Articles | Volume 19, issue 19
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Microphysics of summer clouds in central West Antarctica simulated by the Polar Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS)
Keith M. Hines
Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
David H. Bromwich
Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Atmospheric Sciences Program, Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Polar Meteorology Group, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 96802, USA
No articles found.
Kristopher Scarci, Ryan Scott, Madison Ghiz, Andrew Vogelmann, and Dan Lubin
We demonstrate what can be learned about an Antarctic region's climate from basic atmospheric irradiance measurements made by broadband and filter radiometers, instruments suitable for deployment at very remote sites, assisted by meteorological reanalysis and satellite remote sensing. Analysis of shortwave and longwave irradiance reveals subtle contrasts between meteorological regimes favoring cloud ice versus liquid water, relevant to onset versus inhibition of surface melt over ice shelves.
McKenna W. Stanford, Ann M. Fridlind, Israel Silber, Andrew S. Ackerman, Greg Cesana, Johannes Mülmenstädt, Alain Protat, Simon Alexander, and Adrian McDonald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9037–9069,Short summary
Clouds play an important role in the Earth’s climate system as they modulate the amount of radiation that either reaches the surface or is reflected back to space. This study demonstrates an approach to robustly evaluate surface-based observations against a large-scale model. We find that the large-scale model precipitates too infrequently relative to observations, contrary to literature documentation suggesting otherwise based on satellite measurements.
Frederic Tridon, Israel Silber, Alessandro Battaglia, Stefan Kneifel, Ann Fridlind, Petros Kalogeras, and Ranvir Dhillon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12467–12491,Short summary
The role of ice precipitation in the Earth water budget is not well known because ice particles are complex, and their formation involves intricate processes. Riming of ice crystals by supercooled water droplets is an efficient process, but little is known about its importance at high latitudes. In this work, by exploiting the deployment of an unprecedented number of remote sensing systems in Antarctica, we find that riming occurs at much lower temperatures compared with the mid-latitudes.
Jeramy L. Dedrick, Georges Saliba, Abigail S. Williams, Lynn M. Russell, and Dan Lubin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 4171–4194,Short summary
A new method is presented to retrieve the sea spray aerosol size distribution by combining submicron size and nephelometer scattering based on Mie theory. Using available sea spray tracers, we find that this approach serves as a comparable substitute to supermicron size distribution measurements, which are limited in availability at marine sites. Application of this technique can expand sea spray observations and improve the characterization of marine aerosol impacts on clouds and climate.
Israel Silber, Robert C. Jackson, Ann M. Fridlind, Andrew S. Ackerman, Scott Collis, Johannes Verlinde, and Jiachen Ding
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 901–927,Short summary
The Earth Model Column Collaboratory (EMC2) is an open-source ground-based (and air- or space-borne) lidar and radar simulator and subcolumn generator designed for large-scale models, in particular climate models, applicable also for high-resolution models. EMC2 emulates measurements while remaining faithful to large-scale models' physical assumptions implemented in their cloud or radiation schemes. We demonstrate the use of EMC2 to compare AWARE measurements with the NASA GISS ModelE3 and LES.
Madison L. Ghiz, Ryan C. Scott, Andrew M. Vogelmann, Jan T. M. Lenaerts, Matthew Lazzara, and Dan Lubin
The Cryosphere, 15, 3459–3494,Short summary
We investigate how melt occurs over the vulnerable ice shelves of West Antarctica and determine that the three primary mechanisms can be evaluated using archived numerical weather prediction model data and satellite imagery. We find examples of each mechanism: thermal blanketing by a warm atmosphere, radiative heating by thin clouds, and downslope winds. Our results signify the potential to make a multi-decadal assessment of atmospheric stress on West Antarctic ice shelves in a warming climate.
Stefanie Kremser, Mike Harvey, Peter Kuma, Sean Hartery, Alexia Saint-Macary, John McGregor, Alex Schuddeboom, Marc von Hobe, Sinikka T. Lennartz, Alex Geddes, Richard Querel, Adrian McDonald, Maija Peltola, Karine Sellegri, Israel Silber, Cliff S. Law, Connor J. Flynn, Andrew Marriner, Thomas C. J. Hill, Paul J. DeMott, Carson C. Hume, Graeme Plank, Geoffrey Graham, and Simon Parsons
Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 13, 3115–3153,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions over the Southern Ocean are poorly understood and remain a major source of uncertainty in climate models. This study presents ship-borne measurements, collected during a 6-week voyage into the Southern Ocean in 2018, that are an important supplement to satellite-based measurements. For example, these measurements include data on low-level clouds and aerosol composition in the marine boundary layer, which can be used in climate model evaluation efforts.
Israel Silber, Ann M. Fridlind, Johannes Verlinde, Andrew S. Ackerman, Grégory V. Cesana, and Daniel A. Knopf
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3949–3971,Short summary
Long-term ground-based radar and sounding measurements over Alaska (Antarctica) indicate that more than 85 % (75 %) of supercooled clouds are precipitating at cloud base and that 75 % (50 %) are precipitating to the surface. Such high prevalence is reconciled with lesser spaceborne estimates by considering radar sensitivity. Results provide a strong observational constraint for polar cloud processes in large-scale models.
Peter Kuma, Adrian J. McDonald, Olaf Morgenstern, Richard Querel, Israel Silber, and Connor J. Flynn
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 43–72,
Jun Liu, Jeramy Dedrick, Lynn M. Russell, Gunnar I. Senum, Janek Uin, Chongai Kuang, Stephen R. Springston, W. Richard Leaitch, Allison C. Aiken, and Dan Lubin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8571–8587,Short summary
Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to cloud albedo. We took yearlong measurements of organic aerosols at McMurdo Station. The natural organic aerosol was 150 times higher in summer than in winter. We showed the natural sources of OM were characterized by amide, which may be from seabird populations. Acid was high in summer and likely formed by secondary reactions.
Flavio Justino, Douglas Lindemann, Fred Kucharski, Aaron Wilson, David Bromwich, and Frode Stordal
Clim. Past, 13, 1081–1095,Short summary
These modeling results have enormous implications for paleoreconstructions of the MIS31 climate that assume overall ice-free conditions in the vicinity of the Antarctic continent. Since these reconstructions may depict dominant signals in a particular time interval and locale, they cannot be assumed to geographically represent large-scale domains, and their ability to reproduce long-term environmental conditions should be considered with care.
Yinghui Lu, Zhiyuan Jiang, Kultegin Aydin, Johannes Verlinde, Eugene E. Clothiaux, and Giovanni Botta
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5119–5134,Short summary
The database contains the complete (polarimetric) scattering information for different types of ice particles at different incident and scattered radiation directions at four microwave wavelengths. These results are useful for understanding the dependence of ice-particle scattering properties on ice-particle orientation with respect to the incident and scattered radiation. It is also useful in ice-property retrievals, radar forward simulation.
Israel Silber, Colin Price, and Craig J. Rodger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 3279–3288,Short summary
We report for the first time that the semi-annual oscillation (SAO) is one of the dominant oscillations in the nighttime lower ionosphere, using ground-based measurements of VLF signals reflected off the lower part of the ionosphere. We conclude that the origins of this oscillation are oscillatory changes of the D region's electrical characteristics, driven by NOx transport from the lower thermosphere. This oscillation should be considered in lower ionospheric and VLF wave propagation models.
C. Wesslén, M. Tjernström, D. H. Bromwich, G. de Boer, A. M. L. Ekman, L.-S. Bai, and S.-H. Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2605–2624,
B. H. Kahn, F. W. Irion, V. T. Dang, E. M. Manning, S. L. Nasiri, C. M. Naud, J. M. Blaisdell, M. M. Schreier, Q. Yue, K. W. Bowman, E. J. Fetzer, G. C. Hulley, K. N. Liou, D. Lubin, S. C. Ou, J. Susskind, Y. Takano, B. Tian, and J. R. Worden
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 399–426,
Related subject area
Subject: Clouds and Precipitation | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Assimilation of 3D polarimetric microphysical retrievals in a convective-scale NWP systemSensitivity of cloud-phase distribution to cloud microphysics and thermodynamics in simulated deep convective clouds and SEVIRI retrievalsAssessing the destructiveness of tropical cyclones induced by anthropogenic aerosols in an atmosphere–ocean coupled frameworkOpinion: A critical evaluation of the evidence for aerosol invigoration of deep convectionHistorical (1960–2014) lightning and LNOx trends and their controlling factors in a chemistry–climate modelThe chance of freezing – a conceptional study to parameterize temperature-dependent freezing by including randomness of ice-nucleating particle concentrationsEvaluation of hygroscopic cloud seeding in warm-rain processes by a hybrid microphysics scheme using a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model: a real case studyRadiation fog properties in two consecutive events under polluted and clean conditions in the Yangtze River Delta, China: a simulation studyA bin microphysics parcel model investigation of secondary ice formation in an idealised shallow convective cloudEffects of Intermittent Aerosol Forcing on the Stratocumulus-to-Cumulus TransitionInfluence of atmospheric rivers and associated weather systems on precipitation in the ArcticInsights of warm-cloud biases in Community Atmospheric Model 5 and 6 from the single-column modeling framework and Aerosol and Cloud Experiments in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA) observationsInteraction of microphysics and dynamics in a warm conveyor belt simulated with the ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) modelImpact of urban land use on mean and heavy rainfall during the Indian Summer MonsoonDoes prognostic seeding along flight tracks produce the desired effects of cirrus cloud thinning?Large-eddy simulation of a two-layer boundary-layer cloud system from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expeditionOpposing trends of cloud coverage over land and ocean under global warmingOpinion: Tropical cirrus — From micro-scale processes to climate-scale impactsAerosol–cloud–radiation interaction during Saharan dust episodes: the dusty cirrus puzzleTowards a more reliable forecast of ice supersaturation: Concept of a one-moment ice cloud scheme that avoids saturation adjustmentAerosol–cloud impacts on aerosol detrainment and rainout in shallow maritime tropical cloudsMixed-phase direct numerical simulation: ice growth in cloud-top generating cellsAerosol impacts on the entrainment efficiency of Arctic mixed-phase convection in a simulated air mass over open waterEvaluating Arctic clouds modelled with the Unified Model and Integrated Forecasting SystemWater isotopic characterisation of the cloud-circulation coupling in the North Atlantic trades. Part 2: The imprint of the atmospheric circulation at different scalesWater isotopic characterisation of the cloud-circulation coupling in the North Atlantic trades. Part 1: A process-oriented evaluation of COSMOiso simulations with EUREC4A observationsEvaluation of aerosol–cloud interactions in E3SM using a Lagrangian frameworkImpact of formulations of the homogeneous nucleation rate on ice nucleation events in cirrusTemperature and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sensitivity of orographic precipitation enhanced by a mixed-phase seeder–feeder mechanism: a case study for the 2015 Cumbria floodAerosol–precipitation elevation dependence over the central Himalayas using cloud-resolving WRF-Chem numerical modelingMachine learning of cloud types in satellite observations and climate modelsA modeling study of an extreme rainfall event along the northern coast of Taiwan on 2 June 2017Long-term upper-troposphere climatology of potential contrail occurrence over the Paris area derived from radiosonde observationsEquilibrium climate sensitivity increases with aerosol concentration due to changes in precipitation efficiencySouthern Ocean cloud and shortwave radiation biases in a nudged climate model simulation: does the model ever get it right?Aerosol characteristics and polarimetric signatures for a deep convective storm over the northwestern part of Europe – modeling and observationsEvaluation of tropical water vapour from CMIP6 global climate models using the ESA CCI Water Vapour climate data recordsAerosol–stratocumulus interactions: towards a better process understanding using closures between observations and large eddy simulationsThe impacts of secondary ice production on microphysics and dynamics in tropical convectionCloud adjustments from large-scale smoke–circulation interactions strongly modulate the southeastern Atlantic stratocumulus-to-cumulus transitionThe influence of multiple groups of biological ice nucleating particles on microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds observed during MC3EQuantifying vertical wind shear effects in shallow cumulus clouds over AmazoniaCirrus cloud thinning using a more physically based ice microphysics scheme in the ECHAM-HAM general circulation modelImpacts of combined microphysical and land-surface uncertainties on convective clouds and precipitation in different weather regimesWeakening of tropical sea breeze convective systems through interactions of aerosol, radiation, and soil moistureSensitivity analysis of an aerosol-aware microphysics scheme in Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) during case studies of fog in NamibiaDo Arctic mixed-phase clouds sometimes dissipate due to insufficient aerosol? Evidence from comparisons between observations and idealized simulationsContrail formation within cirrus: ICON-LEM simulations of the impact of cirrus cloud properties on contrail formationImpact of Holuhraun volcano aerosols on clouds in cloud-system-resolving simulationsWarm and moist air intrusions into the winter Arctic: a Lagrangian view on the near-surface energy budgets
Lucas Reimann, Clemens Simmer, and Silke Trömel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14219–14237,Short summary
Polarimetric radar observations were assimilated for the first time in a convective-scale numerical weather prediction system in Germany and their impact on short-term precipitation forecasts was evaluated. The assimilation was performed using microphysical retrievals of liquid and ice water content and yielded slightly improved deterministic 9 h precipitation forecasts for three intense summer precipitation cases with respect to the assimilation of radar reflectivity alone.
Cunbo Han, Corinna Hoose, Martin Stengel, Quentin Coopman, and Andrew Barrett
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14077–14095,Short summary
Cloud phase has been found to significantly impact cloud thermodynamics and Earth’s radiation budget, and various factors influence it. This study investigates the sensitivity of the cloud-phase distribution to the ice-nucleating particle concentration and thermodynamics. Multiple simulation experiments were performed using the ICON model at the convection-permitting resolution of 1.2 km. Simulation results were compared to two different retrieval products based on SEVIRI measurements.
Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Jen-Shan Hsieh, Jonathan H. Jiang, Qiong Su, Lijun Zhao, Michael Lavallee, and Renyi Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13835–13852,Short summary
Tropical cyclones (TCs) can cause catastrophic damage to coastal regions. We used a numerical model that explicitly simulates aerosol–cloud interaction and atmosphere–ocean coupling. We show that aerosols and ocean coupling work together to make TC storms bigger but weaker. Moreover, TCs in polluted air have more rainfall and higher sea levels, leading to more severe storm surges and flooding. Our research highlights the roles of aerosols and ocean-coupling feedbacks in TC hazard assessment.
Adam C. Varble, Adele L. Igel, Hugh Morrison, Wojciech W. Grabowski, and Zachary J. Lebo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13791–13808,Short summary
As atmospheric particles called aerosols increase in number, the number of droplets in clouds tends to increase, which has been theorized to increase storm intensity. We critically evaluate the evidence for this theory, showing that flaws and limitations of previous studies coupled with unaddressed cloud process complexities draw it into question. We provide recommendations for future observations and modeling to overcome current uncertainties.
Yanfeng He and Kengo Sudo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13061–13085,Short summary
Lightning has big social impacts. Lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) plays a vital role in atmospheric chemistry and climate. Investigating past lightning and LNOx trends can provide essential indicators of all lightning-related phenomena. Simulations show almost flat global lightning and LNOx trends during 1960–2014. Past global warming enhances the trends positively, but increases in aerosol have the opposite effect. Moreover, global lightning decreased markedly after the Pinatubo eruption.
Hannah C. Frostenberg, André Welti, Mikael Luhr, Julien Savre, Erik S. Thomson, and Luisa Ickes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10883–10900,Short summary
Observations show that ice-nucleating particle concentrations (INPCs) have a large variety and follow lognormal distributions for a given temperature. We introduce a new immersion freezing parameterization that applies this lognormal behavior. INPCs are drawn randomly from a temperature-dependent lognormal distribution. We then show that the ice content of the modeled Arctic stratocumulus cloud is highly sensitive to the probability of drawing large INPCs.
Kai-I Lin, Kao-Shen Chung, Sheng-Hsiang Wang, Li-Hsin Chen, Yu-Chieng Liou, Pay-Liam Lin, Wei-Yu Chang, Hsien-Jung Chiu, and Yi-Hui Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10423–10438,Short summary
This study develops a hybrid microphysics scheme to enable the complex model simulation of cloud seeding based on observational cloud condensation nuclei size distribution. Our results show that more precipitation can be developed in the scenarios seeding in the in-cloud region, and seeding over an area of tens km2 is the most efficient strategy due to the strengthening of the accretion process. Moreover, particles bigger than 0.4 μm are the main factor contributing to cloud-seeding effects.
Naifu Shao, Chunsong Lu, Xingcan Jia, Yuan Wang, Yubin Li, Yan Yin, Bin Zhu, Tianliang Zhao, Duanyang Liu, Shengjie Niu, Shuxian Fan, Shuqi Yan, and Jingjing Lv
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9873–9890,Short summary
Fog is an important meteorological phenomenon that affects visibility. Aerosols and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) play critical roles in the fog life cycle. In this study, aerosol-induced changes in fog properties become more remarkable in the second fog (Fog2) than in the first fog (Fog1). The reason is that aerosol–cloud interaction (ACI) delays Fog1 dissipation, leading to the PBL meteorological conditions being more conducive to Fog2 formation and to stronger ACI in Fog2.
Rachel L. James, Jonathan Crosier, and Paul J. Connolly
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9099–9121,Short summary
Secondary ice production (SIP) may significantly enhance the ice particle concentration in mixed-phase clouds. We present a systematic modelling study of secondary ice formation in idealised shallow convective clouds for various conditions. Our results suggest that the SIP mechanism of collisions of supercooled water drops with more massive ice particles may be a significant ice formation mechanism in shallow convective clouds outside the rime-splintering temperature range (−3 to −8 °C).
Prasanth Prabhakaran, Fabian Hoffmann, and Graham Feingold
In this study, we explore the impact of deliberate aerosol perturbation in the in the North-East Pacific region using large-eddy simulations. Our results show that cloud reflectivity is sensitive to the aerosol sprayer arrangement in the pristine system, whereas in the polluted system it is largely proportional to the total number of aerosol particles injected. These insights would aid in assessing the efficiency of various aerosol injection strategies for climate intervention applications.
Melanie Lauer, Annette Rinke, Irina Gorodetskaya, Michael Sprenger, Mario Mech, and Susanne Crewell
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8705–8726,Short summary
We present a new method to analyse the influence of atmospheric rivers (ARs), cyclones, and fronts on the precipitation in the Arctic, based on two campaigns: ACLOUD (early summer 2017) and AFLUX (early spring 2019). There are differences between both campaign periods: in early summer, the precipitation is mostly related to ARs and fronts, especially when they are co-located, while in early spring, cyclones isolated from ARs and fronts contributed most to the precipitation.
Yuan Wang, Xiaojian Zheng, Xiquan Dong, Baike Xi, and Yuk L. Yung
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8591–8605,Short summary
Marine boundary layer clouds remain poorly predicted in global climate models due to multiple entangled uncertainty sources. This study uses the in situ observations from a recent field campaign to constrain and evaluate cloud physics in a simplified version of a climate model. Progress and remaining issues in the cloud physics parameterizations are identified. We systematically evaluate the impacts of large-scale forcing, microphysical scheme, and aerosol concentrations on the cloud property.
Annika Oertel, Annette K. Miltenberger, Christian M. Grams, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8553–8581,Short summary
Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are cloud- and precipitation-producing airstreams in extratropical cyclones that are important for the large-scale flow and cloud radiative forcing. We analyze cloud formation processes during WCB ascent in a two-moment microphysics scheme. Quantification of individual diabatic heating rates shows the importance of condensation, vapor deposition, rain evaporation, melting, and cloud-top radiative cooling for total heating and WCB-related potential vorticity structure.
Renaud Falga and Chien Wang
The impact of the urban land use on the regional meteorology and rainfall during the Indian summer monsoon has been assessed in this study. Using a cloud-resolving model centered around Kolkata, we have shown that the urban heat island effect lead to a rainfall enhancement through amplification of convective activity, especially during the night. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that the kinetic effect of the city induced the initiation of a night time storm.
Colin Tully, David Neubauer, Diego Villanueva, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7673–7698,Short summary
This study details the first attempt with a GCM to simulate a fully prognostic aerosol species specifically for cirrus climate intervention. The new approach is in line with the real-world delivery mechanism via aircraft. However, to achieve an appreciable signal from seeding, smaller particles were needed, and their mass emissions needed to be scaled by at least a factor of 100. These biases contributed to either overseeding or small and insignificant effects in response to seeding cirrus.
Ines Bulatovic, Julien Savre, Michael Tjernström, Caroline Leck, and Annica M. L. Ekman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7033–7055,Short summary
We use numerical modeling with detailed cloud microphysics to investigate a low-altitude cloud system consisting of two cloud layers – a type of cloud situation which was commonly observed during the summer of 2018 in the central Arctic (north of 80° N). The model generally reproduces the observed cloud layers and the thermodynamic structure of the lower atmosphere well. The cloud system is maintained unless there are low aerosol number concentrations or high large-scale wind speeds.
Huan Liu, Ilan Koren, Orit Altaratz, and Mickaël D. Chekroun
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6559–6569,Short summary
Clouds' responses to global warming contribute the largest uncertainty in climate prediction. Here, we analyze 42 years of global cloud cover in reanalysis data and show a decreasing trend over most continents and an increasing trend over the tropical and subtropical oceans. A reduction in near-surface relative humidity can explain the decreasing trend in cloud cover over land. Our results suggest potential stress on the terrestrial water cycle, associated with global warming.
Blaž Gasparini, Sylvia C. Sullivan, Adam B. Sokol, Bernd Kärcher, Eric Jensen, and Dennis L. Hartmann
Tropical cirrus clouds are essential for the climate, but our understanding of these clouds is limited due to their dependence on a wide range of small- and large-scale climate processes. In this Opinion, we review recent advances in the study of tropical cirrus clouds, highlight remaining open questions, and discuss what we can do to resolve them.
Axel Seifert, Vanessa Bachmann, Florian Filipitsch, Jochen Förstner, Christian M. Grams, Gholam Ali Hoshyaripour, Julian Quinting, Anika Rohde, Heike Vogel, Annette Wagner, and Bernhard Vogel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6409–6430,Short summary
We investigate how mineral dust can lead to the formation of cirrus clouds. Dusty cirrus clouds lead to a reduction in solar radiation at the surface and, hence, a reduced photovoltaic power generation. Current weather prediction systems are not able to predict this interaction between mineral dust and cirrus clouds. We have developed a new physical description of the formation of dusty cirrus clouds. Overall we can show a considerable improvement in the forecast quality of clouds and radiation.
Dario Sperber and Klaus Gierens
A significant share of aviation's climate impact is due to persistent contrails. Avoiding their creation is a step for sustainable air transportation. For this purpose, a reliable forecast of so called ice supersaturated regions is needed, which then allows to plan aircraft routes without persistent contrails. Here we propose a method that leads to better prediction of ice supersaturated regions.
Gabrielle R. Leung, Stephen M. Saleeby, G. Alexander Sokolowsky, Sean W. Freeman, and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5263–5278,Short summary
This study uses a suite of high-resolution simulations to explore how the concentration and type of aerosol particles impact shallow tropical clouds and the overall aerosol budget. Under more-polluted conditions, there are more aerosol particles present, but we also find that clouds are less able to remove those aerosol particles via rainout. Instead, those aerosol particles are more likely to be detrained aloft and remain in the atmosphere for further aerosol–cloud interactions.
Sisi Chen, Lulin Xue, Sarah Tessendorf, Kyoko Ikeda, Courtney Weeks, Roy Rasmussen, Melvin Kunkel, Derek Blestrud, Shaun Parkinson, Melinda Meadows, and Nick Dawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5217–5231,Short summary
The possible mechanism of effective ice growth in the cloud-top generating cells in winter orographic clouds is explored using a newly developed ultra-high-resolution cloud microphysics model. Simulations demonstrate that a high availability of moisture and liquid water is critical for producing large ice particles. Fluctuations in temperature and moisture down to millimeter scales due to cloud turbulence can substantially affect the growth history of the individual cloud particles.
Jan Chylik, Dmitry Chechin, Regis Dupuy, Birte S. Kulla, Christof Lüpkes, Stephan Mertes, Mario Mech, and Roel A. J. Neggers
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4903–4929,Short summary
Arctic low-level clouds play an important role in the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Unfortunately, these clouds are not properly represented in weather forecast and climate models. This study tries to cover this gap by focusing on clouds over open water during the spring, observed by research aircraft near Svalbard. The study combines the high-resolution model with sets of observational data. The results show the importance of processes that involve both ice and the liquid water in the clouds.
Gillian Young McCusker, Jutta Vüllers, Peggy Achtert, Paul Field, Jonathan J. Day, Richard Forbes, Ruth Price, Ewan O'Connor, Michael Tjernström, John Prytherch, Ryan Neely III, and Ian M. Brooks
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4819–4847,Short summary
In this study, we show that recent versions of two atmospheric models – the Unified Model and Integrated Forecasting System – overestimate Arctic cloud fraction within the lower troposphere by comparison with recent remote-sensing measurements made during the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition. The overabundance of cloud is interlinked with the modelled thermodynamic structure, with strong negative temperature biases coincident with these overestimated cloud layers.
Leonie Villiger and Franziska Aemisegger
In this study, three numerical simulations performed with an isotope-enabled weather forecast model are used to investigate the cloud-circulation coupling between shallow trade-wind cumulus clouds and atmospheric circulations on different scales. It is shown that stable water isotopes near cloud base in the tropical reflect (1) the diel cycle of the atmospheric circulation which drives the formation and dissipation of clouds and (2) changes in the large-scale circulation over the North Atlantic.
Leonie Villiger, Marina Dütsch, Sandrine Bony, Marie Lothon, Stephan Pfahl, Heini Wernli, Pierre-Etienne Brilouet, Patrick Chazette, Pierre Coutris, Julien Delanoë, Cyrille Flamant, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Martin Werner, and Franziska Aemisegger
This study evaluates three numerical simulations performed with an isotope-enabled weather forecast model and investigates the coupling between shallow trade-wind cumulus clouds and atmospheric circulations on different scales. We show that the simulations reproduce key characteristics of shallow trade-wind clouds as observed during the field experiment EUREC4A and that the spatial distribution of stable water vapour isotopes is shaped by the overturning circulation associated with these clouds.
Matthew W. Christensen, Po-Lun Ma, Peng Wu, Adam C. Varble, Johannes Mülmenstädt, and Jerome D. Fast
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2789–2812,Short summary
An increase in aerosol concentration (tiny airborne particles) is shown to suppress rainfall and increase the abundance of droplets in clouds passing over Graciosa Island in the Azores. Cloud drops remain affected by aerosol for several days across thousands of kilometers in satellite data. Simulations from an Earth system model show good agreement, but differences in the amount of cloud water and its extent remain despite modifications to model parameters that control the warm-rain process.
Peter Spichtinger, Patrik Marschalik, and Manuel Baumgartner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 2035–2060,Short summary
We investigate the impact of the homogeneous nucleation rate on nucleation events in cirrus. As long as the slope of the rate is represented sufficiently well, the resulting ice crystal number concentrations are not crucially affected. Even a change in the prefactor over orders of magnitude does not change the results. However, the maximum supersaturation during nucleation events shows strong changes. This quantity should be used for diagnostics instead of the popular nucleation threshold.
Julia Thomas, Andrew Barrett, and Corinna Hoose
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1987–2002,Short summary
We study the sensitivity of rain formation processes during a heavy-rainfall event over mountains to changes in temperature and pollution. Total rainfall increases by 2 % K−1, and a 6 % K−1 increase is found at the highest altitudes, caused by a mixed-phase seeder–feeder mechanism (frozen cloud particles melt and grow further as they fall through a liquid cloud layer). In a cleaner atmosphere this process is enhanced. Thus the risk of severe rainfall in mountains may increase in the future.
Pramod Adhikari and John F. Mejia
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 1019–1042,Short summary
We used an atmospheric model to assess the impact of aerosols through radiation and cloud interaction on elevation-dependent precipitation and surface temperature over the central Himalayan region. Results showed contrasting altitudinal precipitation responses to the increased aerosol concentration, which can significantly impact the hydroclimate of the central Himalayas, increasing the risk for extreme events and influencing the regional supply of water resources.
Peter Kuma, Frida A.-M. Bender, Alex Schuddeboom, Adrian J. McDonald, and Øyvind Seland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 523–549,Short summary
We present a machine learning method for determining cloud types in climate model output and satellite observations based on ground observations of cloud genera. We analyse cloud type biases and changes with temperature in climate models and show that the bias is anticorrelated with climate sensitivity. Models simulating decreasing stratiform and increasing cumuliform clouds with increased CO2 concentration tend to have higher climate sensitivity than models simulating the opposite tendencies.
Chung-Chieh Wang, Ting-Yu Yeh, Chih-Sheng Chang, Ming-Siang Li, Kazuhisa Tsuboki, and Ching-Hwang Liu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 501–521,Short summary
The extreme rainfall event (645 mm in 24 h) at the northern coast of Taiwan on 2 June 2017 is studied using a cloud model. Two 1 km experiments with peak amounts of 541 and 400 mm are compared to isolate the reasons for such a difference. It is found that the frontal rainband remains fixed in location for a longer period in the former run due to a low disturbance that acts to focus the near-surface convergence. Therefore, the rainfall is more concentrated and there is a higher total amount.
Kevin Wolf, Nicolas Bellouin, and Olivier Boucher
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 287–309,Short summary
Recent studies estimate the radiative impact of contrails to be similar to or larger than that of emitted CO2; thus, contrail mitigation might be an opportunity to reduce the climate effects of aviation. A radiosonde data set is analyzed in terms of the vertical distribution of potential contrails, contrail mitigation by flight altitude changes, and linkages with the tropopause and jet stream. The effect of prospective jet engine developments and alternative fuels are estimated.
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 15767–15775,Short summary
Using idealized simulations we demonstrate that the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), i.e. the increase in surface temperature under equilibrium conditions due to doubling of the CO2 concentration, increases with the aerosol concentration. The ECS increase is explained by a faster increase in precipitation efficiency with warming under high aerosol concentrations, which more efficiently depletes the water from the cloud and thus is manifested as an increase in the cloud feedback parameter.
Sonya L. Fiddes, Alain Protat, Marc D. Mallet, Simon P. Alexander, and Matthew T. Woodhouse
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14603–14630,Short summary
Climate models have difficulty simulating Southern Ocean clouds, impacting how much sunlight reaches the surface. We use machine learning to group different cloud types observed from satellites and simulated in a climate model. We find the model does a poor job of simulating the same cloud type as what the satellite shows and, even when it does, the cloud properties and amount of reflected sunlight are incorrect. We have a lot of work to do to model clouds correctly over the Southern Ocean.
Prabhakar Shrestha, Jana Mendrok, and Dominik Brunner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14095–14117,Short summary
The study extends the Terrestrial Systems Modeling Platform with gas-phase chemistry aerosol dynamics and a radar forward operator to enable detailed studies of aerosol–cloud–precipitation interactions. This is demonstrated using a case study of a deep convective storm, which showed that the strong updraft in the convective core of the storm produced aerosol-tower-like features, which affected the size of the hydrometeors and the simulated polarimetric features (e.g., ZDR and KDP columns).
Jia He, Helene Brogniez, and Laurence Picon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12591–12606,Short summary
A 2003–2017 satellite-based atmospheric water vapour climate data record is used to assess climate models and reanalyses. The focus is on the tropical belt, whose regional variations in the hydrological cycle are related to the tropospheric overturning circulation. While there are similarities in the interannual variability, the major discrepancies can be explained by the presence of clouds, the representation of moisture fluxes at the surface and cloud processes in the models.
Silvia M. Calderón, Juha Tonttila, Angela Buchholz, Jorma Joutsensaari, Mika Komppula, Ari Leskinen, Liqing Hao, Dmitri Moisseev, Iida Pullinen, Petri Tiitta, Jian Xu, Annele Virtanen, Harri Kokkola, and Sami Romakkaniemi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12417–12441,Short summary
The spatial and temporal restrictions of observations and oversimplified aerosol representation in large eddy simulations (LES) limit our understanding of aerosol–stratocumulus interactions. In this closure study of in situ and remote sensing observations and outputs from UCLALES–SALSA, we have assessed the role of convective overturning and aerosol effects in two cloud events observed at the Puijo SMEAR IV station, Finland, a diurnal-high aerosol case and a nocturnal-low aerosol case.
Zhipeng Qu, Alexei Korolev, Jason A. Milbrandt, Ivan Heckman, Yongjie Huang, Greg M. McFarquhar, Hugh Morrison, Mengistu Wolde, and Cuong Nguyen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12287–12310,Short summary
Secondary ice production (SIP) is an important physical phenomenon that results in an increase in the cloud ice particle concentration and can have a significant impact on the evolution of clouds. Here, idealized simulations of a tropical convective system were conducted. Agreement between the simulations and observations highlights the impacts of SIP on the maintenance of tropical convection in nature and the importance of including the modelling of SIP in numerical weather prediction models.
Michael S. Diamond, Pablo E. Saide, Paquita Zuidema, Andrew S. Ackerman, Sarah J. Doherty, Ann M. Fridlind, Hamish Gordon, Calvin Howes, Jan Kazil, Takanobu Yamaguchi, Jianhao Zhang, Graham Feingold, and Robert Wood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12113–12151,Short summary
Smoke from southern Africa blankets the southeast Atlantic from June-October, overlying a major transition region between overcast and scattered clouds. The smoke affects Earth's radiation budget by absorbing sunlight and changing cloud properties. We investigate these effects in regional climate and large eddy simulation models based on international field campaigns. We find that large-scale circulation changes more strongly affect cloud transitions than smoke microphysical effects in our case.
Sachin Patade, Deepak Waman, Akash Deshmukh, Ashok Kumar Gupta, Arti Jadav, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, Aaron Bansemer, Jacob Carlin, and Alexander Ryzhkov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12055–12075,Short summary
This modeling study focuses on the role of multiple groups of primary biological aerosol particles as ice nuclei on cloud properties and precipitation. This was done by implementing a more realistic scheme for biological ice nucleating particles in the aerosol–cloud model. Results show that biological ice nucleating particles have a limited role in altering the ice phase and precipitation in deep convective clouds.
Micael Amore Cecchini, Marco de Bruine, Jordi Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, and Paulo Artaxo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11867–11888,Short summary
Shallow clouds (vertical extent up to 3 km height) are ubiquitous throughout the Amazon and are responsible for redistributing the solar heat and moisture vertically and horizontally. They are a key component of the water cycle because they can grow past the shallow phase to contribute significantly to the precipitation formation. However, they need favourable environmental conditions to grow. In this study, we analyse how changing wind patterns affect the development of such shallow clouds.
Colin Tully, David Neubauer, Nadja Omanovic, and Ulrike Lohmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11455–11484,Short summary
The proposed geoengineering method, cirrus cloud thinning, was evaluated using a more physically based microphysics scheme coupled to a more realistic approach for calculating ice cloud fractions in the ECHAM-HAM GCM. Sensitivity tests reveal that using the new ice cloud fraction approach and increasing the critical ice saturation ratio for ice nucleation on seeding particles reduces warming from overseeding. However, this geoengineering method is unlikely to be feasible on a global scale.
Christian Barthlott, Amirmahdi Zarboo, Takumi Matsunobu, and Christian Keil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10841–10860,Short summary
The relevance of microphysical and land-surface uncertainties for convective-scale predictability is evaluated with a combined-perturbation strategy in realistic convection-resolving simulations. We find a large ensemble spread which demonstrates that the uncertainties investigated here and, in particular, their collective effect are highly relevant for quantitative precipitation forecasting of summertime convection in central Europe.
J. Minnie Park and Susan C. van den Heever
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10527–10549,Short summary
This study explores how increased aerosol particles impact tropical sea breeze cloud systems under different environments and how a range of environments modulate these cloud responses. Overall, sea breeze flows and clouds that develop therein become weaker due to interactions between aerosols, sunlight, and land surface. In addition, surface rainfall also decreases with more aerosol particles. Weakening of cloud and rain with more aerosols is found irrespective of 130 different environments.
Michael John Weston, Stuart John Piketh, Frédéric Burnet, Stephen Broccardo, Cyrielle Denjean, Thierry Bourrianne, and Paola Formenti
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10221–10245,Short summary
An aerosol-aware microphysics scheme is evaluated for fog cases in Namibia. AEROCLO-sA campaign observations are used to access and parameterise the model. The model cloud condensation nuclei activation is lower than the observations. The scheme is designed for clouds with updrafts, while fog typically forms in stable conditions. A pseudo updraft speed assigned to the lowest model levels helps achieve more realistic cloud droplet number concentration and size distribution in the model.
Lucas J. Sterzinger, Joseph Sedlar, Heather Guy, Ryan R. Neely III, and Adele L. Igel
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8973–8988,Short summary
Aerosol particles are required for cloud droplets to form, and the Arctic atmosphere often has much fewer aerosols than at lower latitudes. In this study, we investigate whether aerosol concentrations can drop so low as to no longer support a cloud. We use observations to initialize idealized model simulations to investigate a worst-case scenario where all aerosol is removed from the environment instantaneously. We find that this mechanism is possible in two cases and is unlikely in the third.
Pooja Verma and Ulrike Burkhardt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8819–8842,Short summary
This paper investigates contrail ice formation within cirrus and the impact of natural cirrus on the contrail ice formation in the high-resolution ICON-LEM simulations over Germany. Contrail formation often leads to increases in cirrus ice crystal number concentration by a few orders of magnitude. Contrail formation is affected by pre-existing cirrus, leading to changes in contrail formation conditions and ice nucleation rates that can be significant in optically thick cirrus.
Mahnoosh Haghighatnasab, Jan Kretzschmar, Karoline Block, and Johannes Quaas
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8457–8472,Short summary
The impact of aerosols emitted by the Holuhraun volcanic eruption on liquid clouds was assessed from a pair of cloud-system-resolving simulations along with satellite retrievals. Inside and outside the plume were compared in terms of their statistical distributions. Analyses indicated enhancement for cloud droplet number concentration inside the volcano plume in model simulations and satellite retrievals, while there was on average a small effect on both liquid water path and cloud fraction.
Cheng You, Michael Tjernström, and Abhay Devasthale
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8037–8057,Short summary
In winter when solar radiation is absent in the Arctic, the poleward transport of heat and moisture into the high Arctic becomes the main contribution of Arctic warming. Over completely frozen ocean sectors, total surface energy budget is dominated by net long-wave heat, while over the Barents Sea, with an open ocean to the south, total net surface energy budget is dominated by the surface turbulent heat.
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We explore how well clouds are represented in numerical weather prediction over Antarctica, a very difficult environment for field programs where few studies have been conducted. Fortunately, a 2015–2017 field program for West Antarctica supplied observations. We achieve promising results with newer, more advanced cloud schemes. We need to understand the role of clouds and precipitation in the maintenance of the Antarctic ice mass to understand and predict sea level change over the 21st century.
We explore how well clouds are represented in numerical weather prediction over Antarctica, a...