Articles | Volume 21, issue 3
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2191–2210, 2021
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 2191–2210, 2021

Research article 15 Feb 2021

Research article | 15 Feb 2021

Ice injected into the tropopause by deep convection – Part 2: Over the Maritime Continent

Iris-Amata Dion et al.

Data sets

MLS/Aura Level 2 Cloud Ice Product V004, Greenbelt, MD, USA A. Lambert, N. Livesey, and W. Read

TRMM (TMPA) Rainfall Estimate L3 3 hour 0.25 degree x 0.25 degree V7, Greenbelt, MD Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)

Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on TRMM Science Data 2004-2015 R. J. Blakeslee

ERA5 monthly averaged data on pressure levels from 1979 to present H. Hersbach, B. Bell, P. Berrisford, G. Biavati, A. Horányi, J. Muñoz Sabater, J. Nicolas, C. Peubey, R. Radu, I. Rozum, D. Schepers, A. Simmons, C. Soci, D. Dee, and J.-N. Thépaut

Short summary
Ice in the tropopause has a strong radiative effect on climate. The amount of ice injected (∆IWC) up to the tropical tropopause layer has been shown to be the highest over the Maritime Continent (MC), a region that includes Indonesia. ∆IWC is studied over islands and sea of the MC. Space-borne observations of ice, precipitation and lightning are used to estimate ∆IWC and are compared to ∆IWC estimated from the ERA5 reanalyses. It is shown that Java is the area of the greatest ∆IWC over the MC.
Final-revised paper