Articles | Volume 18, issue 11
06 Jun 2018
Research article | 06 Jun 2018
The influence of 14CO2 releases from regional nuclear facilities at the Heidelberg 14CO2 sampling site (1986–2014)
Matthias Kuderer et al.
No articles found.
Fabian Maier, Christoph Gerbig, Ingeborg Levin, Ingrid Super, Julia Marshall, and Samuel Hammer
Geosci. Model Dev., 15, 5391–5406,Short summary
We show that the default representation of point source emissions in WRF–STILT leads to large overestimations when modelling fossil fuel CO2 concentrations for a 30 m high observation site during stable atmospheric conditions. We therefore introduce a novel point source modelling approach in WRF-STILT that takes into account their effective emission heights and results in a much better agreement with observations.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Samuel Hammer, Julian DellaColetta, Fabian Maier, and Maksym Gachkivskyi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17907–17926,Short summary
The radon tracer method is applied to atmospheric methane and radon observations from the upper Rhine valley to independently estimate methane emissions from the region. Comparison of our top-down results with bottom-up inventory data requires high-resolution footprint modelling and representative radon flux data. In agreement with inventories, observed emissions decreased, but only until 2005. A limitation of this method is that point-source emissions are not captured or not fully captured.
Ingeborg Levin, Ute Karstens, Markus Eritt, Fabian Maier, Sabrina Arnold, Daniel Rzesanke, Samuel Hammer, Michel Ramonet, Gabriela Vítková, Sebastien Conil, Michal Heliasz, Dagmar Kubistin, and Matthias Lindauer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 11161–11180,Short summary
Based on observations and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) footprint modelling, a sampling strategy has been developed for tall tower stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure atmospheric station network. This strategy allows independent quality control of in situ measurements, provides representative coverage of the influence area of the sites, and is capable of automated targeted sampling of fossil fuel CO2 emission hotspots.
Claudia Grossi, Scott D. Chambers, Olivier Llido, Felix R. Vogel, Victor Kazan, Alessandro Capuana, Sylvester Werczynski, Roger Curcoll, Marc Delmotte, Arturo Vargas, Josep-Anton Morguí, Ingeborg Levin, and Michel Ramonet
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 13, 2241–2255,Short summary
The sustainable support of radon metrology at the environmental level offers new scientific possibilities for the quantification of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the determination of their source terms as well as for the identification of radioactive sources for the assessment of radiation exposure. This study helps to harmonize the techniques commonly used for atmospheric radon and radon progeny activity concentration measurements.
David W. T. Griffith, Denis Pöhler, Stefan Schmitt, Samuel Hammer, Sanam N. Vardag, and Ulrich Platt
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1549–1563,Short summary
Measurements of atmospheric trace gases over an open path complement in situ measurements by spatial averaging. This paper describes the first open-path measurements of CO2, CH4 and other trace gases by near-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy. The measurements were made in Heidelberg, Germany, for 4 months in 2014 over a 1.5 km path and compared to in situ measurements made at one end of the path. The experiment setup and methods (and the comparisons of open path to in situ) are described.
Taku Umezawa, Carl A. M. Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina van der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W. C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 1207–1231,Short summary
Isotope measurements are useful for separating different methane sources. However, the lack of widely accepted standards and calibration methods for stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic ratios of methane in air has caused significant measurement offsets among laboratories. We conducted worldwide interlaboratory comparisons, surveyed the literature and assessed them systematically. This study may be of help in future attempts to harmonize data sets of isotopic composition of atmospheric methane.
Peter Bergamaschi, Ute Karstens, Alistair J. Manning, Marielle Saunois, Aki Tsuruta, Antoine Berchet, Alexander T. Vermeulen, Tim Arnold, Greet Janssens-Maenhout, Samuel Hammer, Ingeborg Levin, Martina Schmidt, Michel Ramonet, Morgan Lopez, Jost Lavric, Tuula Aalto, Huilin Chen, Dietrich G. Feist, Christoph Gerbig, László Haszpra, Ove Hermansen, Giovanni Manca, John Moncrieff, Frank Meinhardt, Jaroslaw Necki, Michal Galkowski, Simon O'Doherty, Nina Paramonova, Hubertus A. Scheeren, Martin Steinbacher, and Ed Dlugokencky
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 901–920,Short summary
European methane (CH4) emissions are estimated for 2006–2012 using atmospheric in situ measurements from 18 European monitoring stations and 7 different inverse models. Our analysis highlights the potential significant contribution of natural emissions from wetlands (including peatlands and wet soils) to the total European emissions. The top-down estimates of total EU-28 CH4 emissions are broadly consistent with the sum of reported anthropogenic CH4 emissions and the estimated natural emissions.
Heather Graven, Colin E. Allison, David M. Etheridge, Samuel Hammer, Ralph F. Keeling, Ingeborg Levin, Harro A. J. Meijer, Mauro Rubino, Pieter P. Tans, Cathy M. Trudinger, Bruce H. Vaughn, and James W. C. White
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 4405–4417,Short summary
Modelling of carbon isotopes 13C and 14C in land and ocean components of Earth system models provides opportunities for new insights and improved understanding of global carbon cycling, and for model evaluation. We compiled existing historical datasets to define the annual mean carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 for 1850–2015 that can be used in CMIP6 and other modelling activities.
Tesfaye A. Berhanu, Sönke Szidat, Dominik Brunner, Ece Satar, Rüdiger Schanda, Peter Nyfeler, Michael Battaglia, Martin Steinbacher, Samuel Hammer, and Markus Leuenberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10753–10766,Short summary
Fossil fuel CO2 is the major contributor of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere, and accurate quantification is essential to better understand the carbon cycle. Such accurate quantification can be conducted based on radiocarbon measurements. In this study, we present radiocarbon measurements from a tall tower site in Switzerland. From these measurements, we have observed seasonally varying fossil fuel CO2 contributions and a biospheric CO2 component that varies diurnally and seasonally.
James C. Orr, Raymond G. Najjar, Olivier Aumont, Laurent Bopp, John L. Bullister, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Scott C. Doney, John P. Dunne, Jean-Claude Dutay, Heather Graven, Stephen M. Griffies, Jasmin G. John, Fortunat Joos, Ingeborg Levin, Keith Lindsay, Richard J. Matear, Galen A. McKinley, Anne Mouchet, Andreas Oschlies, Anastasia Romanou, Reiner Schlitzer, Alessandro Tagliabue, Toste Tanhua, and Andrew Yool
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 2169–2199,Short summary
The Ocean Model Intercomparison Project (OMIP) is a model comparison effort under Phase 6 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6). Its physical component is described elsewhere in this special issue. Here we describe its ocean biogeochemical component (OMIP-BGC), detailing simulation protocols and analysis diagnostics. Simulations focus on ocean carbon, other biogeochemical tracers, air-sea exchange of CO2 and related gases, and chemical tracers used to evaluate modeled circulation.
Markella Prokopiou, Patricia Martinerie, Célia J. Sapart, Emmanuel Witrant, Guillaume Monteil, Kentaro Ishijima, Sophie Bernard, Jan Kaiser, Ingeborg Levin, Thomas Blunier, David Etheridge, Ed Dlugokencky, Roderik S. W. van de Wal, and Thomas Röckmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4539–4564,Short summary
Nitrous oxide is the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with an increasing mole fraction. To understand its natural and anthropogenic sources we employ isotope measurements. Results show that while the N2O mole fraction increases, its heavy isotope content decreases. The isotopic changes observed underline the dominance of agricultural emissions especially at the early part of the record, whereas in the later decades the contribution from other anthropogenic sources increases.
Ingeborg Levin, Dominik Schmithüsen, and Alex Vermeulen
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1313–1321,Short summary
222Radon is often used to parameterise atmospheric transport in the lower troposphere. It can be measured via its decay products, which are bound to aerosol. Air sampling through long tubing, which sometimes cannot be avoided at tall tower sites, may then cause severe aerosol and corresponding radon daughter activity loss. We have quantified this loss for 8.2 mm ID Decabon tubing used at European stations and provide a length-dependent correction function for this experimental setting.
Dominik Schmithüsen, Scott Chambers, Bernd Fischer, Stefan Gilge, Juha Hatakka, Victor Kazan, Rolf Neubert, Jussi Paatero, Michel Ramonet, Clemens Schlosser, Sabine Schmid, Alex Vermeulen, and Ingeborg Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 10, 1299–1312,Short summary
A European-wide 222radon/222radon progeny comparison study has been conducted at nine measurement stations in order to determine differences between existing 222radon instrumentation and atmospheric data sets, respectively. Mean differences up to 45 % were found between monitors. These differences need to be taken into account if the data shall serve for quantitative regional atmospheric transport model validation.
E. N. Koffi, P. Bergamaschi, U. Karstens, M. Krol, A. Segers, M. Schmidt, I. Levin, A. T. Vermeulen, R. E. Fisher, V. Kazan, H. Klein Baltink, D. Lowry, G. Manca, H. A. J. Meijer, J. Moncrieff, S. Pal, M. Ramonet, H. A. Scheeren, and A. G. Williams
Geosci. Model Dev., 9, 3137–3160,Short summary
We evaluate the capability of the TM5 model to reproduce observations of the boundary layer dynamics and the associated variability of trace gases close to the surface, using 222Rn. Focusing on the European scale, we compare the TM5 boundary layer heights with observations from radiosondes, lidar, and ceilometer. Furthermore, we compare TM5 simulations of 222Rn activity concentrations, using a novel, process-based 222Rn flux map over Europe, with 222Rn harmonized measurements from 10 stations.
Sanam Noreen Vardag, Samuel Hammer, and Ingeborg Levin
Biogeosciences, 13, 4237–4251,Short summary
Using a synthetic dataset, we show how to best determine the mean source signature, δS, at high temporal resolution using continuous CO2 and δ13C(CO2) data. We apply this method to measured data from Heidelberg and find a distinct seasonal cycle of δS. Disentangling this record into its source components requires the isotopic end members of CO2 from the biosphere and those from the fuel mix. They can be estimated from the δS record, but only when their relative share is close to 100 %.
A. Laeng, J. Plieninger, T. von Clarmann, U. Grabowski, G. Stiller, E. Eckert, N. Glatthor, F. Haenel, S. Kellmann, M. Kiefer, A. Linden, S. Lossow, L. Deaver, A. Engel, M. Hervig, I. Levin, M. McHugh, S. Noël, G. Toon, and K. Walker
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 5251–5261,
U. Karstens, C. Schwingshackl, D. Schmithüsen, and I. Levin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12845–12865,Short summary
Detailed 222Rn flux maps are a prerequisite for the use of radon in atmospheric transport studies. We present a high-resolution 222Rn flux map for Europe, based on a parameterization of 222Rn production and transport in the soil. Spatial variations in 222Rn exhalation rates are determined by soil uranium content, water table depth and soil texture. Temporal variations are related to soil moisture variations as the diffusion in the soil depends on available air-filled pore space.
S. N. Vardag, C. Gerbig, G. Janssens-Maenhout, and I. Levin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 12705–12729,Short summary
In this model sensitivity study we compare and evaluate the surrogate tracers CO2, CO, δ13C-CO2 and Δ14C-CO2 for estimating continuous anthropogenic CO2. The results can be used to optimize the measurement network design with respect to the partitioning of total CO2 into biospheric and anthropogenic CO2 contributions. This enables improvement and validation of highly resolved emission inventories using atmospheric observation and regional modeling.
S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, M. Sabasch, D. W. T. Griffith, and I. Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 8, 579–592,
C. Elsässer, D. Wagenbach, I. Levin, A. Stanzick, M. Christl, A. Wallner, S. Kipfstuhl, I. K. Seierstad, H. Wershofen, and J. Dibb
Clim. Past, 11, 115–133,
S. N. Vardag, S. Hammer, S. O'Doherty, T. G. Spain, B. Wastine, A. Jordan, and I. Levin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8403–8418,
R. Weller, I. Levin, D. Schmithüsen, M. Nachbar, J. Asseng, and D. Wagenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3843–3853,
B. D. Hall, A. Engel, J. Mühle, J. W. Elkins, F. Artuso, E. Atlas, M. Aydin, D. Blake, E.-G. Brunke, S. Chiavarini, P. J. Fraser, J. Happell, P. B. Krummel, I. Levin, M. Loewenstein, M. Maione, S. A. Montzka, S. O'Doherty, S. Reimann, G. Rhoderick, E. S. Saltzman, H. E. Scheel, L. P. Steele, M. K. Vollmer, R. F. Weiss, D. Worthy, and Y. Yokouchi
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 7, 469–490,
V. V. Petrenko, P. Martinerie, P. Novelli, D. M. Etheridge, I. Levin, Z. Wang, T. Blunier, J. Chappellaz, J. Kaiser, P. Lang, L. P. Steele, S. Hammer, J. Mak, R. L. Langenfelds, J. Schwander, J. P. Severinghaus, E. Witrant, G. Petron, M. O. Battle, G. Forster, W. T. Sturges, J.-F. Lamarque, K. Steffen, and J. W. C. White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7567–7585,
S. Hammer, G. Konrad, A. T. Vermeulen, O. Laurent, M. Delmotte, A. Jordan, L. Hazan, S. Conil, and I. Levin
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 6, 1201–1216,
Related subject area
Subject: Isotopes | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Stable water isotope signals in tropical ice clouds in the West African monsoon simulated with a regional convection-permitting modelDisentangling the impact of air-sea interaction and boundary layer cloud formation on stable water isotope signals in the warm sector of a Southern Ocean cycloneDisentangling different moisture transport pathways over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic using multi-platform isotope observations and high-resolution numerical modellingFirewood residential heating – local versus remote influence on the aerosol burdenControls on the water vapor isotopic composition near the surface of tropical oceans and role of boundary layer mixing processesKinetic mass-transfer calculation of water isotope fractionation due to cloud microphysics in a regional meteorological modelLagrangian process attribution of isotopic variations in near-surface water vapour in a 30-year regional climate simulation over EuropeHow does sea ice influence δ18O of Arctic precipitation?Separation of biospheric and fossil fuel fluxes of CO2 by atmospheric inversion of CO2 and 14CO2 measurements: Observation System SimulationsTo what extent could water isotopic measurements help us understand model biases in the water cycle over Western SiberiaSimulating the integrated summertime Δ14CO2 signature from anthropogenic emissions over Western EuropeVariations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 yearsXenon-133 and caesium-137 releases into the atmosphere from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant: determination of the source term, atmospheric dispersion, and depositionThe isotopic composition of precipitation from a winter storm – a case study with the limited-area model COSMOisoTheory of isotopic fractionation on facetted ice crystalsRadon activity in the lower troposphere and its impact on ionization rate: a global estimate using different radon emissions
Andries Jan de Vries, Franziska Aemisegger, Stephan Pfahl, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8863–8895,Short summary
The Earth's water cycle contains the common H2O molecule but also the less abundant, heavier HDO. We use their different physical properties to study tropical ice clouds in model simulations of the West African monsoon. Isotope signals reveal different processes through which ice clouds form and decay in deep-convective and widespread cirrus. Previously observed variations in upper-tropospheric vapour isotopes are explained by microphysical processes in convective updraughts and downdraughts.
Iris Thurnherr and Franziska Aemisegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Stable water isotopes in marine boundary layer vapour are strongly influenced by the strength of air-sea fluxes. Here, we investigate a distinct vapour isotope signal observed in the warm sector of Southern Ocean cyclones. Single-process air parcel models are used together with high resolution isotope-enabled simulations with the weather prediction model COSMOiso to improve our understanding of the importance of air-sea fluxes for the moisture cycling in the context of extratropical cyclones.
Fabienne Dahinden, Franziska Aemisegger, Heini Wernli, Matthias Schneider, Christopher J. Diekmann, Benjamin Ertl, Peter Knippertz, Martin Werner, and Stephan Pfahl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16319–16347,Short summary
We use high-resolution numerical isotope modelling and Lagrangian backward trajectories to identify moisture transport pathways and governing physical and dynamical processes that affect the free-tropospheric humidity and isotopic variability over the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Furthermore, we conduct a thorough isotope modelling validation with aircraft and remote-sensing observations of water vapour isotopes.
Clara Betancourt, Christoph Küppers, Tammarat Piansawan, Uta Sager, Andrea B. Hoyer, Heinz Kaminski, Gerhard Rapp, Astrid C. John, Miriam Küpper, Ulrich Quass, Thomas Kuhlbusch, Jochen Rudolph, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, and Iulia Gensch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5953–5964,Short summary
For the first time, we included stable isotopes in the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART to investigate firewood home heating aerosol. This is an innovative source apportionment methodology since comparison of stable isotope ratio model predictions with observations delivers quantitative understanding of atmospheric processes. The main outcome of this study is that the home heating aerosol in residential areas was not of remote origin.
Camille Risi, Joseph Galewsky, Gilles Reverdin, and Florent Brient
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12235–12260,Short summary
Water molecules can be light (one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms) or heavy (one hydrogen atom is replaced by a deuterium atom). These different molecules are called water isotopes. The isotopic composition of water vapor can potentially provide information about physical processes along the water cycle, but the factors controlling it are complex. As a first step, we propose an equation to predict the water vapor isotopic composition near the surface of tropical oceans.
I-Chun Tsai, Wan-Yu Chen, Jen-Ping Chen, and Mao-Chang Liang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 1753–1766,Short summary
In conventional models, isotope exchange between liquid and gas phases is usually assumed to be in equilibrium, and the highly kinetic phase transformation processes inferred in clouds are yet to be fully investigated. We show that different factors controlling isotopic composition, including water vapor sources, atmospheric transport, phase transition pathways of water in clouds, and kinetic-versus-equilibrium mass transfer, contributed significantly to the variations in isotope composition.
Marina Dütsch, Stephan Pfahl, Miro Meyer, and Heini Wernli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 1653–1669,Short summary
Atmospheric processes are imprinted in the concentrations of stable water isotopes. Therefore, isotopes can be used to gain insight into these processes and improve our understanding of the water cycle. In this study, we present a new method that quantitatively shows which atmospheric processes influence isotope concentrations in near-surface water vapour over Europe. We found that the most important processes are evaporation from the ocean, evapotranspiration from land, and turbulent mixing.
Anne-Katrine Faber, Bo Møllesøe Vinther, Jesper Sjolte, and Rasmus Anker Pedersen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5865–5876,Short summary
The recent decades loss of Arctic sea ice provide an interesting opportunity to study the impact of sea ice changes on the isotopic composition of Arctic precipitation. Using a climate model that can simulate water isotopes, we find that reduced sea ice extent yields more enriched isotope values while increased sea ice extent yields more depleted isotope values. Results also show that the spatial distribution of the sea ice extent are important.
Sourish Basu, John Bharat Miller, and Scott Lehman
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5665–5683,Short summary
We present a dual tracer atmospheric inversion technique to separately estimate biospheric and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes from atmospheric measurements of CO2 and 14CO2. In addition to estimating monthly regional fossil fuel fluxes of CO2, this system can also reduce biases in biospheric fluxes that arise in a traditional CO2 inversion from prescribing a fixed but inaccurate fossil fuel flux.
V. Gryazin, C. Risi, J. Jouzel, N. Kurita, J. Worden, C. Frankenberg, V. Bastrikov, K. Gribanov, and O. Stukova
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9807–9830,
D. Bozhinova, M. K. van der Molen, I. R. van der Velde, M. C. Krol, S. van der Laan, H. A. J. Meijer, and W. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7273–7290,
M. Butzin, M. Werner, V. Masson-Delmotte, C. Risi, C. Frankenberg, K. Gribanov, J. Jouzel, and V. I. Zakharov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 5853–5869,
A. Stohl, P. Seibert, G. Wotawa, D. Arnold, J. F. Burkhart, S. Eckhardt, C. Tapia, A. Vargas, and T. J. Yasunari
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 2313–2343,
S. Pfahl, H. Wernli, and K. Yoshimura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1629–1648,
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 11351–11360,
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Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7817–7838,
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Atmospheric 14CO2 measurements allow for estimating the regional fossil fuel CO2 component. However, results potentially need to be corrected for 14CO2 contamination from near-by nuclear facilities (NF). Our dispersion estimates of corresponding contaminations for Heidelberg, based on differently resolved wind fields, show differences of up to a factor of 2. Estimates from highly resolved models coupled with temporally resolved 14CO2 emissions from NFs are required for more accurate results.
Atmospheric 14CO2 measurements allow for estimating the regional fossil fuel CO2 component....