Articles | Volume 14, issue 21
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
© Author(s) 2014. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
On direct passive microwave remote sensing of sea spray aerosol production
I. B. Savelyev
Remote Sensing Division, Code 7200, US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW., Washington, DC 20375, USA
M. D. Anguelova
Remote Sensing Division, Code 7200, US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW., Washington, DC 20375, USA
G. M. Frick
Remote Sensing Division, Code 7200, US Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave, SW., Washington, DC 20375, USA
D. J. Dowgiallo
P. A. Hwang
P. F. Caffrey
J. P. Bobak
No articles found.
Monique F. M. A. Albert, Magdalena D. Anguelova, Astrid M. M. Manders, Martijn Schaap, and Gerrit de Leeuw
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13725–13751,Short summary
Sea spray source functions (SSSFs) predict production of sea salt aerosol, important for climate. Sea spray originates from bubble bursting within whitecaps, mainly formed by wind speed (U). Using satellite-based whitecap fraction (W) data analyzed on global and regional scale and explicitly accounting for sea surface temperature (T) we derive a new W(U, T) parameterization. We use it to evaluate influence of secondary factors on a SSSF via W.
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Ice-nucleating particles in northern Greenland: annual cycles, biological contribution and parameterizationsAerosol deposition to the boreal forest in the vicinity of the Alberta Oil SandsThe density of ambient black carbon retrieved by a new method: implications for cloud condensation nuclei predictionLong-range transported continental aerosol in the eastern North Atlantic: three multiday event regimes influence cloud condensation nucleiMeasurement report: Understanding the seasonal cycle of Southern Ocean aerosolsElucidating ozone and PM2.5 pollution in the Fenwei Plain reveals the co-benefits of controlling precursor gas emissions in winter hazeQuantifying particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicityMeasurement report: Black carbon properties and concentrations in southern Sweden urban and rural air – the importance of long-range transportDiurnal differences in the effect of aerosols on cloud-to-ground lightning in the Sichuan BasinIntensive aerosol properties of boreal and regional biomass burning aerosol at Mt. Bachelor Observatory: larger and black carbon (BC)-dominant particles transported from Siberian wildfiresCharacterization of ultrafine particles and the occurrence of new particle formation events in an urban and coastal site of the Mediterranean areaAtmospheric nanoparticles hygroscopic growth measurement by a combined surface plasmon resonance microscope and hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzerA full year of aerosol size distribution data from the central Arctic under an extreme positive Arctic Oscillation: insights from the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of Arctic Climate (MOSAiC) expeditionAnnual cycle of hygroscopic properties and mixing state of the suburban aerosol in Athens, GreeceMeasurement report: Atmospheric new particle formation at a peri-urban site in Lille, northern FranceNew particle formation and growth during summer in an urban environment: a dual chamber studyMeasurement Report: Rapid decline of aerosol absorption coefficient and aerosol optical properties effects on radiative forcing in urban areas of Beijing from 2018 to 2021An evaluation of biomass burning aerosol mass, extinction, and size distribution in GEOS using observations from CAMP2ExSeasonal significance of new particle formation impacts on cloud condensation nuclei at a mountaintop locationAerosol activation characteristics and prediction at the central European ACTRIS research station of Melpitz, GermanyMeasurement report: Increasing trend of atmospheric ion concentrations in the boreal forestVertical profiles of cloud condensation nuclei number concentration and its empirical estimate from aerosol optical properties over the North China PlainMeasurement report: The Urmia playa as a source of airborne dust and ice-nucleating particles – Part 1: Correlation between soils and airborne samplesConstraining the particle-scale diversity of black carbon light absorption using a unified frameworkSurvival probability of new atmospheric particles: closure between theory and measurements from 1.4 to 100 nmPredicting atmospheric background number concentration of ice-nucleating particles in the ArcticDifferent effects of anthropogenic emissions and aging processes on the mixing state of soot particles in the nucleation and accumulation modesFluorescence characteristics, absorption properties, and radiative effects of water-soluble organic carbon in seasonal snow across northeastern ChinaMeasurement report: Size distributions of urban aerosols down to 1 nm from long-term measurementsRapid reappearance of air pollution after cold air outbreaks in northern and eastern ChinaOn the relation between apparent ion and total particle growth rates in the boreal forest and related chamber experimentsAssessment of NAAPS-RA performance in Maritime Southeast Asia during CAMP2ExComparison of particle number size distribution trends in ground measurements and climate modelsAerosol size distribution changes in FIREX-AQ biomass burning plumes: the impact of plume concentration on coagulation and OA condensation/evaporationImpact of water uptake and mixing state on submicron particle deposition in the human respiratory tract (HRT) based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements at HRT-like conditionsParameterizations of size distribution and refractive index of biomass burning organic aerosol with black carbon contentNewly identified climatically and environmentally significant high-latitude dust sourcesMeasurement report: Atmospheric fluorescent bioaerosol concentrations measured during 18 months in a coniferous forest in the south of SwedenAirborne observations during KORUS-AQ show that aerosol optical depths are more spatially self-consistent than aerosol intensive propertiesUsing aircraft measurements to characterize subgrid-scale variability of aerosol properties near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains siteMeasurement report: A multi-year study on the impacts of Chinese New Year celebrations on air quality in Beijing, ChinaMixing state of black carbon at different atmospheres in north and southwest ChinaColumnar and surface urban aerosol in the Moscow megacity according to measurements and simulations with the COSMO-ART modelVertical aerosol particle exchange in the marine boundary layer estimated from helicopter-borne measurements in the Azores regionCircum-Antarctic abundance and properties of CCN and INPsThe ice-nucleating activity of African mineral dust in the Caribbean boundary layerAerosol first indirect effect of African smoke in marine stratocumulus clouds over Ascension Island, south Atlantic OceanBiomass burning and marine aerosol processing over the southeast Atlantic Ocean: a TEM single-particle analysisVolatility parameterization of ambient organic aerosols at a rural site of the North China PlainLight absorption by brown carbon over the South-East Atlantic Ocean
Kevin C. H. Sze, Heike Wex, Markus Hartmann, Henrik Skov, Andreas Massling, Diego Villanueva, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4741–4761,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) play an important role in cloud formation and thus in our climate. But little is known about the abundance and properties of INPs, especially in the Arctic, where the temperature increases almost 4 times as fast as that of the rest of the globe. We observe higher INP concentrations and more biological INPs in summer than in winter, likely from local sources. We also provide three equations for estimating INP concentrations in models at different times of the year.
Timothy Jiang, Mark Gordon, Paul A. Makar, Ralf M. Staebler, and Michael Wheeler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4361–4372,Short summary
Measurements of submicron aerosols (particles smaller than 1 / 1000 of a millimeter) were made in a forest downwind of oil sands mining and production facilities in northern Alberta. These measurements tell us how quickly aerosols are absorbed by the forest (known as deposition rate) and how the deposition rate depends on the size of the aerosol. The measurements show good agreement with a parameterization developed from a recent study for deposition of aerosols to a similar pine forest.
Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Jieyao Liu, and Fang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4327–4342,Short summary
The density of black carbon (BC) is linked to its morphology and mixing state and could cause uncertainty in evaluating cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity. A method for retrieving the mixing state and density of BC in the urban atmosphere is developed. The mean retrieval density of internally mixed BC was lower, assuming void-free spherical structures. Our study suggests the importance of accounting for variable BC density in models when assessing its climate effect in urban atmosphere.
Francesca Gallo, Janek Uin, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Jian Wang, Robert Wood, Fan Mei, Connor Flynn, Stephen Springston, Eduardo B. Azevedo, Chongai Kuang, and Allison C. Aiken
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4221–4246,Short summary
This study provides a summary statistic of multiday aerosol plume transport event influences on aerosol physical properties and the cloud condensation nuclei budget at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility in the eastern North Atlantic (ENA). An algorithm that integrates aerosol properties is developed and applied to identify multiday aerosol transport events. The influence of the aerosol plumes on aerosol populations at the ENA is successively assessed.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, James Harnwell, Simon P. Alexander, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Keiichiro Hara, Ian M. McRobert, Alain Protat, Joel Alroe, Luke T. Cravigan, Branka Miljevic, Zoran D. Ristovski, Robyn Schofield, Stephen R. Wilson, Connor J. Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Greg M. McFarquhar, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, and Alan D. Griffiths
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3749–3777,Short summary
Observations of aerosols in pristine regions are rare but are vital to constraining the natural baseline from which climate simulations are calculated. Here we present recent seasonal observations of aerosols from the Southern Ocean and contrast them with measurements from Antarctica, Australia and regionally relevant voyages. Strong seasonal cycles persist, but striking differences occur at different latitudes. This study highlights the need for more long-term observations in remote regions.
Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Haobin Zhong, Jing Duan, Zixi Wang, Wei Huang, and Wei Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3595–3607,Short summary
The complex interaction between O3 and PM2.5, coupled with the topology of the Fenwei Plain and the evolution of the boundary layer height, highlights the challenges in further reducing particulate pollution in winter despite years of efforts to reduce emissions. Through scenario analysis in a chemical box model constrained by observation, we show the co-benefits of reducing NOx and VOCs simultaneously in reducing ozone and SOA.
Liang Yuan and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3195–3205,Short summary
Chemical compositions vary between and within particles due to the complex sources and aging processes, causing particle-to-particle heterogeneity in aerosol hygroscopicity, which is of great importance to aerosol climatic and environmental effects. This study proposes an algorithm to quantify the heterogeneity from in situ measurements, sheds light on the reanalysis of the existing H-TDMA datasets, and could have a large impact on how we use and think about these datasets.
Erik Ahlberg, Stina Ausmeel, Lovisa Nilsson, Mårten Spanne, Julija Pauraite, Jacob Klenø Nøjgaard, Michele Bertò, Henrik Skov, Pontus Roldin, Adam Kristensson, Erik Swietlicki, and Axel Eriksson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 3051–3064,Short summary
To investigate the properties and origin of black carbon particles in southern Sweden during late summer, we performed measurements both at a rural site and the nearby city of Malmö. We found that local traffic emissions of black carbon led to concentrations around twice as high as those at the rural site. Modeling show that these emissions are not clearly distinguishable at the rural site, unless meteorology was favourable, which shows the importance of long-range transport and processing.
Haichao Wang, Yongbo Tan, Zheng Shi, Ning Yang, and Tianxue Zheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2843–2857,Short summary
The effects of aerosols on lightning are complex and still far from understood. We analysed the impacts of aerosols on lightning activity in the Sichuan Basin. Results show that lightning flashes first increase with aerosol loading during all periods and then behave differently (decrease in the afternoon and flatten at night). This suggests that the changes in solar radiation can modulate the aerosol effects on the occurrence and development of convection and lightning activity.
Nathaniel W. May, Noah Bernays, Ryan Farley, Qi Zhang, and Daniel A. Jaffe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2747–2764,Short summary
In summer 2019 at Mt. Bachelor Observatory, we observed smoke from wildfires with transport times ranging from less than a day up to 2 weeks. Aerosol absorption of multi-day transported smoke was dominated by black carbon, while smoke with shorter transport times had greater brown carbon absorption. Notably, Siberian smoke exhibited aerosol scattering and physical properties indicative of contributions from larger particles than typically observed in smoke.
Adelaide Dinoi, Daniel Gulli, Kay Weinhold, Ivano Ammoscato, Claudia R. Calidonna, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Daniele Contini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2167–2181,Short summary
In this study, particle number size distribution analysis was performed with the purpose of characterizing new particle formation (NPF) events occurring in two areas of southern Italy over 5 years of measurements. The identification of NPF events produced different results in terms of frequency and seasonality. Some of the main variables involved in the process, the local atmospheric conditions in which the events occurred, and the role of the air masses were discussed and compared.
Zhibo Xie, Jiaoshi Zhang, Huaqiao Gui, Yang Liu, Bo Yang, Haosheng Dai, Hang Xiao, Douguo Zhang, Da-Ren Chen, and Jianguo Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2079–2088,Short summary
The hygroscopic growth of single nanoparticles is important for hygroscopic characteristic analysis of atmospheric particles and for scientific studies involving atmospheric particles. Based on the hygroscopicity difference of subgroups of atmospheric nanoparticles, the classification and proportion analysis of atmospheric nanoparticles has been completed, which has potential significance in predicting the contribution of the atmospheric particulate hygroscopicity and particle growth mechanism.
Matthew Boyer, Diego Aliaga, Jakob Boyd Pernov, Hélène Angot, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Benjamin Heutte, Manuel Dall'Osto, David C. S. Beddows, Zoé Brasseur, Ivo Beck, Silvia Bucci, Marina Duetsch, Andreas Stohl, Tiia Laurila, Eija Asmi, Andreas Massling, Daniel Charles Thomas, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Tak Chan, Sangeeta Sharma, Peter Tunved, Radovan Krejci, Hans Christen Hansson, Federico Bianchi, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Markku Kulmala, Tuukka Petäjä, Mikko Sipilä, Julia Schmale, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 389–415,Short summary
The Arctic is a unique environment that is warming faster than other locations on Earth. We evaluate measurements of aerosol particles, which can influence climate, over the central Arctic Ocean for a full year and compare the data to land-based measurement stations across the Arctic. Our measurements show that the central Arctic has similarities to but also distinct differences from the stations further south. We note that this may change as the Arctic warms and sea ice continues to decline.
Christina Spitieri, Maria Gini, Martin Gysel-Beer, and Konstantinos Eleftheriadis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 235–249,Short summary
The paper provides insights into the hygroscopic properties and state of mixing of atmospheric aerosol through 1 year of measurements of key microphysical parameters in the suburbs of the most densely populated city of Greece, Athens, in the eastern Mediterranean, which is considered an important climate change hotspot. The results can be used for the prediction of cloud condensation nuclei and quantification of the influence of ambient relative humidity on light scattering by aerosol particles.
Suzanne Crumeyrolle, Jenni S. S. Kontkanen, Clémence Rose, Alejandra Velazquez Garcia, Eric Bourrianne, Maxime Catalfamo, Véronique Riffault, Emmanuel Tison, Joel Ferreira de Brito, Nicolas Visez, Nicolas Ferlay, Frédérique Auriol, and Isabelle Chiapello
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 183–201,Short summary
Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 100 nm or less and negligible mass concentration but are the dominant contributor to the total particle number concentration. The present study aims to better understand the environmental factors favoring or inhibiting atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) over Lille, a large city in the north of France, and to analyze the impact of such an event on urban air quality using a long-term dataset (3 years).
Spiro D. Jorga, Kalliopi Florou, David Patoulias, and Spyros N. Pandis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 85–97,Short summary
We take advantage of this unexpected low, new particle formation frequency in Greece and use a dual atmospheric simulation chamber system with starting point ambient air in an effort to gain insight about the chemical species that is limiting nucleation in this area. A potential nucleation precursor, ammonia, was added in one of the chambers while the other one was used as a reference. The addition of ammonia assisted new particle formation in almost 50 % of the experiments conducted.
Xinyao Hu, Junying Sun, Can Xia, Xiaojing Shen, Yangmei Zhang, Quan Liu, Zhaodong Liu, Sinan Zhang, Jialing Wang, Aoyuan Yu, Jiayuan Lu, Shuo Liu, and Xiaoye Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The simultaneous measurements at dry conditions of aerosol optical properties were conducted at three wavelengths for PM1 and PM10 in urban Beijing from 2018 to 2021. Considerable reductions in aerosol absorption coefficient and increased SSA demonstrated that absorbing aerosols were more effectively controlled than scattering aerosols due to pollution control measure-taking. The aerosol radiative effect and the transport and its impact on aerosol optical properties were analyzed.
Allison B. Marquardt Collow, Virginie Buchard, Peter R. Colarco, Arlindo M. da Silva, Ravi Govindaraju, Edward P. Nowottnick, Sharon Burton, Richard Ferrare, Chris Hostetler, and Luke Ziemba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 16091–16109,Short summary
Biomass burning aerosol impacts aspects of the atmosphere and Earth system through radiative forcing, serving as cloud condensation nuclei, and air quality. Despite its importance, the representation of biomass burning aerosol is not always accurate in models. Field campaign observations from CAMP2Ex are used to evaluate the mass and extinction of aerosols in the GEOS model. Notable biases in the model illuminate areas of future development with GEOS and the underlying GOCART aerosol module.
Noah S. Hirshorn, Lauren M. Zuromski, Christopher Rapp, Ian McCubbin, Gerardo Carrillo-Cardenas, Fangqun Yu, and A. Gannet Hallar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15909–15924,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) is a source of atmospheric aerosol number concentration that can impact climate by growing to larger sizes and under proper conditions form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Using novel methods, we find that at Storm Peak Laboratory, a remote, mountaintop site in Colorado, NPF is observed to enhance CCN concentrations in the spring by a factor of 1.54 and in the winter by a factor of 1.36 which can occur on a regional scale having important climate implications.
Yuan Wang, Silvia Henning, Laurent Poulain, Chunsong Lu, Frank Stratmann, Yuying Wang, Shengjie Niu, Mira L. Pöhlker, Hartmut Herrmann, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15943–15962,Short summary
Aerosol particle activation affects cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thus the global climate. Its long-term measurements are important but still scarce. In this study, more than 4 years of measurements at a central European station were analyzed. The overall characteristics and seasonal changes of aerosol particle activation are summarized. The power-law fit between particle hygroscopicity factor and diameter was recommended for predicting cloud condensation nuclei number concentration.
Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Xuemeng Chen, Jenni Kontkanen, Tuomo Nieminen, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, and Katrianne Lehtipalo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15223–15242,Short summary
We measured atmospheric ion concentrations continuously in a boreal forest between 2005 and 2021 and observed an increasing interannual trend. The increase in cluster ion concentrations can be largely explained by an overall decreasing level of anthropogenic aerosols in the boreal forest. This suggests that the role of ions in atmospheric new particle formation may be more important in the future.
Rui Zhang, Yuying Wang, Zhanqing Li, Zhibin Wang, Russell R. Dickerson, Xinrong Ren, Hao He, Fei Wang, Ying Gao, Xi Chen, Jialu Xu, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14879–14891,Short summary
Factors of cloud condensation nuclei number concentration (NCCN) profiles determined in the North China Plain include air mass sources, temperature structure, anthropogenic emissions, and terrain distribution. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra suggest that the ability of aerosol activation into CCN is stronger in southeasterly than in northwesterly air masses and stronger in the free atmosphere than near the surface. A good method to parameterize NCCN from aerosol optical data is found.
Nikou Hamzehpour, Claudia Marcolli, Sara Pashai, Kristian Klumpp, and Thomas Peter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14905–14930,Short summary
Playa surfaces in Iran that emerged through Lake Urmia (LU) desiccation have become a relevant dust source of regional relevance. Here, we identify highly erodible LU playa surfaces and determine their physicochemical properties and mineralogical composition and perform emulsion-freezing experiments with them. We find high ice nucleation activities (up to 250 K) that correlate positively with organic matter and clay content and negatively with pH, salinity, K-feldspars, and quartz.
Payton Beeler and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14825–14836,Short summary
Understanding and parameterizing the influences of black carbon (BC) particle morphology and compositional heterogeneity on its light absorption represent a fundamental problem. We develop scaling laws using a single unifying parameter that effectively encompasses large-scale diversity observed in BC light absorption on a per-particle basis. The laws help reconcile the disparities between field observations and model predictions. Our framework is packaged in an open-source Python application.
Runlong Cai, Chenjuan Deng, Dominik Stolzenburg, Chenxi Li, Junchen Guo, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jingkun Jiang, Markku Kulmala, and Juha Kangasluoma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14571–14587,Short summary
The survival probability of new particles is the key parameter governing their influences on the atmosphere and climate, yet the knowledge of particle survival in the atmosphere is rather limited. We propose methods to compute the size-resolved particle survival probability and validate them using simulations and measurements from diverse environments. Using these methods, we could explain particle survival from the cluster size to the cloud condensation nuclei size.
Guangyu Li, Jörg Wieder, Julie T. Pasquier, Jan Henneberger, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14441–14454,Short summary
The concentration of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) is atmospherically relevant for primary ice formation in clouds. In this work, from 12 weeks of field measurement data in the Arctic, we developed a new parameterization to predict INP concentrations applicable for pristine background conditions based only on temperature. The INP parameterization could improve the cloud microphysical representation in climate models, aiding in Arctic climate predictions.
Yuying Wang, Rong Hu, Qiuyan Wang, Zhanqing Li, Maureen Cribb, Yele Sun, Xiaorui Song, Yi Shang, Yixuan Wu, Xin Huang, and Yuxiang Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14133–14146,Short summary
The mixing state of size-resolved soot particles and their influencing factors were investigated. The results suggest anthropogenic emissions and aging processes have diverse impacts on the mixing state of soot particles in different modes. Considering that the mixing state of soot particles is crucial to model aerosol absorption, this finding is important to study particle growth and the warming effect of black carbon aerosols.
Xiaoying Niu, Wei Pu, Pingqing Fu, Yang Chen, Yuxuan Xing, Dongyou Wu, Ziqi Chen, Tenglong Shi, Yue Zhou, Hui Wen, and Xin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14075–14094,Short summary
In this study, we do the first investigation of WSOC in seasonal snow of northeastern China. The results revealed the regional-specific compositions and sources of WSOC due to different natural environments and anthropogenic activities. The abundant concentrations of WSOC and its absorption properties contributed to a crucial impact on the snow albedo and radiative effect. We established that our study could raise awareness of carbon cycling processes, hydrological processes, and climate change.
Chenjuan Deng, Yiran Li, Chao Yan, Jin Wu, Runlong Cai, Dongbin Wang, Yongchun Liu, Juha Kangasluoma, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Markku Kulmala, and Jingkun Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13569–13580,Short summary
The size distributions of urban atmospheric particles convey important information on their origins and impacts. This study investigates the characteristics of typical particle size distributions and key gaseous precursors in the long term in urban Beijing. A fitting function is proposed to represent and help interpret size distribution including particles and gaseous precursors. In addition to NPF (new particle formation) as the major source, vehicles can emit sub-3 nm particles as well
Qian Liu, Guixing Chen, Lifang Sheng, and Toshiki Iwasaki
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13371–13388,Short summary
Air pollution can be cleaned up quickly by a cold air outbreak (CAO) but reappears after a CAO. By quantifying the CAO properties, we find the coldness and depth of the cold air mass are key factors affecting the rapid (slow) reappearance of air pollution through modulating the atmospheric boundary layer height and stability. We also find that the spatial pattern of CAO in high-latitude Eurasia a few days ahead can be recognized as a precursor for the reappearance of air pollution.
Loïc Gonzalez Carracedo, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Lauri R. Ahonen, Nina Sarnela, Sebastian Holm, Juha Kangasluoma, Markku Kulmala, Paul M. Winkler, and Dominik Stolzenburg
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13153–13166,Short summary
Fast nanoparticle growth is essential for the survival of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere and hence their contribution to the climate. We show that using naturally charged ions for growth calculations can cause a significant error. During the diurnal cycle, the importance of ion-induced and neutral nucleation varies, causing the ion population to have a slower measurable apparent growth. Results suggest that data from ion spectrometers need to be considered with great care below 3 nm.
Eva-Lou Edwards, Jeffrey S. Reid, Peng Xian, Sharon P. Burton, Anthony L. Cook, Ewan C. Crosbie, Marta A. Fenn, Richard A. Ferrare, Sean W. Freeman, John W. Hair, David B. Harper, Chris A. Hostetler, Claire E. Robinson, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael A. Shook, G. Alexander Sokolowsky, Susan C. van den Heever, Edward L. Winstead, Sarah Woods, Luke D. Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12961–12983,Short summary
This study compares NAAPS-RA model simulations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and extinction to those retrieved with a high spectral resolution lidar near the Philippines. Agreement for AOT was good, and extinction agreement was strongest below 1500 m. Substituting dropsonde relative humidities into NAAPS-RA did not drastically improve agreement, and we discuss potential reasons why. Accurately modeling future conditions in this region is crucial due to its susceptibility to climate change.
Ville Leinonen, Harri Kokkola, Taina Yli-Juuti, Tero Mielonen, Thomas Kühn, Tuomo Nieminen, Simo Heikkinen, Tuuli Miinalainen, Tommi Bergman, Ken Carslaw, Stefano Decesari, Markus Fiebig, Tareq Hussein, Niku Kivekäs, Radovan Krejci, Markku Kulmala, Ari Leskinen, Andreas Massling, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Jane P. Mulcahy, Steffen M. Noe, Twan van Noije, Fiona M. O'Connor, Colin O'Dowd, Dirk Olivie, Jakob B. Pernov, Tuukka Petäjä, Øyvind Seland, Michael Schulz, Catherine E. Scott, Henrik Skov, Erik Swietlicki, Thomas Tuch, Alfred Wiedensohler, Annele Virtanen, and Santtu Mikkonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12873–12905,Short summary
We provide the first extensive comparison of detailed aerosol size distribution trends between in situ observations from Europe and five different earth system models. We investigated aerosol modes (nucleation, Aitken, and accumulation) separately and were able to show the differences between measured and modeled trends and especially their seasonal patterns. The differences in model results are likely due to complex effects of several processes instead of certain specific model features.
Nicole A. June, Anna L. Hodshire, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, Claire E. Robinson, K. Lee Thornhill, Kevin J. Sanchez, Richard H. Moore, Demetrios Pagonis, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Matthew M. Coggon, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, T. Paul Bui, Jeff Peischl, Robert J. Yokelson, Matthew J. Alvarado, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Shantanu H. Jathar, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12803–12825,Short summary
The evolution of organic aerosol composition and size is uncertain due to variability within and between smoke plumes. We examine the impact of plume concentration on smoke evolution from smoke plumes sampled by the NASA DC-8 during FIREX-AQ. We find that observed organic aerosol and size distribution changes are correlated to plume aerosol mass concentrations. Additionally, coagulation explains the majority of the observed growth.
Ruiqi Man, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Aristeidis Voliotis, Yanting Qiu, Johannes Größ, Dominik van Pinxteren, Limin Zeng, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12387–12399,Short summary
Regional and total deposition doses for different age groups were quantified based on explicit hygroscopicity measurements. We found that particle hygroscopic growth led to a reduction (~24 %) in the total dose. The deposition rate of hygroscopic particles was higher in the daytime, while hydrophobic particles exhibited a higher rate at night and during rush hours. The results will deepen the understanding of the impact of hygroscopicity and the mixing state on deposition patterns in the lungs.
Biao Luo, Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Qicong Song, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Yuwen Peng, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12401–12415,Short summary
We performed comprehensive analysis on biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) size distributions, as well as mass scattering and absorption efficiencies, with an improved method of on-line quantification of brown carbon absorptions. Both BBOA volume size distribution and retrieved refractive index depend highly on combustion conditions represented by the black carbon content, which has significant implications for BBOA climate effect simulations.
Outi Meinander, Pavla Dagsson-Waldhauserova, Pavel Amosov, Elena Aseyeva, Cliff Atkins, Alexander Baklanov, Clarissa Baldo, Sarah L. Barr, Barbara Barzycka, Liane G. Benning, Bojan Cvetkovic, Polina Enchilik, Denis Frolov, Santiago Gassó, Konrad Kandler, Nikolay Kasimov, Jan Kavan, James King, Tatyana Koroleva, Viktoria Krupskaya, Markku Kulmala, Monika Kusiak, Hanna K. Lappalainen, Michał Laska, Jerome Lasne, Marek Lewandowski, Bartłomiej Luks, James B. McQuaid, Beatrice Moroni, Benjamin Murray, Ottmar Möhler, Adam Nawrot, Slobodan Nickovic, Norman T. O’Neill, Goran Pejanovic, Olga Popovicheva, Keyvan Ranjbar, Manolis Romanias, Olga Samonova, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Kerstin Schepanski, Ivan Semenkov, Anna Sharapova, Elena Shevnina, Zongbo Shi, Mikhail Sofiev, Frédéric Thevenet, Throstur Thorsteinsson, Mikhail Timofeev, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Andreas Uppstu, Darya Urupina, György Varga, Tomasz Werner, Olafur Arnalds, and Ana Vukovic Vimic
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11889–11930,Short summary
High-latitude dust (HLD) is a short-lived climate forcer, air pollutant, and nutrient source. Our results suggest a northern HLD belt at 50–58° N in Eurasia and 50–55° N in Canada and at >60° N in Eurasia and >58° N in Canada. Our addition to the previously identified global dust belt (GDB) provides crucially needed information on the extent of active HLD sources with both direct and indirect impacts on climate and environment in remote regions, which are often poorly understood and predicted.
Madeleine Petersson Sjögren, Malin Alsved, Tina Šantl-Temkiv, Thomas Bjerring Kristensen, and Jakob Löndahl
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Biological aerosol particles (bioaerosols) affect human health by spreading diseases and may be important agents for atmospheric processes, but their abundance and size distributions are largely unknown. We measured bioaerosols for 18 months in the south of Sweden to investigate bioaerosol temporal variations and their couplings to meteorology. Our results showed that the bioaerosols emissions were coupled to meteorological parameters and depended strongly on season.
Samuel E. LeBlanc, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Jens Redemann, Connor Flynn, Roy R. Johnson, Stephen E. Dunagan, Robert Dahlgren, Jhoon Kim, Myungje Choi, Arlindo da Silva, Patricia Castellanos, Qian Tan, Luke Ziemba, Kenneth Lee Thornhill, and Meloë Kacenelenbogen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11275–11304,Short summary
Airborne observations of atmospheric particles and pollution over Korea during a field campaign in May–June 2016 showed that the smallest atmospheric particles are present in the lowest 2 km of the atmosphere. The aerosol size is more spatially variable than optical thickness. We show this with remote sensing (4STAR), in situ (LARGE) observations, satellite measurements (GOCI), and modeled properties (MERRA-2), and it is contrary to the current understanding.
Jerome D. Fast, David M. Bell, Gourihar Kulkarni, Jiumeng Liu, Fan Mei, Georges Saliba, John E. Shilling, Kaitlyn Suski, Jason Tomlinson, Jian Wang, Rahul Zaveri, and Alla Zelenyuk
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11217–11238,Short summary
Recent aircraft measurements from the HI-SCALE campaign conducted over the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in Oklahoma are used to quantify spatial variability of aerosol properties in terms of grid spacings typically used by weather and climate models. Surprisingly large horizontal gradients in aerosol properties were frequently observed in this rural area. This spatial variability can be used as an uncertainty range when comparing surface point measurements with model predictions.
Benjamin Foreback, Lubna Dada, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Chao Yan, Lili Wang, Biwu Chu, Ying Zhou, Tom V. Kokkonen, Mona Kurppa, Rosaria E. Pileci, Yonghong Wang, Tommy Chan, Juha Kangasluoma, Lin Zhuohui, Yishou Guo, Chang Li, Rima Baalbaki, Joni Kujansuu, Xiaolong Fan, Zemin Feng, Pekka Rantala, Shahzad Gani, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, Markku Kulmala, Yongchun Liu, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11089–11104,Short summary
This study analyzed air quality in Beijing during the Chinese New Year over 7 years, including data from a new in-depth measurement station. This is one of few studies to look at long-term impacts, including the outcome of firework restrictions starting in 2018. Results show that firework pollution has gone down since 2016, indicating a positive result from the restrictions. Results of this study may be useful in making future decisions about the use of fireworks to improve air quality.
Gang Zhao, Tianyi Tan, Shuya Hu, Zhuofei Du, Dongjie Shang, Zhijun Wu, Song Guo, Jing Zheng, Wenfei Zhu, Mengren Li, Limin Zeng, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10861–10873,Short summary
Black carbon is the second strongest absorbing component in the atmosphere that exerts warming effects on climate. One critical challenge in quantifying the ambient black carbon's radiative effects is addressing the BC microphysical properties. In this study, the microphysical properties of the aged and fresh BC particles are synthetically analyzed under different atmospheres. The measurement results can be further used in models to help constrain the uncertainties of the BC radiative effects.
Natalia E. Chubarova, Heike Vogel, Elizaveta E. Androsova, Alexander A. Kirsanov, Olga B. Popovicheva, Bernhard Vogel, and Gdaliy S. Rivin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10443–10466,Short summary
Effects of urban aerosol pollution in Moscow were analyzed using the COSMO-ART chemical transport model and intensive measurement campaigns. We show that urban aerosol comprises about 15–20% of columnar aerosol content, consisting mainly of fine aerosol mode. The black carbon (BC) fraction is about 5 %, depending on particle dispersion intensity (IPD). The BC fraction low value explains weak absorbing properties of the Moscow atmosphere. IPD also defines the daily cycle of urban aerosol species.
Janine Lückerath, Andreas Held, Holger Siebert, Michel Michalkow, and Birgit Wehner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10007–10021,Short summary
Three different methods were applied to estimate the vertical aerosol particle flux in the marine boundary layer (MBL) and between the MBL and free troposphere. For the first time, aerosol fluxes derived from these three methods were estimated and compared using airborne aerosol measurements using data from the ACORES field campaign in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean in July 2017. The amount of fluxes was small and directed up and down for different cases, but the methods were applicable.
Christian Tatzelt, Silvia Henning, André Welti, Andrea Baccarini, Markus Hartmann, Martin Gysel-Beer, Manuela van Pinxteren, Robin L. Modini, Julia Schmale, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9721–9745,Short summary
We present the abundance and origin of cloud-relevant aerosol particles in the preindustral-like conditions of the Southern Ocean (SO) during austral summer. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice-nucleating particles (INP) were measured during a circum-Antarctic scientific cruise with in situ instrumentation and offline filter measurements, respectively. Transport processes were found to play an equally important role as local sources for both the CCN and INP population of the SO.
Alexander D. Harrison, Daniel O'Sullivan, Michael P. Adams, Grace C. E. Porter, Edmund Blades, Cherise Brathwaite, Rebecca Chewitt-Lucas, Cassandra Gaston, Rachel Hawker, Ovid O. Krüger, Leslie Neve, Mira L. Pöhlker, Christopher Pöhlker, Ulrich Pöschl, Alberto Sanchez-Marroquin, Andrea Sealy, Peter Sealy, Mark D. Tarn, Shanice Whitehall, James B. McQuaid, Kenneth S. Carslaw, Joseph M. Prospero, and Benjamin J. Murray
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9663–9680,Short summary
The formation of ice in clouds fundamentally alters cloud properties; hence it is important we understand the special aerosol particles that can nucleate ice when immersed in supercooled cloud droplets. In this paper we show that African desert dust that has travelled across the Atlantic to the Caribbean nucleates ice much less well than we might have expected.
Martin de Graaf, Karolina Sarna, Jessica Brown, Elma Tenner, Manon Schenkels, and Dave Donovan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Simultaneous measurements were performed of cloud droplet sizes and smoke particles in and near clouds over the Ascension Island, a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean to test the hypothesis that more smoke particles will result in more but smaller cloud droplets. This was done during the dry season in Africa when vegetation fires produce smoke plumes drifting over the ocean, affecting the cloud droplet sizes over the ocean and the island.
Caroline Dang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Lu Zhang, Paola Formenti, Jonathan Taylor, Amie Dobracki, Sara Purdue, Pui-Shan Wong, Athanasios Nenes, Arthur Sedlacek III, Hugh Coe, Jens Redemann, Paquita Zuidema, Steven Howell, and James Haywood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9389–9412,Short summary
Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze aged African smoke particles and how the smoke interacts with the marine atmosphere. We found that the volatility of organic aerosol increases with biomass burning plume age, that black carbon is often mixed with potassium salts and that the marine atmosphere can incorporate Na and Cl into smoke particles. Marine salts are more processed when mixed with smoke plumes, and there are interesting Cl-rich yet Na-absent marine particles.
Siman Ren, Lei Yao, Yuwei Wang, Gan Yang, Yiliang Liu, Yueyang Li, Yiqun Lu, Lihong Wang, and Lin Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9283–9297,Short summary
We improved the empirical functions between volatility and chemical formulas of organic aerosols based on lab experiments and field observations. It was found that organic compounds in ambient aerosols can be divided into two groups according to their O / C ratios and that there should be specialized volatility parameterizations for different O / C organic compounds.
Lu Zhang, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Haochi Che, Caroline Dang, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, Ernie R. Lewis, Amie Dobracki, Jenny P. S. Wong, Paola Formenti, Steven G. Howell, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9199–9213,Short summary
Widespread biomass burning (BB) events occur annually in Africa and contribute ~ 1 / 3 of global BB emissions, which contain a large family of light-absorbing organics, known as brown carbon (BrC), whose absorption of incident radiation is difficult to estimate, leading to large uncertainties in the global radiative forcing estimation. This study quantifies the BrC absorption of aged BB particles and highlights the potential presence of absorbing iron oxides in this climatically important region.
Andreae, M.: Climatic effects of changing atmospheric aerosol levels, in: World Survey of Climatology, vol. 16, Future Climates of the World, edited by: Henderson-Sellers, A., 347–398, Elsevier, New York, 1995.
Andreas, E., Edson, J., Monahan, E., Rouault, M., and Smith, S.: The spray contribution to the net evaporation from the sea: A review of recent progress, Bound. Lay. Meteorol., 72, 3–52, 1995.
Andreas, E. L.: A review of the sea spray generation function for the open ocean, in: Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, edited by: Perrie, W., 1. WIT Press, Southampton, UK, 1–46, 2002.
Anguelova, M. D.: Whitecaps, sea-salt aerosols, and climate, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Delaware, 2002.
Anguelova, M. D.: Complex dielectric constant of sea foam at microwave frequencies, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C08001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004212, 2008.
Anguelova, M. D. and Gaiser, P. W.: Dielectric and radiative properties of sea foam at microwave frequencies: Conceptual understanding of foam emissivity, Remote Sensing, 4, 1162–1189, 2012.
Anguelova, M. D. and Gaiser, P. W.: Microwave emissivity of sea foam layers with vertically inhomogeneous dielectric properties, Remote Sens. Environ., 139, 81–96, 2013.
Anguelova, M. D. and Webster, F.: Whitecap coverage from satellite measurements: A first step toward modeling the variability of oceanic whitecaps, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C03017, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003158, 2006.
Bettenhausen, M., Smith, C., Bevilacqua, R., Wang, N., Gaiser, P., and Cox, S.: A nonlinear optimization algorithm for WindSat wind vector retrievals, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 597–610, https://doi.org/10.1109/TGRS.2005.862504, 2006.
Blanchard, D.: The production, distribution and bacterial enrichment of the sea-salt aerosol, in: Air-Sea Exchange of Gases and Particles, edited by: Liss, P. and Slinn, G., 407–454, Springer, New York, 1983.
Bobak, J. P., Dowgiallo, D. J., McGlothlin, N. R., and St. Germain, K. M.: APMIR: Airborne Polarimetric Microwave Imaging Radiometer, Proc. IGARSS, Sydney, Australia, 505–507, 2001.
Bobak, J. P., Asher, W. E., Dowgiallo, D. J., and Anguelova, M. D.: Aerial radiometric and video measurements of whitecap coverage, IEEE T. Geosci Remote Sens., 49, 2183–2193, 2011.
Caffrey, P. F., Hoppel, W. A., and Shi, J. J.: A one-dimensional sectional aerosol model integrated with mesoscale meteorological data to study marine boundary layer aerosol dynamics, J. Geophys. Res, 111, D24201, https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JD007237, 2006.
Callaghan, A., de Leeuw, G., Cohen, L., and O'Dowd, C. D.: Relationship of oceanic whitecap coverage to wind speed and wind history, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L23609, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036165, 2008.
Camps, A., Font, J., Vall-llossera, M., Gabarro, C., Corbella, I., Duffo, N., Torres, F., Blanch, S., Aguasca, A., Villarino, R., Enrique, L., Miranda, J. J., Arenas, J. J., Julia, A., Etcheto, J., Caselles, V., Weill, A., Boutin, J., Contardo, S., Niclos, R., Rivas, R., Reising, S. C., Wursteisen, P., Berger, M., and Martin-Neira, M.: The WISE 2000 and 2001 field experiments in support of the SMOS Mission: Sea surface L-band brightness temperature observations and their application to sea surface salinity retrieval, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 42, 804–823, 2004.
Chelton, D. B.: Seasonal variability of alongshore geostrophic velocity off Central California, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 89, 3473–3486, 1984.
Cox, C. S.: Measurements of slopes of high-frequency wind waves, J. Mar. Res., 16, 199–225, 1958.
de Leeuw, G., Neele, F. P., Hill, M., Smith, M. H., and Vignati, E.: Sea spray aerosol production by waves breaking in the surf zone, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 29397–29409, 2000.
de Leeuw, G., Andreas, E. L., Anguelova, M. D., Fairall, C. W., Lewis, E. R., O'Dowd, C., Schulz, M., and Schwartz, S. E.: Production flux of sea spray aerosol, Rev. Geophys., 49, RG2001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2010RG000349, 2011.
Droppleman, J.: Apparent microwave emissivity of sea foam, J. Geophys. Res., 75, 696–698, 1970.
Fairall, C. W., Banner, M. L., Peirson, W. L., Asher, W., and Morison, R. P.: Investigation of the physical scaling of sea spray spume droplet production, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C10001, https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JC004918, 2009.
Frick, G. M. and Hoppel, W. A.: Airship measurements of ship's exhaust plumes and their effect on marine boundary layer clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 57, 2625–2648, 2000.
Gathman, S. G., van Eijk, A. M. J., and Cohen, L. H.: Characterizing large aerosols in the lowest level of the marine atmosphere, Proc. SPIE 3433, Propagation and Imaging through the Atmosphere II, 41–52, 1998.
Gerber, H. E.: Relative-humidity parameterization of the Navy aerosol model (NAM), NRL Report 8956, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 1985.
Hollinger, J. P.: Passive microwave measurements of sea surface roughness, IEEE T. Geosci. Elect, 9, 165–169, 1971.
Hoppel, W. A., Frick, G. M., Fitzgerald, J. W., and Larson, R. E.: Marine boundary layer measurements of new particle formation and the effects nonprecipitating clouds have on aerosol size distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 14443–14459, 1994.
Hoppel, W. A., Frick, G. M., and Fitzgerald, J. W.: Surface source function for sea-salt aerosol and aerosol dry deposition to the ocean surface, J. Geophys. Res., 107, AAC 7-1–AAC 7-17, 2002.
Hwang, P. A.: Foam and roughness effects on passive microwave remote sensing of the ocean, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 50, 2978–2985, 2012.
Johnson, J. T.: An efficient two-scale model for the computation of thermal emission and atmospheric reflection from the sea surface, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 560–568, 2006.
Johnson, J. T. and Zhang, M.: Theoretical study of the small slope approximation for ocean polarimetric thermal emission, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 37, 2305–2316, 1999.
Kara, A., Wallcraft, A., and Bourassa, M.: Air-sea stability effects on the 10 m winds over the global ocean: Evaluations of air-sea flux algorithms, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C04009, https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JC004324, 2008.
Koblinsky, C. J., Hildebrand, P., Le Vine, D., Pellerano, F., Chao, Y., Wilson, W., Yueh, S., and Lagerloef, G.: Sea surface salinity from space: Science goals and measurement approach, Radio Sci., 38, 8064, https://doi.org/10.1029/2001RS002584, 2003
Lafon, C., Piazzola, J., Forget, P., le Calve, O., and Despiau, S.: Analysis of the variations of the whitecap fraction as measured in a coastal zone, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 111, 339–360, 2004.
Large, W. G. and Pond, S.: Open Ocean Momentum Flux Measurements in Moderate to Strong Winds, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 11, 324–336, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0485(1981)011<0324:OOMFMI>2.0.CO;2, 1981.
Lewis, E. R. and Schwartz, S. E.: Sea salt aerosol production: mechanisms, methods, measurements, and models – a critical review, Geophys. Monogr. Ser., 152, 413 pp., AGU, Washington, DC, 2004.
Longuet-Higgins, M. S.: The generation of capillary waves by steep gravity waves, J. Fluid Mech., 16, 138–159, 1963.
Longuet-Higgins, M. S.: Capillary rollers and bores, J. Fluid Mech., 240, 659–679, 1992.
Lyzenga, D. R.: Comparison of WindSat brightness temperature with two-scale model prediction, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 44, 549–559, 2006.
Meissner, T. and Wentz, F. J.: The complex dielectric constant of pure and sea water from microwave satellite observations, IEEE T Geosci. Remote Sens., 42, 1836–1849, 2004.
Melville, W. K.: The role of surface-wave breaking in air-sea interaction, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 28, 279–321, 1996.
Monahan, E. C. and Lu, M. Z.: Acoustically relevant bubble assemblages and their dependence on meteorological parameters, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 15, 340–349, 1990.
Monahan, E. C. and O'Muircheartaigh, I. G.: Optimal power-law description of oceanic whitecap coverage dependence on wind speed, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 10, 2094–2099, 1980.
Monahan, E. C. and O'Muircheartaigh, I. G.: Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface, Int. J. Remote Sens., 7, 627–642, 1986.
Monahan, E. C., Davidson, K. L., and Spiel, D. E.: Whitecap aerosol productivity deduced from simulation tank measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 87, 8898–8904, 1982.
Monahan, E. C., Fairall, C. W., Davidson, K. L., and Bovle, P. J.: Observed inter relations between 10 m winds, ocean whitecaps and marine aerosols, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 109, 379–392, 1983.
Monahan, E. C., Spiel, D. E., and Davidson, K. L.: A model of marine aerosol generation via whitecaps and wave disruption, in: Oceanic whitecaps and their role in air sea exchange processes, edited by: Monahan, E. C. and MacNiocaill, G., 167–174, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 1986.
Monin, A. C. and Obukhov, A. M.: Basic laws of turbulent mixing in the ground layer of the atmosphere, Trans. Geophys. Inst. Akad. Nauk, 151, 163–187, 1954.
Norris, S. J., Brooks, I. M., and Salisbury, D. J.: A wave roughness Reynolds number parameterization of the sea spray source flux, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 4415–4419, 2013.
Ovadnevaite, J., Manders, A., de Leeuw, G., Ceburnis, D., Monahan, C., Partanen, A.-I., Korhonen, H., and O'Dowd, C. D.: A sea spray aerosol flux parameterization encapsulating wave state, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1837–1852, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-14-1837-2014, 2014.
Pandey, P. C. and Kakar, R. K.: An empirical microwave emissivity model for a foam-covered sea, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng., 7, 135–140, 1982.
Petelski, T.: Marine aerosol fluxes over open sea calculated from vertical concentration gradients, Aerosol Sci., 34, 359–371, 2003.
Petelski, T. and Piskozub, J.: Vertical coarse aerosol fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer over the north polar waters of the Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06039, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JC003295, 2006.
Quinn, P. K., Coffman, D. J., Kapustin, V. N., Bates, T. S., and Covert, D. S.: Aerosol optical properties in the marine boundary layer during the First Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-1) and the underlying chemical and physical aerosol properties, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 16547–16563, 1998.
Raizer, V. Ya and Sharkov, E. A.: Electrodynamic description of densely packed dispersed systems, Izvestiya Radiophys and Quantum Electronics, 24, 553–560, 1982.
Reid, J. S., Brooks, B., Crahan, K. K., Hegg, D. A., Eck, T. F., O'Neill, N., de Leeuw, G., Reid, E. A., and Anderson, K. D.: Reconciliation of coarse mode sea-salt aerosol particle size measurements and parameterizations at a subtropical ocean receptor site, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D02202, https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JD006200, 2006.
Reul, N. and Chapron, B.: SMOS-Salinity Data Processing Study: Improvements in emissivity models, IFREMER (Institut français de recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer) Tech. Rep. WP 1100, 130 pp., 2001.
Rose, L. A., Asher, W. E., Reising, S. C., Gaiser, P. W., St Germain, K. M., and Dowgiallo, D. J.: Radiometric measurements of the microwave emissivity of foam, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 40, 2619–2625, 2002.
Rosenkranz, P. W. and Staelin, D. H.: Microwave emissivity of ocean foam and its effect on nadiral radiometric measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 77, 6528–6538, 1972.
Salisbury, D. J., Anguelova, M. D., and Brooks, I. M.: On the variability of whitecap fraction using satellite-based observations, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 6201–6222, 2013.
Shettle, E. P. and Fenn, R. W.: Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties, No. AFGL-TR-79-0214, Air Force Geophysics Lab Hanscom AFB MA, 1979.
Slinn, S. A. and Slinn, W. G. N.: Predictions of particle deposition on natural waters, Atmos. Environ., 14, 1013–1016, 1980.
Smith, M. H., Park, P. M., and Consterdine, I. E.: Marine aerosol concentrations and estimated fluxes over the sea, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 119, 809–824, 1993.
Stogryn, A.: The emissivity of sea foam at microwave frequencies, J. Geophys Res, 77, 1658–1666, 1972.
Swift, C. T.: Microwave radiometer measurements of the Cape Cod Canal, Radio Sci., 9, 641–653, 1974.
Textor, C., Schulz, M., Guibert, S., Kinne, S., Balkanski, Y., Bauer, S., Berntsen, T., Berglen, T., Boucher, O., Chin, M., Dentener, F., Diehl, T., Easter, R., Feichter, H., Fillmore, D., Ghan, S., Ginoux, P., Gong, S., Grini, A., Hendricks, J., Horowitz, L., Huang, P., Isaksen, I., Iversen, I., Kloster, S., Koch, D., Kirkevåg, A., Kristjansson, J. E., Krol, M., Lauer, A., Lamarque, J. F., Liu, X., Montanaro, V., Myhre, G., Penner, J., Pitari, G., Reddy, S., Seland, Ø., Stier, P., Takemura, T., and Tie, X.: Analysis and quantification of the diversities of aerosol life cycles within AeroCom, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 6, 1777–1813, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-6-1777-2006, 2006.
Ulaby, F., Moore, R., and Fung, A.: Microwave remote sensing: active and passive, Microwave Remote Sensing Fundamentals and Radiometry, vol. 1, Addison Wesley, 1981.
Wentz, F. J.: A two-scale scattering model for foam-free sea microwave brightness temperatures, J. Geophys. Res., 80, 3441–3446, 1975.
Wentz, F. J.: A well-calibrated ocean algorithm for special sensor microwave/imager, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 102, 8703–8718, 1997.
Woolf, D. K.: Bubbles and the air-sea transfer velocity of gases, Atmos. Ocean, 31, 517–540, https://doi.org/10.1080/07055900.1993.9649484, 1993.
Wyllie, J. G.: Geostrophic flow of the California current at the surface and at 200 m, Atlas, vol. 4, California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations, La Jolla, Calif., 1966.
Yueh, S. H.: Modeling of wind direction signals in polarimetric sea surface brightness temperatures, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 35, 1400–1418, 1997.
Yueh, S. H., Kwok, R., Li, F. K., Nghiem, S. V., Wilson, W. J., and Kong, J. A.: Polarimetric passive remote sensing of ocean wind vectors, Radio Sci., 29, 799–814, 1994a.
Yueh, S. H., Kwok, R., and Nghiem, S. V.: Polarimetric scattering and emission properties of targets with reflection symmetry, Radio Sci., 29, 1409–1420, 1994b.
Yueh, S. H., Wilson, W. J., Li, F. K., Nghiem, S. V., and Ricketts, W. B.: Polarimetric measurements of sea surface brightness temperatures using an aircraft K-band radiometer, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 33, 85–92, 1995.
Yueh, S. H., Dinardo, S. J., Fore, A. G., and Li, F. K.: Passive and active L-band microwave observations and modeling of ocean surface winds, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote Sens., 48, 3087–3100, 2010.
Zhao, D. and Toba, Y.: Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties, J. Oceanogr., 57, 603–616, 2001.