mountain site in North ChinaComposition of ice particle residuals in mixed-phase clouds at Jungfraujoch (Switzerland): enrichment and depletion of particle groups relative to total aerosolSnow scavenging and phase partitioning of nitrated and oxygenated aromatic hydrocarbons in polluted and remote environments in central Europe and the European ArcticContinuous non-marine inputs of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances to the High Arctic: a multi-decadal temporal recordBiogenic, urban, and wildfire influences on the molecular composition of dissolved organic compounds in cloud waterThe single-particle mixing state and cloud scavenging of black carbon: a case study at a high-altitude mountain site in southern ChinaComposition, size and cloud condensation nuclei activity of biomass burning aerosol from northern Australian savannah firesFive-year records of mercury wet deposition flux at GMOS sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheresAtmospheric wet and litterfall mercury deposition at urban and rural sites in ChinaHydroxyl radical in/on illuminated polar snow: formation rates, lifetimes, and steady-state concentrationsCloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbonFog composition at Baengnyeong Island in the eastern Yellow Sea: detecting markers of aqueous atmospheric oxidationsWet deposition of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen at five remote sites in the Tibetan PlateauAtmospheric wet and dry deposition of trace elements at 10 sites in Northern ChinaNatural or anthropogenic? On the origin of atmospheric sulfate deposition in the Andes of southeastern EcuadorTemporal variations in rainwater methanolComprehensive assessment of meteorological conditions and airflow connectivity during HCCT-2010Influence of cloud processing on CCN activation behaviour in the Thuringian Forest, Germany during HCCT-2010Classification of clouds sampled at the puy de Dôme (France) based on 10 yr of monitoring of their physicochemical propertiesPreliminary signs of the initiation of deep convection by GNSSDissolved organic carbon (DOC) and select aldehydes in cloud and fog water: the role of the aqueous phase in impacting trace gas budgetsInsights into dissolved organic matter complexity in rainwater from continental and coastal storms by ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometryDynamics of the chemical composition of rainwater throughout Hurricane IreneSpatial and temporal distributions of total and methyl mercury in precipitation in core urban areas, Chongqing, ChinaWet and dry deposition of atmospheric nitrogen at ten sites in Northern ChinaSpatial distribution of mercury deposition fluxes in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou province, ChinaMolecular characterization of water soluble organic nitrogen in marine rainwater by ultra-high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometryFive-year record of atmospheric precipitation chemistry in urban Beijing, ChinaMercury deposition in Southern New Hampshire, 2006–2009Chemical composition of rainwater at Maldives Climate Observatory at Hanimaadhoo (MCOH)Chemistry of rain events in West Africa: evidence of dust and biogenic influence in convective systemsAtmospheric deposition of mercury and major ions to the Pensacola (Florida) watershed: spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual variabilityAtmospheric wet deposition of mercury and other trace elements in Pensacola, FloridaAcetaldehyde in the Alaskan subarctic snowpack
Pascal Renard, Maxence Brissy, Florent Rossi, Martin Leremboure, Saly Jaber, Jean-Luc Baray, Angelica Bianco, Anne-Marie Delort, and Laurent Deguillaume
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2467–2486,Short summary
Amino acids (AAs) have been quantified in cloud water collected at the Puy de Dôme station (France). Concentrations and speciation of those compounds are highly variable among the samples. Sources from the sea surface and atmospheric transformations during the air mass transport, mainly in the free troposphere, have been shown to modulate AA levels in cloud water.
Karine Desboeufs, Franck Fu, Matthieu Bressac, Antonio Tovar-Sánchez, Sylvain Triquet, Jean-François Doussin, Chiara Giorio, Patrick Chazette, Julie Disnaquet, Anaïs Feron, Paola Formenti, Franck Maisonneuve, Araceli Rodríguez-Romero, Pascal Zapf, François Dulac, and Cécile Guieu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2309–2332,Short summary
This article reports the first concurrent sampling of wet deposition samples and surface seawater and was performed during the PEACETIME cruise in the remote Mediterranean (May–June 2017). Through the chemical composition of trace metals (TMs) in these samples, it emphasizes the decrease of atmospheric metal pollution in this area during the last few decades and the critical role of wet deposition as source of TMs for Mediterranean surface seawater, especially for intense dust deposition events.
Pamela A. Dominutti, Pascal Renard, Mickaël Vaïtilingom, Angelica Bianco, Jean-Luc Baray, Agnès Borbon, Thierry Bourianne, Frédéric Burnet, Aurélie Colomb, Anne-Marie Delort, Valentin Duflot, Stephan Houdier, Jean-Luc Jaffrezo, Muriel Joly, Martin Leremboure, Jean-Marc Metzger, Jean-Marc Pichon, Mickaël Ribeiro, Manon Rocco, Pierre Tulet, Anthony Vella, Maud Leriche, and Laurent Deguillaume
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 505–533,Short summary
We present here the results obtained during an intensive field campaign conducted in March to April 2019 in Reunion. Our study integrates a comprehensive chemical and microphysical characterization of cloud water. Our investigations reveal that air mass history and cloud microphysical properties do not fully explain the variability observed in their chemical composition. This highlights the complexity of emission sources, multiphasic exchanges, and transformations in clouds.
Wei Sun, Yuzhen Fu, Guohua Zhang, Yuxiang Yang, Feng Jiang, Xiufeng Lian, Bin Jiang, Yuhong Liao, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Jianmin Chen, Xinming Wang, Jie Ou, Ping'an Peng, and Guoying Sheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16631–16644,Short summary
We sampled cloud water at a remote mountain site and investigated the molecular characteristics. CHON and CHO are dominant in cloud water. No statistical difference in the oxidation state is observed between cloud water and interstitial PM2.5. Most of the formulas are aliphatic and olefinic species. CHON, with aromatic structures and organosulfates, are abundant, especially in nighttime samples. The in-cloud and multi-phase dark reactions likely contribute significantly.
Connor Stahl, Ewan Crosbie, Paola Angela Bañaga, Grace Betito, Rachel A. Braun, Zenn Marie Cainglet, Maria Obiminda Cambaliza, Melliza Templonuevo Cruz, Julie Mae Dado, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Gabrielle Frances Leung, Alexander B. MacDonald, Angela Monina Magnaye, Jeffrey Reid, Claire Robinson, Michael A. Shook, James Bernard Simpas, Shane Marie Visaga, Edward Winstead, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14109–14129,Short summary
A total of 159 cloud water samples were collected and measured for total organic carbon (TOC) during CAMP2Ex. On average, 30 % of TOC was speciated based on carboxylic/sulfonic acids and dimethylamine. Results provide a critical constraint on cloud composition and vertical profiles of TOC and organic species ranging from ~250 m to ~ 7 km and representing a variety of cloud types and air mass source influences such as biomass burning, marine emissions, anthropogenic activity, and dust.
Martin J. Wolf, Megan Goodell, Eric Dong, Lilian A. Dove, Cuiqi Zhang, Lesly J. Franco, Chuanyang Shen, Emma G. Rutkowski, Domenic N. Narducci, Susan Mullen, Andrew R. Babbin, and Daniel J. Cziczo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15341–15356,Short summary
Sea spray is the largest aerosol source on Earth. These aerosol particles can impact climate by inducing ice formation in clouds. The role that ocean biology plays in determining the composition and ice nucleation abilities of sea spray aerosol is unclarified. In this study, we demonstrate that atomized seawater from highly productive ocean regions is more effective at nucleating ice than seawater from lower-productivity regions.
Damien Héron, Stéphanie Evan, Jérôme Brioude, Karen Rosenlof, Françoise Posny, Jean-Marc Metzger, and Jean-Pierre Cammas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8611–8626,Short summary
Using a statistical method, summer variations (between 2013 and 2016) of ozone and water vapor are characterized in the upper troposphere above Réunion island (21° S, 55° E). It suggests a convective influence between 9 and 13 km. As deep convection is rarely observed near Réunion island, this study provides new insights on the long-range impact of deep convective outflow from the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) on the upper troposphere over a subtropical site.
Tao Li, Zhe Wang, Yaru Wang, Chen Wu, Yiheng Liang, Men Xia, Chuan Yu, Hui Yun, Weihao Wang, Yan Wang, Jia Guo, Hartmut Herrmann, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 391–407,Short summary
This work presents a field study of cloud water chemistry and interactions of cloud, gas, and aerosols in the polluted coastal boundary layer in southern China. Substantial dissolved organic matter in the acidic cloud water was observed, and the gas- and aqueous-phase partitioning of carbonyl compounds was investigated. The results demonstrated the significant role of cloud processing in altering aerosol properties, especially in producing aqueous organics and droplet-mode aerosols.
Andrea Spolaor, Elena Barbaro, David Cappelletti, Clara Turetta, Mauro Mazzola, Fabio Giardi, Mats P. Björkman, Federico Lucchetta, Federico Dallo, Katrine Aspmo Pfaffhuber, Hélène Angot, Aurelien Dommergue, Marion Maturilli, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Carlo Barbante, and Warren R. L. Cairns
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 13325–13339,Short summary
The main aims of the study are to (a) detect whether mercury in the surface snow undergoes a daily cycle as determined in the atmosphere, (b) compare the mercury concentration in surface snow with the concentration in the atmosphere, (c) evaluate the effect of snow depositions, (d) detect whether iodine and bromine in the surface snow undergo a daily cycle, and (e) evaluate the role of metereological and atmospheric conditions. Different behaviours were determined during different seasons.
Rui Li, Lulu Cui, Yilong Zhao, Ziyu Zhang, Tianming Sun, Junlin Li, Wenhui Zhou, Ya Meng, Kan Huang, and Hongbo Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11043–11070,Short summary
Acid deposition is still an important environmental issue in China. Rainwater samples in 320 cities in China were collected to determine the acidic ion concentrations and identify their spatiotemporal variations and sources. The higher acidic ions showed higher concentrations in winter. Furthermore, the highest acidic ion concentrations were mainly distributed in YRD and SB. These acidic ions were mainly sourced from industrial emissions and agricultural activities.
Hans-Werner Jacobi, Friedrich Obleitner, Sophie Da Costa, Patrick Ginot, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Wenche Aas, and Marco Zanatta
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10361–10377,Short summary
By combining atmospheric, precipitation, and snow measurements with snowpack simulations for a high Arctic site in Svalbard, we find that during wintertime the transfer of sea salt components to the snowpack was largely dominated by wet deposition. However, dry deposition contributed significantly for nitrate, non-sea-salt sulfate, and black carbon. The comparison of monthly deposition and snow budgets indicates an important redistribution of the impurities in the snowpack even during winter.
Christopher Pearson, Dean Howard, Christopher Moore, and Daniel Obrist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6913–6929,Short summary
Precipitation-based deposition of mercury and other trace metals throughout Alaska provides a significant input of pollutants. Deposition shows significant seasonal and spatial variability, largely driven by precipitation patterns. Annual wet deposition of Hg at all AK collection sites is consistently lower than other monitoring stations throughout the CONUS. Hg showed no clear relationship to other metals, likely due to its highly volatile nature and capability of long-range transport.
Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Liang Xu, Qi Yuan, Dao Huang, Jianmin Chen, Zongbo Shi, Yele Sun, Pingqing Fu, Zifa Wang, Daizhou Zhang, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 14681–14693,Short summary
Using transmission electron microscopy, we studied individual cloud droplet residual and interstitial particles collected in cloud events at Mt. Tai in the polluted North China region. We found that individual cloud droplets were an extremely complicated mixture containing abundant refractory soot (i.e., black carbon), fly ash, and metals. The complicated cloud droplets have not been reported in clean continental or marine air before.
Stine Eriksen Hammer, Stephan Mertes, Johannes Schneider, Martin Ebert, Konrad Kandler, and Stephan Weinbruch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13987–14003,Short summary
It is important to study ice-nucleating particles in the environment to learn more about cloud formation. We studied the composition of ice particle residuals and total aerosol particles sampled in parallel during mixed-phase cloud events at Jungfraujoch and discovered that soot and complex secondary particles were not present. In contrast, silica, aluminosilicates, and other aluminosilicates were the most important ice particle residual groups at site temperatures between −11 and −18 °C.
Pourya Shahpoury, Zoran Kitanovski, and Gerhard Lammel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13495–13510,
Heidi M. Pickard, Alison S. Criscitiello, Christine Spencer, Martin J. Sharp, Derek C. G. Muir, Amila O. De Silva, and Cora J. Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5045–5058,Short summary
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent, bioaccumulative compounds found in the environment far from source regions, including the remote Arctic. We collected a 15 m ice core from the Canadian High Arctic to measure a 38-year deposition record of PFAAs, proving information about major pollutant sources and production changes over time. Our results demonstrate that PFAAs have continuous and increasing deposition, despite recent North American regulations and phase-outs.
Ryan D. Cook, Ying-Hsuan Lin, Zhuoyu Peng, Eric Boone, Rosalie K. Chu, James E. Dukett, Matthew J. Gunsch, Wuliang Zhang, Nikola Tolic, Alexander Laskin, and Kerri A. Pratt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 15167–15180,Short summary
Reactions occur within water in both atmospheric particles and cloud droplets, yet little is known about the organic compounds in cloud water. In this work, cloud water samples were collected at Whiteface Mountain, New York, and analyzed using ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the molecular composition of the dissolved organic compounds. The results focus on changes in cloud water composition with air mass origin – influences of forest, urban, and wildfire emissions.
Guohua Zhang, Qinhao Lin, Long Peng, Xinhui Bi, Duohong Chen, Mei Li, Lei Li, Fred J. Brechtel, Jianxin Chen, Weijun Yan, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14975–14985,Short summary
The mixing state of black carbon (BC)-containing particles and the mass scavenging efficiency of BC in cloud were investigated at a mountain site (1690 m a.s.l.) in southern China. The measured BC-containing particles were internally mixed extensively with sulfate, and thus the number fraction of scavenged BC-containing particles is close to that of all the measured particles. BC-containing particles with higher fractions of organics were scavenged relatively less.
Marc D. Mallet, Luke T. Cravigan, Andelija Milic, Joel Alroe, Zoran D. Ristovski, Jason Ward, Melita Keywood, Leah R. Williams, Paul Selleck, and Branka Miljevic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3605–3617,Short summary
This paper presents data on the size, composition and concentration of aerosol particles emitted from north Australian savannah fires and how these properties influence cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Both the size and composition of aerosol were found to be important in determining CCN. Despite large CCNc enhancements during periods of close biomass burning, the aerosol was very weakly hygroscopic which should be accounted for in climate models to avoid large CCNc overestimates.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Helene Angot, Carlo Barbante, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Flor Arcega-Cabrera, Warren Cairns, Sara Comero, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Xuewu Fu, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Ulla Hageström, Katarina Hansson, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Casper Labuschagne, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Nikolay Mashyanov, Thumeka Mkololo, John Munthe, Vladimir Obolkin, Martha Ramirez Islas, Fabrizio Sena, Vernon Somerset, Pia Spandow, Massimiliano Vardè, Chavon Walters, Ingvar Wängberg, Andreas Weigelt, Xu Yang, and Hui Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2689–2708,Short summary
The results on total mercury (THg) wet deposition flux obtained within the GMOS network have been presented and discussed to understand the atmospheric Hg cycling and its seasonal depositional patterns over the 2011–2015 period. The data set provides new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation particularly in regions where wet deposition and atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for additional measurements and modeling studies.
Xuewu Fu, Xu Yang, Xiaofang Lang, Jun Zhou, Hui Zhang, Ben Yu, Haiyu Yan, Che-Jen Lin, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11547–11562,
Zeyuan Chen, Liang Chu, Edward S. Galbavy, Keren Ram, and Cort Anastasio
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9579–9590,Short summary
We made the first measurements of the concentrations of hydroxyl radical (•OH), a dominant environmental oxidant, in snow grains. Concentrations of •OH in snow at Summit, Greenland, are comparable to values reported for midlatitude cloud and fog drops, even though impurity levels in the snow are much lower. At these concentrations, the lifetimes of organics and bromide in Summit snow are approximately 3 days and 7 h, respectively, suggesting that OH is a major oxidant for both species.
Dominik van Pinxteren, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Stephan Mertes, Konrad Müller, Gerald Spindler, Johannes Schneider, Taehyoung Lee, Jeffrey L. Collett, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3185–3205,
A. J. Boris, T. Lee, T. Park, J. Choi, S. J. Seo, and J. L. Collett Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 437–453,Short summary
Samples of fog water collected in the Yellow Sea during summer 2014 represent fog downwind of polluted regions and provide new insight into the fate of regional emissions. Organic and inorganic components reveal contributions from urban, biogenic, marine, and biomass burning emissions, as well as evidence of aqueous organic processing reactions. Many fog components are products of extensive photochemical aging during multiday transport, including oxidation within wet aerosols or fogs.
Y. W. Liu, Xu-Ri, Y. S. Wang, Y. P. Pan, and S. L. Piao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 11683–11700,Short summary
We investigated inorganic N wet deposition at five sites in the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Combining in situ measurements in this and previous studies, the average wet deposition of NH4+-N, NO3--N, and inorganic N in the TP was estimated to be 1.06, 0.51, and 1.58 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results suggest that earlier estimations based on chemical transport model simulations and/or limited field measurements likely overestimated substantially the regional inorganic N wet deposition in the TP.
Y. P. Pan and Y. S. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 951–972,Short summary
This paper presents the first concurrent measurements of wet and dry deposition of various trace elements in Northern China, covering an extensive area over 3 years in a global hotspot of air pollution. The unique field data can serve as a sound basis for the validation of regional emission inventories and biogeochemical or atmospheric chemistry models. The findings are very important for policy makers to create legislation to reduce the emissions and protect soil and water from air pollution.
S. Makowski Giannoni, R. Rollenbeck, K. Trachte, and J. Bendix
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 11297–11312,
J. D. Felix, S. B. Jones, G. B. Avery, J. D. Willey, R. N. Mead, and R. J. Kieber
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10509–10516,
A. Tilgner, L. Schöne, P. Bräuer, D. van Pinxteren, E. Hoffmann, G. Spindler, S. A. Styler, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, R. Otto, M. Merkel, K. Weinhold, A. Wiedensohler, H. Deneke, R. Schrödner, R. Wolke, J. Schneider, W. Haunold, A. Engel, A. Wéber, and H. Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9105–9128,
S. Henning, K. Dieckmann, K. Ignatius, M. Schäfer, P. Zedler, E. Harris, B. Sinha, D. van Pinxteren, S. Mertes, W. Birmili, M. Merkel, Z. Wu, A. Wiedensohler, H. Wex, H. Herrmann, and F. Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7859–7868,
L. Deguillaume, T. Charbouillot, M. Joly, M. Vaïtilingom, M. Parazols, A. Marinoni, P. Amato, A.-M. Delort, V. Vinatier, A. Flossmann, N. Chaumerliac, J. M. Pichon, S. Houdier, P. Laj, K. Sellegri, A. Colomb, M. Brigante, and G. Mailhot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1485–1506,
H. Brenot, J. Neméghaire, L. Delobbe, N. Clerbaux, P. De Meutter, A. Deckmyn, A. Delcloo, L. Frappez, and M. Van Roozendael
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5425–5449,
B. Ervens, Y. Wang, J. Eagar, W. R. Leaitch, A. M. Macdonald, K. T. Valsaraj, and P. Herckes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 5117–5135,
R. N. Mead, K. M. Mullaugh, G. Brooks Avery, R. J. Kieber, J. D. Willey, and D. C. Podgorski
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4829–4838,
K. M. Mullaugh, J. D. Willey, R. J. Kieber, R. N. Mead, and G. B. Avery Jr.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 2321–2330,
Y. M. Wang, D. Y. Wang, B. Meng, Y. L. Peng, L. Zhao, and J. S. Zhu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 9417–9426,
Y. P. Pan, Y. S. Wang, G. Q. Tang, and D. Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6515–6535,
Z. H. Dai, X. B. Feng, J. Sommar, P. Li, and X. W. Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6207–6218,
K. E. Altieri, M. G. Hastings, A. J. Peters, and D. M. Sigman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3557–3571,
F. Yang, J. Tan, Z. B. Shi, Y. Cai, K. He, Y. Ma, F. Duan, T. Okuda, S. Tanaka, and G. Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2025–2035,
M. A. S. Lombard, J. G. Bryce, H. Mao, and R. Talbot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7657–7668,
R. Das, L. Granat, C. Leck, P. S. Praveen, and H. Rodhe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3743–3755,
K. Desboeufs, E. Journet, J.-L. Rajot, S. Chevaillier, S. Triquet, P. Formenti, and A. Zakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 9283–9293,
J. M. Caffrey, W. M. Landing, S. D. Nolek, K. J. Gosnell, S. S. Bagui, and S. C. Bagui
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 5425–5434,
W. M. Landing, J. M. Caffrey, S. D. Nolek, K. J. Gosnell, and W. C. Parker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 4867–4877,
F. Domine, S. Houdier, A.-S. Taillandier, and W. R. Simpson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 919–929,
Arellano, L., Fernández, P., Tatosova, J., Stuchlik, E., and Grimalt, J. O.: Long-Range Transported Atmospheric Pollutants in Snowpacks Accumulated at Different Altitudes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia), Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 9268–9275, https://doi.org/10.1021/es202111n, 2011.
Arellano, L., Fernández, P., López, J. F., Rose, N. L., Nickus, U., Thies, H. J., Stuchlik, E., Camarero, L., Catalan, J., and Grimalt, J. O.: Atmospheric deposition of polybromodiphenyl ethers in remote mountain regions of Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4441–4457, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-4441-2014, 2014.
Arellano, L., Fernández, P., Fonts, R., Rose, N. L., Nickus, U., Thies, H. J., Stuchlik, E., Camarero, L., Catalan, J., and Grimalt, J. O.: Increasing and Decreasing Trends of the Atmospheric Deposition of Organochlorine Compounds in European Remote Areas during the Last Decade, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6069–6085, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6069-2015, 2015.
Arellano, L., Fernández, P., and Grimalt, J. O.: PAH Atmospheric Deposition in High Mountain Lakes, available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/171874, last access: 6 November 2018.
Armstrong, B., Hutchinson, E., Unwin, J., and Fletcher, T.: Lung Cancer Risk after Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydroarbons: A review and Meta-Analysis, Environ. Health Persp., 112, 970–978, https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.6895, 2004.
Bae, S.Y., Yi, S. M., and Kim, Y. P.: Temporal and spatial variations of the particle size distribution of PAHs and their dry deposition fluxes in Korea, Atmos. Environ., 36, 5461–5500, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00666-0, 2002.
Baek, S. O., Field, R. A., Goldstone, M. E., Kirk, P. W., Lester, J. N., and Perry, R.: A review of atmospheric polycyclic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behaviour, Water Air Soil Poll., 60, 279–300, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00282628, 1991.
Bari, M. A., Kindzierski, W. B., and Cho, S.: A wintertime investigation of atmospheric deposition of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada, Sci. Total Environ., 485, 180–192, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.088, 2014.
Behymer, T. D. and Hites, R. A.: Photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on fly ash, Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, 1311–1319, https://doi.org/10.1021/es00176a011, 1988.
Birgul, A., Tasdemir, Y., and Cindoruk, S. S.: Atmospheric wet and dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) determined using a modified sampler, Atmos. Res., 101, 341–353, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.03.012, 2011.
Brorström-Lundén, E., and Löfgren, C.: Atmospheric fluxes of persistent semivolatile organic pollutants to a forest ecological system at the Swedish west coast and accumulation in spruce needles, Environ. Poll., 102, 139–149, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(98)00081-5, 1998.
Brun, G. L., Vaidya, O. C., and Léger, M. G.: Atmospheric Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Atlantic Canada: Geographic and Temporal Distributions and Trends 1980–2001, Environ. Sci. Technol., 38, 1941–1948, https://doi.org/10.1021/es034645l, 2004.
Carrera, G., Fernández, P., Vilanova, R., and Grimalt, J. O.: Analysis of Trace Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Organochlorine Compounds in Atmospheric Residues by Solid-Phase Disk Extraction, J. Chromatogr. A, 823, 189–196, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9673(98)00519-6, 1998.
Cetin, B., Odabasi, M., and Bayram, A.: Wet deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Izmir, Turkey, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 23, 9227–9236, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-016-6183-6, 2016.
Ding, X., Wang, X. M., Xie, Z. O., Xiang, C. H., Mai, B. X., Sun, L. G., Zheng, M., Sheng, G. Y., Fu, J. M., and Pöschl, U.: Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons observed over the North Pacific Ocean and the Arctic area: Spatial distribution and source identification, Atmos. Environ., 41, 2061–2072, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.11.002, 2007.
Draxler, R. R. and Hess, G. D.: An overview of the HYSPLIT_4 modelling system for trajectories, dispersion, and deposition, Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 47, 295–308, 1998.
Esen, F., Siddik Cindoruk, S., and Tasdemir, Y.: Bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an industrial site of Turkey, Environ. Poll., 152, 461–467, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.05.031, 2008.
Fang, G. C., Chang, K. F., Lu, C., and Bai, H.: Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at urban, industry Park and rural sampling sites in Central Taiwan, Taichung, Chemosphere, 55, 787–796, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.12.012, 2004.
Feng, D., Liu, Y., Gao, Y., Zhou, J., Zheng, L., Qiao, G., Ma, L., Lin, Z., and Grathwohl, P.: Atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Shanghai: Temporal and spatial variation, and global comparison, Environ. Poll., 230, 639–647, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.07.022, 2017.
Fernández, P., Vilanova, R. M., and Grimalt, J. O.: Sediment Fluxes of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in European High Altitude Mountain Lakes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 3716–3722, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9904639, 1999.
Fernández, P., Vilanova, R. M., Martínez, C., Appleby, P., and Grimalt, J. O.: The Historical Record of Atmospheric Pyrolitic Pollution over Europe Registered in the Sedimentary PAH from Remote Mountain Lakes, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34, 1906–1913, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9912271, 2000.
Fernández, P., Grimalt, J. O., and Vilanova, R. M.: Atmospheric Gas-Particle Partitioning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in High Mountain Regions of Europe, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1162–1168, https://doi.org/10.1021/es010190t, 2002.
Fernández, P., Carrera, G., Grimalt, J. O., Ventura, M., Camarero, L., Catalán, J., Nickus, U., Thies, H., and Psenner, R.: Factors Governing the Atmospheric Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Remote Areas, Environ. Sci. Technol., 37, 3261–3267, https://doi.org/10.1021/es020137k, 2003.
Foan, L., Domerq, M., Bermejo, R., M. Santamaria, J., and Simon, V.: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Remote Bulk and Throughfall deposition: Seasonal and Spatial Trends, Environ. Eng. Manag. J., 11, 1101–1110, https://doi.org/10.30638/eemj.2012.134, 2012.
Gaga, E. O., Tuncel, G., and Tuncel, S. G.: Sources and Wet Deposition Fluxes of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an Urban Site 1000 Meters High in Central Anatolia (Turkey), Environ. Forensics, 10, 286–298, https://doi.org/10.1080/15275920903347594, 2009.
Garban, B., Blanchoud, H., Motelay-Massei, A., Chevreuil, M., and Ollivon, D.: Atmospheric bulk deposition of PAHs onto France: trends from urban to remote sites, Atmos. Environ., 36, 5395–5403, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00414-4, 2002.
Gigliotti, C. L., Totten, L. A., Offenberg, J. H., Dachs, J., Reinfelder, J. R., Nelson, E. D., Glenn, T. R., and Eisenreich, S. J.: Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the Mid-Atlantic East Coast Region, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 5550–5559, https://doi.org/10.1021/es050401k, 2005.
Gocht, T., Klemm, O., and Grathwohl, P.: Long-term atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rural areas of Southern Germany, Atmos. Environ., 41, 1315–1327, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.09.036, 2007.
Golomb, D., Barry, E., Fisher, G., Varanusupakul, P., Koleda, M., and Rooney, T.: Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons near New England coastal waters, Atmos. Environ., 35, 6245–6258, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00456-3, 2001.
Grimalt, J. O., Fernández, P., Berdié, L., Vilanova, R. M., Catalan, J., Psenner, R., Hofer, R., Appleby, P. G., Lien, L., Rosseland, B. O., Massabuau, J.-C., and Battarbee, R. W.: Selective Trapping of Organochlorine Compounds in Mountain Lakes of Temperate Areas, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 2690–2697, https://doi.org/10.1021/es000278r, 2001.
Grimalt, J. O., van Drooge, B. L., Ribes, A., Fernández, P., and Appleby, P.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition in soils and sediments of high altitude lakes, Environ. Poll., 131, 13–24, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2004.02.024, 2004.
Gustafson, K. E. and Dickhut, R. M.: Particle/Gas Concentrations and Distributions of PAHs in the Atmosphere of Southern Chesapeake Bay, Environ. Sci. Technol., 31, 140–147, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9602197, 1997.
Halsall, C. J., Coleman, P. J., and Jones, K. C.: Atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two UK cities, Chemosphere, 35, 1919–1931, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0045-6535(97)00265-8, 1997.
Halsall, C. J., Sweetman, A. J., Barrie, L. A., and Jones, K. C.: Modelling the behaviour of PAHs during atmospheric transport from the UK to the Arctic, Atmos. Environ., 35, 255–267, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00195-3, 2001.
Horstmann, M. and McLachlan, M. S.: Atmospheric deposition of semivolatile organic compounds to two forest canopies, Atmos. Environ., 32, 1799–1809, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(97)00477-9, 1998.
HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory): Model access via NOAA ARL READY, available at: http://ready.arl.noaa.gov/HYSPLIT.php, 2013.
Kirchgeorg, T., Dreyer, A., Gabrielli, P., Gabrieli, J., Thompson, L. G., Barbante, C., and Ebinghaus, R.: Seasonal accumulation of persistent organic pollutants on a high altitude glacier in the Eastern Alps, Environ. Poll., 218, 804–812, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.08.004, 2016
Kiss, G., Varga-Puchony, Z., Tolnai, B., Varga, B., Gelencsér, A., Krivácsy, Z., and Hlavay, J.: The seasonal changes in the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in precipitation and aerosol near Lake Balaton, Hungary, Environ. Poll., 114, 55–61, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00208-6, 2001.
Leister, D. L. and Baker, J. E.: Atmospheric deposition of organic contaminants to the Chesepeake Bay, Atmos. Environ., 28, 1499–1520, https://doi.org/10.1016/1352-2310(94)90210-0, 1994.
Li, J., Cheng, H., Zhang, G., Qi, S., and Li, X.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition to and exchange at the air-water interface of Luhu, an urban lake in Guangzhou, China, Environ. Poll., 157, 273–279, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.039, 2009.
Li, P.-H., Wang, Y., Li, Y.-H., Wang, Z.-f., Zhang, H.-Y., Xu, P.-J., and Wang, W.-X.: Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons deposition in PM2.5 and cloud/fog water at Mount Taishan (China), Atmos. Environ., 44, 1996–2003, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.02.031, 2010.
Lipiatou, E., Tolosa, I., Simo, R., Bouloubassi, I., Dachs, J., Marti, S., Sicre, M. A., Bayona, J. M., Grimalt, J. O., Saliot, A., and Albaiges, J.: Mass budget and dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Mediterranean Sea, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 4, 881–905, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-0645(96)00093-8, 1997.
Ma, J. and Cao, Z.: Quantifying the Perturbations of Persistent Organic Pollutants Induced by Climate Change, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 8567–8573, https://doi.org/10.1021/es101771g, 2010.
Ma, J., Hung, H., Tian, C., and Kallenborn, R.: Revolatilization of persistent organic pollutants in the Arctic induced by climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, 1, 255–260, https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1167, 2011.
Ma, Y., Xie, Z., Yang, H., Moeller, A., Halsall, C., Cai, M., Sturm, R., and Ebinghaus, R.: Deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the North Pacific and the Arctic, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 118, 5822, https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50473, 2013.
McVeety, B. D. and Hites, R. A.: Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: A mass balance approach, Atmos. Environ., 22, 511–536, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(88)90196-5, 1988.
Meijer, S. N., Sweetman, A. J., Halsall, C. J., and Jones, K. C.: Temporal Trends of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the U.K. Atmosphere: 1991–2005, Environ. Sci. Technol., 42, 3213–3218, https://doi.org/10.1021/es702979d, 2008.
Meijer, S. N., Grimalt, J. O., Fernández, P., and Dach, J.: Seasonal fluxes and temperature-dependent accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in lakes: The role of internal biogeochemical cycling, Environ. Poll., 157, 1815–1822, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.01.024, 2009.
Motelay-Massei, A., Ollivon, D., Garban, B., and Chevreuil, M.: Polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons in bulk deposition at a suburban site: assessment by principal component analysis of the influence of meteorological parameters, Atmos. Environ., 37, 3135–3146, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00218-8, 2003.
Nelson, E. D., McConnell, L. L., and Baker, J. E.: Diffusive exchange of gaseous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls across the air-water interface of the Chesapeake Bay, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 912–919, https://doi.org/10.1021/es9706155, 1998.
Offenthaler, I., Jakobi, G., Kaiser, A., Kirchner, M., Kräuchi, N., Niedermoser, B., Schramm, K. W., Sedivy, I., Staudinger, M., Thanner, G., Weiss, P., and Moche, W.: Novel sampling methods for atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds (SOCs) in a high altitude alpine environment, Environ. Poll., 157, 3290–3297, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2009.05.053, 2009.
Ollivon, D., Blanchoud, H., Motelay-Massei, A., and Garban, B.: Atmospheric deposition of PAHs to an urban site, Paris, France, Atmos. Environ., 36, 2891–2900, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00089-4, 2002.
Pacyna, J. M., Breivik, K., Münch, J., and Fudala, J.: European Atmospheric Emissions of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants, 1970–1995, Atmos. Environ., 37, S119–S131, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00240-1, 2003.
Park, J.-S., Wade, T. L., and Sweet, S.: Atmospheric distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and deposition to Galveston Bay, Texas, USA, Atmos. Environ., 35, 3241–3249, https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00080-2, 2001.
Pekey, B., Karakas, D., and Ayberk, S.: Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to Izmit Bay, Turkey, Chemosphere, 67, 537–547, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.09.054, 2007.
Poor, N., Tremblay, R., Kay, H., Bhethanabotla, V., Swartz, E., Luther, M., and Campbell, S.: Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Tampa Bay, Florida, USA, Atmos. Environ., 38, 6005–6015, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.06.037, 2004.
Rose, N. L.: An Historical Record of Toxaphene and Its Congeners in a Remote Lake in Western Europe, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35, 1312, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0015895, 2001.
Rowan, D. J., Cornett, R. J., King, K., and Risto, B.: Sediment focusing and 210Pb dating: a new approach, J. Paleolimnol., 13, 107–118, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00678101, 1995.
Ruge, Z., Muir, D., Helm, P., and Lohmann, R.: Concentrations, Trends, and Air–Water Exchange of PAHs and PBDEs Derived from Passive Samplers in Lake Superior in 2011, Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 13777–13786, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b02611, 2015.
Schifman, L. A. and Boving, T. B.: Spatial and seasonal atmospheric PAH deposition patterns and sources in Rhode Island, Atmos. Environ., 120, 253–261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.056, 2015.
Shahpoury, P., Lammel, G., Smejkalova, A. H., Klánová, J., Pribylova, P., and Vana, M.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe – investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1795–1805, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-1795-2015, 2015.
Sharma, B. M., Melymuk, L., Bharat, G. K., Přibylová, P., Sáňka, O., Klánová, J., and Nizzetto, L.: Spatial gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, atmospheric deposition, and surface water of the Ganges River basin, Sci. Total Environ., 627, 1495–1504, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.262, 2018.
Sicre, M. A., Marty, J. C., Saliot, A., Aparicio, X., Grimalt, J. O., and Albaigés, J.: Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons in different sized aerosols over the Mediterranean Sea: Occurrence and Origin, Atmos. Environ. 21, 2247–2259, https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(87)90356-8, 1987
Simcik, M. F., Franz, T. P., Zhang, H., and Eisenreich, S. J.: Gas-particle partitioning of PCBs and PAHs in the Chicago urban and adjacent coastal atmosphere: states of equilibrium, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 251–257, https://doi.org/10.1021/es970557n, 1998.
Singh, D. K., Kawamura, K., Yanase, A., and Barrie, L. A.: Distributions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, and Trace Metals in Arctic Aerosols: Long-Range Atmospheric Transport, Photochemical Degradation/Production at Polar Sunrise, Environ. Sci. Technol., 51, 8992–9004, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01644, 2017.
Su, Y., Wania, F., Harner, T., and Lei, Y. D.: Deposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a boreal deciduous forest, Environ. Sci. Technol., 41, 534–540, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0622047, 2007.
Sun, P., Blanchard, P., Brice, K. A., and Hites, R. A.: Trends in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Concentrations in the Great Lakes Atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 40, 6221–6227, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0607279, 2006.
Terzi, E. and Samara, C.: Dry deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban and rural sites of Western Greece, Atmos. Environ., 39, 6261–6270, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.06.057, 2005.
Torseth, K., Aas, W., Breivik, K., Fjaeraa, A. M., Fiebig, M., Hjellbrekke, A. G., Myhre, C. L., Solberg, S., and Yttri, K. E.: Introduction to the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) and observed atmospheric composition change during 1972–2009, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 5447–5481, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5447-2012, 2012.
Usenko, S., Simonich, S. L. M., Hageman, K. J., Schrlau, J. E., Geiser, L., Campbell, D. H., Appleby, P. G., and Landers, D. H.: Sources and Deposition of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Western U.S. National Parks, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44, 4512–4518, https://doi.org/10.1021/es903844n, 2010.
van der Gong, H. D., Bolscher, M. V. H., Visschedijk, A., and Zandveld, P.: Emissions of persistent organic pollutants and eight candidate POPs from UNECE-Europe in 2000, 2010 and 2020 and the emission reduction resulting from the implementation of the UNECE POP protocol, Atmos. Environ., 41, 9245–9261, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.06.055, 2007.
van Drooge, B. L., López, J., Fernández, P., Grimalt, J. O., and Stuchlik, E.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lake sediments from the High Tatras, Environ. Poll., 159, 1234–1259, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2011.01.035, 2011.
van Drooge, B. L., Fernández, P., Grimalt, J. O., Stuchlïk, E., Torres-García, C. J., and Cuevas, E.: Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in remote European and Atlantic sites located above the boundary mixing layer, Environ. Sci. Poll. Res., 17, 1207–1216, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-010-0296-0, 2010.
van Metre, P. C. and Mahler, B. J.: Trends in Hydrophobic Organic Contaminants in Urban and Reference Lake Sediments across the United States, 1970–2001, Environ. Sci. Technol., 39, 5567–5574, https://doi.org/10.1021/es0503175, 2005.
Venier, M., Salamova, A., and Hites, R. A.: Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutant concentrations in precipitation around the Great Lakes, Environ. Poll., 217, 143–148, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.01.034, 2016.
Vives, I., Grimalt, J. O., Fernández, P., and Rosseland, B.: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fish from remote and high mountian lakes in Europe and Greenland, Sci. Total Environ., 324, 67–77, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2003.10.026, 2004.
Wang, W., Jariyasopit, N., Schrlau, J., Jia, Y., Tao, S., Yu, T.-W., Dashwood, R. H., Zhang, W., Wang, X., and Simonich, S. L. M.: Concentration and Photochemistry of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs and Toxicity of PM2.5 during the Beijing Olympic Games, Environ. Sci. Technol., 45, 6887–6895, https://doi.org/10.1021/es201443z, 2011a.
Wang, W., Simonich, S. L. M., Giri, B., Xue, M., Zhao, J., Chen, S., Shen, H., Shen, G., Wang, R., Cao, J., and Tao, S.: Spatial distribution and seasonal variation of atmospheric bulk deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Beijing-Tianjin region, North China, Environ. Poll., 159, 287–293, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2010.08.029, 2011b.
Wild, S. R. and Jones, K. C.: Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment: a preliminary source inventory and budget, Environ. Poll., 88, 91–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(95)91052-M, 1995.
Xing, X., Zhang, Y., Yang, D., Zhang, J., Chen, W., Wu, C., Liu, H., and Qi, S.: Spatio-temporal variations and influencing factors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric bulk deposition along a plain-mountain transect in western China, Atmos. Environ., 139, 131–138, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.05.027, 2016.
Zhang, J., Yang, L., Mellouki, A., Chen, J., Chen, X., Gao, Y., Jiang, P., Li, Y., Yu, H., and Wang, W.: Atmospheric PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs at an urban, mountainous, and marine sites in Northern China: Molecular composition, sources, and ageing, Atmos. Environ., 173, 256–264, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.11.002, 2018.
Mountain areas are key for studying the impact of diffuse pollution due to human activities on the continental areas. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), human carcinogens with increased levels since the 1950s, are significant constituents of this pollution. We determined PAHs in monthly atmospheric deposition collected in European high mountain areas. The number of sites, period of study and sampling frequency provide the most comprehensive description of PAH fallout at remote sites.
Mountain areas are key for studying the impact of diffuse pollution due to human activities on...