Articles | Volume 22, issue 11
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
© Author(s) 2022. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
The impacts of marine-emitted halogens on OH radicals in East Asia during summer
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Center for the Oceanic and Atmospheric Science at SUSTech (COAST), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Department of Ocean Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Center for the Oceanic and Atmospheric Science at SUSTech (COAST), Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China
Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou 511458, China
No articles found.
Weilun Zhao, Ying Li, Gang Zhao, Song Guo, Nan Ma, Shuya Hu, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14889–14902,Short summary
Studies have concentrated on particles containing black carbon (BC) smaller than 700 nm because of technical limitations. In this study, BC-containing particles larger than 700 nm (BC>700) were measured, highlighting their importance to total BC mass and absorption. The contribution of BC>700 to the BC direct radiative effect was estimated, highlighting the necessity to consider the whole size range of BC-containing particles in the model estimation of BC radiative effects.
Weilun Zhao, Gang Zhao, Ying Li, Song Guo, Nan Ma, Lizi Tang, Zirui Zhang, and Chunsheng Zhao
Atmos. Meas. Tech., 15, 6807–6817,Short summary
A new method to determine black carbon mass size distribution (BCMSD) was proposed using the size-resolved absorption coefficient measured by an aerodynamic aerosol classifier in tandem with an aethalometer. This new method fills the gap in the high-time-resolution measurement of BCMSD ranging from upper submicron particle sizes to larger than 1 µm. This method can be applied to field measurement of BCMSD extensively for better understanding BC aging and better estimating the BC climate effect.
Ying Li, Xiangjun Zhao, Xuejiao Deng, and Jinhui Gao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 3861–3873,Short summary
This study finds a new phenomenon of weak wind deepening (WWD) associated with the peripheral circulation of typhoon and gives the influence mechanism of WWD on its contribution to daily variation during sustained ozone episodes. The WWD provides the premise for pollution accumulation in the whole PBL and continued enhancement of ground-level ozone via vertical mixing processes. These findings could benefit the daily daytime ozone forecast in the PRD region and other areas.
Jinhui Gao, Ying Li, Bin Zhu, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, and Fangwen Bao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10831–10844,Short summary
Light extinction of aerosols can decease surface ozone mainly via reducing photochemical production of ozone. However, it also leads to high levels of ozone aloft being entrained down to the surface which partly counteracts the reduction in surface ozone. The impact of aerosols is more sensitive to local ozone, which suggests that while controlling the levels of aerosols, controlling the local ozone precursors is an effective way to suppress the increase of ozone over China at present.
Related subject area
Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Atmospheric Modelling and Data Analysis | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Insights into soil NO emissions and the contribution to surface ozone formation in ChinaDevelopment, intercomparison, and evaluation of an improved mechanism for the oxidation of dimethyl sulfide in the UKCA modelThe atmospheric oxidizing capacity in China – Part 1: Roles of different photochemical processesBenefits of net-zero policies for future ozone pollution in ChinaSimulating impacts on UK air quality from net-zero forest planting scenariosUnderstanding offshore high-ozone events during TRACER-AQ 2021 in Houston: insights from WRF–CAMx photochemical modelingOpinion: Establishing a science-into-policy process for tropospheric ozone assessmentAtmospheric composition and climate impacts of a future hydrogen economyAssessment of isoprene and near-surface ozone sensitivities to water stress over the Euro-Mediterranean regionNighttime ozone in the lower boundary layer: insights from 3-year tower-based measurements in South China and regional air quality modelingWhat controls ozone sensitivity in the upper tropical troposphere?Modelling the impacts of emission changes on O3 sensitivity, atmospheric oxidation capacity, and pollution transport over the Catalonia regionA regional modelling study of halogen chemistry within a volcanic plume of Mt Etna's Christmas 2018 eruptionWeekly-derived top-down VOC fluxes over Europe from TROPOMI HCHO data in 2018–2021Constraining the budget of atmospheric carbonyl sulfide using a 3-D chemical transport modelAtmospheric CO2 inversion reveals the Amazon as a minor carbon source caused by fire emissions, with forest uptake offsetting about half of these emissionsRapid O3 assimilations – Part 2: Tropospheric O3 changes accompanied by declining NOx emissions in the USA and Europe in 2005–2020High-resolution air quality simulations of ozone exceedance events during the Lake Michigan Ozone StudyEstimation of the atmospheric hydroxyl radical oxidative capacity using multiple hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)Simulations of winter ozone in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming, using WRF-ChemThe suitability of atmospheric oxygen measurements to constrain Western European fossil-fuel CO2 emissions and their trendsMeasurement report: Assessment of Asian emissions of ethane and propane with a chemistry transport model based on observations from the island of HaterumaSensitivity of northeastern US surface ozone predictions to the representation of atmospheric chemistry in the Community Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Multiphase Mechanism (CRACMMv1.0)Zonal variability of methane trends derived from satellite dataCurrent status of model predictions on volatile organic compounds and impacts on surface ozone predictions during summer in ChinaDaytime isoprene nitrates under changing NOx and O3Atmospheric data support a multi-decadal shift in the global methane budget towards natural tropical emissionsAir quality and related health impact in the UNECE region: source attribution and scenario analysisFuture tropospheric ozone budget and distribution over East Asia under a Net Zero scenarioEast Asian methane emissions inferred from high-resolution inversions of GOSAT and TROPOMI observations: a comparative and evaluative analysisTowards near-real-time air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions: lessons learned from multiple estimates during the COVID-19 pandemicSpatiotemporal variation of radionuclide dispersion from nuclear power plant accidents using FLEXPART mini-ensemble modelingContinuous weekly monitoring of methane emissions from the Permian Basin by inversion of TROPOMI satellite observationsWestern European emission estimates of CFC-11, CFC-12 and CCl4 derived from atmospheric measurements from 2008 to 2021Evaluating modelled tropospheric columns of CH4, CO and O3 in the Arctic using ground-based FTIR measurementsUtility of Geostationary Lightning Mapper Derived Lightning NOx Emission Estimates in Air Quality Modeling StudiesInvestigating the differences in calculating global mean surface CO2 abundance: the impact of analysis methodologies and site selectionEstimating methane emissions in the Arctic nations using surface observations from 2008 to 2019Background nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over the United States and its implications for satellite observations and trends: effects of nitrate photolysis, aircraft, and open firesSeasonal, interannual and decadal variability of tropospheric ozone in the North Atlantic: comparison of UM-UKCA and remote sensing observations for 2005–2018Quantification of oil and gas methane emissions in the Delaware and Marcellus basins using a network of continuous tower-based measurementsGlobal sensitivities of reactive N and S gas and particle concentrations and deposition to precursor emissions reductionsA high-resolution Global Aviation emissions Inventory based on ADS-B (GAIA) for 2019–2021Large simulated future changes in the nitrate radical under the CMIP6 SSP scenarios: implications for oxidation chemistryImpact of HO2 aerosol uptake on radical levels and O3 production during summertime in BeijingSource attribution of near-surface ozone trends in the United States during 1995–2019Exploring the drivers of tropospheric hydroxyl radical trends in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory AM4.1 atmospheric chemistry–climate modelComprehensive multiphase chlorine chemistry in the box model CAABA/MECCA: Implications to atmospheric oxidative capacityImpacts of land cover changes on biogenic emission and its contribution to ozone and secondary organic aerosol in ChinaHigh-resolution regional emission inventory contributes to the evaluation of policy effectiveness: a case study in Jiangsu Province, China
Ling Huang, Jiong Fang, Jiaqiang Liao, Greg Yarwood, Hui Chen, Yangjun Wang, and Li Li
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14919–14932,Short summary
Surface ozone concentrations have emerged as a major environmental issue in China. Although control strategies aimed at reducing NOx emissions from conventional combustion sources are widely recognized, soil NOx emissions have received little attention. The impact of soil NO emissions on ground-level ozone concentration is yet to be evaluated. In this study, we estimated the soil NO emissions and evaluated its impact on ozone formation in China.
Ben A. Cala, Scott Archer-Nicholls, James Weber, N. Luke Abraham, Paul T. Griffiths, Lorrie Jacob, Y. Matthew Shin, Laura E. Revell, Matthew Woodhouse, and Alexander T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14735–14760,Short summary
Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important trace gas emitted from the ocean recognised as setting the sulfate aerosol background, but its oxidation is complex. As a result representation in chemistry-climate models is greatly simplified. We develop and compare a new mechanism to existing mechanisms via a series of global and box model experiments. Our studies show our updated DMS scheme is a significant improvement but significant variance exists between mechanisms.
Jianing Dai, Guy P. Brasseur, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Maria Kanakidou, Kun Qu, Yijuan Zhang, Hongliang Zhang, and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 14127–14158,Short summary
In this study, we used a regional chemical transport model to characterize the different parameters of atmospheric oxidative capacity in recent chemical environments in China. These parameters include the production and destruction rates of ozone and other oxidants, the ozone production efficiency, the OH reactivity, and the length of the reaction chain responsible for the formation of ozone and ROx. They are also affected by the aerosol burden in the atmosphere.
Zhenze Liu, Oliver Wild, Ruth M. Doherty, Fiona M. O'Connor, and Steven T. Turnock
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13755–13768,Short summary
We investigate the impact of net-zero policies on surface ozone pollution in China. A chemistry–climate model is used to simulate ozone changes driven by local and external emissions, methane, and warmer climates. A deep learning model is applied to generate more robust ozone projection, and we find that the benefits of net-zero policies may be overestimated with the chemistry–climate model. Nevertheless, it is clear that the policies can still substantially reduce ozone pollution in future.
Gemma Purser, Mathew R. Heal, Edward J. Carnell, Stephen Bathgate, Julia Drewer, James I. L. Morison, and Massimo Vieno
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13713–13733,Short summary
Forest expansion is a ″net-zero“ pathway, but change in land cover alters air quality in many ways. This study combines tree planting suitability data with UK measured emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds to simulate spatial and temporal changes in atmospheric composition for planting scenarios of four species. Decreases in fine particulate matter are relatively larger than increases in ozone, which may indicate a net benefit of tree planting on human health aspects of air quality.
Wei Li, Yuxuan Wang, Xueying Liu, Ehsan Soleimanian, Travis Griggs, James Flynn, and Paul Walter
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13685–13699,Short summary
This study examined high offshore ozone events in Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, using boat data and WRF–CAMx modeling during the TRACER-AQ 2021 field campaign. On average, high ozone is caused by chemistry due to the regional transport of volatile organic compounds and downwind advection of NOx from the ship channel. Two case studies show advection of ozone can be another process leading to high ozone, and accurate wind prediction is crucial for air quality forecasting in coastal areas.
Richard G. Derwent, David D. Parrish, and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13613–13623,Short summary
Elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations driven by anthropogenic precursor emissions are a world-wide health and environmental concern; however, this issue lacks a generally accepted understanding of the scientific issues. Here, we briefly outline the elements required to conduct an international assessment process to establish a conceptual model of the underpinning science and motivate international policy forums for regulating ozone production over hemispheric and global scales.
Nicola J. Warwick, Alex T. Archibald, Paul T. Griffiths, James Keeble, Fiona M. O'Connor, John A. Pyle, and Keith P. Shine
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13451–13467,Short summary
A chemistry–climate model has been used to explore the atmospheric response to changes in emissions of hydrogen and other species associated with a shift from fossil fuel to hydrogen use. Leakage of hydrogen results in indirect global warming, offsetting greenhouse gas emission reductions from reduced fossil fuel use. To maximise the benefit of hydrogen as an energy source, hydrogen leakage and emissions of methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides should be minimised.
Susanna Strada, Andrea Pozzer, Graziano Giuliani, Erika Coppola, Fabien Solmon, Xiaoyan Jiang, Alex Guenther, Efstratios Bourtsoukidis, Dominique Serça, Jonathan Williams, and Filippo Giorgi
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13301–13327,Short summary
Water deficit modifies emissions of isoprene, an aromatic compound released by plants that influences the production of an air pollutant such as ozone. Numerical modelling shows that, during the warmest and driest summers, isoprene decreases between −20 and −60 % over the Euro-Mediterranean region, while near-surface ozone only diminishes by a few percent. Decreases in isoprene emissions not only happen under dry conditions, but also could occur after prolonged or repeated water deficits.
Guowen He, Cheng He, Haofan Wang, Xiao Lu, Chenglei Pei, Xiaonuan Qiu, Chenxi Liu, Yiming Wang, Nanxi Liu, Jinpu Zhang, Lei Lei, Yiming Liu, Haichao Wang, Tao Deng, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 13107–13124,Short summary
We analyze nighttime ozone in the lower boundary layer (up to 500 m) from the 2017–2019 measurements at the Canton Tower and the WRF-CMAQ model. We identify a strong ability of the residual layer to store daytime ozone in the convective mixing layer, investigate the chemical and meteorological factors controlling nighttime ozone in the residual layer, and quantify the contribution of nighttime ozone in the residual layer to both the nighttime and the following day’s surface ozone air quality.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Horst Fischer, Jos Lelieveld, and Andrea Pozzer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 12651–12669,Short summary
Ozone is a greenhouse gas and contributes to the earth’s radiative energy budget and therefore to global warming. This effect is the largest in the upper troposphere. In this study, we investigate the processes controlling ozone formation and the sensitivity to its precursors in the upper tropical troposphere based on model simulations by the ECHAM5/MESSy2 Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model. We find that NO𝑥 emissions from lightning most importantly affect ozone chemistry at these altitudes.
Alba Badia, Veronica Vidal, Sergi Ventura, Roger Curcoll, Ricard Segura, and Gara Villalba
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10751–10774,Short summary
Improving air quality is a top priority in urban areas. In this study, we used an air quality model to analyse the air quality changes occurring over the metropolitan area of Barcelona and other rural areas affected by transport of the atmospheric plume from the city during mobility restrictions. Our results show that mitigation strategies intended to reduce O3 should be designed according to the local meteorology, air transport, and particular ozone chemistry of the urban area.
Herizo Narivelo, Paul David Hamer, Virginie Marécal, Luke Surl, Tjarda Roberts, Sophie Pelletier, Béatrice Josse, Jonathan Guth, Mickaël Bacles, Simon Warnach, Thomas Wagner, Stefano Corradini, Giuseppe Salerno, and Lorenzo Guerrieri
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10533–10561,Short summary
Volcanic emissions emit large quantities of gases and primary aerosols that can play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of the fate of volcanic bromine emissions from the eruption of Mount Etna around Christmas 2018. Using a numerical model and satellite observations, we analyse the impact of the volcanic plume and how it modifies the composition of the air over the whole Mediterranean basin, in particular on tropospheric ozone through the bromine-explosion cycle.
Glenn-Michael Oomen, Jean-François Müller, Trissevgeni Stavrakou, Isabelle De Smedt, Thomas Blumenstock, Rigel Kivi, Maria Makarova, Mathias Palm, Amelie Röhling, Yao Té, Corinne Vigouroux, Martina M. Friedrich, Udo Frieß, François Hendrick, Alexis Merlaud, Ankie Piters, Andreas Richter, Michel Van Roozendael, and Thomas Wagner
Natural emissions from vegetation have a profound impact on air quality for their role in the formation of harmful tropospheric ozone and organic aerosols, yet these emissions are highly uncertain. In this study, we quantify emissions of organic gases over Europe using high-quality satellite measurements of formaldehyde. These satellite observations suggest that emissions from vegetation are much higher than predicted by models, especially in southern Europe.
Michael P. Cartwright, Richard J. Pope, Jeremy J. Harrison, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Chris Wilson, Wuhu Feng, David P. Moore, and Parvadha Suntharalingam
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10035–10056,Short summary
A 3-D chemical transport model, TOMCAT, is used to simulate global atmospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) distribution. Modelled OCS compares well with satellite observations of OCS from limb-sounding satellite observations. Model simulations also compare adequately with surface and atmospheric observations and suitably capture the seasonality of OCS and background concentrations.
Luana S. Basso, Chris Wilson, Martyn P. Chipperfield, Graciela Tejada, Henrique L. G. Cassol, Egídio Arai, Mathew Williams, T. Luke Smallman, Wouter Peters, Stijn Naus, John B. Miller, and Manuel Gloor
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9685–9723,Short summary
The Amazon’s carbon balance may have changed due to forest degradation, deforestation and warmer climate. We used an atmospheric model and atmospheric CO2 observations to quantify Amazonian carbon emissions (2010–2018). The region was a small carbon source to the atmosphere, mostly due to fire emissions. Forest uptake compensated for ~ 50 % of the fire emissions, meaning that the remaining forest is still a small carbon sink. We found no clear evidence of weakening carbon uptake over the period.
Rui Zhu, Zhaojun Tang, Xiaokang Chen, Xiong Liu, and Zhe Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9745–9763,Short summary
Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and surface O3 observations are used to investigate the changes in tropospheric O3 in the USA and Europe in 2005–2020. The surface-based assimilations show limited changes in surface and tropospheric column O3. The OMI-based assimilations show larger decreases in tropospheric O3 columns in 2010–2014, related to a decline in free-tropospheric NO2. Analysis suggests limited impacts of local emissions decline on tropospheric O3 over the USA and Europe in 2005–2020.
R. Bradley Pierce, Monica Harkey, Allen Lenzen, Lee M. Cronce, Jason A. Otkin, Jonathan L. Case, David S. Henderson, Zac Adelman, Tsengel Nergui, and Christopher R. Hain
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9613–9635,Short summary
We evaluate two high-resolution model simulations with different meteorological inputs but identical chemistry and anthropogenic emissions, with the goal of identifying a model configuration best suited for characterizing air quality in locations where lake breezes commonly affect local air quality along the Lake Michigan shoreline. This analysis complements other studies in evaluating the impact of meteorological inputs and parameterizations on air quality in a complex environment.
Rona L. Thompson, Stephen A. Montzka, Martin K. Vollmer, Jgor Arduini, Molly Crotwell, Paul Krummel, Chris Lunder, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Ronald G. Prinn, Stefan Reimann, Isaac Vimont, Hsiang Wang, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
The hydroxyl radical (OH) determines the atmospheric lifetimes of numerous species including methane. Since OH is very short-lived it is not possible to directly measure its concentration on scales relevant for understanding its effect on other species. Here, OH is inferred by looking at changes in hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). We find OH levels have been fairly stable over our study period (2004 to 2021) suggesting that OH is not the main driver of the recent increase in atmospheric methane.
Shreta Ghimire, Zachary J. Lebo, Shane Murphy, Stefan Rahimi, and Trang Tran
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9413–9438,Short summary
High wintertime ozone levels have occurred often in recent years in mountain basins with oil and gas production facilities. Photochemical modeling of ozone production serves as a basis for understanding the mechanism by which it occurs and for predictive capability. We present photochemical model simulations of ozone formation and accumulation in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming, demonstrating the model's ability to simulate wintertime ozone and the sensitivity of ozone to its precursors.
Christian Rödenbeck, Karina E. Adcock, Markus Eritt, Maksym Gachkivsky, Christoph Gerbig, Samuel Hammer, Armin Jordan, Ralph F. Keeling, Ingeborg Levin, Fabian Maier, Andrew C. Manning, Heiko Moossen, Saqr Munassar, Penelope A. Pickers, Michael Rothe, Yasunori Tohjima, and Sönke Zaehle
The carbon dioxide content of the Earth atmosphere is increasing due to human emissions from burning of fossil fuels, causing global climate change. The strength of the fossil-fuel emissions is estimated by inventories based on energy data, but independent validation of these inventories has been recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Here we investigate the potential to validate inventories based on measurements of small changes in the atmospheric oxygen content.
Adedayo R. Adedeji, Stephen J. Andrews, Matthew J. Rowlinson, Mathew J. Evans, Alastair C. Lewis, Shigeru Hashimoto, Hitoshi Mukai, Hiroshi Tanimoto, Yasunori Tohjima, and Takuya Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9229–9244,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model to interpret observations of CO, C2H6, C3H8, NOx, NOy and O3 made from Hateruma Island in 2018. The model captures many synoptic-scale events and the seasonality of most pollutants at the site but underestimates C2H6 and C3H8 during the winter. These underestimates are unlikely to be reconciled by increases in biomass burning emissions but could be reconciled by increasing the Asian anthropogenic source of C2H6 and C3H8 by factors of around 2 and 3, respectively.
Bryan K. Place, William T. Hutzell, K. Wyat Appel, Sara Farrell, Lukas Valin, Benjamin N. Murphy, Karl M. Seltzer, Golam Sarwar, Christine Allen, Ivan R. Piletic, Emma L. D'Ambro, Emily Saunders, Heather Simon, Ana Torres-Vasquez, Jonathan Pleim, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Matthew M. Coggon, Lu Xu, William R. Stockwell, and Havala O. T. Pye
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 9173–9190,Short summary
Ground-level ozone is a pollutant with adverse human health and ecosystem effects. Air quality models allow scientists to understand the chemical production of ozone and demonstrate impacts of air quality management plans. In this work, the role of multiple systems in ozone production was investigated for the northeastern US in summer. Model updates to chemical reaction rates and monoterpene chemistry were most influential in decreasing predicted ozone and improving agreement with observations.
Jonas Hachmeister, Oliver Schneising, Michael Buchwitz, John P. Burrows, Justus Notholt, and Matthias Buschmann
We quantified changes in atmospheric methane (CH4) concentrations using satellite data and a dynamic linear model approach. We calculated global annual methane increases for the years 2019–2022 which are in good agreement with other sources. For zonal methane growth rates, we identified strong inter-hemispheric differences in 2019 and 2022. For 2022, we could attribute decreases in the global growth rate to the Northern Hemisphere, possibly related to a reduction in anthropogenic emissions.
Yongliang She, Jingyi Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Hai Guo, Momei Qin, Xiaodong Xie, Kangjia Gong, Fei Ye, Jianjiong Mao, Lin Huang, and Jianlin Hu
The evaluation of predicted VOC in current chemical transport model is limited in China due to the lack of routine measurements at multiple sites. In this study, we use multi-site VOC measurements to evaluate the CMAQ model predicted VOC and assess the impacts of VOC bias on O3 simulation. Our results demonstrate that current modelling setups and emission inventories are likely to underpredict VOC concentrations, and this underprediction of VOC contributes to lower O3 predictions in China.
Alfred W. Mayhew, Peter M. Edwards, and Jaqueline F. Hamilton
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8473–8485,Short summary
Isoprene nitrates are chemical species commonly found in the atmosphere that are important for their impacts on air quality and climate. This paper investigates modelled changes to daytime isoprene nitrate concentrations resulting from changes in NOx and O3. The results highlight the complex, nonlinear chemistry of this group of species under typical conditions for megacities such as Beijing, with many species showing increased concentrations when NOx is decreased and/or ozone is increased.
Alice Drinkwater, Paul I. Palmer, Liang Feng, Tim Arnold, Xin Lan, Sylvia E. Michel, Robert Parker, and Hartmut Boesch
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8429–8452,Short summary
Changes in atmospheric methane over the last few decades are largely unexplained. Previous studies have proposed different hypotheses to explain short-term changes in atmospheric methane. We interpret observed changes in atmospheric methane and stable isotope source signatures (2004–2020). We argue that changes over this period are part of a large-scale shift from high-northern-latitude thermogenic energy emissions to tropical biogenic emissions, particularly from North Africa and South America.
Claudio A. Belis and Rita Van Dingenen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8225–8240,Short summary
The study assesses the influence that abating emissions in the rest of the world have on exposure and mortality due to ozone and fine particulate matter in the region covered by the Gothenburg protocol (UNECE, mainly Europe and North America). To that end, the impacts of pollutants derived from different geographic areas and anthropogenic sources are analysed in a series of scenarios including measures to abate air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions with different levels of ambition.
Xuewei Hou, Oliver Wild, Bin Zhu, and James Lee
In response to the climate crisis, many countries have committed to net zero in a certain future year. The impacts of net zero scenario on tropospheric O3 are less well studied and remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the changes of tropospheric O3 budgets, spatiotemporal distributions of future surface O3 in East Asia and regional O3 source contributions for 2060 under a net zero scenario, using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM) and online O3 tagging methods.
Ruosi Liang, Yuzhong Zhang, Wei Chen, Peixuan Zhang, Jingran Liu, Cuihong Chen, Huiqin Mao, Guofeng Shen, Zhen Qu, Zichong Chen, Minqiang Zhou, Pucai Wang, Robert J. Parker, Hartmut Boesch, Alba Lorente, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8039–8057,Short summary
We compare and evaluate East Asian methane emissions inferred from different satellite observations (GOSAT and TROPOMI). The results show discrepancies over northern India and eastern China. Independent ground-based observations are more consistent with TROPOMI-derived emissions in northern India and GOSAT-derived emissions in eastern China.
Marc Guevara, Hervé Petetin, Oriol Jorba, Hugo Denier van der Gon, Jeroen Kuenen, Ingrid Super, Claire Granier, Thierno Doumbia, Philippe Ciais, Zhu Liu, Robin D. Lamboll, Sabine Schindlbacher, Bradley Matthews, and Carlos Pérez García-Pando
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 8081–8101,Short summary
This study provides an intercomparison of European 2020 emission changes derived from official inventories, which are reported by countries under the framework of several international conventions and directives, and non-official near-real-time estimates, the use of which has significantly grown since the COVID-19 outbreak. The results of the work are used to produce recommendations on how best to approach and make use of near-real-time emissions for modelling and monitoring applications.
Seyed Omid Nabavi, Theodoros Christoudias, Yiannis Proestos, Christos Fountoukis, Huda Al-Sulaiti, and Jos Lelieveld
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7719–7739,Short summary
The objective of our study is to comprehensively assess the timing of radioactive material transportation and deposition, along with the associated population exposure in the designated region. We employed diverse meteorological inputs, emission specifics, and simulation codes, aiming to quantify the level of uncertainty.
Daniel J. Varon, Daniel J. Jacob, Benjamin Hmiel, Ritesh Gautam, David R. Lyon, Mark Omara, Melissa Sulprizio, Lu Shen, Drew Pendergrass, Hannah Nesser, Zhen Qu, Zachary R. Barkley, Natasha L. Miles, Scott J. Richardson, Kenneth J. Davis, Sudhanshu Pandey, Xiao Lu, Alba Lorente, Tobias Borsdorff, Joannes D. Maasakkers, and Ilse Aben
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7503–7520,Short summary
We use TROPOMI satellite observations to quantify weekly methane emissions from the US Permian oil and gas basin from May 2018 to October 2020. We find that Permian emissions are highly variable, with diverse economic and activity drivers. The most important drivers during our study period were new well development and natural gas price. Permian methane intensity averaged 4.6 % and decreased by 1 % per year.
Alison L. Redington, Alistair J. Manning, Stephan Henne, Francesco Graziosi, Luke M. Western, Jgor Arduini, Anita L. Ganesan, Christina M. Harth, Michela Maione, Jens Mühle, Simon O'Doherty, Joseph Pitt, Stefan Reimann, Matthew Rigby, Peter K. Salameh, Peter G. Simmonds, T. Gerard Spain, Kieran Stanley, Martin K. Vollmer, Ray F. Weiss, and Dickon Young
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 7383–7398,Short summary
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were used in Europe pre-1990, damaging the stratospheric ozone layer. Legislation has controlled production and use, and global emissions have decreased sharply. The global rate of decline in CFC-11 recently slowed and was partly attributed to illegal emission in eastern China. This study concludes that emissions of CFC-11 in western Europe have not contributed to the unexplained part of the global increase in CFC-11 observed in the last decade.
Victoria A. Flood, Kimberly Strong, Cynthia H. Whaley, Kaley A. Walker, Thomas Blumenstock, James W. Hannigan, Johan Mellqvist, Justus Notholt, Mathias Palm, Amelie N. Röhling, Stephen Arnold, Stephen Beagley, Rong-You Chien, Jesper Christensen, Makoto Deushi, Srdjan Dobricic, Xinyi Dong, Joshua S. Fu, Michael Gauss, Wanmin Gong, Joakim Langner, Kathy S. Law, Louis Marelle, Tatsuo Onishi, Naga Oshima, David A. Plummer, Luca Pozzoli, Jean-Christophe Raut, Manu A. Thomas, Svetlana Tsyro, and Steven Turnock
It is important to understand the composition of the Arctic atmosphere and how it is changing. Atmospheric models provide simulations that can inform policy. This study examines simulations of CH4, CO, and O3 by 11 models. Model performance is assessed by comparing results matched in space and time to measurements from five high-latitude ground-based infrared spectrometers. This work finds that models are generally underpredicting the concentrations of these gases in the Arctic troposphere.
Peiyang Cheng, Arastoo Pour-Biazar, Yuling Wu, Shi Kuang, Richard T. McNider, and William J. Koshak
Lightning-induced nitrogen monoxide (LNO) emission can be estimated from geostationary satellite observations. The present study uses the LNO emission estimates derived from geostationary satellite observations in an air quality modeling system to investigate the impact of LNO to air quality. Results indicate that significant ozone increase could be due to long-distance chemical transport, lightning activity in the upwind direction, and the mixing of high LNO (or ozone) plumes.
Zhendong Wu, Alex Vermeulen, Yousuke Sawa, Ute Karstens, Wouter Peters, Remco de Kok, Xin Lan, Yasuyuki Nagai, Akinori Ogi, and Oksana Tarasova
This study focuses on exploring the differences in calculating global surface CO2 and its growth rate, considering the impact of analysis methodologies and site selection. Our study reveals that the current global CO2 network has a good capacity to represent global surface CO2 and its growth rate and trends in atmospheric CO2 mass changes, although small differences exist in different analyses due to the impact of methodology and site selection.
Sophie Wittig, Antoine Berchet, Isabelle Pison, Marielle Saunois, Joël Thanwerdas, Adrien Martinez, Jean-Daniel Paris, Toshinobu Machida, Motoki Sasakawa, Douglas E. J. Worthy, Xin Lan, Rona L. Thompson, Espen Sollum, and Mikhail Arshinov
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6457–6485,Short summary
Here, an inverse modelling approach is applied to estimate CH4 sources and sinks in the Arctic from 2008 to 2019. We study the magnitude, seasonal patterns and trends from different sources during recent years. We also assess how the current observation network helps to constrain fluxes. We find that constraints are only significant for North America and, to a lesser extent, West Siberia, where the observation network is relatively dense. We find no clear trend over the period of inversion.
Ruijun Dang, Daniel J. Jacob, Viral Shah, Sebastian D. Eastham, Thibaud M. Fritz, Loretta J. Mickley, Tianjia Liu, Yi Wang, and Jun Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6271–6284,Short summary
We use the GEOS-Chem model to better understand the magnitude and trend in free tropospheric NO2 over the contiguous US. Model underestimate of background NO2 is largely corrected by considering aerosol nitrate photolysis. Increase in aircraft emissions affects satellite retrievals by altering the NO2 shape factor, and this effect is expected to increase in future. We show the importance of properly accounting for the free tropospheric background in interpreting NO2 observations from space.
Maria Rosa Russo, Brian John Kerridge, Nathan Luke Abraham, James Keeble, Barry Graham Latter, Richard Siddans, James Weber, Paul Thomas Griffiths, John Adrian Pyle, and Alexander Thomas Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6169–6196,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an important component of the Earth system as it can affect both climate and air quality. In this work we use observed tropospheric ozone derived from satellite observations and compare it to tropospheric ozone from model simulations. Our aim is to investigate recent changes (2005–2018) in tropospheric ozone in the North Atlantic region and to understand what factors are driving such changes.
Zachary Barkley, Kenneth Davis, Natasha Miles, Scott Richardson, Aijun Deng, Benjamin Hmiel, David Lyon, and Thomas Lauvaux
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6127–6144,Short summary
Using methane monitoring instruments attached to towers, we measure methane concentrations and quantify methane emissions coming from the Marcellus and Permian oil and gas basins. In the Marcellus, emissions were 3 times higher than the state inventory across the entire monitoring period. In the Permian, we see a sharp decline in emissions aligning with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Tower observational networks can be utilized in other basins for long-term monitoring of emissions.
Yao Ge, Massimo Vieno, David S. Stevenson, Peter Wind, and Mathew R. Heal
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 6083–6112,Short summary
The sensitivity of fine particles and reactive N and S species to reductions in precursor emissions is investigated using the EMEP MSC-W (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Meteorological Synthesizing Centre – West) atmospheric chemistry transport model. This study reveals that the individual emissions reduction has multiple and geographically varying co-benefits and small disbenefits on different species, demonstrating the importance of prioritizing regional emissions controls.
Roger Teoh, Zebediah Engberg, Marc Shapiro, Lynnette Dray, and Marc Stettler
Emissions from aircraft contribute to climate change and degrade air quality. We describe an up-to-date 4D emissions inventory of global aviation from 2019 to 2021 based on actual flown trajectories. In 2019, 40.2 million flights collectively travelled 61 billion kilometres using 283 Tg of fuel. Long-haul flights were responsible for 43 % of CO2. The emissions inventory is made available for use in future studies to evaluate the negative externalities arising from global aviation.
Scott Archer-Nicholls, Rachel Allen, Nathan L. Abraham, Paul T. Griffiths, and Alex T. Archibald
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5801–5813,Short summary
The nitrate radical is a major oxidant at nighttime, but much less is known about it than about the other oxidants ozone and OH. We use Earth system model calculations to show how the nitrate radical has changed in abundance from 1850–2014 and to 2100 under a range of different climate and emission scenarios. Depending on the emissions and climate scenario, significant increases are projected with implications for the oxidation of volatile organic compounds and the formation of fine aerosol.
Joanna E. Dyson, Lisa K. Whalley, Eloise J. Slater, Robert Woodward-Massey, Chunxiang Ye, James D. Lee, Freya Squires, James R. Hopkins, Rachel E. Dunmore, Marvin Shaw, Jacqueline F. Hamilton, Alastair C. Lewis, Stephen D. Worrall, Asan Bacak, Archit Mehra, Thomas J. Bannan, Hugh Coe, Carl J. Percival, Bin Ouyang, C. Nicholas Hewitt, Roderic L. Jones, Leigh R. Crilley, Louisa J. Kramer, W. Joe F. Acton, William J. Bloss, Supattarachai Saksakulkrai, Jingsha Xu, Zongbo Shi, Roy M. Harrison, Simone Kotthaus, Sue Grimmond, Yele Sun, Weiqi Xu, Siyao Yue, Lianfang Wei, Pingqing Fu, Xinming Wang, Stephen R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5679–5697,Short summary
The hydroxyl (OH) and closely coupled hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals are vital for their role in the removal of atmospheric pollutants. In less polluted regions, atmospheric models over-predict HO2 concentrations. In this modelling study, the impact of heterogeneous uptake of HO2 onto aerosol surfaces on radical concentrations and the ozone production regime in Beijing in the summertime is investigated, and the implications for emissions policies across China are considered.
Pengwei Li, Yang Yang, Hailong Wang, Su Li, Ke Li, Pinya Wang, Baojie Li, and Hong Liao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 5403–5417,Short summary
We use a novel technique that can attribute O3 to precursors to investigate O3 changes in the United States during 1995–2019. We found that the US domestic energy and surface transportation emission reductions are primarily responsible for the O3 decrease in summer. In winter, factors such as nitrogen oxide emission reduction in the context of its inhibition of ozone production, increased aviation and shipping activities, and large-scale circulation changes contribute to the O3 increases.
Glen Chua, Vaishali Naik, and Larry Wayne Horowitz
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4955–4975,Short summary
The hydroxyl radical (OH) is an atmospheric
detergent, removing air pollutants and greenhouse gases like methane from the atmosphere. Thus, understanding how it is changing and responding to its various drivers is important for air quality and climate. We found that OH has increased by about 5 % globally from 1980 to 2014 in our model, mostly driven by increasing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. This suggests potential climate tradeoffs from air quality policies solely targeting NOx emissions.
Meghna Soni, Rolf Sander, Lokesh K. Sahu, Domenico Taraborrelli, Pengfei Liu, Ankit Patel, Imran A. Girach, Andrea Pozzer, Sachin S. Gunthe, and Narendra Ojha
The study presents the implementation of comprehensive multiphase chlorine chemistry in the box model CAABA/MECCA. Simulations for contrasting urban environments of Asia and Europe highlight the significant impacts of chlorine on atmospheric oxidation capacity and composition. Chemical processes governing the production and loss of chlorine-containing species have been discussed. The updated chemical mechanism will be useful to interpret field measurements and for future air quality studies.
Jinlong Ma, Shengqiang Zhu, Siyu Wang, Peng Wang, Jianmin Chen, and Hongliang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4311–4325,Short summary
An updated version of the CMAQ model with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from MEGAN was applied to study the impacts of different land cover inputs on O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in China. The estimated BVOC emissions ranged from 25.42 to 37.39 Tg using different leaf area index (LAI) and land cover (LC) inputs. Those differences further induced differences of 4.8–6.9 ppb in O3 concentrations and differences of 5.3–8.4 µg m−3 in SOA concentrations in China.
Chen Gu, Lei Zhang, Zidie Xu, Sijia Xia, Yutong Wang, Li Li, Zeren Wang, Qiuyue Zhao, Hanying Wang, and Yu Zhao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 4247–4269,Short summary
We demonstrated the development of a high-resolution emission inventory and its application to evaluate the effectiveness of emission control actions, by incorporating the improved methodology, the best available data, and air quality modeling. We show that substantial efforts for emission controls indeed played an important role in air quality improvement even with worsened meteorological conditions and that the contributions of individual measures to emission reduction were greatly changing.
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We investigated the mechanisms by which marine-emitted halogens influence the OH radical, which is not considered in air quality forecasting model systems. The atmospheric OH radical has a complicated response to halogen emissions by species through both physical and chemical processes. Over ocean, inorganic iodine is the controlling species and chemistry is more important. Over land, the physics of sea salt aerosols are more important. The mechanism is applicable to other circumstances.
We investigated the mechanisms by which marine-emitted halogens influence the OH radical, which...