Articles | Volume 17, issue 9
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5643–5664, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article 04 May 2017
Research article | 04 May 2017
Source-sector contributions to European ozone and fine PM in 2010 using AQMEII modeling data
Prakash Karamchandani et al.
T. Glotfelty, Y. Zhang, P. Karamchandani, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9379–9402,
Ling Huang, Yonghui Zhu, Hehe Zhai, Shuhui Xue, Tianyi Zhu, Yun Shao, Ziyi Liu, Chris Emery, Greg Yarwood, Yangjun Wang, Joshua Fu, Kun Zhang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2725–2743,Short summary
Numerical air quality models (AQMs) are being applied extensively to address diverse scientific and regulatory compliance associated with deteriorating air quality in China. For any AQM applications, model performance evaluation is a critical step that guarantees the robustness and reliability of the baseline modeling results and subsequent applications. We provided benchmarks for model performance evaluation of AQM applications in China to demonstrate model robustness.
Claudio A. Belis, Guido Pirovano, Maria Gabriella Villani, Giuseppe Calori, Nicola Pepe, and Jean Philippe Putaud
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for GMDShort summary
The study presents an in-depth analysis of the implications that using different CTM source apportionment approaches (tagged species and brute force) have on the source allocation of secondary inorganic aerosol, an important component of PM10 and PM2.5. A set of runs combining different emissions levels and models were carried out aiming to describe the situations in which strong non-linearity may lead the two approaches to deliver different results and when they are expected to be comparable.
Ling Huang, Jingyu An, Bonyoung Koo, Greg Yarwood, Rusha Yan, Yangjun Wang, Cheng Huang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 14311–14328,Short summary
Severe haze events characterized by extremely high concentrations of particulate matter occurred frequently in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, China. Rapid sulfate production during these severe haze episodes was observed via atmospheric measurements but air quality models tend to underestimated sulfate. Our study suggests that the SO2+NO2 heterogeneous reactions could be potentially important for sulfate formation in the YRD region and ammonia emissions need to be carefully estimated.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Rocío Baró, Alessandra Balzarini, Roberto Bianconi, Gabriele Curci, Tony Christian Landi, Guido Pirovano, Marje Prank, Angelo Riccio, Paolo Tuccella, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 2965–2990,Short summary
The main uncertainties regarding the estimation of changes in the Earth’s energy budget are related to the role of atmospheric aerosols. Our study evaluates the representation of aerosol optical properties by different atmospheric chemistry models against remote-sensing observations in order to reduce this uncertainty. Results show that the representation of aerosol optical properties is strongly dependent on the used model.
Peng Liu, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Jesper H. Christensen, Johannes Bieser, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Greg Yarwood, Rohit Mathur, Shawn Roselle, and Tanya Spero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 17157–17175,Short summary
This study represents an intercomparison of four regional-scale air quality simulations in order to understand the model similarities and differences in estimating the impact of ozone imported from outside of the US on the surface ozone within the US at process level. Vertical turbulent mixing stands out as a primary contributor to the model differences in inert tracers.
Ulas Im, Jesper Heile Christensen, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jørgen Brandt, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Peng Liu, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta G. Vivanco, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8929–8952,Short summary
We evaluate the impact of global and regional anthropogenic emission reductions on major air pollutant levels over Europe and North America, using a multi-model ensemble of regional chemistry and transport models. Results show that ozone levels are largely driven by long-range transport over both continents while other pollutants such as carbon monoxide or aerosols are mainly controlled by domestic sources. Use of multi-model ensembles can help to reduce the uncertainties in individual models.
Stefano Galmarini, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Efisio Solazzo, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Roberto Bellasio, Anna M. K. Benedictow, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Joergen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Yanko Davila, Xinyi Dong, Johannes Flemming, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Joshua Fu, Daven K. Henze, Christian Hogrefe, Ulas Im, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Jan Eiof Jonson, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Astrid Manders, Rohit Mathur, Laura Palacios-Peña, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marie Prank, Martin Schultz, Rajeet S. Sokhi, Kengo Sudo, Paolo Tuccella, Toshihiko Takemura, Takashi Sekiya, and Alper Unal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 8727–8744,Short summary
An ensemble of model results relating to ozone concentrations in Europe in 2010 has been produced and studied. The novelty consists in the fact that the ensemble is made of results of models working at two different scales (regional and global), therefore contributing in detail two different parts of the atmospheric spectrum. The ensemble defined as a hybrid has been studied in detail and shown to bring additional value to the assessment of air quality.
Ulas Im, Jørgen Brandt, Camilla Geels, Kaj Mantzius Hansen, Jesper Heile Christensen, Mikael Skou Andersen, Efisio Solazzo, Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocio Baro, Roberto Bellasio, Roberto Bianconi, Johannes Bieser, Augustin Colette, Gabriele Curci, Aidan Farrow, Johannes Flemming, Andrea Fraser, Pedro Jimenez-Guerrero, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Ciao-Kai Liang, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Rebecca Rose, Ranjeet Sokhi, Paolo Tuccella, Alper Unal, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Jason West, Greg Yarwood, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5967–5989,Short summary
The impacts of air pollution on human health and their costs in Europe and the United States for the year 2010 ared modeled by a multi-model ensemble. In Europe, the number of premature deaths is calculated to be 414 000, while in the US it is estimated to be 160 000. Health impacts estimated by individual models can vary up to a factor of 3. Results show that the domestic emissions have the largest impact on premature deaths, compared to foreign sources.
Laura Palacios-Peña, Rocío Baró, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, José María López-Romero, Juan Pedro Montávez, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5021–5043,Short summary
Atmospheric aerosols modify the radiative budget of the Earth, and it is therefore mandatory to have an accurate representation of their optical properties for understanding their climatic role. This work therefore evaluates the skill in the representation of optical properties by different remote-sensing sensors and regional online coupled chemistry–climate models over Europe.
Alan M. Dunker, Bonyoung Koo, and Greg Yarwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12553–12571,Short summary
Using global and regional models, we determined the anthropogenic increment to ozone (base-case simulation minus a background simulation with only natural emissions) for the US and allocated the increment to anthropogenic emissions inside and outside the US. For the larger ozone concentrations in the base case, the relative importance of the sources is generally US emissions > anthropogenic lateral boundary concentrations (BCs) > Canadian/Mexican emissions ≫ anthropogenic top BCs.
Uarporn Nopmongcol, Zhen Liu, Till Stoeckenius, and Greg Yarwood
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9931–9943,Short summary
The CAMx regional model was used to examine contribution of intercontinental transport over North America as part of AQMEII Phase III. Largest boundary condition (BC) contributions to ozone (O3) are from the mid-troposphere. Lower emissions in Asia by 20 % causes a near-linear relationship between the BC O3 changes and surface O3 changes in the western US, but the changes are less than 1 ppb. Using inert tracers leads to high bias over 10 ppb compared to using chemically reactive tracers.
Rocío Baró, Laura Palacios-Peña, Alexander Baklanov, Alessandra Balzarini, Dominik Brunner, Renate Forkel, Marcus Hirtl, Luka Honzak, Juan Luis Pérez, Guido Pirovano, Roberto San José, Wolfram Schröder, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Rahela Žabkar, and Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9677–9696,Short summary
The influence on modeled max., mean and min. temperature over Europe of including aerosol–radiation–cloud interactions has been assessed for two case studies in 2010. Data were taken from an ensemble of online regional chemistry–climate models from EuMetChem COST Action. The results indicate that including these interactions clearly improves the spatiotemporal variability in the temperature signal simulated by the models, with implications for reducing the uncertainty in climate projections.
Camille Mouchel-Vallon, Laurent Deguillaume, Anne Monod, Hélène Perroux, Clémence Rose, Giovanni Ghigo, Yoann Long, Maud Leriche, Bernard Aumont, Luc Patryl, Patrick Armand, and Nadine Chaumerliac
Geosci. Model Dev., 10, 1339–1362,Short summary
The Cloud Explicit Physico-chemical Scheme (CLEPS 1.0) describes oxidation of water-soluble organic compounds resulting from isoprene oxidation. It is based on structure activity relationships (SARs) (global rate constants and branching ratios for HO• abstraction and addition) and GROMHE SAR (Henry's law constants for undocumented species). It is coupled to the MCM gas phase mechanism and is included in a model using the DSMACC model and KPP to analyze experimental and field data.
Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Christian Hogrefe, Gabriele Curci, Paolo Tuccella, Ummugulsum Alyuz, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Johannes Bieser, Jørgen Brandt, Jesper H. Christensen, Augistin Colette, Xavier Francis, Andrea Fraser, Marta Garcia Vivanco, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Ulas Im, Astrid Manders, Uarporn Nopmongcol, Nutthida Kitwiroon, Guido Pirovano, Luca Pozzoli, Marje Prank, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Alper Unal, Greg Yarwood, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 3001–3054,Short summary
As part of the third phase of AQMEII, this study uses timescale analysis to apportion error to the responsible processes, detect causes of model error, and identify the processes and scales that require dedicated investigations. The analysis tackles model performance gauging through measurement-to-model comparison, error decomposition, and time series analysis of model biases for ozone, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, wind speed, and temperature over Europe and North America.
Ioannis Kioutsioukis, Ulas Im, Efisio Solazzo, Roberto Bianconi, Alba Badia, Alessandra Balzarini, Rocío Baró, Roberto Bellasio, Dominik Brunner, Charles Chemel, Gabriele Curci, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Johannes Flemming, Renate Forkel, Lea Giordano, Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero, Marcus Hirtl, Oriol Jorba, Astrid Manders-Groot, Lucy Neal, Juan L. Pérez, Guidio Pirovano, Roberto San Jose, Nicholas Savage, Wolfram Schroder, Ranjeet S. Sokhi, Dimiter Syrakov, Paolo Tuccella, Johannes Werhahn, Ralf Wolke, Christian Hogrefe, and Stefano Galmarini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 15629–15652,Short summary
Four ensemble methods are applied to two annual AQMEII datasets and their performance is compared for O3, NO2 and PM10. The goal of the study is to quantify to what extent we can extract predictable signals from an ensemble with superior skill at each station over the single models and the ensemble mean. The promotion of the right amount of accuracy and diversity within the ensemble results in an average additional skill of up to 31 % compared to using the full ensemble in an unconditional way.
Bertrand Bessagnet, Guido Pirovano, Mihaela Mircea, Cornelius Cuvelier, Armin Aulinger, Giuseppe Calori, Giancarlo Ciarelli, Astrid Manders, Rainer Stern, Svetlana Tsyro, Marta García Vivanco, Philippe Thunis, Maria-Teresa Pay, Augustin Colette, Florian Couvidat, Frédérik Meleux, Laurence Rouïl, Anthony Ung, Sebnem Aksoyoglu, José María Baldasano, Johannes Bieser, Gino Briganti, Andrea Cappelletti, Massimo D'Isidoro, Sandro Finardi, Richard Kranenburg, Camillo Silibello, Claudio Carnevale, Wenche Aas, Jean-Charles Dupont, Hilde Fagerli, Lucia Gonzalez, Laurent Menut, André S. H. Prévôt, Pete Roberts, and Les White
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12667–12701,Short summary
The EURODELTA III exercise allows a very comprehensive intercomparison and evaluation of air quality models' performance. On average, the models provide a rather good picture of the particulate matter (PM) concentrations over Europe even if the highest concentrations are underestimated. The meteorology is responsible for model discrepancies, while the lack of emissions, particularly in winter, is mentioned as the main reason for the underestimations of PM.
E. Terrenoire, B. Bessagnet, L. Rouïl, F. Tognet, G. Pirovano, L. Létinois, M. Beauchamp, A. Colette, P. Thunis, M. Amann, and L. Menut
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 21–42,Short summary
The model reproduces the temporal variability of NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5 better at rural than urban background stations. The fractional biases show that the model performs slightly better at RB sites than at UB sites for NO2, O3 and PM10. At UB sites, CHIMERE reproduces PM2.5 better than PM10. This is primarily the result of an underestimation of coarse particulate matter (PM) associated with uncertainties on SOA chemistry and their precursor emissions, dust and sea salt.
A. Balzarini, F. Angelini, L. Ferrero, M. Moscatelli, M. G. Perrone, G. Pirovano, G. M. Riva, G. Sangiorgi, A. M. Toppetti, G. P. Gobbi, and E. Bolzacchini
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript has not been submitted
T. Glotfelty, Y. Zhang, P. Karamchandani, and D. G. Streets
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9379–9402,
G. Yarwood, C. Emery, J. Jung, U. Nopmongcol, and T. Sakulyanontvittaya
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1601–1608,
E. Solazzo, R. Bianconi, G. Pirovano, M. D. Moran, R. Vautard, C. Hogrefe, K. W. Appel, V. Matthias, P. Grossi, B. Bessagnet, J. Brandt, C. Chemel, J. H. Christensen, R. Forkel, X. V. Francis, A. B. Hansen, S. McKeen, U. Nopmongcol, M. Prank, K. N. Sartelet, A. Segers, J. D. Silver, G. Yarwood, J. Werhahn, J. Zhang, S. T. Rao, and S. Galmarini
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 791–818,
Related subject area
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emissions on ozone and PM2.5 in East Asia during summer: the important role of HONO and ClNO2Modelling the impacts of iodine chemistry on the northern Indian Ocean marine boundary layerTime-dependent 3D simulations of tropospheric ozone depletion events in the Arctic spring using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem)Assessing and improving cloud-height-based parameterisations of global lightning flash rate, and their impact on lightning-produced NOx and tropospheric composition in a chemistry–climate modelImpact of regional Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions on local and remote tropospheric oxidantsImpact of organic molecular structure on the estimation of atmospherically relevant physicochemical parametersSpatial and temporal variability in the hydroxyl (OH) radical: understanding the role of large-scale climate features and their influence on OH through its dynamical and photochemical driversAnalysis of 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2003–2010Pan-Arctic surface ozone: modelling vs. measurements
Peng Wang, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Shida Sun, Yanli Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10347–10356,Short summary
Ozone (O3) pollution has received extensive attention due to worsening air quality and rising health risks. The Chinese National Day holiday (CNDH), which is associated with intensive commercial and tourist activities, serves as a valuable experiment to evaluate the O3 response during the holiday. We find sharply increasing trends of observed O3 concentrations throughout China during the CNDH, leading to 33 % additional total daily deaths.
Johannes G. M. Barten, Laurens N. Ganzeveld, Gert-Jan Steeneveld, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10229–10248,Short summary
We present an evaluation of ocean and snow/ice O3 deposition in explaining observed hourly surface O3 at 25 pan-Arctic sites using an atmospheric meteorology/chemistry model. The model includes a mechanistic representation of ocean O3 deposition as a function of ocean biogeochemical and mixing conditions. The mechanistic representation agrees better with O3 observations in terms of magnitude and temporal variability especially in the High Arctic (> 70° N).
Simon Rosanka, Rolf Sander, Bruno Franco, Catherine Wespes, Andreas Wahner, and Domenico Taraborrelli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9909–9930,Short summary
In-cloud destruction of ozone depends on hydroperoxyl radicals in cloud droplets, where they are produced by oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC) oxygenation. Only rudimentary representations of these processes, if any, are currently available in global atmospheric models. By using a comprehensive atmospheric model that includes a complex in-cloud OVOC oxidation scheme, we show that atmospheric oxidants are reduced and models ignoring this process will underpredict clouds as ozone sinks.
Brad Weir, Lesley E. Ott, George J. Collatz, Stephan R. Kawa, Benjamin Poulter, Abhishek Chatterjee, Tomohiro Oda, and Steven Pawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9609–9628,Short summary
We present a collection of carbon surface fluxes, the Low-order Flux Inversion (LoFI), derived from satellite observations of the Earth's surface and calibrated to match long-term inventories and atmospheric and oceanic records. Simulations using LoFI reproduce background atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements with comparable skill to the leading surface flux products. Available both retrospectively and as a forecast, LoFI enables the study of the carbon cycle as it occurs.
Ilya Stanevich, Dylan B. A. Jones, Kimberly Strong, Martin Keller, Daven K. Henze, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Debra Wunch, Justus Notholt, Christof Petri, Thorsten Warneke, Ralf Sussmann, Matthias Schneider, Frank Hase, Rigel Kivi, Nicholas M. Deutscher, Voltaire A. Velazco, Kaley A. Walker, and Feng Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9545–9572,Short summary
We explore the utility of a weak-constraint (WC) four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation scheme for mitigating systematic errors in methane simulation in the GEOS-Chem model. We use data from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) and show that, compared to the traditional 4D-Var approach, the WC scheme improves the agreement between the model and independent observations. We find that the WC corrections to the model provide insight into the source of the errors.
Yosuke Niwa, Yousuke Sawa, Hideki Nara, Toshinobu Machida, Hidekazu Matsueda, Taku Umezawa, Akihiko Ito, Shin-Ichiro Nakaoka, Hiroshi Tanimoto, and Yasunori Tohjima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9455–9473,Short summary
Fires in Equatorial Asia release a large amount of carbon into the atmosphere. Extensively using high-precision atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) data from a commercial aircraft observation project, we estimated fire carbon emissions in Equatorial Asia induced by the big El Niño event in 2015. Additional shipboard measurement data elucidated the validity of the analysis and the best estimate indicated 273 Tg C for fire emissions during September–October 2015.
Christine Frömming, Volker Grewe, Sabine Brinkop, Patrick Jöckel, Amund S. Haslerud, Simon Rosanka, Jesper van Manen, and Sigrun Matthes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9151–9172,Short summary
The influence of weather situations on non-CO2 aviation climate impact is investigated to identify systematic weather-related sensitivities. If aircraft avoid the most sensitive areas, climate impact might be reduced. Enhanced significance is found for emission in relation to high-pressure systems, jet stream, polar night, and tropopause altitude. The results represent a comprehensive data set for studies aiming at weather-dependent flight trajectory optimization to reduce total climate impact.
Jianing Dai and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8747–8759,Short summary
We used the WRF–Chem model with the latest HONO and ClNO2 processes to investigate their effects on the concentrations of ROx radicals, O3, and PM2.5 in Asia during summer. The results show that the ship-derived HONO and ClNO2 increased the ROx radical concentration by 2–3 times and subsequently increased the O3 and PM2.5 concentrations in marine areas. These findings indicate the importance of these nitrogen processes in the evaluation of the impact of ship emissions on air quality.
Anoop S. Mahajan, Qinyi Li, Swaleha Inamdar, Kirpa Ram, Alba Badia, and Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8437–8454,Short summary
Using a regional model, we show that iodine-catalysed reactions cause large regional changes in the chemical composition in the northern Indian Ocean, with peak changes of up to 25 % in O3, 50 % in nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), 15 % in hydroxyl radicals (OH), 25 % in hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2), and up to a 50 % change in the nitrate radical (NO3). These results show the importance of including iodine chemistry in modelling the atmosphere in this region.
Maximilian Herrmann, Holger Sihler, Udo Frieß, Thomas Wagner, Ulrich Platt, and Eva Gutheil
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7611–7638,Short summary
Time-dependent 3D numerical simulations of tropospheric bromine release and ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic polar spring of 2009 are compared to observations. Simulation results agree well with the observations at both Utqiaġvik, Alaska, and at Summit, Greenland. In a parameter study, different settings for the bromine release mechanism are evaluated. An enhancement of the bromine release mechanism improves the agreement regarding the occurrence of ODEs with the observations.
Ashok K. Luhar, Ian E. Galbally, Matthew T. Woodhouse, and Nathan Luke Abraham
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7053–7082,Short summary
Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) greatly influence tropospheric photochemistry. The most common parameterisation of lightning flash rate used to calculate LNOx in global composition models underestimates measurements over the ocean by a factor of 20–25. We formulate and validate an alternative parameterisation to remedy this problem. The new scheme causes an increase in the ozone burden by 8.5 % and the hydroxyl radical by 13 %, and these have implications for climate and air quality.
Daniel M. Westervelt, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, and Gustavo Correa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6799–6810,Short summary
Particulate air pollution in the atmosphere can impact the availability of gas-phase chemical constituents, which can then have feedbacks on gas-phase air pollutants. We use a chemistry–climate computer model to simulate the impact of particulate pollution from three major world regions on gas-phase chemical constituents. We find that surface-level ozone air pollution decreases by up to 5 ppbv over China in response to Chinese particulate air pollution, which has implications for policy.
Gabriel Isaacman-VanWertz and Bernard Aumont
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6541–6563,Short summary
There are tens of thousands of different chemical compounds in the atmosphere. To tackle this complexity, there are a wide range of different methods to estimate their physical and chemical properties. We use these methods to understand how much the detailed structure of a molecule impacts its properties, and the extent to which properties can be estimated without knowing this level of detail. We find that structure matters, but methods lacking that level of detail still perform reasonably well.
Daniel C. Anderson, Bryan N. Duncan, Arlene M. Fiore, Colleen B. Baublitz, Melanie B. Follette-Cook, Julie M. Nicely, and Glenn M. Wolfe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6481–6508,Short summary
We demonstrate that large-scale climate features are the primary driver of year-to-year variability in simulated values of the hydroxyl radical, the primary atmospheric oxidant, over 1980–2018. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation is the dominant mode of hydroxyl variability, resulting in large-scale global decreases in OH during El Niño events. Other climate modes, such as the Australian monsoon and the North Atlantic Oscillation, have impacts of similar magnitude but on on more localized scales.
Pooja V. Pawar, Sachin D. Ghude, Chinmay Jena, Andrea Móring, Mark A. Sutton, Santosh Kulkarni, Deen Mani Lal, Divya Surendran, Martin Van Damme, Lieven Clarisse, Pierre-François Coheur, Xuejun Liu, Gaurav Govardhan, Wen Xu, Jize Jiang, and Tapan Kumar Adhya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6389–6409,Short summary
In this study, simulations of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) with MOZART-4 and HTAP-v2 are compared with satellite (IASI) and ground-based measurements to understand the spatial and temporal variability of NH3 over two emission hotspot regions of Asia, the IGP and the NCP. Our simulations indicate that the formation of ammonium aerosols is quicker over the NCP than the IGP, leading to smaller NH3 columns over the higher NH3-emitting NCP compared to the IGP region for comparable emissions.
Yan Zhang, Yu Zhao, Meng Gao, Xin Bo, and Chris P. Nielsen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6411–6430,Short summary
We combined air quality and exposure response models to analyze the benefits for air quality and human health of China’s ultra-low emission policy in one of its most developed regions. Atmospheric observations and the air quality model were also used to demonstrate improvement of emission inventories incorporating online emission monitoring data. With implementation of the policy in both power and industrial sectors, the attributable deaths due to PM2.5 exposure are estimated to decrease 5.5 %.
Anna Karion, Israel Lopez-Coto, Sharon M. Gourdji, Kimberly Mueller, Subhomoy Ghosh, William Callahan, Michael Stock, Elizabeth DiGangi, Steve Prinzivalli, and James Whetstone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6257–6273,Short summary
Estimating city emissions based on atmospheric observations requires that the portion of observed greenhouse gases that originated in the city be separated from the portion that originated outside the city, also known as the background concentration. Here, we investigate different methods to determine background concentrations for the Washington, DC, and Baltimore, MD, region and evaluate how well those methods work and the uncertainties they involve.
Kun Zhang, Ling Huang, Qing Li, Juntao Huo, Yusen Duan, Yuhang Wang, Elly Yaluk, Yangjun Wang, Qingyan Fu, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5905–5917,Short summary
Recently, high O3 concentrations were frequently observed in rural areas of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region under stagnant conditions. Using an online measurement and observation-based model, we investigated the budget of ROx radicals and the influence of isoprene chemistry on O3 formation. Our results underline that isoprene chemistry in the rural atmosphere becomes important with the participation of anthropogenic NOx.
Ioanna Skoulidou, Maria-Elissavet Koukouli, Astrid Manders, Arjo Segers, Dimitris Karagkiozidis, Myrto Gratsea, Dimitris Balis, Alkiviadis Bais, Evangelos Gerasopoulos, Trisevgeni Stavrakou, Jos van Geffen, Henk Eskes, and Andreas Richter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5269–5288,Short summary
The performance of LOTOS-EUROS v2.2.001 regional chemical transport model NO2 simulations is investigated over Greece from June to December 2018. Comparison with in situ NO2 measurements shows a spatial correlation coefficient of 0.86, while the model underestimates the concentrations mostly during daytime (12 to 15:00 local time). Further, the simulated tropospheric NO2 columns are evaluated against ground-based MAX-DOAS NO2 measurements and S5P/TROPOMI observations for July and December 2018.
Karl M. Seltzer, Elyse Pennington, Venkatesh Rao, Benjamin N. Murphy, Madeleine Strum, Kristin K. Isaacs, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5079–5100,Short summary
Volatile chemical products (VCPs) are an increasingly important source of anthropogenic reactive organic carbon emissions. Here, we develop VCPy, a new framework to model organic emissions from VCPs throughout the United States. At the national-level, VCPy emissions are broadly consistent with the US EPA’s 2017 National Emission Inventory, however county-level and categorical estimates can differ substantially. An observational evaluation indicates high fidelity in the methods employed here.
Stijn Naus, Stephen A. Montzka, Prabir K. Patra, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4809–4824,Short summary
Following up on previous box model studies, we employ a 3D transport model to estimate variations in the hydroxyl radical (OH) from observations of methyl chloroform (MCF). We derive small interannual OH variations that are consistent with variations in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. We also find evidence for the release of MCF from oceans in atmospheric gradients of MCF. Both findings highlight the added value of a 3D transport model since box model studies did not identify these effects.
Ian Enting and Nathan Clisby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4699–4708,Short summary
We provide a new framework for comparing short-lived greenhouse gases to long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide using methane as an example. This can clarify the differences between various proposals that have been introduced in order to overcome the use of global warming potentials as a measure of greenhouse gas equivalence.
Thomas Thorp, Stephen R. Arnold, Richard J. Pope, Dominick V. Spracklen, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Mikhail Arshinov, Boris Belan, Eija Asmi, Tuomas Laurila, Andrei I. Skorokhod, Tuomo Nieminen, and Tuukka Petäjä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4677–4697,Short summary
We compare modelled near-surface pollutants with surface and satellite observations to better understand the controls on the regional concentrations of pollution in western Siberia for late spring and summer in 2011. We find two commonly used emission inventories underestimate human emissions when compared to observations. Transport emissions are the main source of pollutants within the region during this period, whilst fire emissions peak during June and are only significant south of 60° N.
Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Sabine Eckhardt, Anne Cozic, Martin Van Damme, Pierre-François Coheur, Lieven Clarisse, Mark W. Shephard, Karen E. Cady-Pereira, and Didier Hauglustaine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4431–4451,Short summary
Ammonia, a substance that has played a key role in sustaining life, has been increasing in the atmosphere, affecting climate and humans. Understanding the reasons for this increase is important for the beneficial use of ammonia. The evolution of satellite products gives us the opportunity to calculate ammonia emissions easier. We calculated global ammonia emissions over the last 10 years, incorporated them into a chemistry model and recorded notable improvement in reproducing observations.
Tie Dai, Yueming Cheng, Daisuke Goto, Yingruo Li, Xiao Tang, Guangyu Shi, and Teruyuki Nakajima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4357–4379,Short summary
The anthropogenic emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) over China has significantly declined as a consequence of the clean air actions. We have developed a new emission inversion system to dynamically update the SO2 emission grid by grid over China by assimilating ground-based SO2 observations. The inverted SO2 emission over China in November 2016 on average had declined by 49.4 % since 2010, which is well in agreement with the bottom-up estimation of 48.0 %.
Paul T. Griffiths, Lee T. Murray, Guang Zeng, Youngsub Matthew Shin, N. Luke Abraham, Alexander T. Archibald, Makoto Deushi, Louisa K. Emmons, Ian E. Galbally, Birgit Hassler, Larry W. Horowitz, James Keeble, Jane Liu, Omid Moeini, Vaishali Naik, Fiona M. O'Connor, Naga Oshima, David Tarasick, Simone Tilmes, Steven T. Turnock, Oliver Wild, Paul J. Young, and Prodromos Zanis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4187–4218,Short summary
We analyse the CMIP6 Historical and future simulations for tropospheric ozone, a species which is important for many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. We show that the current generation of models agrees well with observations, being particularly successful in capturing trends in surface ozone and its vertical distribution in the troposphere. We analyse the factors that control ozone and show that they evolve over the period of the CMIP6 experiments.
Annika Vogel and Hendrik Elbern
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4039–4057,Short summary
Forecasts of biogenic trace gases highly depend on the model setup and input fields. This study identifies sources of related forecast uncertainties for biogenic gases. Exceptionally high differences in both biogenic emissions and pollutant transport in the Po Valley are identified to be caused by the representation of the land surface and boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, changes in the model configuration are shown to induce significantly different local concentrations of biogenic gases.
Mengyuan Zhang, Arpit Katiyar, Shengqiang Zhu, Juanyong Shen, Men Xia, Jinlong Ma, Sri Harsha Kota, Peng Wang, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4025–4037,Short summary
We studied changes in air quality in India induced by the COVID-19 lockdown through both surface observations and the CMAQ model. Our results show that emission reductions improved the air quality across India during the lockdown. On average, the levels of PM2.5 and O3 decreased by 28 % and 15 %, indicating positive effects of lockdown measures. We suggest that more stringent and localized emission control strategies should be implemented in India to mitigate air pollutions.
Elena Macdonald, Noelia Otero, and Tim Butler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4007–4023,Short summary
NO2 limit values are still regularly exceeded in many European cities despite decreasing emissions. Measurements of NOx concentrations from stations across Europe were systematically analysed to assess long-term changes observed in urban areas. We compared trends in concentration increments to trends in total and traffic emissions to find potential discrepancies. The results can help in evaluating inaccuracies in emission inventories and in improving spatial imbalances in data availability.
Yuzhong Zhang, Daniel J. Jacob, Xiao Lu, Joannes D. Maasakkers, Tia R. Scarpelli, Jian-Xiong Sheng, Lu Shen, Zhen Qu, Melissa P. Sulprizio, Jinfeng Chang, A. Anthony Bloom, Shuang Ma, John Worden, Robert J. Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3643–3666,Short summary
We use 2010–2018 satellite observations of atmospheric methane to interpret the factors controlling atmospheric methane and its accelerating increase during the period. The 2010–2018 increase in global methane emissions is driven by tropical and boreal wetlands and tropical livestock (South Asia, Africa, Brazil), with an insignificant positive trend in emissions from the fossil fuel sector. The peak methane growth rates in 2014–2015 are also contributed by low OH and high fire emissions.
Christoph A. Keller, Mathew J. Evans, K. Emma Knowland, Christa A. Hasenkopf, Sruti Modekurty, Robert A. Lucchesi, Tomohiro Oda, Bruno B. Franca, Felipe C. Mandarino, M. Valeria Díaz Suárez, Robert G. Ryan, Luke H. Fakes, and Steven Pawson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3555–3592,Short summary
This study combines surface observations and model simulations to quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on air quality across the world. The presented methodology removes the confounding impacts of meteorology on air pollution. Our results indicate that surface concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, an important air pollutant emitted during the combustion of fossil fuels, declined by up to 60 % following the implementation of COVID-19 containment measures.
Yuting Wang, Yong-Feng Ma, Domingo Muñoz-Esparza, Cathy W. Y. Li, Mary Barth, Tao Wang, and Guy P. Brasseur
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3531–3553,Short summary
Large-eddy simulations (LESs) were performed in the mountainous region of the island of Hong Kong to investigate the degree to which the rates of chemical reactions between two reactive species are reduced due to the segregation of species within the convective boundary layer. We show that the inhomogeneity in emissions plays an important role in the segregation effect. Topography also has a significant influence on the segregation locally.
Jin Ma, Linda M. J. Kooijmans, Ara Cho, Stephen A. Montzka, Norbert Glatthor, John R. Worden, Le Kuai, Elliot L. Atlas, and Maarten C. Krol
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3507–3529,Short summary
Carbonyl sulfide is an important trace gas in the atmosphere and useful to estimating gross primary productivity in ecosystems, but its sources and sinks remain highly uncertain. Therefore, we applied inverse model system TM5-4DVAR to better constrain the global budget. Our finding is in line with earlier studies, pointing to missing sources in the tropics and more uptake in high latitudes. We also stress the necessity of more ground-based observations and satellite data assimilation in future.
Domenico Taraborrelli, David Cabrera-Perez, Sara Bacer, Sergey Gromov, Jos Lelieveld, Rolf Sander, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2615–2636,Short summary
Atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic activities and biomass burning are usually regarded as ozone precursors. Monocyclic aromatics are no exception. Calculations with a comprehensive atmospheric model are consistent with this view but only for air masses close to pollution source regions. However, the same model predicts that aromatics, when transported to remote areas, may effectively destroy ozone. This loss of tropospheric ozone rivals the one attributed to bromine.
Yingnan Zhang, Likun Xue, William P. L. Carter, Chenglei Pei, Tianshu Chen, Jiangshan Mu, Yujun Wang, Qingzhu Zhang, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We developed the localized incremental reactivity (IR) for VOCs in a Chinese megacity and elucidated their applications in calculating the OFP. The IR scales showed a strong dependence on chemical mechanisms. Both emission- and observation-based inputs are suitable for the MIR calculation, but not the case under mixed-limited or NOx-limited O3 formation regime. We provide suggestions for the application of IR and OFP scales to aid in VOC control in China.
Jingyu An, Yiwei Huang, Cheng Huang, Xin Wang, Rusha Yan, Qian Wang, Hongli Wang, Sheng'ao Jing, Yan Zhang, Yiming Liu, Yuan Chen, Chang Xu, Liping Qiao, Min Zhou, Shuhui Zhu, Qingyao Hu, Jun Lu, and Changhong Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2003–2025,Short summary
This study established a 4 km × 4 km anthropogenic emission inventory in the Yangtze River Delta region, China, for 2017 based on locally measured emission factors and source profiles. There are high-intensity NOx and NMVOC species emissions in the eastern areas of the region. Toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, propylene, ethylene, o-xylene, and OVOCs from industry and mobile sources have the highest comprehensive potentials for ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation.
Margaret R. Marvin, Paul I. Palmer, Barry G. Latter, Richard Siddans, Brian J. Kerridge, Mohd Talib Latif, and Md Firoz Khan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1917–1935,Short summary
We use an atmospheric chemistry model in combination with satellite and surface observations to investigate how biomass burning affects tropospheric ozone over Southeast Asia during its fire seasons. We find that nitrogen oxides from biomass burning were responsible for about 30 % of the regional ozone formation potential, and we estimate that ozone from biomass burning caused more than 400 excess premature deaths in Southeast Asia during the peak burning months of March and September 2014.
Angharad C. Stell, Luke M. Western, Tomás Sherwen, and Matthew Rigby
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1717–1736,Short summary
Although it is the second-most important greenhouse gas, our understanding of the atmospheric-methane budget is limited. The uncertainty highlights the need for new tools to investigate sources and sinks. Here, we use a Gaussian process emulator to efficiently approximate the response of atmospheric-methane observations to changes in the most uncertain emission or loss processes. With this new method, we rigorously quantify the sensitivity of atmospheric observations to budget uncertainties.
Jun Liu, Dan Tong, Yixuan Zheng, Jing Cheng, Xinying Qin, Qinren Shi, Liu Yan, Yu Lei, and Qiang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1627–1647,Short summary
In this study, we investigated the decadal changes in carbon dioxide and air pollutant emissions in China's cement industry for the period 1990–2015 based on intensive unit-based information. We found that from 1990 to 2015, accompanied by a 10.3-fold increase in cement production, CO2, SO2, and NOx emissions from China's cement industry increased by 627 %, 56 %, and 659 %, whereas CO, PM2.5, and PM10 emissions decreased by 9 %, 63 %, and 59 %, respectively.
Zhenze Liu, Ruth M. Doherty, Oliver Wild, Michael Hollaway, and Fiona M. O'Connor
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Surface ozone (O3) has become the main cause of atmospheric pollution in the summertime in China since 2013. We find that 70 % reductions in NOx emissions are required to reduce O3 pollution in most of industrial regions of China, and controls in VOC emissions are very important. The new chemical scheme developed for a global chemistry-climate model not only captures the regional air pollution but also benefits the future studies of regional air quality-climate interactions.
Fiona M. O'Connor, N. Luke Abraham, Mohit Dalvi, Gerd A. Folberth, Paul T. Griffiths, Catherine Hardacre, Ben T. Johnson, Ron Kahana, James Keeble, Byeonghyeon Kim, Olaf Morgenstern, Jane P. Mulcahy, Mark Richardson, Eddy Robertson, Jeongbyn Seo, Sungbo Shim, João C. Teixeira, Steven T. Turnock, Jonny Williams, Andrew J. Wiltshire, Stephanie Woodward, and Guang Zeng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1211–1243,Short summary
This paper calculates how changes in emissions and/or concentrations of different atmospheric constituents since the pre-industrial era have altered the Earth's energy budget at the present day using a metric called effective radiative forcing. The impact of land use change is also assessed. We find that individual contributions do not add linearly, and different Earth system interactions can affect the magnitude of the calculated effective radiative forcing.
Shamil Maksyutov, Tomohiro Oda, Makoto Saito, Rajesh Janardanan, Dmitry Belikov, Johannes W. Kaiser, Ruslan Zhuravlev, Alexander Ganshin, Vinu K. Valsala, Arlyn Andrews, Lukasz Chmura, Edward Dlugokencky, László Haszpra, Ray L. Langenfelds, Toshinobu Machida, Takakiyo Nakazawa, Michel Ramonet, Colm Sweeney, and Douglas Worthy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1245–1266,Short summary
In order to improve the top-down estimation of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a high-resolution inverse modelling technique was developed for applications to global transport modelling of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. A coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian transport model and its adjoint are combined with surface fluxes at 0.1° resolution to provide high-resolution forward simulation and inverse modelling of surface fluxes accounting for signals from emission hot spots.
Yang Yang, Yu Zhao, Lei Zhang, Jie Zhang, Xin Huang, Xuefen Zhao, Yan Zhang, Mengxiao Xi, and Yi Lu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1191–1209,Short summary
We conducted new NOx emission estimation based on the satellite-derived NO2 column constraint and found reduced emissions compared to previous estimates for a developed region in east China. The subsequent improvement in air quality modeling was demonstrated based on available ground observations. With multiple emission reduction cases for various pollutants, we explored the effective control approaches for ozone and inorganic aerosol pollution.
Xueying Yu, Dylan B. Millet, Kelley C. Wells, Daven K. Henze, Hansen Cao, Timothy J. Griffis, Eric A. Kort, Genevieve Plant, Malte J. Deventer, Randall K. Kolka, D. Tyler Roman, Kenneth J. Davis, Ankur R. Desai, Bianca C. Baier, Kathryn McKain, Alan C. Czarnetzki, and A. Anthony Bloom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 951–971,Short summary
Methane concentrations have doubled since 1750. The US Upper Midwest is a key region contributing to such trends, but sources are poorly understood. We collected and analyzed aircraft data to resolve spatial and timing biases in wetland and livestock emission estimates and uncover errors in inventory treatment of manure management. We highlight the importance of intensive agriculture for the regional and US methane budgets and the potential for methane mitigation through improved management.
Marc Guevara, Oriol Jorba, Albert Soret, Hervé Petetin, Dene Bowdalo, Kim Serradell, Carles Tena, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Vincent-Henri Peuch, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 773–797,Short summary
Most European countries have imposed lockdowns to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such a socioeconomic disruption has resulted in a sudden drop of atmospheric emissions and air pollution levels. This study quantifies the daily reductions in national emissions and associated levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) due to the COVID-19 lockdowns in Europe, by making use of multiple open-access measured activity data as well as artificial intelligence and modelling techniques.
Roman Nuterman, Alexander Mahura, Alexander Baklanov, Bjarne Amstrup, and Ashraf Zakey
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The street air pollution is usually higher than the pollution at regional and urban scales. It mostly associated with both local emission sources and urban weather conditions. We present the downscaling system for regional, sub-regional/urban and street scales and evaluate it for acute air-pollution episode. Its evaluation showed a good prediction score across various spatio-temporal scales as well as feasibility of deterministic modelling approach for the operational street scale forecasting.
Jianfeng Li, Yuhang Wang, Ruixiong Zhang, Charles Smeltzer, Andrew Weinheimer, Jay Herman, K. Folkert Boersma, Edward A. Celarier, Russell W. Long, James J. Szykman, Ruben Delgado, Anne M. Thompson, Travis N. Knepp, Lok N. Lamsal, Scott J. Janz, Matthew G. Kowalewski, Xiong Liu, and Caroline R. Nowlan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Comprehensive evaluations of simulated diurnal cycles of NO2 and NOy concentrations, vertical profiles, and tropospheric vertical column densities at two different resolutions with various measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ 2011 campaign show the reasonability of the National Emission Inventory 2011 NOx emissions at coarser resolutions but potential distribution biases at 4-km resolution, providing another possible explanation for the overestimation of model results at high resolutions.
Xiaodan Ma, Jianping Huang, Tianliang Zhao, Cheng Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Jia Xing, and Wei Xiao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 1–16,Short summary
The present work aims at identifying and quantifying the relative contributions of the key factors in driving a rapid increase in summertime surface O3 over the North China Plain during 2013–2019. In addition to anthropogenic emission reduction and meteorological variabilities, our study highlights the importance of inclusion of aerosol absorption and scattering properties rather than aerosol abundance only in accurate assessment of aerosol radiative effect on surface O3 formation and change.
Ilaria D'Elia, Gino Briganti, Lina Vitali, Antonio Piersanti, Gaia Righini, Massimo D'Isidoro, Andrea Cappelletti, Mihaela Mircea, Mario Adani, Gabriele Zanini, and Luisella Ciancarella
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We present an analysis of modelled trends of PM10, NO2 and O3 airborne concentrations over the Italian territory in the period 2003–2010. Our analysis shows a general downward simulated trend for all pollutants, with good agreement between observed and modelled values and the model widening both coverage and significance of air concentration trends. Due to the complex atmospheric dynamics, emission reductions do not always result in decreasing concentrations, especially for secondary pollutants.
Xin Yang, Anne-M. Blechschmidt, Kristof Bognar, Audra McClure-Begley, Sara Morris, Irina Petropavlovskikh, Andreas Richter, Henrik Skov, Kimberly Strong, David W. Tarasick, Taneil Uttal, Mika Vestenius, and Xiaoyi Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 15937–15967,Short summary
This is a modelling-based study on Arctic surface ozone, with a particular focus on spring ozone depletion events (i.e. with concentrations < 10 ppbv). Model experiments show that model runs with blowing-snow-sourced sea salt aerosols implemented as a source of reactive bromine can reproduce well large-scale ozone depletion events observed in the Arctic. This study supplies modelling evidence of the proposed mechanism of reactive-bromine release from blowing snow on sea ice (Yang et al., 2008).
Aksoyoglu, S., Keller, J., Barmpadimos, I., Oderbolz, D., Lanz, V. A., Prévôt, A. S. H., and Baltensperger, U.: Aerosol modelling in Europe with a focus on Switzerland during summer and winter episodes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 7355–7373, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-11-7355-2011, 2011.
Aksoyoglu, S., Baltensperger, U., and Prévôt, A. S. H.: Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1895–1906, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-16-1895-2016, 2016.
Auvray, M. and Bey, I.: Long-range transport to Europe: Seasonal variations and implications for the European ozone budget, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D11303, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005503, 2005.
Baker, K. R. and Kelly, J. T.: Single source impacts estimated with photochemical model source sensitivity and apportionment approaches, Atmos. Environ., 96, 266–274, 2014.
Belis, C. A., Cancelinha, J., Duane, M., Forcina, V., Pedroni, V., Passarella, R., Tanet, G., Douglas, K., Piazzalunga, A., Bolzacchini, E., Sangiorgi, G., Perrone, M. G., Ferrero, L., Fermo, P., and Larsen, B. R: Sources for PM air pollution in the Po Plain, Italy: I. Critical comparison of methods for estimating biomass burning contributions to benzo(a)pyrene, Atmos. Environ., 45, 7266–7275, 2011.
Belis, C. A., Karagulian, F., Larsen, B. R., and Hopke, P. K.: Critical review and meta-analysis of ambient particulate matter source apportionment using receptor models in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 69, 94–108, 2013.
Brandt, J., Silver, J. D., Christensen, J. H., Andersen, M. S., Bønløkke, J. H., Sigsgaard, T., Geels, C., Gross, A., Hansen, A. B., Hansen, K. M., Hedegaard, G. B., Kaas, E., and Frohn, L. M.: Contribution from the ten major emission sectors in Europe and Denmark to the health-cost externalities of air pollution using the EVA model system – an integrated modelling approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7725–7746, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-7725-2013, 2013.
Burr, M. J. and Zhang, Y.: Source apportionment of fine particulate matter over the Eastern U.S. Part II: Source apportionment simulations using CAMx/PSAT and comparisons with CMAQ source sensitivity simulations, Atmos. Pollut. Res., 2, 318–336, 2011.
Byun, D. and Schere, K. L: Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system, Appl. Mech. Rev., 59, 51–77, 2006.
Collet, S., Minoura, H., Kidokoro, T., Sonoda, Y., Kinugasa, Y., Karamchandani, P., Johnson, J., Shah, T., Jung, J., and DenBleyker, A.: Future year ozone source attribution modeling studies for the eastern and western United States, J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 64, 1174–1185, 2014.
Crilley, L. R., Bloss, W. J., Yin, J., Beddows, D. C. S., Harrison, R. M., Allan, J. D., Young, D. E., Flynn, M., Williams, P., Zotter, P., Prevot, A. S. H., Heal, M. R., Barlow, J. F., Halios, C. H., Lee, J. D., Szidat, S., and Mohr, C.: Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London: assessing local and regional influences, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3149–3171, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-3149-2015, 2015.
Crippa, M., DeCarlo, P. F., Slowik, J. G., Mohr, C., Heringa, M. F., Chirico, R., Poulain, L., Freutel, F., Sciare, J., Cozic, J., Di Marco, C. F., Elsasser, M., Nicolas, J. B., Marchand, N., Abidi, E., Wiedensohler, A., Drewnick, F., Schneider, J., Borrmann, S., Nemitz, E., Zimmermann, R., Jaffrezo, J.-L., Prévt̂, A. S. H., and Baltensperger, U.: Wintertime aerosol chemical composition and source apportionment of the organic fraction in the metropolitan area of Paris, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 961–981, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-13-961-2013, 2013.
de Leeuw, G., Neele, F. P., Hill, M., Smith, M. H., and Vignati, E.: Production of sea spray aerosol in the surf zone, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 29397–29409, 2000.
Denier van der Gon, H. A. C., Bergström, R., Fountoukis, C., Johansson, C., Pandis, S. N., Simpson, D., and Visschedijk, A. J. H.: Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion in Europe – revised estimates and an evaluation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 6503–6519, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-15-6503-2015, 2015.
Derwent, R. G., Stevenson, D. S., Collins, W. J., and Johnson, C. E.: Intercontinental transport and the origins of the ozone observed at surface sites in Europe, Atmos. Environ., 38, 1891–1901, 2004.
Derwent, R. G., Stevenson, D. S., Doherty, R. M., Collins, W. J., Sanderson, M. G., Johnson, C. E., Cofala, J., Mechler, R., Amann, M., and Dentener, F. J.: The contribution from shipping emissions to air quality and acid deposition in Europe, Ambio, 34, 54–59, 2005.
Derwent, R. G., Stevenson, D. S., Doherty, R. M., Collins, W. J., and Sanderson, M. G.: How is surface ozone in Europe linked to Asian and North American NOx emissions?, Atmos. Environ., 42, 7412–7422, 2008.
Duchi, R., Cristofanelli, P., Landi, T.C., Arduini, J., Bonafe, U., Bourcier, L., Busetto, M., Calzolari, F., Marinoni, A., Putero, D., and Bonasoni, P.: Long-term (2002–2012) investigation of Saharan dust transport events at Mt. Cimone GAW global station, Italy (2165 m a.s.l.), Elem. Sci. Anth., 4, 85, https://doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000085, 2016.
Dunker, A. M., Yarwood, G., Ortmann, J. P., and Wilson, G. M.: Comparison of source apportionment and source sensitivity of ozone in a three-dimensional air quality model, Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 2953–2964, 2002.
Escudero, M., Castillo, S., Querol, X., Avila, A., Alarcón, M., Viana, M. M., Alastuey, A., Cuevas, E., and Rodríguez, S.: Wet and dry African dust episodes over eastern Spain, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D18S08, https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004731, 2005.
Escudero, M., Querol, X., Ávila, A., and Cuevas, E.: Origin of the exceedances of the European daily PM limit value in regional background areas of Spain, Atmos. Environ., 41, 730–744, 2007a.
Escudero, M., Querol, X., Pey, J., Alastuey, A., Pérez, N., Ferreira, F., Alonso, S., Rodríguez, S., and Cuevas, E.: A methodology for the quantification of the net African dust load in air quality monitoring networks, Atmos. Environ., 41, 5516–5524, 2007b.
European Environment Agency (EEA): EMEP/EEA Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Guidebook, available at: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013/at_download/file (last access: 20 March 2017), 2013.
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We quantify contributions of 13 source sectors to air pollution in Europe using a model (CAMx) with source tracking. This information is needed to develop clean air strategies that will be effective. Contributions differ between summer and winter. Sources outside western Europe and natural sources (vegetation) are important in summer. Important sources within Europe are transportation, energy production, industry, and, in winter, residential wood combustion.
We quantify contributions of 13 source sectors to air pollution in Europe using a model (CAMx)...