Articles | Volume 22, issue 5
16 Mar 2022
Research article | 16 Mar 2022
Dynamical evolution of a minor sudden stratospheric warming in the Southern Hemisphere in 2019
Guangyu Liu et al.
No articles found.
Evelien van Dijk, Ingar Mørkestøl Gundersen, Anna de Bode, Helge Høeg, Kjetil Loftsgarden, Frode Iversen, Claudia Timmreck, Johann Jungclaus, and Kirstin Krüger
Clim. Past, 19, 357–398,Short summary
The mid-6th century was one of the coldest periods of the last 2000 years as characterized by great societal changes. Here, we study the effect of the volcanic double event in 536 CE and 540 CE on climate and society in southern Norway. The combined climate and growing degree day models and high-resolution pollen and archaeological records reveal that the northern and western sites are vulnerable to crop failure with possible abandonment of farms, whereas the southeastern site is more resilient.
Shih-Wei Fang, Claudia Timmreck, Johann Jungclaus, Kirstin Krüger, and Hauke Schmidt
Earth Syst. Dynam., 13, 1535–1555,Short summary
The early 19th century was the coldest period over the past 500 years, when strong tropical volcanic events and a solar minimum coincided. This study quantifies potential surface cooling from the solar and volcanic forcing in the early 19th century with large ensemble simulations, and identifies the regions that their impacts cannot be simply additive. The cooling perspective of Arctic amplification exists in both solar and post-volcano period with the albedo feedback as the main contribution.
Evelien van Dijk, Johann Jungclaus, Stephan Lorenz, Claudia Timmreck, and Kirstin Krüger
Clim. Past, 18, 1601–1623,Short summary
A double volcanic eruption in 536 and 540 CE caused one of the coldest decades during the last 2000 years. We analyzed new climate model simulations from that period and found a cooling of up to 2°C and a sea-ice extent up to 200 km further south. Complex interactions between sea ice and ocean circulation lead to a reduction in the northward ocean heat transport, which makes the sea ice extend further south; this in turn leads to a surface cooling up to 20 years after the eruptions.
Akihiro Honda, Nawo Eguchi, and Naoko Saitoh
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not acceptedShort summary
The intra-seasonal, seasonal and inter-annual variations of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are investigated by the CO2 profile data derived from the thermal infrared spectra of TANSO-FTS instrument onboard GOSAT satellite, for understanding of the missing sink of CO2 and detail exchange process between UT and LS. There are new findings on the intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations associated with Asian summer monsoon and ENSO, respectively.
Paul D. Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Ryan Hossaini, Michel Pirre, Gisèle Krysztofiak, Franziska Ziska, Andreas Engel, Stephan Sala, Timo Keber, Harald Bönisch, Elliot Atlas, Kirstin Krüger, Martyn Chipperfield, Valery Catoire, Azizan A. Samah, Marcel Dorf, Phang Siew Moi, Hans Schlager, and Klaus Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16955–16984,Short summary
Bromoform is a stratospheric ozone-depleting gas released by seaweed and plankton transported to the stratosphere via convection in the tropics. We study the chemical interactions of bromoform and its derivatives within convective clouds using a cloud-scale model and observations. Our findings are that soluble bromine gases are efficiently washed out and removed within the convective clouds and that most bromine is transported vertically to the upper troposphere in the form of bromoform.
Yoshio Kawatani, Toshihiko Hirooka, Kevin Hamilton, Anne K. Smith, and Masatomo Fujiwara
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9115–9133,Short summary
This paper reports on a project to compare the representation of the semiannual oscillation (SAO) among six major global atmospheric reanalyses and with recent satellite observations. The differences among the zonal mean zonal wind as represented by the various reanalyses display a prominent equatorial maximum that increases with height. It is shown that assimilation of satellite temperature measurements is crucial for the realistic representation of the tropical upper stratospheric circulation.
Jonathon S. Wright, Xiaoyi Sun, Paul Konopka, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Andrea M. Molod, Susann Tegtmeier, Guang J. Zhang, and Xi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 8989–9030,Short summary
High clouds are influential in tropical climate. Although reanalysis cloud fields are essentially model products, they are indirectly constrained by observations and offer global coverage with direct links to advanced water and energy cycle metrics, giving them many useful applications. We describe how high cloud fields are generated in reanalyses, assess their realism and reliability in the tropics, and evaluate how differences in these fields affect other aspects of the reanalysis state.
Susann Tegtmeier, Elliot Atlas, Birgit Quack, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 7103–7123,Short summary
We investigate emissions of brominated gases from the ocean and their contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. Once in the atmosphere, these gases usually break down in less than 6 months. Their impact on the ozone layer depends on the prevailing atmospheric circulation, since transport to the stratosphere requires uplift. We combine aircraft and ship observations with atmospheric modelling to analyse how, where, and when these gases are transported from the ocean into the stratosphere.
Hans Brenna, Steffen Kutterolf, Michael J. Mills, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6521–6539,Short summary
The Los Chocoyos supereruption (84 000 years ago) in Guatemala was one of the largest volcanic events of the last 100 000 years. This eruption released enormous amounts of sulfur, which cooled the climate, as well as chlorine and bromine, which destroyed the ozone in the stratosphere. We have simulated this eruption by using an advanced chemistry–climate model. We found a collapse in the ozone layer lasting more than 10 years, increased surface–UV radiation, and a 30-year climate-cooling period.
Susann Tegtmeier, James Anstey, Sean Davis, Rossana Dragani, Yayoi Harada, Ioana Ivanciu, Robin Pilch Kedzierski, Kirstin Krüger, Bernard Legras, Craig Long, James S. Wang, Krzysztof Wargan, and Jonathon S. Wright
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 753–770,Short summary
The tropical tropopause layer is an important atmospheric region right in between the troposphere and the stratosphere. We evaluate the representation of this layer in reanalyses data sets, which create a complete picture of the state of Earth's atmosphere using atmospheric modeling and available observations. The recent reanalyses show realistic temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer. However, where the temperature is lowest, the so-called cold point, the reanalyses are too cold.
Ulrike Niemeier, Claudia Timmreck, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 10379–10390,Short summary
In 1963 Mt. Agung, Indonesia, showed unrest for several months. During this period, two medium-sized eruptions injected SO2 into the stratosphere. Recent volcanic emission datasets include only one large eruption phase. Therefore, we compared model experiments, with (a) one larger eruption and (b) two eruptions as observed. The evolution of the volcanic cloud differs significantly between the two experiments. Both climatic eruptions should be taken into account.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Rei Ueyama, Yuhji Kuroda, Chiaki Kobayashi, Beatriz M. Funatsu, and Chantal Claud
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2655–2669,Short summary
The recent cooling of the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean occurred in conjunction with enhanced cross-equatorial southerlies associated with a strengthening of the boreal summer Hadley circulation. A combination of land surface warming and reduced static stability in the tropical tropopause layer due to stratospheric cooling is suggested to have caused the increase in the deep ascending branch of the Hadley circulation and related recent decadal change in the tropical troposphere and ocean.
Nawo Eguchi and Yukio Yoshida
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 389–403,Short summary
A detection method for high-level cloud, such as ice clouds, is developed using the water vapor saturated channels (2 μm) of the solar reflected spectrum observed by the TANSO-FTS on board GOSAT. The clouds detected by this method are optically relatively thin (0.01 or less) and located at high altitudes. Approximately 85 % of the results from this method for clouds with a cloud-top altitude above 5 km agree with Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) cloud classification.
Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Irene Stemmler, Franziska Ziska, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11973–11990,Short summary
Oceanic very short-lived substances, VSLS, contribute to stratospheric halogen loading and ozone depletion. We created bromoform emission inventories with monthly resolution for the tropical Indian Ocean and west Pacific and modeled the atmospheric transport of bromoform with the particle dispersion model FLEXPART/ERA-Interim. Results underline that the seasonal and regional stratospheric bromine entrainment critically depends on the seasonality and spatial distribution of the VSLS emissions.
Cathleen Schlundt, Susann Tegtmeier, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Astrid Bracher, Wee Cheah, Kirstin Krüger, Birgit Quack, and Christa A. Marandino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10837–10854,Short summary
For the first time, oxygenated volatile organic carbon (OVOC) in the ocean and overlaying atmosphere in the western Pacific Ocean has been measured. OVOCs are important for atmospheric chemistry. They are involved in ozone production in the upper troposphere (UT), and they have a climate cooling effect. We showed that phytoplankton was an important source for OVOCs in the surface ocean, and when OVOCs are emitted into the atmosphere, they could reach the UT and might influence ozone formation.
Alina Fiehn, Birgit Quack, Helmke Hepach, Steffen Fuhlbrügge, Susann Tegtmeier, Matthew Toohey, Elliot Atlas, and Kirstin Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6723–6741,Short summary
Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLSs) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, these compounds can have a significant influence on the ozone layer and climate. During a research cruise in the west Indian Ocean, we found an important source region of halogenated VSLSs during the Asian summer monsoon. Modeling the transport from the ocean to the stratosphere we found two main pathways, one over the Indian Ocean and one over northern India.
Masatomo Fujiwara, Jonathon S. Wright, Gloria L. Manney, Lesley J. Gray, James Anstey, Thomas Birner, Sean Davis, Edwin P. Gerber, V. Lynn Harvey, Michaela I. Hegglin, Cameron R. Homeyer, John A. Knox, Kirstin Krüger, Alyn Lambert, Craig S. Long, Patrick Martineau, Andrea Molod, Beatriz M. Monge-Sanz, Michelle L. Santee, Susann Tegtmeier, Simon Chabrillat, David G. H. Tan, David R. Jackson, Saroja Polavarapu, Gilbert P. Compo, Rossana Dragani, Wesley Ebisuzaki, Yayoi Harada, Chiaki Kobayashi, Will McCarty, Kazutoshi Onogi, Steven Pawson, Adrian Simmons, Krzysztof Wargan, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, and Cheng-Zhi Zou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1417–1452,Short summary
We introduce the SPARC Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), review key concepts and elements of atmospheric reanalysis systems, and summarize the technical details of and differences among 11 of these systems. This work supports scientific studies and intercomparisons of reanalysis products by collecting these background materials and technical details into a single reference. We also address several common misunderstandings and points of confusion regarding reanalyses.
Kunihiko Kodera, Nawo Eguchi, Hitoshi Mukougawa, Tomoe Nasuno, and Toshihiko Hirooka
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 615–625,Short summary
An exceptional strengthening of the middle atmospheric subtropical jet occurred without an apparent relationship with the tropospheric circulation. The analysis of this event demonstrated downward penetration of stratospheric influence to the troposphere: in the north polar region amplification of planetary wave occurred due to a deflection by the strong middle atmospheric subtropical jet, whereas in the tropics, increased tropopause temperature suppressed equatorial convective activity.
S. Tegtmeier, F. Ziska, I. Pisso, B. Quack, G. J. M. Velders, X. Yang, and K. Krüger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 13647–13663,Short summary
At present, man-made halogens and natural oceanic substances both contribute to the observed ozone depletion. Emissions of the anthropogenic halogens have been reduced, whereas emissions of the natural substances are expected to increase in future climate due to anthropogenic activities affecting oceanic processes. We assess the impact of these oceanic substances on ozone by weighting their emissions with their potential to destroy ozone for current conditions and future projections.
K. Kodera, B. M. Funatsu, C. Claud, and N. Eguchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6767–6774,Short summary
The the role of deep convection in stratosphere–troposphere dynamical coupling in the tropics was studied during two large major stratospheric sudden warming events in January 2009 and January 2010. Convective activity and precipitation increased in the equatorial Southern Hemisphere as a result of a strengthening of the Brewer–Dobson circulation induced by enhanced stratospheric planetary wave activity.
N. Eguchi, K. Kodera, and T. Nasuno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 297–304,Short summary
The dynamical coupling process between stratosphere and troposphere in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) during stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) was investigated using simulation data of global non-hydrostatic model (NICAM) that does not use cumulus parameterization. The results suggested that increased stratospheric tropical upwelling associated with SSW induced decreased static stability in TTL, which contributes to increased convective activity and changes in its large-scale organizations
M. Rex, I. Wohltmann, T. Ridder, R. Lehmann, K. Rosenlof, P. Wennberg, D. Weisenstein, J. Notholt, K. Krüger, V. Mohr, and S. Tegtmeier
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 4827–4841,
H. Hepach, B. Quack, F. Ziska, S. Fuhlbrügge, E. L. Atlas, K. Krüger, I. Peeken, and D. W. R. Wallace
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1255–1275,
S. Tegtmeier, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, D. R. Blake, H. Boenisch, A. Engel, H. Hepach, R. Hossaini, M. A. Navarro, S. Raimund, S. Sala, Q. Shi, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11869–11886,
R. Hossaini, H. Mantle, M. P. Chipperfield, S. A. Montzka, P. Hamer, F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Krüger, S. Tegtmeier, E. Atlas, S. Sala, A. Engel, H. Bönisch, T. Keber, D. Oram, G. Mills, C. Ordóñez, A. Saiz-Lopez, N. Warwick, Q. Liang, W. Feng, F. Moore, B. R. Miller, V. Marécal, N. A. D. Richards, M. Dorf, and K. Pfeilsticker
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11819–11838,
F. Ziska, B. Quack, K. Abrahamsson, S. D. Archer, E. Atlas, T. Bell, J. H. Butler, L. J. Carpenter, C. E. Jones, N. R. P. Harris, H. Hepach, K. G. Heumann, C. Hughes, J. Kuss, K. Krüger, P. Liss, R. M. Moore, A. Orlikowska, S. Raimund, C. E. Reeves, W. Reifenhäuser, A. D. Robinson, C. Schall, T. Tanhua, S. Tegtmeier, S. Turner, L. Wang, D. Wallace, J. Williams, H. Yamamoto, S. Yvon-Lewis, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8915–8934,
C. A. Marandino, S. Tegtmeier, K. Krüger, C. Zindler, E. L. Atlas, F. Moore, and H. W. Bange
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8427–8437,
P. D. Hamer, V. Marécal, R. Hossaini, M. Pirre, N. Warwick, M. Chipperfield, A. A. Samah, N. Harris, A. Robinson, B. Quack, A. Engel, K. Krüger, E. Atlas, K. Subramaniam, D. Oram, Emma C. Leedham Elvidge, G. Mills, K. Pfeilsticker, S. Sala, T. Keber, H. Bönisch, L. K. Peng, M. S. M. Nadzir, P. T. Lim, A. Mujahid, A. Anton, H. Schlager, V. Catoire, G. Krysztofiak, S. Fühlbrügge, M. Dorf, and W. T. Sturges
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
S. Fuhlbrügge, K. Krüger, B. Quack, E. Atlas, H. Hepach, and F. Ziska
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6345–6357,
K. Großmann, U. Frieß, E. Peters, F. Wittrock, J. Lampel, S. Yilmaz, J. Tschritter, R. Sommariva, R. von Glasow, B. Quack, K. Krüger, K. Pfeilsticker, and U. Platt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 3363–3378,
Related subject area
Subject: Dynamics | Research Activity: Laboratory Studies | Altitude Range: Stratosphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Monitoring sudden stratospheric warmings under climate change since 1980 based on reanalysis data verified by radio occultationLocal and remote response of ozone to Arctic stratospheric circulation extremesOn the forcings of the unusual Quasi-Biennial Oscillation structure in February 2016The climatology of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and the contribution of gravity waves
Ying Li, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwaerz, and Yunbin Yuan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1259–1284,Short summary
We develop a new approach to monitor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events since 1980 and develop a 42-year SSW event climatology. Detection and evaluation results suggest that the new method is robust for SSW monitoring. We also found an increase in the duration of SSW main-phase warmings of about 5(±2) d over the three decades from the 1980s to the 2010s, raising the average duration from about 10 to 15 d, and the warming strength is also found increased.
Hao-Jhe Hong and Thomas Reichler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1159–1171,Short summary
Stratospheric ozone is a crucial chemical substance that protects life on Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. This article demonstrates how a strong or a weak Arctic polar vortex has an impact on wintertime circulation activity and the concentration of ozone in the stratosphere. Our results suggest that changes in the strength of the polar vortex lead to not only significant and persistent ozone changes locally in the Arctic but also to evident ozone changes in the tropics.
Haiyan Li, Robin Pilch Kedzierski, and Katja Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6541–6561,Short summary
The QBO westerly phase was reversed by an unexpected easterly jet near 40 hPa and the westerly zonal wind lasted an unusually long time at 20 hPa during winter 2015/16. We find that quasi-stationary Rossby wave W1 and faster Rossby wave W2 propagating from the northern extratropics and a locally generated Rossby wave W3 were important contributors to the easterly jet at 40 hPa. Our results suggest that the unusual zonal wind structure at 20 hPa could be caused by enhanced Kelvin wave activity.
Kaoru Sato and Soichiro Hirano
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 4517–4539,Short summary
The climatology of the Brewer–Dobson circulation and the potential contribution of gravity waves (GWs) are examined using four modern reanalysis datasets for the annual mean and each season. In this study, unresolved waves are designated as GWs. GWs are essential to determine the high-latitude extension and the turn-around latitude except in summer, although their contribution to the upward mass flux is relatively small. Plausible deficiencies of the current GW parameterizations are discussed.
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The sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event that occurred in September 2019 in the Southern Hemisphere was analyzed. A large warming and decelerated westerly winds were observed in the southern polar region. Since a reversal from westerly to easterly winds did not take place SSW2019 was classified as a minor SSW. The total wave forcing and the contribution from PW1 were larger in 2019. The strong and long-lasting planetary-scale waves with zonal wavenumber 1 played a role in SSW2019.
The sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event that occurred in September 2019 in the Southern...