Articles | Volume 17, issue 18
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11389–11401, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Anthropogenic dust and its climate impact
Research article 26 Sep 2017
Research article | 26 Sep 2017
Anthropogenic dust emissions due to livestock trampling in a Mongolian temperate grassland
Erdenebayar Munkhtsetseg et al.
No articles found.
Mizuo Kajino, Akira Watanabe, Masahide Ishizuka, Kazuyuki Kita, Yuji Zaizen, Takeshi Kinase, Rikuya Hirai, Kakeru Konnai, Akane Saya, Kazuki Iwaoka, Yoshitaka Shiroma, Hidenao Hasegawa, Naofumi Akata, Masahiro Hosoda, Shinji Tokonami, and Yasuhito Igarashi
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Preprint under review for ACPShort summary
Using a numerical model and observations of surface concentration and depositions, the current study provides quantitative assessments of emission, transport, and deposition of radio-Cs in East Japan in 2013, which was once deposited to the ground surface after the Fukushima nuclear accident. The areal mean resuspension rate of radio-Cs from the ground to the air is estimated as 0.96 % per year, which is equivalent to 1–10% of the decreasing rates of ambient gamma dose rate in Fukushima.
Mizuo Kajino, Makoto Deushi, Tsuyoshi Thomas Sekiyama, Naga Oshima, Keiya Yumimoto, Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka, Joseph Ching, Akihiro Hashimoto, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Masaaki Ikegami, Akane Kamada, Makoto Miyashita, Yayoi Inomata, Shin-ichiro Shima, Pradeep Khatri, Atsushi Shimizu, Hitoshi Irie, Kouji Adachi, Yuji Zaizen, Yasuhito Igarashi, Hiromasa Ueda, Takashi Maki, and Masao Mikami
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 2235–2264,Short summary
This study compares performance of aerosol representation methods of the Japan Meteorological Agency's regional-scale nonhydrostatic meteorology–chemistry model (NHM-Chem). It indicates separate treatment of sea salt and dust in coarse mode and that of light-absorptive and non-absorptive particles in fine mode could provide accurate assessments on aerosol feedback processes.
Yaping Shao, Jie Zhang, Masahide Ishizuka, Masao Mikami, John Leys, and Ning Huang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 12939–12953,Short summary
It has been recognized in earlier research that particle size distribution of dust at emission (dust PSD) is dependent on friction velocity. This recognition has been challenged in some recent papers. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we confirm that dust PSD is dependent on friction velocity and atmospheric boundary-layer stability. By theoretical and numerical analysis, we reveal the reasons for this dependency.
Mizuo Kajino, Makoto Deushi, Tsuyoshi Thomas Sekiyama, Naga Oshima, Keiya Yumimoto, Taichu Yasumichi Tanaka, Joseph Ching, Akihiro Hashimoto, Tetsuya Yamamoto, Masaaki Ikegami, Akane Kamada, Makoto Miyashita, Yayoi Inomata, Shin-ichiro Shima, Kouji Adachi, Yuji Zaizen, Yasuhito Igarashi, Hiromasa Ueda, Takashi Maki, and Masao Mikami
Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript not accepted
Dongwei Liu, Masahide Ishizuka, Masao Mikami, and Yaping Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 7595–7606,Short summary
This work is on saltation (sand motion). Most earlier studies considered only the mean features rather than the turbulent characteristics of saltation. Related to this are uncertainties in saltation model parameters. We study these issues using field measurements. We analyse saltation intermittency and spectrum and estimate the probabilistic distribution of model parameters. This work is part of our effort to develop a more general saltation model.
Mizuo Kajino, Masahide Ishizuka, Yasuhito Igarashi, Kazuyuki Kita, Chisato Yoshikawa, and Masaru Inatsu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13149–13172,Short summary
The current study provides the first quantitative budget analysis of radiocesium re-suspended from ground surface contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident. It provides useful information to society since our simulation can be used for the long-term assessment of internal exposure to residents in Japan. It also discussed that the re-suspension from forest ecosystems could be a dominant source of suspended radiocesium in the warm season in Japan.
J. F. Kok, N. M. Mahowald, G. Fratini, J. A. Gillies, M. Ishizuka, J. F. Leys, M. Mikami, M.-S. Park, S.-U. Park, R. S. Van Pelt, and T. M. Zobeck
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 13023–13041,Short summary
We developed an improved model for the emission of dust particulates ("aerosols") emitted by wind erosion from the world's deserts. The implementation of our improved dust emission model into a climate model improves its agreement against measurements. We furthermore find that dust emissions are substantially more sensitive to the soil state than most current climate models account for.
K. Osada, S. Ura, M. Kagawa, M. Mikami, T. Y. Tanaka, S. Matoba, K. Aoki, M. Shinoda, Y. Kurosaki, M. Hayashi, A. Shimizu, and M. Uematsu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 1107–1121,
Related subject area
Subject: Aerosols | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Physics (physical properties and processes)Controls on surface aerosol particle number concentrations and aerosol-limited cloud regimes over the central Greenland Ice SheetAmbient aerosol properties in the remote atmosphere from global-scale in situ measurementsResponse of particle number concentrations to the clean air action plan: lessons from the first long-term aerosol measurements in a typical urban valley in western ChinaObservations of supermicron-sized aerosols originating from biomass burning in southern Central AfricaIce-nucleating particle concentration measurements from Ny-Ålesund during the Arctic spring–summer in 2018Clustering diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change to understand their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areasEvaluation of the contribution of new particle formation to cloud droplet number concentration in the urban atmosphereA global study of hygroscopicity-driven light-scattering enhancement in the context of other in situ aerosol optical propertiesOptical properties of coated black carbon aggregates: numerical simulations, radiative forcing estimates, and size-resolved parameterization schemeMeasurement report: Cloud condensation nuclei activity and its variation with organic oxidation level and volatility observed during an aerosol life cycle intensive operational period (ALC-IOP)Southern Ocean latitudinal gradients of cloud condensation nucleiZeppelin-led study on the onset of new particle formation in the planetary boundary layerCharacterization of aerosol number size distributions and their effect on cloud properties at Syowa Station, AntarcticaA phenomenology of new particle formation (NPF) at 13 European sitesDiel cycle impacts on the chemical and light absorption properties of organic carbon aerosol from wildfires in the western United StatesTerrestrial or marine – indications towards the origin of ice-nucleating particles during melt season in the European Arctic up to 83.7° NCloud activation properties of aerosol particles in a continental Central European urban environmentVertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic: variations with season and synoptic conditionOn the drivers of droplet variability in alpine mixed-phase cloudsContrasting effects of secondary organic aerosol formations on organic aerosol hygroscopicityImpact of aerosol–radiation interaction on new particle formationMeasurement report: The effect of aerosol chemical composition on light scattering due to the hygroscopic swelling effectMeasurement report: The influence of traffic and new particle formation on the size distribution of 1–800 nm particles in Helsinki – a street canyon and an urban background station comparisonSummer aerosol measurements over the East Antarctic seasonal ice zoneAerosol Responses to Precipitation Along North American Air Trajectories Arriving at BermudaRapid transformation of ambient absorbing aerosols from West African biomass burningTechnical note: Sea salt interference with black carbon quantification in snow samples using the single particle soot photometerMixing state of refractory black carbon aerosol in the South Asian outflow over the northern Indian Ocean during winterTowards understanding the characteristics of new particle formation in the Eastern MediterraneanLarge-scale synoptic drivers of co-occurring summertime ozone and PM2.5 pollution in eastern ChinaA long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic cloudsMeasurement report: Altitudinal variation of cloud condensation nuclei activation across the Indo-Gangetic Plain prior to monsoon onset and during peak monsoon periods: results from the SWAAMI field campaignUrban aerosol size distributions: a global perspectiveThe impact of aerosol size-dependent hygroscopicity and mixing state on the cloud condensation nuclei potential over the north-east AtlanticMeasurement report: Strong light absorption induced by aged biomass burning black carbon over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau in pre-monsoon seasonThe important roles of surface tension and growth rate in the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration: evidence from field measurements in southern ChinaAerosol particle formation in the upper residual layerSecondary aerosol formation alters CCN activity in the North China PlainComplex refractive indices in the ultraviolet and visible spectral region for highly absorbing non-spherical biomass burning aerosolDilution impacts on smoke aging: evidence in Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) dataMeasurement report: Balloon-borne in situ profiling of Saharan dust over Cyprus with the UCASS optical particle counterArctic black carbon during PAMARCMiP 2018 and previous aircraft experiments in springEl Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect on interannual variability in spring aerosols over East AsiaThe impact threshold of the aerosol radiative forcing on the boundary layer structure in the pollution regionTechnical note: Measurement of chemically resolved volume equivalent diameter and effective density of particles by AAC-SPAMSA meteorological overview of the ORACLES (ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS) campaign over the southeast Atlantic during 2016–2018The impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon in the Po ValleyMeteorology-driven variability of air pollution (PM1) revealed with explainable machine learningThe seasonal cycle of ice-nucleating particles linked to the abundance of biogenic aerosol in boreal forestsMeasurement report: Cloud processes and the transport of biological emissions affect southern ocean particle and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations
Heather Guy, Ian M. Brooks, Ken S. Carslaw, Benjamin J. Murray, Von P. Walden, Matthew D. Shupe, Claire Pettersen, David D. Turner, Christopher J. Cox, William D. Neff, Ralf Bennartz, and Ryan R. Neely III
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15351–15374,Short summary
We present the first full year of surface aerosol number concentration measurements from the central Greenland Ice Sheet. Aerosol concentrations here have a distinct seasonal cycle from those at lower-altitude Arctic sites, which is driven by large-scale atmospheric circulation. Our results can be used to help understand the role aerosols might play in Greenland surface melt through the modification of cloud properties. This is crucial in a rapidly changing region where observations are sparse.
Charles A. Brock, Karl D. Froyd, Maximilian Dollner, Christina J. Williamson, Gregory Schill, Daniel M. Murphy, Nicholas J. Wagner, Agnieszka Kupc, Jose L. Jimenez, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Benjamin A. Nault, Jason C. Schroder, Douglas A. Day, Derek J. Price, Bernadett Weinzierl, Joshua P. Schwarz, Joseph M. Katich, Siyuan Wang, Linghan Zeng, Rodney Weber, Jack Dibb, Eric Scheuer, Glenn S. Diskin, Joshua P. DiGangi, ThaoPaul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, Chelsea R. Thompson, Jeff Peischl, Thomas B. Ryerson, Ilann Bourgeois, Bruce C. Daube, Róisín Commane, and Steven C. Wofsy
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 15023–15063,Short summary
The Atmospheric Tomography Mission was an airborne study that mapped the chemical composition of the remote atmosphere. From this, we developed a comprehensive description of aerosol properties that provides a unique, global-scale dataset against which models can be compared. The data show the polluted nature of the remote atmosphere in the Northern Hemisphere and quantify the contributions of sea salt, dust, soot, biomass burning particles, and pollution particles to the haziness of the sky.
Suping Zhao, Ye Yu, Jianglin Li, Daiying Yin, Shaofeng Qi, and Dahe Qin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14959–14981,Short summary
We found a large PM2.5 reduction in response to Clean Air Action (CAA), but impacts of CAA on particle number concentrations (PNCs) may be different from PM2.5 mass due to newly formed particle impacts. The k-means clustering technique and Theil–Sen regression were used to analyze PNCs variations and to quantify their trends. Increased daytime solar radiation, higher temperature and lower RH at noon induced by reduced PM2.5 mass promoted formation of new particles and increased particle numbers.
Rose M. Miller, Greg M. McFarquhar, Robert M. Rauber, Joseph R. O'Brien, Siddhant Gupta, Michal Segal-Rozenhaimer, Amie N. Dobracki, Arthur J. Sedlacek, Sharon P. Burton, Steven G. Howell, Steffen Freitag, and Caroline Dang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14815–14831,Short summary
A large stratocumulus cloud deck resides off the west coast of central Africa. Biomass burning in Africa produces a large plume of aerosol that is carried by the wind over this stratocumulus cloud deck. This paper shows that particles with sizes from 0.01 to 1 mm reside within this plume. Past studies have shown that biomass burning produces such particles, but this is the first study to show that they can be transported westward, over long distances, to the Atlantic stratocumulus cloud deck.
Matteo Rinaldi, Naruki Hiranuma, Gianni Santachiara, Mauro Mazzola, Karam Mansour, Marco Paglione, Cheyanne A. Rodriguez, Rita Traversi, Silvia Becagli, David Cappelletti, and Franco Belosi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14725–14748,Short summary
This study aims to add to the still scant ice-nucleating particle (INP) observations in the Arctic environment, investigating INP concentrations and potential sources, during spring and summertime, at the ground-level site of GVB. The lack of a clear concentration seasonal trend, in contrast with previous works, shows an important interannual variability of Arctic INP sources, which may be both terrestrial and marine, outside the Arctic haze period.
Debing Kong, Guicai Ning, Shigong Wang, Jing Cong, Ming Luo, Xiang Ni, and Mingguo Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14493–14505,Short summary
This study provides the first attempt to examine the diurnal cycles of day-to-day temperature change and reveals their impacts on air quality forecasting in mountain-basin areas. Three different diurnal cycles of the preceding day-to-day temperature change are identified and exhibit notably distinct effects on the air quality evolutions. The mechanisms of the identified diurnal cycles' effects on air quality are also revealed, which exhibit promising potential for air quality forecasting.
Sihui Jiang, Fang Zhang, Jingye Ren, Lu Chen, Xing Yan, Jieyao Liu, Yele Sun, and Zhanqing Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 14293–14308,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) can be a large source of CCN and affect weather and climate. Here we show that the NPF contributes largely to cloud droplet number concentration (Nd) but is suppressed at high particle number concentrations in Beijing due to water vapor competition. We also reveal a considerable impact of primary sources on the evaluation in the urban atmosphere. Our study has great significance for assessing NPF-associated effects on climate in polluted regions.
Gloria Titos, María A. Burgos, Paul Zieger, Lucas Alados-Arboledas, Urs Baltensperger, Anne Jefferson, James Sherman, Ernest Weingartner, Bas Henzing, Krista Luoma, Colin O'Dowd, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Elisabeth Andrews
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13031–13050,Short summary
This paper investigates the impact of water uptake on aerosol optical properties, in particular the aerosol light-scattering coefficient. Although in situ measurements are performed at low relative humidity (typically at RH < 40 %), to address the climatic impact of aerosol particles it is necessary to take into account the effect that water uptake may have on the aerosol optical properties.
Baseerat Romshoo, Thomas Müller, Sascha Pfeifer, Jorge Saturno, Andreas Nowak, Krzysztof Ciupek, Paul Quincey, and Alfred Wiedensohler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12989–13010,Short summary
Modifications in the optical properties of black carbon (BC) due to ageing are presented and quantified in this study using a state-of-the-art description scheme of BC fractal aggregates. It is shown that the relative change in BC radiative forcing can be larger than 50 % as a function of changing fractal dimension and organic content. A comprehensive parameterization scheme for coated BC optical properties is developed with applications for modelling, ambient, and laboratory-based BC studies.
Fan Mei, Jian Wang, Shan Zhou, Qi Zhang, Sonya Collier, and Jianzhong Xu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 13019–13029,Short summary
This work focuses on understanding aerosol's ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and its variations with organic oxidation level and volatility using measurements at a rural site. Aerosol properties were examined from four air mass sources. The results help improve the accurate representation of aerosol from different ambient aerosol emissions, transformation pathways, and atmospheric processes in a climate model.
Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Sean Gribben, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Paul Selleck, Sally Taylor, James Harnwell, Connor Flynn, Gourihar R. Kulkarni, Gerald G. Mace, Alain Protat, Simon P. Alexander, and Greg McFarquhar
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12757–12782,Short summary
The Southern Ocean region is one of the most pristine in the world and serves as an important proxy for the pre-industrial atmosphere. Improving our understanding of the natural processes in this region is likely to result in the largest reductions in the uncertainty of climate and earth system models. In this paper we present a statistical summary of the latitudinal gradient of aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations obtained from five voyages spanning the Southern Ocean.
Janne Lampilahti, Hanna E. Manninen, Tuomo Nieminen, Sander Mirme, Mikael Ehn, Iida Pullinen, Katri Leino, Siegfried Schobesberger, Juha Kangasluoma, Jenni Kontkanen, Emma Järvinen, Riikka Väänänen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Radovan Krejci, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Janne Levula, Aadu Mirme, Stefano Decesari, Ralf Tillmann, Douglas R. Worsnop, Franz Rohrer, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Thomas F. Mentel, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12649–12663,Short summary
We studied aerosol particle formation and growth in different parts of the planetary boundary layer at two different locations (Po Valley, Italy, and Hyytiälä, Finland). The observations consist of airborne measurements on board an instrumented Zeppelin and a small airplane combined with comprehensive ground-based measurements.
Keiichiro Hara, Chiharu Nishita-Hara, Kazuo Osada, Masanori Yabuki, and Takashi Yamanouchi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 12155–12172,Short summary
New particle formation (NPF) occurred dominantly in the Antarctic free troposphere during spring and fall and in the free troposphere and boundary layer during summer. With the existence of the ozone hole, more UV radiation can enhance formation of aerosol precursors and NPF in the free troposphere. Here, we assess the hypothesis that UV enhancement in the upper troposphere by the Antarctic ozone hole modifies the aerosol and cloud properties in Antarctic regions during summer.
Dimitrios Bousiotis, Francis D. Pope, David C. S. Beddows, Manuel Dall'Osto, Andreas Massling, Jakob Klenø Nøjgaard, Claus Nordstrøm, Jarkko V. Niemi, Harri Portin, Tuukka Petäjä, Noemi Perez, Andrés Alastuey, Xavier Querol, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Stergios Vratolis, Konstantinos Eleftheriadis, Alfred Wiedensohler, Kay Weinhold, Maik Merkel, Thomas Tuch, and Roy M. Harrison
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11905–11925,Short summary
Formation of new particles is a key process in the atmosphere. New particle formation events arising from nucleation of gaseous precursors have been analysed in extensive datasets from 13 sites in five European countries in terms of frequency, nucleation rate, and particle growth rate, with several common features and many differences identified. Although nucleation frequencies are lower at roadside sites, nucleation rates and particle growth rates are typically higher.
Benjamin Sumlin, Edward Fortner, Andrew Lambe, Nishit J. Shetty, Conner Daube, Pai Liu, Francesca Majluf, Scott Herndon, and Rajan K. Chakrabarty
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11843–11856,Short summary
We present a comparison of the changes to light absorption behavior and chemical composition of wildfire smoke particles from day- and nighttime oxidation processes and discuss the results within the context of previous laboratory findings.
Markus Hartmann, Xianda Gong, Simonas Kecorius, Manuela van Pinxteren, Teresa Vogl, André Welti, Heike Wex, Sebastian Zeppenfeld, Hartmut Herrmann, Alfred Wiedensohler, and Frank Stratmann
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11613–11636,Short summary
Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) are not well characterized in the Arctic despite their importance for the Arctic energy budget. Little is known about their nature (mineral or biological) and sources (terrestrial or marine, long-range transport or local). We find indications that, at the beginning of the melt season, a local, biogenic, probably marine source is likely, but significant enrichment of INPs has to take place from the ocean to the aerosol phase.
Imre Salma, Wanda Thén, Máté Vörösmarty, and András Zénó Gyöngyösi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11289–11302,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and their properties were explored in this study. CCN modify the intensity and other properties of the sunlight reaching the Earth’s surface. These properties are primarily influenced by the number of droplets, the droplet size and the cloud residence time. CCN also influence the hydrological cycle (including the amount and intensity of precipitation), vegetation and its interactions with the carbon cycle, as well as atmospheric chemistry, physics and dynamics.
Yang Wang, Guangjie Zheng, Michael P. Jensen, Daniel A. Knopf, Alexander Laskin, Alyssa A. Matthews, David Mechem, Fan Mei, Ryan Moffet, Arthur J. Sedlacek, John E. Shilling, Stephen Springston, Amy Sullivan, Jason Tomlinson, Daniel Veghte, Rodney Weber, Robert Wood, Maria A. Zawadowicz, and Jian Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 11079–11098,Short summary
This paper reports the vertical profiles of trace gas and aerosol properties over the eastern North Atlantic, a region of persistent but diverse subtropical marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds. We examined the key processes that drive the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) population and how it varies with season and synoptic conditions. This study helps improve the model representation of the aerosol processes in the remote MBL, reducing the simulated aerosol indirect effects.
Paraskevi Georgakaki, Aikaterini Bougiatioti, Jörg Wieder, Claudia Mignani, Fabiola Ramelli, Zamin A. Kanji, Jan Henneberger, Maxime Hervo, Alexis Berne, Ulrike Lohmann, and Athanasios Nenes
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10993–11012,Short summary
Aerosol and cloud observations coupled with a droplet activation parameterization was used to investigate the aerosol–cloud droplet link in alpine mixed-phase clouds. Predicted droplet number, Nd, agrees with observations and never exceeds a characteristic “limiting droplet number”, Ndlim, which depends solely on σw. Nd becomes velocity limited when it is within 50 % of Ndlim. Identifying when dynamical changes control Nd variability is central for understanding aerosol–cloud interactions.
Ye Kuang, Shan Huang, Biao Xue, Biao Luo, Qicong Song, Wei Chen, Weiwei Hu, Wei Li, Pusheng Zhao, Mingfu Cai, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Tiange Li, Sihang Wang, Duohong Chen, Dingli Yue, Bin Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 10375–10391,Short summary
We found that organic aerosol factors with identified sources perform much better than oxidation level parameters in characterizing variations in organic aerosol hygroscopicity, and secondary aerosol formations associated with different sources have distinct effects on organic aerosol hygroscopicity. It reveals that source-oriented organic aerosol hygroscopicity investigations might result in more appropriate parameterization approaches in chemical and climate models.
Gang Zhao, Yishu Zhu, Zhijun Wu, Taomou Zong, Jingchuan Chen, Tianyi Tan, Haichao Wang, Xin Fang, Keding Lu, Chunsheng Zhao, and Min Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9995–10004,Short summary
New particle formation is thought to contribute half of the global cloud condensation nuclei. We find that the new particle formation is more likely to happen in the upper boundary layer than that at the ground, which can be partially explained by the aerosol–radiation interaction. Our study emphasizes the influence of aerosol–radiation interaction on the NPF.
Rongmin Ren, Zhanqing Li, Peng Yan, Yuying Wang, Hao Wu, Maureen Cribb, Wei Wang, Xiao'ai Jin, Yanan Li, and Dongmei Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9977–9994,Short summary
We analyzed the effect of the proportion of components making up the chemical composition of aerosols on f(RH) in southern Beijing in 2019. Nitrate played a more significant role in affecting f(RH) than sulfate. The ratio of the sulfate mass fraction to the nitrate mass fraction (mostly higher than ~ 4) was a sign of the deliquescence of aerosol. A piecewise parameterized scheme was proposed, which could better describe deliquescence and reduce uncertainties in simulating aerosol hygroscopicity.
Magdalena Okuljar, Heino Kuuluvainen, Jenni Kontkanen, Olga Garmash, Miska Olin, Jarkko V. Niemi, Hilkka Timonen, Juha Kangasluoma, Yee Jun Tham, Rima Baalbaki, Mikko Sipilä, Laura Salo, Henna Lintusaari, Harri Portin, Kimmo Teinilä, Minna Aurela, Miikka Dal Maso, Topi Rönkkö, Tuukka Petäjä, and Pauli Paasonen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9931–9953,Short summary
To estimate the relative contribution of different sources to the particle population in an urban environment, we conducted simultaneous measurements at a street canyon and an urban background station in Helsinki. We investigated the contribution of traffic and new particle formation to particles with a diameter between 1 and 800 nm. We found that during spring traffic does not dominate the particles smaller than 3 nm at either of the stations.
Jack B. Simmons, Ruhi S. Humphries, Stephen R. Wilson, Scott D. Chambers, Alastair G. Williams, Alan D. Griffiths, Ian M. McRobert, Jason P. Ward, Melita D. Keywood, and Sean Gribben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9497–9513,Short summary
Aerosols have a climate forcing effect in the Earth's atmosphere. Few measurements exist of aerosols in the Southern Ocean, a region key to our understanding of this effect. In this study, aerosol measurements from a summer 2017 campaign in the East Antarctic seasonal ice zone are examined. Higher concentrations of aerosols were found in dry air with origins from above the Antarctic continent compared to other periods of the voyage.
Hossein Dadashazar, Majid Alipanah, Miguel Ricardo A. Hilario, Ewan Crosbie, Simon Kirschler, Hongyu Liu, Richard H. Moore, Andrew J. Peters, Amy Jo Scarino, Michael Shook, K. Lee Thornhill, Christiane Voigt, Hailong Wang, Edward Winstead, Bo Zhang, Luke Ziemba, and Armin Sorooshian
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
This study investigates precipitation impacts on long-range transport of North American over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO). Our results demonstrate that precipitation scavenging plays a significant role in modifying surface aerosol concentrations over the WNAO, especially in winter/spring months due to large-scale scavenging processes. This study highlights how precipitation impacts surface aerosol properties with relevance for other marine regions vulnerable to continental outflow.
Huihui Wu, Jonathan W. Taylor, Justin M. Langridge, Chenjie Yu, James D. Allan, Kate Szpek, Michael I. Cotterell, Paul I. Williams, Michael Flynn, Patrick Barker, Cathryn Fox, Grant Allen, James Lee, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9417–9440,Short summary
Seasonal biomass burning over West Africa is a globally significant source of carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere, which have important climate impacts but are poorly constrained. We conducted in situ airborne measurements to investigate the evolution of smoke aerosol properties in this region. We observed absorption enhancement for both black carbon and brown carbon after emission, which provides new field results and constraints on aerosol parameterizations for future climate models.
Marco Zanatta, Andreas Herber, Zsófia Jurányi, Oliver Eppers, Johannes Schneider, and Joshua P. Schwarz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9329–9342,Short summary
Saline snow samples were collected from the sea ice in the Fram Strait. Laboratory experiments revealed that sea salt can bias the quantification of black carbon with a laser-induced incandescence technique. The maximum underestimation was quantified to reach values of 80 %–90 %. This salt-induced interference is reported here for the first time and should be considered in future studies aiming to quantify black carbon in snow in marine environments.
Sobhan Kumar Kompalli, Surendran Nair Suresh Babu, Krishnaswamy Krishna Moorthy, Sreedharan Krishnakumari Satheesh, Mukunda Madhab Gogoi, Vijayakumar S. Nair, Venugopalan Nair Jayachandran, Dantong Liu, Michael J. Flynn, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9173–9199,Short summary
The first observations of refractory black carbon aerosol size distributions and mixing state in South Asian outflow to the northern Indian Ocean were carried out as a part of the ICARB-2018 experiment during winter. Size distributions indicated mixed sources of BC particles in the outflow, which are thickly coated. The coating thickness of BC is controlled mainly by the availability of condensable species in the outflow.
Rima Baalbaki, Michael Pikridas, Tuija Jokinen, Tiia Laurila, Lubna Dada, Spyros Bezantakos, Lauri Ahonen, Kimmo Neitola, Anne Maisser, Elie Bimenyimana, Aliki Christodoulou, Florin Unga, Chrysanthos Savvides, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Juha Kangasluoma, George Biskos, Tuukka Petäjä, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Jean Sciare, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9223–9251,Short summary
This study investigates new particle formation (NPF) in the less represented region of the Mediterranean basin using 1-year measurements of aerosol particles down to ~ 1 nm in diameter. We report a high frequency of NPF and give examples of interesting NPF features. We quantify the strength of NPF events by calculating formation rates and growth rates. We further unveil the atmospheric conditions and variables considered important for the intra-monthly and inter-monthly occurrence of NPF.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Meng Gao, Hong Wang, Peng Wang, Hongliang Zhang, Linlin Wang, Guicai Ning, Chao Liu, Yubin Li, and Zhiqiu Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 9105–9124,Short summary
In recent years, summer O3 pollution over eastern China has become more serious, and it is even the case that surface O3 and PM2.5 pollution can co-occur. However, the synoptic weather pattern (SWP) related to this compound pollution remains unclear. Regional PM2.5 and O3 compound pollution is characterized by various SWPs with different dominant factors. Our findings provide insights into the regional co-occurring high PM2.5 and O3 levels via the effects of certain meteorological factors.
Linn Karlsson, Radovan Krejci, Makoto Koike, Kerstin Ebell, and Paul Zieger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8933–8959,Short summary
Aerosol–cloud interactions in the Arctic are poorly understood largely due to a lack of observational data. We present the first direct, long-term measurements of cloud residuals, i.e. the particles that remain when cloud droplets and ice crystals are dried. These detailed observations of cloud residuals cover more than 2 years, which is unique for the Arctic and globally. This work studies the size distributions of cloud residuals, their seasonality, and dependence on meteorology.
Mohanan R. Manoj, Sreedharan K. Satheesh, Krishnaswamy K. Moorthy, Jamie Trembath, and Hugh Coe
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8979–8997,Short summary
Vertical distributions of atmospheric aerosols across the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and their ability to form clouds have been studied based on airborne measurements during the SWAAMI field campaign. The ability of the aerosols to act as cloud-forming nuclei exhibited large spatial variation across the IGP and strong seasonality with increase in this ability with increase in altitude prior to the onset of monsoon and decrease with increase in altitude during the active phase of the monsoon.
Tianren Wu and Brandon E. Boor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8883–8914,Short summary
Urban air pollution is a major global environmental health challenge. Establishing associations between exposure to urban aerosols and human health outcomes requires reliable aerosol measurements. Of particular importance are measurements of urban aerosol particle size distributions. This review critically analyzes global trends in urban aerosol particle size distributions in order to provide insights into air pollution in cities and guidance for the future for air quality monitoring networks.
Wei Xu, Kirsten N. Fossum, Jurgita Ovadnevaite, Chunshui Lin, Ru-Jin Huang, Colin O'Dowd, and Darius Ceburnis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8655–8675,Short summary
Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are an important topic in atmospheric studies, especially for evaluating the climate impact of aerosol. Here in this study, CCN closure is studied by using chemical composition based on an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and hygroscopicity growth measurements based on a humidified tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) at the Mace Head atmospheric research station.
Tianyi Tan, Min Hu, Zhuofei Du, Gang Zhao, Dongjie Shang, Jing Zheng, Yanhong Qin, Mengren Li, Yusheng Wu, Limin Zeng, Song Guo, and Zhijun Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8499–8510,Short summary
Every year in the pre-monsoon season, the black carbon (BC) aerosols originated from biomass burning in southern Asia are easily transported to the Tibetan Plateau (TP) by the convenience of westerly wind. This study reveals that the BC aerosols in the aged biomass burning plumes strongly enhance the total light absorption over the TP, and the aging process during the long-range transport will further strengthen the radiative heating of those BC aerosols.
Mingfu Cai, Baoling Liang, Qibin Sun, Li Liu, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Shan Huang, Yuwen Peng, Zelong Wang, Haobo Tan, Fei Li, Hanbin Xu, Duohong Chen, and Jun Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8575–8592,Short summary
This study investigated the contribution of new particle formation (NPF) events to the number concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (NCCN) and its controlling factors in the Pearl River Delta region. The results show that the surfactant effect can decrease the critical diameter and significantly increase the NCCN during the NPF event. In addition, the growth rate is founded to be the most important controlling factor that affects NCCN for growth of newly-formed particles to the CCN sizes.
Janne Lampilahti, Katri Leino, Antti Manninen, Pyry Poutanen, Anna Franck, Maija Peltola, Paula Hietala, Lisa Beck, Lubna Dada, Lauriane Quéléver, Ronja Öhrnberg, Ying Zhou, Madeleine Ekblom, Ville Vakkari, Sergej Zilitinkevich, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Tuukka Petäjä, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7901–7915,Short summary
Using airborne measurements we observed increased number concentrations of sub-25 nm particles in the upper residual layer. These particles may be entrained into the well-mixed boundary layer and observed at the surface. We attribute our observations to new particle formation in the topmost part of the residual layer.
Jiangchuan Tao, Ye Kuang, Nan Ma, Juan Hong, Yele Sun, Wanyun Xu, Yanyan Zhang, Yao He, Qingwei Luo, Linhong Xie, Hang Su, and Yafang Cheng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7409–7427,Short summary
The mechanism of secondary aerosol (SA) formation can be affected by relative humidity (RH) and has different influences on the particle CCN activity under different RH conditions. In the North China Plain, we find different responses of CCN activity and enhancements of CCN number concentration to SA formation under different RH conditions. In addition, variations of aerosol mixing state due to SA formation contribute some of the largest uncertainties in predicting CCN number concentration.
Caroline C. Womack, Katherine M. Manfred, Nicholas L. Wagner, Gabriela Adler, Alessandro Franchin, Kara D. Lamb, Ann M. Middlebrook, Joshua P. Schwarz, Charles A. Brock, Steven S. Brown, and Rebecca A. Washenfelder
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 7235–7252,Short summary
Microscopic particles interact with sunlight and affect the earth's climate in ways that are not fully understood. Aerosols from wildfire smoke present particular challenges due to their complexity in shape and composition. We demonstrate that we can experimentally measure aerosol optical properties for many types of smoke particles, using measurements of smoke from controlled burns, but that the method does not work well for smoke with high soot content.
Anna L. Hodshire, Emily Ramnarine, Ali Akherati, Matthew L. Alvarado, Delphine K. Farmer, Shantanu H. Jathar, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Chantelle R. Lonsdale, Timothy B. Onasch, Stephen R. Springston, Jian Wang, Yang Wang, Lawrence I. Kleinman, Arthur J. Sedlacek III, and Jeffrey R. Pierce
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6839–6855,Short summary
Biomass burning emits particles and vapors that can impact both health and climate. Here, we investigate the role of dilution in the evolution of aerosol size and composition in observed US wildfire smoke plumes. Centers of plumes dilute more slowly than edges. We see differences in concentrations and composition between the centers and edges both in the first measurement and in subsequent measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that plume dilution influences smoke aging.
Maria Kezoudi, Matthias Tesche, Helen Smith, Alexandra Tsekeri, Holger Baars, Maximilian Dollner, Víctor Estellés, Johannes Bühl, Bernadett Weinzierl, Zbigniew Ulanowski, Detlef Müller, and Vassilis Amiridis
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6781–6797,Short summary
Mineral dust concentrations in the diameter range from 0.4 to 14.0 μm were measured with the balloon-borne UCASS optical particle counter. Launches were coordinated with ground-based remote-sensing and airborne in situ measurements during a Saharan dust outbreak over Cyprus. Particle number concentrations reached 50 cm−3 for the diameter range 0.8–13.9 μm. Comparisons with aircraft data show reasonable agreement in magnitude and shape of the particle size distribution.
Sho Ohata, Makoto Koike, Atsushi Yoshida, Nobuhiro Moteki, Kouji Adachi, Naga Oshima, Hitoshi Matsui, Oliver Eppers, Heiko Bozem, Marco Zanatta, and Andreas B. Herber
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) in the Arctic were measured during the PAMARCMiP aircraft-based experiment in spring 2018 and compared with those observed during previous aircraft campaigns in 2008, 2010, and 2015. Their differences were explained primarily by the year-to-year variation of biomass burning activities in northern high latitudes over Eurasia. Our observations provide bases to evaluate numerical model simulations that assess the BC radiative effects in the Arctic spring.
Anbao Zhu, Haiming Xu, Jiechun Deng, Jing Ma, and Shuhui Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5919–5933,
Dandan Zhao, Jinyuan Xin, Chongshui Gong, Jiannong Quan, Yuesi Wang, Guiqian Tang, Yongxiang Ma, Lindong Dai, Xiaoyan Wu, Guangjing Liu, and Yongjing Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5739–5753,Short summary
The influence of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) on the boundary layer structure is nonlinear. The threshold of the modification effects of ARF on the boundary layer structure was determined for the first time, highlighting that once ARF exceeded a certain value, the boundary layer would quickly stabilize and aggravate air pollution. This could provide useful information for relevant atmospheric-environment improvement measures and policies.
Long Peng, Lei Li, Guohua Zhang, Xubing Du, Xinming Wang, Ping'an Peng, Guoying Sheng, and Xinhui Bi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 5605–5613,Short summary
We build a novel system that utilizes an aerodynamic aerosol classifier (AAC) combined with a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) to simultaneously characterize the volume equivalent diameter (Dve), chemical compositions, and effective density (ρe) of individual particles in real time. A test of the AAC-SPAMS with both spherical and aspherical particles shows that the deviations between the measured and theoretical values are less than 6 %.
Ju-Mee Ryoo, Leonhard Pfister, Rei Ueyama, Paquita Zuidema, Robert Wood, Ian Chang, and Jens Redemann
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Meteorology influences the aerosol-cloud interaction. Thus, it is critical to understand the meteorological characteristics during the deployment to better interpret the airborne measurement. Furthermore, it is crucial to know how different they are compared to the climatological mean in various temporal and spatial scales. This paper provides a thorough overview of the meteorology reflecting the coupled land-ocean-atmosphere system and the representativeness of the deployment months.
Luca Ferrero, Asta Gregorič, Griša Močnik, Martin Rigler, Sergio Cogliati, Francesca Barnaba, Luca Di Liberto, Gian Paolo Gobbi, Niccolò Losi, and Ezio Bolzacchini
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 4869–4897,Short summary
The work experimentally quantifies the impact of cloudiness and cloud type on the atmospheric heating rate of black and brown carbon. The most impacting clouds were stratocumulus, altostratus and stratus. Clouds caused a decrease of the heating rate of about 12 % per okta. The black carbon decease was slightly higher with respect to that of brown carbon. This study highlights the need to take into account the role of cloudiness when modelling light-absorbing aerosol climate forcing.
Roland Stirnberg, Jan Cermak, Simone Kotthaus, Martial Haeffelin, Hendrik Andersen, Julia Fuchs, Miae Kim, Jean-Eudes Petit, and Olivier Favez
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3919–3948,Short summary
Air pollution endangers human health and poses a problem particularly in densely populated areas. Here, an explainable machine learning approach is used to analyse periods of high particle concentrations for a suburban site southwest of Paris to better understand its atmospheric drivers. Air pollution is particularly excaberated by low temperatures and low mixed layer heights, but processes vary substantially between and within seasons.
Julia Schneider, Kristina Höhler, Paavo Heikkilä, Jorma Keskinen, Barbara Bertozzi, Pia Bogert, Tobias Schorr, Nsikanabasi Silas Umo, Franziska Vogel, Zoé Brasseur, Yusheng Wu, Simo Hakala, Jonathan Duplissy, Dmitri Moisseev, Markku Kulmala, Michael P. Adams, Benjamin J. Murray, Kimmo Korhonen, Liqing Hao, Erik S. Thomson, Dimitri Castarède, Thomas Leisner, Tuukka Petäjä, and Ottmar Möhler
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3899–3918,Short summary
By triggering the formation of ice crystals, ice-nucleating particles (INP) strongly influence cloud formation. Continuous, long-term measurements are needed to characterize the atmospheric INP variability. Here, a first long-term time series of INP spectra measured in the boreal forest for more than 1 year is presented, showing a clear seasonal cycle. It is shown that the seasonal dependency of INP concentrations and prevalent INP types is driven by the abundance of biogenic aerosol.
Kevin J. Sanchez, Gregory C. Roberts, Georges Saliba, Lynn M. Russell, Cynthia Twohy, J. Michael Reeves, Ruhi S. Humphries, Melita D. Keywood, Jason P. Ward, and Ian M. McRobert
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 3427–3446,Short summary
Measurements of particles and their properties were made from aircraft over the Southern Ocean. Aerosol transported from the Antarctic coast is shown to greatly enhance particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. The occurrence of precipitation was shown to be associated with the lowest particle concentrations over the Southern Ocean. These particles are important due to their ability to enhance cloud droplet concentrations, resulting in more sunlight being reflected by the clouds.
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Anthropogenic dust emissions induced by livestock trampling were measured using a mini wind tunnel device in Mongolian temperate grassland. A scale factor in dust emissions revealed an enhanced effect of trampling on dust emissions. The enhancement rate in dust emissions was enlarged by increased friction velocity. Our results emphasize that better livestock management is crucial to prevent dust loads by reducing the effect of trampling on dust emissions in dust seasons driven by strong winds.
Anthropogenic dust emissions induced by livestock trampling were measured using a mini wind...