Articles | Volume 17, issue 10
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6291–6303, 2017
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6291–6303, 2017
Research article
23 May 2017
Research article | 23 May 2017

Evaporating brine from frost flowers with electron microscopy and implications for atmospheric chemistry and sea-salt aerosol formation

Xin Yang et al.

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Cited articles

Abbatt, J. P. D., Thomas, J. L., Abrahamsson, K., Boxe, C., Granfors, A., Jones, A. E., King, M. D., Saiz-Lopez, A., Shepson, P. B., Sodeau, J., Toohey, D. W., Toubin, C., von Glasow, R., Wren, S. N., and Yang, X.: Halogen activation via interactions with environmental ice and snow in the polar lower troposphere and other regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6237–6271,, 2012.
Abram, N. J., Wolff, E. W., and Curran, M. A. J.: A review of sea ice proxy information from polar ice cores, Quaternary Sci. Rev., 79, 168–183,, 2013.
Archer, D. G., and Carter, R. W.: Thermodynamic Properties of the NaCl + H2O System. 4. Heat Capacities of H2O and NaCl(aq) in Cold-Stable and Supercooled States, J. Phys. Chem. B, 104, 8563–8584,, 2000.
Barber, D. G., Ehn, J. K., Pucko, M., Rysgaard, S., Deming, J. W., Bowman, J. S., Papakyriakou, T., Galley, R. J., and Sogaard, D. H.: Frost flowers on young Arctic sea ice: The climatic, chemical, and microbial significance of an emerging ice type, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 119, 11593–11612,, 2014.
Short summary
A unique environmental electron microscope was used for monitoring the evaporation of salty frost flowers. We observe a cohesive villous brine surface layer facilitating the formation of NaCl microcrystals at temperatures below −10°C as the brine oversaturation is achieved. This finding confirms the increased surface area and thus also the enhanced heterogeneous reactivity; however, no support for the easiness of fragmentation to produce aerosols can be provided.
Final-revised paper