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The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.

Short summary
In mid-latitudes, the major fraction of precipitation is initiated via the ice phase. Cloud model simulations estimated the role of aerosol particle types and heterogeneous freezing modes on the ice phase. The results show that the formation of mixed-phase and ice clouds is promoted by the immersion freezing mode, broad drop size spectra containing small as well as large drops, insoluble particles composed by bacteria, feldspar, and illite, and temperatures below -25°C.
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Articles | Volume 15, issue 22
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12741–12763, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12741-2015

Special issue: Results from the ice nucleation research unit (INUIT) (ACP/AMT...

Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12741–12763, 2015
https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-12741-2015

Research article 18 Nov 2015

Research article | 18 Nov 2015

New particle-dependent parameterizations of heterogeneous freezing processes: sensitivity studies of convective clouds with an air parcel model

K. Diehl and S. K. Mitra

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Cited articles

Amato, P., Ménager, M., Sancelme, M., Laj, P., Mailhot, G., and Delort, A.-M.: Microbial population in cloud water at the Puy de Dôme: implications for the chemistry of clouds, Atmos. Environ. 39, 4143–4153, 2005.
Ansmann, A., Althausen, D., Müller, D., Seifert, P., Freudenthaler, V., Heese, B., Wiegner, M., Pisani, G., Knippertz, P., and Dubovik, O.: Influence of Saharan dust on cloud glaciation in southern Morocco during Saharan mineral dust experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D04210, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JD008785, 2008.
Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds, Nature, 498, 355–358, https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12278, 2013.
Bangert, M., Nenes, A., Vogel, B., Vogel, H., Barahona, D., Karydis, V. A., Kumar, P., Kottmeier, C., and Blahak, U.: Saharan dust event impacts on cloud formation and radiation over Western Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 4045–4063, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-4045-2012, 2012.
Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., and Puxbaum, H.: The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organics content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols, Atmos. Res., 64, 109–119, 2002.
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The requested paper has a corresponding corrigendum published. Please read the corrigendum first before downloading the article.

Short summary
In mid-latitudes, the major fraction of precipitation is initiated via the ice phase. Cloud model simulations estimated the role of aerosol particle types and heterogeneous freezing modes on the ice phase. The results show that the formation of mixed-phase and ice clouds is promoted by the immersion freezing mode, broad drop size spectra containing small as well as large drops, insoluble particles composed by bacteria, feldspar, and illite, and temperatures below -25°C.
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Final-revised paper
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