Articles | Volume 17, issue 24
Research article 21 Dec 2017
Research article | 21 Dec 2017
Evaluation of traffic exhaust contributions to ambient carbonaceous submicron particulate matter in an urban roadside environment in Hong Kong
Berto Paul Lee et al.
Berto Paul Lee, Hao Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13605–13624,Short summary
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
Zhancong Liang, Yangxi Chu, Masao Gen, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3017–3044,Short summary
The properties and fate of individual airborne particles can be significantly different, leading to distinct environmental impacts (e.g., climate and human health). While many instruments only analyze an ensemble of these particles, single-particle Raman spectroscopy enables unambiguous characterization of individual particles. This paper comprehensively reviews the applications of such a technique in studying atmospheric particles, especially for their physicochemical processing.
Shang Gao, Mona Kurppa, Chak K. Chan, and Keith Ngan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2703–2726,Short summary
The contribution of cooking emissions to organic aerosols may exceed that of motor vehicles. However, little is known about how cooking-generated aerosols evolve in the outdoor environment. In this paper, we present a numerical study of the dispersion of cooking emissions. For plausible choices of the emission strength, cooking can yield much higher concentrations than traffic. This has important implications for public health and city planning.
Beatrix Rosette Go Mabato, Yan Lyu, Yan Ji, Yong Jie Li, Dan Dan Huang, Xue Li, Theodora Nah, Chun Ho Lam, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 273–293,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) is a global phenomenon that releases large quantities of pollutants such as phenols and aromatic carbonyls into the atmosphere. These compounds can form secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) which play an important role in the Earth’s energy budget. In this work, we demonstrated that the direct irradiation of vanillin (VL) could generate aqueous SOA (aqSOA) such as oligomers. In the presence of nitrate, VL photo-oxidation can also form nitrated compounds.
Yee Ka Wong, X. H. Hilda Huang, Peter K. K. Louie, Alfred L. C. Yu, Damgy H. L. Chan, and Jian Zhen Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9871–9882,Short summary
We present an approach to track separate contributions to PM2.5 by gasoline and diesel vehicles through a positive matrix factorization analysis of online monitoring data measurable by relatively inexpensive analytical instruments. They are PM2.5 organic and elemental carbon, C2–C9 volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxide concentrations. The method was demonstrated to be effective by applying monitoring data spanning 6 years (2011–2017) from a roadside environment in Hong Kong.
Liyuan Zhou, Åsa M. Hallquist, Mattias Hallquist, Christian M. Salvador, Samuel M. Gaita, Åke Sjödin, Martin Jerksjö, Håkan Salberg, Ingvar Wängberg, Johan Mellqvist, Qianyun Liu, Berto P. Lee, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 1701–1722,Short summary
The study reports the transition in the atmospheric emission of particles and gases from on-road heavy-duty trucks (HDTs) caused by the modernisation of the fleet. We measured particle number (PN), particle mass (PM), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC), particle size distributions, and volatility in the plumes of 556 individual HDTs. Significant but different changes in emissions were evident for various pollutants with respect to emission standards.
Mingjin Tang, Chak K. Chan, Yong Jie Li, Hang Su, Qingxin Ma, Zhijun Wu, Guohua Zhang, Zhe Wang, Maofa Ge, Min Hu, Hong He, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12631–12686,Short summary
Hygroscopicity is one of the most important properties of aerosol particles, and a number of experimental techniques, which differ largely in principles, configurations and cost, have been developed to investigate hygroscopic properties of atmospherically relevant particles. Our paper provides a comprehensive and critical review of available techniques for aerosol hygroscopicity studies.
Carly L. Reddington, Luke Conibear, Christoph Knote, Ben J. Silver, Yong J. Li, Chak K. Chan, Steve R. Arnold, and Dominick V. Spracklen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11887–11910,Short summary
We use a high-resolution model over South and East Asia to explore air quality and human health benefits of eliminating emissions from six man-made pollution sources. We find that preventing emissions from either residential energy use, industry, or open biomass burning yields the largest reductions in ground-level particulate matter pollution and its associated disease burden over this region. We also summarize previous estimates of the source-specific disease burden in China and India.
Zhujie Li, Haobo Tan, Jun Zheng, Li Liu, Yiming Qin, Nan Wang, Fei Li, Yongjie Li, Mingfu Cai, Yan Ma, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 11669–11685,Short summary
Comprehensive field measurements were conducted to investigate aerosol compositions, optical properties, source origins, and radiative forcing effects in Guangzhou. Particulate brown carbon (BrC) light absorption was differentiated from that of black carbon. BrC was mostly due to primary emissions, such as straw burning, rather than secondary formation. BrC may cause ∼2.3 W m−2 radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and contribute to ∼15.8 % of the aerosol warming effect.
Xinning Wang, Yin Shen, Yanfen Lin, Jun Pan, Yan Zhang, Peter K. K. Louie, Mei Li, and Qingyan Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 6315–6330,Short summary
Shipping emissions were measured online at Shanghai Port, and their impacts on local air quality at the port and in the surrounding area were quantitatively assessed. Ship emission plumes were readily detectable before they dissipated. We captured ship emission plumes using synchronized peaks of SO2 and vanadium particles. By measuring the pollutant concentrations during plumes and their occurrence frequency, we made quantitative estimations of ship emission impacts on port air quality.
Mingfu Cai, Haobo Tan, Chak K. Chan, Yiming Qin, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16419–16437,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) play a critical role in cloud formation which affects solar radiation and climate. We employed advanced instruments to measure aerosol hygroscopicity and chemical composition and used them to predict CCN activity. Our results found that the CCN activity was largely dependent on the hygroscopicity parameter and the surface tension of the particles. Our study highlights the need for evaluating the effects of organics in order to accurately predict CCN activity.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Zhu Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Li Liu, Cheng Wu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 16409–16418,Short summary
We developed the relationship between the chemical and optical characteristics of BrC in Guangzhou, China. We determined wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients of organic aerosol with different sources. The BrC absorption coefficient was associated with N-containing ion fragments and depended on their degrees of unsaturation/cyclization and oxygenation.
Michael Le Breton, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, David Simpson, Yujue Wang, John Johansson, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Haichao Wang, Qianyun Liu, Chak Chan, Tao Wang, Thomas J. Bannan, Michael Priestley, Carl J. Percival, Dudley E. Shallcross, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 13013–13030,Short summary
We apply state-of-the-art chemical characterization to determine the chloride radical production in Beijing via measurement of inorganic halogens at a semi-rural site. The high concentration of inorganic halogens, namely nitryl chloride, enables the production of chlorinated volatile organic compounds which are measured in both the gas and particle phases simultaneously. This enables the secondary production of aerosols via chlorine oxidation to be directly observed in ambient air.
Yangxi Chu, Erin Evoy, Saeid Kamal, Young Chul Song, Jonathan P. Reid, Chak K. Chan, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 11, 4809–4822,Short summary
The viscosity of erythritol, a tetrol found in aerosol particles, is highly uncertain. To help resolve this uncertainty, we measured the viscosities of erythritol–water particles using rectangular-area fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and aerosol optical tweezers techniques. These results should help improve the understanding of the viscosity of secondary organic aerosol particles. In addition, we present an intercomparison of techniques for measuring the viscosity of particles.
Tengyu Liu, Zhaoyi Wang, Xinming Wang, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 11363–11374,Short summary
POA and SOA from seven heated cooking oil emissions were investigated in a smog chamber. We found that PMF analysis separated POA and SOA better than the residual spectrum method and the traditional method, assuming first-order POA loss. The PMF factors mass spectra were compared with those of ambient PMF factors. Our results suggest that COA source analysis from ambient data is likely complicated by the cooking style and atmospheric oxidation conditions.
Michael Le Breton, Yujue Wang, Åsa M. Hallquist, Ravi Kant Pathak, Jing Zheng, Yudong Yang, Dongjie Shang, Marianne Glasius, Thomas J. Bannan, Qianyun Liu, Chak K. Chan, Carl J. Percival, Wenfei Zhu, Shengrong Lou, David Topping, Yuchen Wang, Jianzhen Yu, Keding Lu, Song Guo, Min Hu, and Mattias Hallquist
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 10355–10371,Short summary
This paper utilizes a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer measuring gas and particle-phase organosulfates (OS) simultaneously during a field campaign in Beijing, China, and highlights how high time frequency online measurements enable a detailed analysis of dominant production mechanisms. We find that high aerosol acidity, organic precursor concentration and relative humidity promote the production of OS. The thermogram desorption reveals the potential for semi-volatile gas-phase OS.
Chunlei Cheng, Zuzhao Huang, Chak K. Chan, Yangxi Chu, Mei Li, Tao Zhang, Yubo Ou, Duohong Chen, Peng Cheng, Lei Li, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Bo Huang, Zhong Fu, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 9147–9159,Short summary
Particulate amines play an important role for the particle acidity and hygroscopicity. We found amines were internally mixed with sulfate and nitrate at a rural site in the PRD, China, suggesting the formation of aminium sulfate and nitrate salts. The ammonium-poor state of amine particles in summer was associated with the low emission sources of ammonia and a possible contribution of ammonium–amine exchange reactions. Amines could be a buffer for the particle acidity of ammonium-poor particles.
Tengyu Liu, Dan Dan Huang, Zijun Li, Qianyun Liu, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5677–5689,Short summary
The formation of SOA from toluene on initially dry and wet AS seeds was compared using an OFR at an RH of 68 %. We found that, as OH exposure increased, the SOA yield and ALW of the initially dry seeds approached those of the initially wet seeds while the wet seeds yielded SOA of a higher degree of oxidation at all exposure levels. Our results suggest that AS dry seeds soon at least partially deliquesce during SOA formation; more studies on the interplay of SOA formation and ALW are warranted.
Masao Gen and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 14025–14037,Short summary
We propose electrospray-surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (ES-SERS) for measuring the surface chemical compositions of atmospherically relevant particles. The observations of surface aqueous sulfate and adsorbed water demonstrate a possible role of the water in facilitating the dissolution of sulfate from the bulk phase into its water layers. ES-SERS of submicron ambient aerosol particles collected in Hong Kong indicated an enrichment of sulfate and organic matter on the particle surface.
Berto Paul Lee, Hao Wang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13605–13624,Short summary
The size of atmospheric particles is an important physical property that determines environmental and health effects. We measured the size and chemical composition of particles in two locations in Hong Kong impacted by different predominant sources of particulate air pollutants to characterize how particle size and particle composition vary over different time frames, from changes within a day to long-term changes over weeks, and which processes and sources may have played important roles.
Yu Wang, Hao Wang, Hai Guo, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng, Zhenhao Ling, Peter K. K. Louie, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10919–10935,Short summary
Though the Hong Kong government has made great efforts toward a reduction in emissions, ambient O3 levels have presented an increasing trend in the past decade. Data analysis and model simulations indicated that the locally produced O3 in Hong Kong varied by seasons, while regional transport from the PRD region made a substantial contribution to ambient O3 in Hong Kong and even increased in autumn. This long-term study has important implications for other Chinese cities to reduce O3 pollution.
Yi Ming Qin, Hao Bo Tan, Yong Jie Li, Misha I. Schurman, Fei Li, Francesco Canonaco, André S. H. Prévôt, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 10245–10258,Short summary
Freshly emitted HOA contributed significantly to the high concentrations of organics at night as heavy-duty vehicles enter downtown Guangzhou, while SOA contributed to the daytime high concentration. The large input of NOx, from automobile emissions, resulted in the significant formation of nitrate in both daytime and nighttime. Mitigating the PM pollution in urbanized areas such as Guangzhou can potentially benefit their peripheral cities, by reductions in traffic-related pollutants.
Chunlei Cheng, Mei Li, Chak K. Chan, Haijie Tong, Changhong Chen, Duohong Chen, Dui Wu, Lei Li, Cheng Wu, Peng Cheng, Wei Gao, Zhengxu Huang, Xue Li, Zhijuan Zhang, Zhong Fu, Yanru Bi, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9519–9533,Short summary
Oxalic acid is an abundant and ubiquitous constituent in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and can be an effective tracer for the oxidative processes leading to the formation of SOA. In this work photochemical reactions have a significant contribution to oxalic acid formation in summer, while in winter the formation of oxalic acid is closely associated with the oxidation of organic precursors in the aqueous phase.
James W. Grayson, Erin Evoy, Mijung Song, Yangxi Chu, Adrian Maclean, Allena Nguyen, Mary Alice Upshur, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Chak K. Chan, Franz M. Geiger, Regan J. Thomson, and Allan K. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8509–8524,Short summary
The viscosities of four polyols and three saccharides mixed with water were determined. The results from the polyol studies suggest viscosity increases by 1–2 orders of magnitude with the addition of an OH functional group to a carbon backbone. The results from the saccharide studies suggest that the viscosity of highly oxidized compounds is strongly dependent on molar mass and oligomerization of highly oxidized compounds in atmospheric SOM could lead to large increases in viscosity.
Tengyu Liu, Zijun Li, ManNin Chan, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7333–7344,Short summary
Formation of SOA from gas-phase emissions of five heated vegetable oils was investigated in a PAM chamber for the first time. The major SOA precursors from heated cooking oils were related to the content of monounsaturated fat and omega-6 fatty acids in cooking oils. The average production rate of SOA was 3 orders of magnitude lower compared with emission rates of PM2.5 from heated cooking oils. In these experiments, SOA was lightly oxidized.
Meike Sauerwein and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 6323–6339,Short summary
Heterogeneous uptake is one of the mechanisms influencing the amounts of alkylamines and ammonia in atmospheric particles. The present study investigates the simultaneous uptake of dimethylamine and ammonia at different gas molar ratios into sulfuric and oxalic acid particles at low and high relative humidity. Results showed that the particulate dimethylaminium/ammonium molar ratios changed substantially during the uptake process, depending on the extent of neutralisation and phase state.
Long Cui, Zhou Zhang, Yu Huang, Shun Cheng Lee, Donald Ray Blake, Kin Fai Ho, Bei Wang, Yuan Gao, Xin Ming Wang, and Peter Kwok Keung Louie
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 5763–5779,Short summary
In this manuscript, the effect of ambient RH and T on HCHO measurements by PTR-MS was investigated, and the Poly 2-D regression was found to be a good nonlinear surface simulation of R (RH, T) for correcting measured HCHO concentration. Intercomparisons between PTR-MS and other OVOC and VOC measuring techniques were conducted through a field study in urban roadside areas of Hong Kong primarily, and good agreements were found between these different techniques.
Yi Ming Qin, Yong Jie Li, Hao Wang, Berto Paul Yok Long Lee, Dan Dan Huang, and Chak Keung Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 14131–14145,Short summary
The source, formation, transformation mechanisms and mixing state of particulate matter (PM) in high episodic events under different meteorological conditions in Hong Kong remain unclear. With high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric measurement, we successfully demonstrated the dynamic and complex nature of PM transformation during high-PM episodes. This study revealed that not only regional transport but also local secondary formation is the culprit for high PM levels.
Likun Xue, Rongrong Gu, Tao Wang, Xinfeng Wang, Sandra Saunders, Donald Blake, Peter K. K. Louie, Connie W. Y. Luk, Isobel Simpson, Zheng Xu, Zhe Wang, Yuan Gao, Shuncheng Lee, Abdelwahid Mellouki, and Wenxing Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 9891–9903,Short summary
The chemical budgets and principal sources of ROx and NO3 radicals during a multi-day photochemical smog episode in Hong Kong are elucidated by an observation-constrained MCM model. NO3 was shown to be an important oxidant even during daytime in a pollution case when high aerosol loading attenuated the solar irradiation. This study suggests the potential important role of daytime NO3 chemistry in polluted atmospheres under conditions with the co-existence of abundant O3, NO2, VOCs, and aerosols.
Heidi H. Y. Cheung, Haobo Tan, Hanbing Xu, Fei Li, Cheng Wu, Jian Z. Yu, and Chak K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 8431–8446,Short summary
We present simultaneous measurements of aerosol volatility and carbonaceous matters in Guangzhou, China, in Feb and Mar 2014 using a VTDMA and OC / EC analyzer. Low volatility particles with no significant evaporation at 300° C in the VTDMA contributed 5–15 % of number concentrations of the 40–300 nm particles. Mass closure suggests that non-volatile organic carbon, in addition to elemental carbon, was one of the components of the non-volatile residuals measured by the VTDMA in this study.
Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Isobel J. Simpson, Simone Meinardi, Peter K. K. Louie, Zhenhao Ling, Yu Wang, Ming Liu, Connie W. Y. Luk, Nan Wang, and Donald R. Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6609–6626,Short summary
In this study, the effectiveness of a LPG converter replacement program was evaluated. It was found that LPG-related VOCs and NOx decreased significantly due to the implementation of the program. Source apportionment also revealed the reduction of VOCs and NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. From before to during the program, O3 increased slightly, mainly due to the reduction of NOx in LPG-fueled vehicle exhaust. To retain zero O3 increment, the lowest reduction ratio of VOCs / NOx was determined.
C. Sun, B. P. Lee, D. Huang, Y. Jie Li, M. I. Schurman, P. K. K. Louie, C. Luk, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 1713–1728,Short summary
This study presents results of long-term submicron aerosol measurements in Hong Kong. The presented work covers fall and winter 2013. It serves to characterize aerosol in a densely built-up urban area of a typical Asian megacity with strong primary emission sources from vehicles and cooking and presents an in-depth analysis of distinct clean and heavily polluted time periods tied with meteorological data and other gas-phase species observed in the study period.
Y. J. Li, B. P. Lee, L. Su, J. C. H. Fung, and C.K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 37–53,Short summary
(1) NR-PM1 at the HKUST Supersite was highly aged, with a high sulfate content and highly oxygenated organics. (2) Seasonal variation in NR-PM1 concentration was not obvious, but the relative fractions of different species showed strong seasonal dependence. (3) Both NR-PM1 concentrations and the relative fractions showed a strong dependence on air mass origin. (4) Both locally produced and regionally transported organic aerosols contribute to the organic content of PM at this site.
J. W. Meng, M. C. Yeung, Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 10267–10282,
X. H. H. Huang, Q. J. Bian, P. K. K. Louie, and J. Z. Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 9279–9293,
Y. J. Li, D. D. Huang, H. Y. Cheung, A. K. Y. Lee, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 2871–2885,
Y. J. Li, B. Y. L. Lee, J. Z. Yu, N. L. Ng, and C. K. Chan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 8739–8753,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Sources and processes of iron aerosols in a megacity in Eastern ChinaMapping gaseous dimethylamine, trimethylamine, ammonia, and their particulate counterparts in marine atmospheres of China’s marginal seas – Part 2: Spatiotemporal heterogeneity, causes, and hypothesisSingle-particle characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in background air in northern EuropeRegional heterogeneities in the emission of airborne primary sugar compounds and biogenic secondary organic aerosols in the East Asian outflow: evidence for coal combustion as a source of levoglucosanInfluence of organic aerosol molecular composition on particle absorptive properties in autumn BeijingThe importance of alkyl nitrates and sea ice emissions to atmospheric NOx sources and cycling in the summertime Southern Ocean marine boundary layerField observational constraints on the controllers in glyoxal (CHOCHO) reactive uptake to aerosolMeasurement report: Particle-size-dependent fluorescence properties of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their atmospheric implications for the aging of WSOCsImpact of non-ideality on reconstructing spatial and temporal variations in aerosol acidity with multiphase buffer theoryMercury isotopic compositions in fine particles and offshore surface seawater in a coastal area of East China: implications for Hg sources and atmospheric transformationsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 2: Aerosol pH and liquid water contentFirst insights into northern Africa high-altitude background aerosol chemical composition and source influencesImpact of dry intrusion events on the composition and mixing state of particles during the winter Aerosol and Cloud Experiment in the Eastern North Atlantic (ACE-ENA)Diverse mixing states of amine-containing single particles in Nanjing, ChinaLong-range transport of anthropogenic air pollutants into the marine air: insight into fine particle transport and chloride depletion on sea saltsResponse of atmospheric composition to COVID-19 lockdown measures during spring in the Paris region (France)Transport-driven aerosol differences above and below the canopy of a mixed deciduous forestOrigin of water-soluble organic aerosols at the Maïdo high-altitude observatory, Réunion Island, in the tropical Indian OceanSources and nature of ice-nucleating particles in the free troposphere at Jungfraujoch in winter 2017Spatiotemporal variability in the oxidative potential of ambient fine particulate matter in the Midwestern United StatesMeasurement report: Spatiotemporal and policy-related variations of PM2.5 composition and sources during 2015–2019 at multiple sites in a Chinese megacityContribution of combustion Fe in marine aerosols over the northwestern Pacific estimated by Fe stable isotope ratiosFluorescent biological aerosol particles over the central Pacific Ocean: covariation with ocean surface biological activity indicatorsDramatic changes in Harbin aerosol during 2018–2020: the roles of open burning policy and secondary aerosol formationTime-dependent source apportionment of submicron organic aerosol for a rural site in an alpine valley using a rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) windowCharacterization of non-refractory (NR) PM1 and source apportionment of organic aerosol in Kraków, PolandSources of black carbon at residential and traffic environments obtained by two source apportionment methodsReduced volatility of aerosols from surface emissions to the top of the planetary boundary layerMeasurement report: Receptor modeling for source identification of urban fine and coarse particulate matter using hourly elemental compositionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitrated and oxygenated derivatives in the Arctic boundary layer: seasonal trends and local anthropogenic influenceSeasonal Analysis of Reduced and Oxidized Nitrogen-Containing Organic Compounds at a Coastal SiteMeasurement report: The chemical composition of and temporal variability in aerosol particles at Tuktoyaktuk, Canada, during the Year of Polar Prediction Second Special Observing PeriodPan-Arctic seasonal cycles and long-term trends of aerosol properties from ten observatoriesAmmonium nitrate promotes sulfate formation through uptake kinetic regimeDevelopment and evolution of an anomalous Asian dust event across Europe in March 2020Measurement report: Indirect evidence for the controlling influence of acidity on the speciation of iodine in Atlantic aerosolsUrban aerosol chemistry at a land–water transition site during summer – Part 1: Impact of agricultural and industrial ammonia emissionsMeasurement report: Vertical distribution of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols in the urban boundary layer over Beijing during late summerSource-specific light absorption by carbonaceous components in the complex aerosol matrix from yearly filter-based measurementsVariability in black carbon mass concentration in surface snow at SvalbardRapid mass growth and enhanced light extinction of atmospheric aerosols during the heating season haze episodes in Beijing revealed by aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer interactionMeasurement report: Saccharide composition in atmospheric fine particulate matter during spring at the remote sites of southwest China and estimates of source contributionsGas–particle partitioning of polyol tracers at a suburban site in Nanjing, east China: increased partitioning to the particle phaseMeasurement report: Source characteristics of water-soluble organic carbon in PM2.5 at two sites in Japan, as assessed by long-term observation and stable carbon isotope ratioThe importance of sesquiterpene oxidation products for secondary organic aerosol formation in a springtime hemiboreal forestPM1 composition and source apportionment at two sites in Delhi, India, across multiple seasonsIncrease of nitrooxy organosulfates in firework-related urban aerosols during Chinese New Year's EveDifferentiation of coarse-mode anthropogenic, marine and dust particles in the High Arctic islands of SvalbardSource apportionment of atmospheric PM10 oxidative potential: synthesis of 15 year-round urban datasets in FranceMeasurement report: Long-emission-wavelength chromophores dominate the light absorption of brown carbon in aerosols over Bangkok: impact from biomass burning
Yanhong Zhu, Weijun Li, Yue Wang, Jian Zhang, Lei Liu, Liang Xu, Jingsha Xu, Jinhui Shi, Longyi Shao, Pingqing Fu, Daizhou Zhang, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 2191–2202,Short summary
The solubilities of iron in fine particles in a megacity in Eastern China were studied under haze, fog, dust, clear, and rain weather conditions. For the first time, a receptor model was used to quantify the sources of dissolved and total iron aerosol. Microscopic analysis further confirmed the aging of iron aerosol during haze and fog conditions that facilitated dissolution of insoluble iron.
Yating Gao, Dihui Chen, Yanjie Shen, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1515–1528,Short summary
This study focuses on spatiotemporal heterogeneity of observed gaseous amines, NH3, their particulate counterparts in PM2.5 over different sea zones, and the disproportional release of alkaline gases and corresponding particulate counterparts from seawater in the sea zones in terms of different extents of enrichment of TMAH+ and DMAH+ in the sea surface microlayer (SML). A novel hypothesis is delivered.
Johannes Passig, Julian Schade, Robert Irsig, Thomas Kröger-Badge, Hendryk Czech, Thomas Adam, Henrik Fallgren, Jana Moldanova, Martin Sklorz, Thorsten Streibel, and Ralf Zimmermann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1495–1514,Short summary
The single-particle distribution of health-relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied at the Swedish coast in autumn. We found PAHs bound to long-range transported particles from eastern and central Europe and also from ship emissions and local sources. This is the first field study using a new technology revealing single-particle data from both inorganic components and PAHs. We discuss PAH profiles that are indicative of several sources and atmospheric aging processes.
Md. Mozammel Haque, Yanlin Zhang, Srinivas Bikkina, Meehye Lee, and Kimitaka Kawamura
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1373–1393,Short summary
We attempt to understand the current state of East Asian organic aerosols with both the molecular marker approach and 14° C data of carbonaceous components. A significant positive correlation of nonfossil- and fossil-derived organic carbon with levoglucosan suggests the importance of biomass burning (BB) and coal combustion sources in the East Asian outflow. Thus, attribution of ambient levoglucosan levels over the western North Pacific to the impact of BB emission may cause large uncertainty.
Jing Cai, Cheng Wu, Jiandong Wang, Wei Du, Feixue Zheng, Simo Hakala, Xiaolong Fan, Biwu Chu, Lei Yao, Zemin Feng, Yongchun Liu, Yele Sun, Jun Zheng, Chao Yan, Federico Bianchi, Markku Kulmala, Claudia Mohr, and Kaspar R. Daellenbach
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1251–1269,Short summary
This study investigates the connection between organic aerosol (OA) molecular composition and particle absorptive properties in autumn in Beijing. We find that the molecular properties of OA compounds in different episodes influence particle light absorption properties differently: the light absorption enhancement of black carbon and light absorption coefficient of brown carbon were mostly related to more oxygenated OA (low C number and four O atoms) and aromatics/nitro-aromatics, respectively.
Jessica M. Burger, Julie Granger, Emily Joyce, Meredith G. Hastings, Kurt A. M. Spence, and Katye E. Altieri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 1081–1096,Short summary
The nitrogen (N) isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in the Southern Ocean (SO) marine boundary layer (MBL) reveals the importance of oceanic alkyl nitrate emissions as a source of reactive N to the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition suggests peroxy radicals contribute up to 63 % to NO oxidation and that nitrate forms via the OH pathway. This work improves our understanding of reactive N sources and cycling in a remote marine region, a proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere.
Dongwook Kim, Changmin Cho, Seokhan Jeong, Soojin Lee, Benjamin A. Nault, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Douglas A. Day, Jason C. Schroder, Jose L. Jimenez, Rainer Volkamer, Donald R. Blake, Armin Wisthaler, Alan Fried, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Sally E. Pusede, Samuel R. Hall, Kirk Ullmann, L. Gregory Huey, David J. Tanner, Jack Dibb, Christoph J. Knote, and Kyung-Eun Min
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 805–821,Short summary
CHOCHO was simulated using a 0-D box model constrained by measurements during the KORUS-AQ mission. CHOCHO concentration was high in large cities, aromatics being the most important precursors. Loss path to aerosol was the highest sink, contributing to ~ 20 % of secondary organic aerosol formation. Our work highlights that simple CHOCHO surface uptake approach is valid only for low aerosol conditions and more work is required to understand CHOCHO solubility in high-aerosol conditions.
Juanjuan Qin, Jihua Tan, Xueming Zhou, Yanrong Yang, Yuanyuan Qin, Xiaobo Wang, Shaoxuan Shi, Kang Xiao, and Xinming Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 465–479,Short summary
Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) play important roles in atmospheric particle formation, migration, and transformation processes. In this work, size-segregated atmospheric particles were collected in a rural area of Beijing, and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the optical properties of WSOCs as a means of inferring information about their atmospheric sources. It was found that these data could efficiently reveal the secondary transformation processes of WSOCs.
Guangjie Zheng, Hang Su, Siwen Wang, Andrea Pozzer, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 47–63,Short summary
The recently proposed multiphase buffer theory provides a framework to reconstruct long-term trends and spatial variations in aerosol pH, while non-ideality is a major limitation for its broad applications. Here we proposed a parameterization method to estimate the impact of non-ideality and validated it against long-term observations and global simulations. With this method, the multiphase buffer theory can reproduce well aerosol pH variations estimated by comprehensive thermodynamic models.
Lingling Xu, Jiayan Shi, Yuping Chen, Yanru Zhang, Mengrong Yang, Yanting Chen, Liqian Yin, Lei Tong, Hang Xiao, and Jinsheng Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18543–18555,Short summary
Mercury (Hg) isotopic compositions in aerosols are the mixed results of emission sources and atmospheric processes. This study presents Hg isotopic compositions in PM2.5 from different types of locations and total Hg from offshore surface seawater. The results indicate that atmospheric transformations induce significant mass independent fractionation of Hg isotopes, which obscures Hg isotopic signatures of initial emissions.
Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Nicholas Balasus, Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18271–18281,Short summary
This study characterizes aerosol liquid water content and aerosol pH at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, Maryland. We characterize the effects of unique meteorology associated with the close proximity to the Chesapeake Bay and episodic NH3 events derived from industrial and agricultural sources on aerosol chemistry during the summer. We also examine two events where primary Bay emissions underwent aging in the polluted urban atmosphere.
Nabil Deabji, Khanneh Wadinga Fomba, Souad El Hajjaji, Abdelwahid Mellouki, Laurent Poulain, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, and Hartmut Herrmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18147–18174,Short summary
Mountain and high-altitude sites provide representative data for the lower free troposphere, various pathways for aerosol interactions, and changing boundary layer heights useful in understanding atmospheric composition. However, only few studies exist in African regions despite diversity in both natural and anthropogenic emissions. This study provides detailed atmospheric studies in the northern African high-altitude region.
Jay M. Tomlin, Kevin A. Jankowski, Daniel P. Veghte, Swarup China, Peiwen Wang, Matthew Fraund, Johannes Weis, Guangjie Zheng, Yang Wang, Felipe Rivera-Adorno, Shira Raveh-Rubin, Daniel A. Knopf, Jian Wang, Mary K. Gilles, Ryan C. Moffet, and Alexander Laskin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 18123–18146,Short summary
Analysis of individual atmospheric particles shows that aerosol transported from North America during meteorological dry intrusion episodes may have a substantial impact on the mixing state and particle-type population over the mid-Atlantic, as organic contribution and particle-type diversity are significantly enhanced during these periods. These observations need to be considered in current atmospheric models.
Qi En Zhong, Chunlei Cheng, Zaihua Wang, Lei Li, Mei Li, Dafeng Ge, Lei Wang, Yuanyuan Li, Wei Nie, Xuguang Chi, Aijun Ding, Suxia Yang, Duohong Chen, and Zhen Zhou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17953–17967,Short summary
Particulate amines play important roles in new particle formation, aerosol acidity, and hygroscopicity. Most of the field observations did not distinguish the different behavior of each type amine under the same ambient influencing factors. In this study, two amine-containing single particles exhibited different mixing states and disparate enrichment of secondary organics, which provide insight into the discriminated fates of organics during the formation and evolution processes.
Liang Xu, Xiaohuan Liu, Huiwang Gao, Xiaohong Yao, Daizhou Zhang, Lei Bi, Lei Liu, Jian Zhang, Yinxiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Qi Yuan, and Weijun Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17715–17726,Short summary
We quantified different types of marine aerosols and explored the Cl depletion of sea salt aerosol (SSA) in the eastern China seas and the northwestern Pacific Ocean. We found that anthropogenic acidic gases in the troposphere were transported longer distances compared to the anthropogenic aerosols and could significantly impact remote marine aerosols. Meanwhile, variations of chloride depletion in SSA can serve as a potential indicator for anthropogenic gaseous pollutants in remote marine air.
Jean-Eudes Petit, Jean-Charles Dupont, Olivier Favez, Valérie Gros, Yunjiang Zhang, Jean Sciare, Leila Simon, François Truong, Nicolas Bonnaire, Tanguy Amodeo, Robert Vautard, and Martial Haeffelin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17167–17183,Short summary
The COVID-19 outbreak led to lockdowns at national scales in spring 2020. Large cuts in emissions occurred, but the quantitative assessment of their role from observations is hindered by weather and interannual variability. That is why we developed an innovative methodology in order to best characterize the impact of lockdown on atmospheric chemistry. We find that a local decrease in traffic-related pollutants triggered a decrease of secondary aerosols and an increase in ozone.
Alexander A. T. Bui, Henry W. Wallace, Sarah Kavassalis, Hariprasad D. Alwe, James H. Flynn, Matt H. Erickson, Sergio Alvarez, Dylan B. Millet, Allison L. Steiner, and Robert J. Griffin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17031–17050,Short summary
Differences in atmospheric species above and below a forest canopy provide insight into the relative importance of local mixing, long-range transport, and chemical processes in determining vertical gradients in atmospheric particles in a forested environment. This helps in understanding the flux of climate-relevant material out of the forest to the atmosphere. We studied this in a remote forest using vertically resolved measurements of gases and particles.
Sharmine Akter Simu, Yuzo Miyazaki, Eri Tachibana, Henning Finkenzeller, Jérôme Brioude, Aurélie Colomb, Olivier Magand, Bert Verreyken, Stephanie Evan, Rainer Volkamer, and Trissevgeni Stavrakou
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 17017–17029,Short summary
The tropical Indian Ocean (IO) is expected to be a significant source of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), which is relevant to cloud formation. Our study showed that marine secondary organic formation dominantly contributed to the aerosol WSOC mass at the high-altitude observatory in the southwest IO in the wet season in both marine boundary layer and free troposphere (FT). This suggests that the effect of marine secondary sources is important up to FT, a process missing in climate models.
Larissa Lacher, Hans-Christian Clemen, Xiaoli Shen, Stephan Mertes, Martin Gysel-Beer, Alireza Moallemi, Martin Steinbacher, Stephan Henne, Harald Saathoff, Ottmar Möhler, Kristina Höhler, Thea Schiebel, Daniel Weber, Jann Schrod, Johannes Schneider, and Zamin A. Kanji
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16925–16953,Short summary
We investigate ice-nucleating particle properties at Jungfraujoch during the 2017 joint INUIT/CLACE field campaign, to improve the knowledge about those rare particles in a cloud-relevant environment. By quantifying ice-nucleating particles in parallel to single-particle mass spectrometry measurements, we find that mineral dust and aged sea spray particles are potential candidates for ice-nucleating particles. Our findings are supported by ice residual analysis and source region modeling.
Haoran Yu, Joseph Varghese Puthussery, Yixiang Wang, and Vishal Verma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16363–16386,Short summary
We assessed the oxidative potential (OP) of ambient PM2.5 collected from many sites in the US Midwest through multiple acellular endpoints. Compared to homogeneously distributed PM2.5, OP showed higher spatiotemporal variation. Poor correlations for the regression between mass and OP indicated a limited role of mass in determining the OP. Moreover, weak correlations among different OP endpoints justify the need for using multiple assays to determine oxidative levels of particles.
Xinyao Feng, Yingze Tian, Qianqian Xue, Danlin Song, Fengxia Huang, and Yinchang Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16219–16235,Short summary
This study focused on PM2.5 compositions and sources and explored their spatiotemporal and policy-related variations based on observation at 19 sites during wintertime of 2015–2019 in a fast-developing megacity. We found that PM2.5 compositions for the outermost zone in 2019 were similar to those for the core zone 2 or 3 years ago. Percentage contributions of coal and biomass combustion dramatically declined in the core zone, while the traffic source showed an increasing trend.
Minako Kurisu, Kohei Sakata, Mitsuo Uematsu, Akinori Ito, and Yoshio Takahashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 16027–16050,Short summary
Aerosol iron (Fe) input can enhance oceanic primary production. We analyzed Fe isotope ratios of size-fractionated aerosols over the northwestern Pacific to evaluate the contribution of natural and combustion Fe. It was found that combustion Fe was an important soluble Fe source in marine aerosols and possibly in surface seawater when air masses were from East Asia. This study shows the applicability of Fe isotope ratios for a more quantitative understanding of the Fe cycle in the surface ocean.
Kaori Kawana, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Fumikazu Taketani, Takuma Miyakawa, and Yugo Kanaya
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15969–15983,Short summary
Atmospheric autofluorescent particles observed over the central Pacific Ocean were identified as bioaerosols from comparisons to a DNA-nuclear-staining method. Their number concentrations in the pristine marine air masses showed high correlations with concentrations of bacteria and transparent exopolymer particles in the surface seawater, providing strong evidence of their marine origins. We propose equations to derive the atmospheric bioaerosol number concentrations from oceanic parameters.
Yuan Cheng, Qin-qin Yu, Jiu-meng Liu, Xu-bing Cao, Ying-jie Zhong, Zhen-yu Du, Lin-lin Liang, Guan-nan Geng, Wan-li Ma, Hong Qi, Qiang Zhang, and Ke-bin He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15199–15211,Short summary
Open burning policies in Heilongjiang Province experienced a rapid transition during 2018 to 2020. This study evaluated the responses of PM2.5 pollution to this transition and suggested that neither of the policies could be considered successful. In addition, heterogeneous reactions were found to be at play in secondary aerosol formation, even in the frigid atmosphere in Heilongjiang. The unique haze in northeast China deserves more attention.
Gang Chen, Yulia Sosedova, Francesco Canonaco, Roman Fröhlich, Anna Tobler, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Carlo Bozzetti, Christoph Hueglin, Peter Graf, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, Imad El Haddad, and André S. H. Prévôt
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15081–15101,Short summary
A novel, advanced source apportionment technique was applied to a dataset measured in Magadino. Rolling positive matrix factorisation (PMF) allows for retrieving more realistic, time-dependent, and detailed information on organic aerosol sources. The strength of the rolling PMF mechanism is highlighted by comparing it with results derived from conventional seasonal PMF. Overall, this comprehensive interpretation of aerosol chemical speciation monitor data could be a role model for similar work.
Anna K. Tobler, Alicja Skiba, Francesco Canonaco, Griša Močnik, Pragati Rai, Gang Chen, Jakub Bartyzel, Miroslaw Zimnoch, Katarzyna Styszko, Jaroslaw Nęcki, Markus Furger, Kazimierz Różański, Urs Baltensperger, Jay G. Slowik, and Andre S. H. Prevot
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14893–14906,Short summary
Kraków is among the cities with the highest particulate matter levels within Europe. We conducted long-term and highly time-resolved measurements of the chemical composition of submicron particlulate matter (PM1). Combined with advanced source apportionment techniques, which allow for time-dependent factor profiles, our results elucidate that traffic and residential heating (biomass burning and coal combustion) as well as oxygenated organic aerosol are the key PM sources in Kraków.
Sanna Saarikoski, Jarkko V. Niemi, Minna Aurela, Liisa Pirjola, Anu Kousa, Topi Rönkkö, and Hilkka Timonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14851–14869,Short summary
This study presents the main sources of black carbon (BC) at two urban environments. The largest fraction of BC originated from biomass burning at the residential site (38 %) and from vehicular emissions (57 %) in the street canyon. Also, a significant fraction of BC was associated with urban background or long-range transport. The data are needed by modelers and authorities when assessing climate and air quality impact of BC as well as directing the emission legislation and mitigation actions.
Quan Liu, Dantong Liu, Yangzhou Wu, Kai Bi, Wenkang Gao, Ping Tian, Delong Zhao, Siyuan Li, Chenjie Yu, Guiqian Tang, Yunfei Wu, Kang Hu, Shuo Ding, Qian Gao, Fei Wang, Shaofei Kong, Hui He, Mengyu Huang, and Deping Ding
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14749–14760,Short summary
Through simultaneous online measurements of detailed aerosol compositions at both surface and surface-influenced mountain sites, the evolution of aerosol composition during daytime vertical transport was investigated. The results show that, from surface to the top of the planetary boundary layer, the oxidation state of organic aerosol had been significantly enhanced due to evaporation and further oxidation of these evaporated gases.
Magdalena Reizer, Giulia Calzolai, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José A. G. Orza, Luca Carraresi, Franco Lucarelli, and Katarzyna Juda-Rezler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14471–14492,Short summary
The elemental composition of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM2.5–10 was measured during wintertime, with 1 h resolution, using a streaker sampler for the first time at a Central European urban background site. A set of multivariate and wind- and trajectory-based receptor models identified the main sources of ambient aerosol. Fine PM fraction was mainly comprised of regionally transported aged secondary sulfate from residential solid fuel combustion, while the coarse mode showed traffic-related origins.
Tatiana Drotikova, Alena Dekhtyareva, Roland Kallenborn, and Alexandre Albinet
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14351–14370,Short summary
A total of 86 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), toxic compounds mainly emitted after fossil fuel combustion, were measured during 8 months in the urban air of Longyearbyen (78° N, 15° E), the most populated settlement in Svalbard. Contrary to a stereotype of pristine Arctic conditions with very low human activity, considerable PAC concentrations were detected, with spring levels comparable to European levels. Air pollution was caused by local snowmobiles in spring and shipping in summer.
Jenna C. Ditto, Jo Machesky, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We analyzed gases and aerosols sampled in summer and winter in a coastal region, and observed a high contribution of nitrogen-containing species from a wide range of biogenic, anthropogenic, and marine sources, as well as formed via photochemical and aqueous-phase reactions in the atmosphere. We demonstrate the prevalence of key reduced and oxidized nitrogen functional groups, which develops our understanding of the chemical structure of nitrogen-containing compounds and their ultimate impacts.
John MacInnis, Jai Prakash Chaubey, Crystal Weagle, David Atkinson, and Rachel Ying-Wen Chang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14199–14213,Short summary
This study measured particulate matter in the western Canadian Arctic during 2018 as part of the Year of Polar Prediction. It was found that the particles were likely from the ocean, soil, road dust, and combustion. The concentrations of small aerosol particles, which can affect human health, were low, suggesting they had little impact on local air quality. These results can be used to understand future changes in local aerosol particle sources and concentrations.
Julia Schmale, Sangeeta Sharma, Stefano Decesari, Jakob Pernov, Andreas Massling, Hans-Christen Hansson, Knut von Salzen, Henrik Skov, Elisabeth Andrews, Patricia K. Quinn, Lucia M. Upchurch, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, and Rita Traversi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Long-term data sets of Arctic aerosol properties from ten stations across the Arctic provide evidence that anthropogenic influence on the Arctic atmospheric chemical composition has declined in winter, a season which is typically dominated by mid-latitude emissions. The number of significant trends in summer trends is small and overall the pattern is ambiguous with some significant positive and negative trends. This reflects the mixed influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions.
Yongchun Liu, Zemin Feng, Feixue Zheng, Xiaolei Bao, Pengfei Liu, Yanli Ge, Yan Zhao, Tao Jiang, Yunwen Liao, Yusheng Zhang, Xiaolong Fan, Chao Yan, Biwu Chu, Yonghong Wang, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Federico Bianchi, Tuukka Petäjä, Yujing Mu, Hong He, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13269–13286,Short summary
The mechanisms and kinetics of particulate sulfate formation in the atmosphere are still open questions although they have been extensively discussed. We found that uptake of SO2 is the rate-determining step for the conversion of SO2 to particulate sulfate. NH4NO3 plays an important role in AWC, the phase state of aerosol particles, and subsequently the uptake kinetics of SO2 under high-RH conditions. This work is a good example of the feedback between aerosol physics and aerosol chemistry.
Laura Tositti, Erika Brattich, Claudio Cassardo, Pietro Morozzi, Alessandro Bracci, Angela Marinoni, Silvana Di Sabatino, Federico Porcù, and Alessandro Zappi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
We present a thorough investigation of an anomalous transport of mineral dust over a region renowned for excess airborne particulate matter, the Italian Po valley, which occurred in late March 2021. The anomaly stands in both the origin of this dust outbreak which was localized in central Asia, i.e. the so-called Aralkum desert, and on the upstream synoptic conditions herein investigated in extreme detail using multiple integrated observations including in-situ measurements and remote sensing.
Alex R. Baker and Chan Yodle
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13067–13076,Short summary
Iodine is emitted from the ocean and helps to destroy ozone in the lower atmosphere before being taken up into aerosol particles. We measured the chemical forms of iodine in aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, because some of these forms can return to the gas phase and destroy more ozone. Our results indicate that aerosol acidity exerts a strong control on iodine speciation and therefore on its recycling behaviour and impact on ozone concentrations.
Nicholas Balasus, Michael A. Battaglia Jr., Katherine Ball, Vanessa Caicedo, Ruben Delgado, Annmarie G. Carlton, and Christopher J. Hennigan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13051–13065,Short summary
Measurements of aerosol and gas composition were carried out at a land–water transition site near Baltimore, MD. Gas-phase ammonia concentrations were highly elevated compared to measurements at a nearby inland site. Our analysis reveals that NH2 was from both industrial and agricultural sources. This had a pronounced effect on aerosol chemical composition at the site, most notably contributing to episodic spikes of aerosol nitrate.
Hong Ren, Wei Hu, Lianfang Wei, Siyao Yue, Jian Zhao, Linjie Li, Libin Wu, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Mingjie Kang, Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Xiaole Pan, Zifa Wang, Yele Sun, Kimitaka Kawamura, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12949–12963,Short summary
This study presents vertical profiles of biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in the urban boundary layer based on a 325 m tower in Beijing in late summer. The increases in the isoprene and toluene SOAs with height were found to be more related to regional transport, whereas the decrease in those from monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were more subject to local emissions. Such complicated vertical distributions of SOA should be considered in future modeling work.
Vaios Moschos, Martin Gysel-Beer, Robin L. Modini, Joel C. Corbin, Dario Massabò, Camilla Costa, Silvia G. Danelli, Athanasia Vlachou, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Sönke Szidat, Paolo Prati, André S. H. Prévôt, Urs Baltensperger, and Imad El Haddad
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12809–12833,Short summary
This study provides a holistic approach to studying the spectrally resolved light absorption by atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) and black carbon using long time series of daily samples from filter-based measurements. The obtained results provide (1) a better understanding of the aerosol absorption profile and its dependence on BrC and on lensing from less absorbing coatings and (2) an estimation of the most important absorbers at typical European locations.
Michele Bertò, David Cappelletti, Elena Barbaro, Cristiano Varin, Jean-Charles Gallet, Krzysztof Markowicz, Anna Rozwadowska, Mauro Mazzola, Stefano Crocchianti, Luisa Poto, Paolo Laj, Carlo Barbante, and Andrea Spolaor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12479–12493,Short summary
We present the daily and seasonal variability in black carbon (BC) in surface snow inferred from two specific experiments based on the hourly and daily time resolution sampling during the Arctic spring in Svalbard. These unique data sets give us, for the first time, the opportunity to evaluate the associations between the observed surface snow BC mass concentration and a set of predictors corresponding to the considered meteorological and snow physico-chemical parameters.
Zhuohui Lin, Yonghong Wang, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhou, Yishuo Guo, Zemin Feng, Chang Li, Yusheng Zhang, Simo Hakala, Tommy Chan, Chao Yan, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Biwu Chu, Lubna Dada, Juha Kangasluoma, Lei Yao, Xiaolong Fan, Wei Du, Jing Cai, Runlong Cai, Tom V. Kokkonen, Putian Zhou, Lili Wang, Tuukka Petäjä, Federico Bianchi, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Yongchun Liu, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12173–12187,Short summary
We find that ammonium nitrate and aerosol water content contributed most during low mixing layer height conditions; this may further trigger enhanced formation of sulfate and organic aerosol via heterogeneous reactions. The results of this study contribute towards a more detailed understanding of the aerosol–chemistry–radiation–boundary layer feedback that is likely to be responsible for explosive aerosol mass growth events in urban Beijing.
Zhenzhen Wang, Di Wu, Zhuoyu Li, Xiaona Shang, Qing Li, Xiang Li, Renjie Chen, Haidong Kan, Huiling Ouyang, Xu Tang, and Jianmin Chen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12227–12241,Short summary
This study firstly investigates the composition of sugars in the fine fraction of aerosol over three sites in southwest China. The result suggested no significant reduction in biomass burning emissions in southwest Yunnan Province to some extent. The result shown sheds light on the contributions of biomass burning and the characteristics of biogenic saccharides in these regions, which could be further applied to regional source apportionment models and global climate models.
Chao Qin, Yafeng Gou, Yuhang Wang, Yuhao Mao, Hong Liao, Qin'geng Wang, and Mingjie Xie
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12141–12153,Short summary
In this study, we found that the aqueous solution in aerosols is an important absorbing phase for gaseous polyols in the atmosphere, indicating that the dissolution in aerosol liquid water should not be ignored when investigating gas–particle partitioning of water-soluble organics. The exponential increase in effective partitioning coefficients of polyol tracers with sulfate ion concentrations could be attributed to organic–inorganic interactions in the particle phase.
Nana Suto and Hiroto Kawashima
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11815–11828,Short summary
The sources and seasonal trends of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in PM2.5 on long-term trends at two sites in Japan are investigated by carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of WSOC. At the rural site, the δ13C of WSOC from autumn to spring was concluded to reflect mainly the biomass burning of rice straw. The heaviest δ13C of WSOC from February to April 2019 might reflect long-range transport of particles resulting from the overseas burning of C4 plants such as corn.
Luis M. F. Barreira, Arttu Ylisirniö, Iida Pullinen, Angela Buchholz, Zijun Li, Helina Lipp, Heikki Junninen, Urmas Hõrrak, Steffen M. Noe, Alisa Krasnova, Dmitrii Krasnov, Kaia Kask, Eero Talts, Ülo Niinemets, Jose Ruiz-Jimenez, and Siegfried Schobesberger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11781–11800,Short summary
We present results from PM1 atmospheric composition and concentration measurements performed in a springtime hemiboreal forest. Sesquiterpene mixing ratios and particle-phase concentrations of corresponding oxidation products were rapidly increasing on some early mornings. The particle volatility suggested that condensable sesquiterpene oxidation products are rapidly formed in the atmosphere. The results revealed the importance of sesquiterpenes for secondary organic aerosol particulate mass.
Ernesto Reyes-Villegas, Upasana Panda, Eoghan Darbyshire, James M. Cash, Rutambhara Joshi, Ben Langford, Chiara F. Di Marco, Neil J. Mullinger, Mohammed S. Alam, Leigh R. Crilley, Daniel J. Rooney, W. Joe F. Acton, Will Drysdale, Eiko Nemitz, Michael Flynn, Aristeidis Voliotis, Gordon McFiggans, Hugh Coe, James Lee, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Mathew R. Heal, Sachin S. Gunthe, Tuhin K. Mandal, Bhola R. Gurjar, Shivani, Ranu Gadi, Siddhartha Singh, Vijay Soni, and James D. Allan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11655–11667,Short summary
This paper shows the first multisite online measurements of PM1 in Delhi, India, with measurements over different seasons in Old Delhi and New Delhi in 2018. Organic aerosol (OA) source apportionment was performed using positive matrix factorisation (PMF). Traffic was the main primary aerosol source for both OAs and black carbon, seen with PMF and Aethalometer model analysis, indicating that control of primary traffic exhaust emissions would make a significant reduction to Delhi air pollution.
Qiaorong Xie, Sihui Su, Jing Chen, Yuqing Dai, Siyao Yue, Hang Su, Haijie Tong, Wanyu Zhao, Lujie Ren, Yisheng Xu, Dong Cao, Ying Li, Yele Sun, Zifa Wang, Cong-Qiang Liu, Kimitaka Kawamura, Guibin Jiang, Yafang Cheng, and Pingqing Fu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11453–11465,Short summary
This study investigated the role of nighttime chemistry during Chinese New Year's Eve that enhances the formation of nitrooxy organosulfates in the aerosol phase. Results show that anthropogenic precursors, together with biogenic ones, considerably contribute to the formation of low-volatility nitrooxy OSs. Our study provides detailed molecular composition of firework-related aerosols, which gives new insights into the physicochemical properties and potential health effects of urban aerosols.
Congbo Song, Manuel Dall'Osto, Angelo Lupi, Mauro Mazzola, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, Stefania Gilardoni, Stergios Vratolis, Karl Espen Yttri, David C. S. Beddows, Julia Schmale, James Brean, Agung Ghani Kramawijaya, Roy M. Harrison, and Zongbo Shi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11317–11335,Short summary
We present a cluster analysis of relatively long-term (2015–2019) aerosol aerodynamic volume size distributions up to 20 μm in the Arctic for the first time. The study found that anthropogenic and natural aerosols comprised 27 % and 73 % of the occurrence of the coarse-mode aerosols, respectively. Our study shows that about two-thirds of the coarse-mode aerosols are related to two sea-spray-related aerosol clusters, indicating that sea spray aerosol may more complex in the Arctic environment.
Samuël Weber, Gaëlle Uzu, Olivier Favez, Lucille Joanna S. Borlaza, Aude Calas, Dalia Salameh, Florie Chevrier, Julie Allard, Jean-Luc Besombes, Alexandre Albinet, Sabrina Pontet, Boualem Mesbah, Grégory Gille, Shouwen Zhang, Cyril Pallares, Eva Leoz-Garziandia, and Jean-Luc Jaffrezo
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11353–11378,Short summary
Oxidative potential (OP) of aerosols is apportioned to the main PM sources found in 15 sites over France. The sources present clear distinct intrinsic OPs at a large geographic scale, and a drastic redistribution between the mass concentration and OP measured by both ascorbic acid and dithiothreitol is highlighted. Moreover, the high discrepancy between the mean and median contributions of the sources to the given metrics raises some important questions when dealing with health endpoints.
Jiao Tang, Jiaqi Wang, Guangcai Zhong, Hongxing Jiang, Yangzhi Mo, Bolong Zhang, Xiaofei Geng, Yingjun Chen, Jianhui Tang, Congguo Tian, Surat Bualert, Jun Li, and Gan Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11337–11352,Short summary
This article provides a combined EEM–PARAFAC and statistical analysis method to explore how excitation–emission matrix (EEM) chromophores influence BrC light absorption in soluble organic matter. The application enables us to deduce that BrC absorption is mainly dependent on longer-emission-wavelength chromophores largely associated with biomass burning emissions. This method promotes the application of EEM spectroscopy and helps us understand the light absorption of BrC in the atmosphere.
Aiken, A. C., Salcedo, D., Cubison, M. J., Huffman, J. A., DeCarlo, P. F., Ulbrich, I. M., Docherty, K. S., Sueper, D., Kimmel, J. R., Worsnop, D. R., Trimborn, A., Northway, M., Stone, E. A., Schauer, J. J., Volkamer, R. M., Fortner, E., de Foy, B., Wang, J., Laskin, A., Shutthanandan, V., Zheng, J., Zhang, R., Gaffney, J., Marley, N. A., Paredes-Miranda, G., Arnott, W. P., Molina, L. T., Sosa, G., and Jimenez, J. L.: Mexico City aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0) – Part 1: Fine particle composition and organic source apportionment, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6633–6653, https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-6633-2009, 2009.
Alves, C. A., Lopes, D. J., Calvo, A. I., Evtyugina, M., Rocha, S., and Nunes, T.: Emissions from light-duty diesel and gasoline in-use vehicles measured on chassis dynamometer test cycles, Aerosol Air Qual. Res., 15, 99–116, https://doi.org/10.4209/aaqr.2014.01.0006, 2015.
Ban-Weiss, G. A., McLaughlin, J. P., Harley, R. A., Lunden, M. M., Kirchstetter, T. W., Kean, A. J., Strawa, A. W., Stevenson, E. D., and Kendall, G. R.: Long-term changes in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles, Atmos. Environ., 42, 220–232, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2007.09.049, 2008.
Ban-Weiss, G. A., Lunden, M. M., Kirchstetter, T. W., and Harley, R. A.: Size-resolved particle number and volume emission factors for on-road gasoline and diesel motor vehicles, J. Aerosol Sci., 41, 5–12, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaerosci.2009.08.001, 2010.
Belcher, S., Coceal, O., Hunt, J., Carruthers, D., and Robins, A.: A review of urban dispersion modelling, ADMLC, UK, 2013.
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Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship between traffic-related airborne carbonaceous particles and the composition of traffic to reveal how emissions from different vehicle types affect ambient air quality. On average, LPG vehicles showed very small contributions, while gasoline- and diesel-powered vehicles emitted similar total amounts of carbon-containing particles but with differences in chemical composition.
Road traffic is an important source of air pollution. This study investigates the relationship...