Articles | Volume 21, issue 20
25 Oct 2021
Research article | 25 Oct 2021
Speciated atmospheric mercury at the Waliguan Global Atmosphere Watch station in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau: implication of dust-related sources for particulate bound mercury
Hui Zhang et al.
No articles found.
Irene Cheng, Leiming Zhang, Zhuanshi He, Hazel Cathcart, Daniel Houle, Amanda Cole, Jian Feng, Jason O'Brien, Anne Marie Macdonald, Julian Aherne, and Jeffrey Brook
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14631–14656,Short summary
Nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) deposition decreased significantly at 14 Canadian sites during 2000–2018. The greatest decline was observed in southeastern Canada owing to regional SO2 and NOx reductions. Wet deposition was more important than dry deposition, comprising 71–95 % of total N and 45–89 % of total S deposition. While critical loads (CLs) were exceeded at a few sites in the early 2000s, acidic deposition declined below CLs after 2012, which signifies recovery from legacy acidification.
Yu Lin, Leiming Zhang, Qinchu Fan, He Meng, Yang Gao, Huiwang Gao, and Xiaohong Yao
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
In order to assess the effectiveness of existing emission control strategies, we extracted emission-driven trends in concentrations of air pollutants by separately applying three methods and analyzed their uncertainties. We found consistent trends in approximately 70 % of the study cases, the effects of emission-driven took the lead in the overall changes. The effects of mitigation measures and weather perturbations were also discussed.
Zhiyong Wu, Leiming Zhang, John T. Walker, Paul A. Makar, Judith A. Perlinger, and Xuemei Wang
Geosci. Model Dev., 14, 5093–5105,Short summary
A community dry deposition algorithm for modeling the gaseous dry deposition process in chemistry transport models was extended to include an additional 12 oxidized volatile organic compounds and hydrogen cyanide based on their physicochemical properties and was then evaluated using field flux measurements over a mixed forest. This study provides a useful tool that is needed in chemistry transport models with increasing complexity for simulating an important atmospheric process.
Katherine Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, Paul Makar, John Liggio, Samar G. Moussa, Ayodeji Akingunola, Robert McLaren, Ralf M. Staebler, Andrea Darlington, Jason O'Brien, Junhua Zhang, Mengistu Wolde, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 8377–8392,Short summary
We developed a method using aircraft measurements to determine lifetimes with respect to dry deposition for oxidized sulfur and nitrogen compounds over the boreal forest in Alberta, Canada. Atmospheric lifetimes were significantly shorter than derived from chemical transport models with differences related to modelled dry deposition velocities. The shorter lifetimes suggest models need to reassess dry deposition treatment and predictions of sulfur and nitrogen in the atmosphere and ecosystems.
Xuewu Fu, Chen Liu, Hui Zhang, Yue Xu, Hui Zhang, Jun Li, Xiaopu Lyu, Gan Zhang, Hai Guo, Xun Wang, Leiming Zhang, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 21, 6721–6734,Short summary
TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions in 10 Chinese cities showed strong seasonality with higher TGM concentrations and Δ199Hg and lower δ202Hg in summer. We found the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions were highly related to regional surface Hg(0) emissions, suggesting land surface Hg(0) emissions are an important source of atmospheric TGM that contribute dominantly to the seasonal variations in TGM concentrations and isotopic compositions.
Xiaofei Qin, Leiming Zhang, Guochen Wang, Xiaohao Wang, Qingyan Fu, Jian Xu, Hao Li, Jia Chen, Qianbiao Zhao, Yanfen Lin, Juntao Huo, Fengwen Wang, Kan Huang, and Congrui Deng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 10985–10996,Short summary
The uncertainties in mercury emissions are much larger from natural sources than anthropogenic sources. A method was developed to quantify the contributions of natural surface emissions to ambient GEM based on PMF modeling. The annual GEM concentration in eastern China showed a decreasing trend from 2015 to 2018, while the relative contribution of natural surface emissions increased significantly from 41 % in 2015 to 57 % in 2018, gradually surpassing those from anthropogenic sources.
Ben Yu, Lin Yang, Linlin Wang, Hongwei Liu, Cailing Xiao, Yong Liang, Qian Liu, Yongguang Yin, Ligang Hu, Jianbo Shi, and Guibin Jiang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 9713–9723,Short summary
We found that Br atoms in the marine boundary layer are the most probable oxidizer that transform gaseous elemental mercury into gaseous oxidized mercury, according to the mercury isotopes in the total gaseous mercury. On the other hand, Br or Cl atoms are not the primary oxidizers that produced oxidized mercury on particles. This study showed that mercury isotopes can provide new evidence that help us to fully understand the transformations of atmospheric mercury.
Jianzhong Ma, Steffen Dörner, Sebastian Donner, Junli Jin, Siyang Cheng, Junrang Guo, Zhanfeng Zhang, Jianqiong Wang, Peng Liu, Guoqing Zhang, Janis Pukite, Johannes Lampel, and Thomas Wagner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 6973–6990,Short summary
We made ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements at the Mt. Waliguan WMO GAW global baseline station (WLG) in the Tibetan Plateau during the years 2012–2015. We retrieve the differential slant column densities (dSCDs) of NO2, SO2, HCHO, and BrO from measured spectra at different elevation angles. Mixing ratios of these trace gases in the background troposphere over WLG are derived based on these dSCDs at a 1° elevation angle and the TRACY-2 radiative transfer model simulations.
Xiaohong Yao and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 20, 721–733,Short summary
An innovative approach is developed to preprocess monitored wet deposition data of inorganic ions for generating their decadal trends. Differing from traditional approaches which directly apply annual or seasonal average data to trend analysis tools, the proposed new approach makes use of slopes of regression equations between a series of study years and a climatology (base) year in terms of monthly averaged data. The new approach yields more robust results than the traditional tools.
Jun Tao, Zhisheng Zhang, Yunfei Wu, Leiming Zhang, Zhijun Wu, Peng Cheng, Mei Li, Laiguo Chen, Renjian Zhang, and Junji Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 8471–8490,Short summary
Mass-scattering efficiencies (MSE) of dominant chemical species in atmospheric aerosols are important parameters for building the relationships between chemical species and the particle-scattering coefficient. Particle MSE mainly depends on the mass fractions of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and organic matter and their MSEs in the droplet mode. MSEs of (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3 and organic matter were determined by their size distributions in the droplet mode.
Yang Chen, Mi Tian, Ru-Jin Huang, Guangming Shi, Huanbo Wang, Chao Peng, Junji Cao, Qiyuan Wang, Shumin Zhang, Dongmei Guo, Leiming Zhang, and Fumo Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 3245–3255,Short summary
Amine-containing particles were characterized in an urban area of Chongqing during both summer and winter using a single-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS). Amines were observed to internally mix with elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulfate, and nitrate. Diethylamine (DEA) was the most abundant in both number and peak area among amine-containing particles. Vegetation and traffic were the primary sources of particulate amines.
Xin Qiu, Irene Cheng, Fuquan Yang, Erin Horb, Leiming Zhang, and Tom Harner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 3457–3467,Short summary
We developed emissions databases for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region and evaluated the emissions databases by comparing CALPUFF-modelled concentrations with monitored data. Model–measurement agreement improved near oil sands mines due to updated PAC emissions from tailings ponds. Modelled concentrations were underestimated at remote sites and for alkylated PACs suggesting that the emissions of PACs particularly alkylated compounds are underestimated.
Cynthia H. Whaley, Paul A. Makar, Mark W. Shephard, Leiming Zhang, Junhua Zhang, Qiong Zheng, Ayodeji Akingunola, Gregory R. Wentworth, Jennifer G. Murphy, Shailesh K. Kharol, and Karen E. Cady-Pereira
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 2011–2034,Short summary
Using a modified air quality forecasting model, we have found that a significant fraction (> 50 %) of ambient ammonia comes from re-emission from plants and soils in the broader Athabasca Oil Sands region and much of Alberta and Saskatchewan. We also found that about 20 % of ambient ammonia in Alberta and Saskatchewan came from forest fires in the summer of 2013. The addition of these two processes improved modelled ammonia, which was a motivating factor in undertaking this research.
Huanbo Wang, Mi Tian, Yang Chen, Guangming Shi, Yuan Liu, Fumo Yang, Leiming Zhang, Liqun Deng, Jiayan Yu, Chao Peng, and Xuyao Cao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 865–881,
Lauren Schmeisser, Elisabeth Andrews, John A. Ogren, Patrick Sheridan, Anne Jefferson, Sangeeta Sharma, Jeong Eun Kim, James P. Sherman, Mar Sorribas, Ivo Kalapov, Todor Arsov, Christo Angelov, Olga L. Mayol-Bracero, Casper Labuschagne, Sang-Woo Kim, András Hoffer, Neng-Huei Lin, Hao-Ping Chia, Michael Bergin, Junying Sun, Peng Liu, and Hao Wu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 12097–12120,Short summary
Three methods are used to classify aerosol type from aerosol optical properties measured in situ at 24 surface sites. Classification methods work best at sites with stable, homogenous aerosol at particularly polluted and dust-prone continental and marine sites. Classification methods are poor at remote marine and Arctic sites. Using these methods to extrapolate aerosol type from optical properties can help determine aerosol radiative forcing and improve aerosol satellite retrieval algorithms.
Huiting Mao, Dolly Hall, Zhuyun Ye, Ying Zhou, Dirk Felton, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 11655–11671,Short summary
Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant hazardous to human and ecosystem health, and its emission control is imperative. Anthropogenic mercury emissions have been reduced by 78 % in the United States from 1990 to 2014. However, no clearly defined trend was observed in Hg concentrations at urban locations such as the one in this study. This indicates that other factors may have dominated over anthropogenic emission control. The implications of this study could hence be highly policy relevant.
Jun Tao, Leiming Zhang, Junji Cao, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9485–9518,Short summary
In this study, studies on PM2.5 chemical composition, source apportionment and its impact on aerosol optical properties across China are thoroughly reviewed, and historical emission control policies in China and their effectiveness in reducing PM2.5 are discussed.
Leiming Zhang, Seth Lyman, Huiting Mao, Che-Jen Lin, David A. Gay, Shuxiao Wang, Mae Sexauer Gustin, Xinbin Feng, and Frank Wania
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 9133–9144,Short summary
Future research needs are proposed for improving the understanding of atmospheric mercury cycling. These include refinement of mercury emission estimations, quantification of dry deposition and air–surface exchange, improvement of the treatment of chemical mechanisms in chemical transport models, increase in the accuracy of oxidized mercury measurements, better interpretation of atmospheric mercury chemistry data, and harmonization of network operation.
Yunfei Wu, Xiaojia Wang, Jun Tao, Rujin Huang, Ping Tian, Junji Cao, Leiming Zhang, Kin-Fai Ho, Zhiwei Han, and Renjian Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 7965–7975,Short summary
As black carbon (BC) aerosols play an important role in the climate and environment, the size distribution of refractory BC (rBC) was investigated. On this basis, the source of rBC was further analyzed. The local traffic exhausts contributed greatly to the rBC in urban areas. However, its contribution decreased significantly in the polluted period compared to the clean period, implying the increasing contribution of other sources, e.g., coal combustion or biomass burning, in the polluted period.
Oleg Travnikov, Hélène Angot, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Johannes Bieser, Francesco D'Amore, Ashu Dastoor, Francesco De Simone, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Volker Matthias, Nikolay Mashyanov, Nicola Pirrone, Ramesh Ramachandran, Katie Alana Read, Andrei Ryjkov, Noelle E. Selin, Fabrizio Sena, Shaojie Song, Francesca Sprovieri, Dennis Wip, Ingvar Wängberg, and Xin Yang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 5271–5295,Short summary
The study provides a complex analysis of processes governing Hg fate in the atmosphere involving both measurement data and simulation results of chemical transport models. Evaluation of the model simulations and numerical experiments against observations allows explaining spatial and temporal variations of Hg concentration in the near-surface atmospheric layer and shows possibility of multiple pathways of Hg oxidation occurring concurrently in various parts of the atmosphere.
Irene Cheng and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 4711–4730,Short summary
Geographical and long-term (1983–2011) trends in air concentrations and wet deposition of inorganic ions and aerosol and precipitation acidity were analyzed at 31 sites in Canada. Declines in atmospheric ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate were consistent with decreasing emissions of NH3, NOx, and SO2. A decline in nitrate and sulfate wet deposition was also observed. Wet scavenging was further studied by estimating scavenging ratios and relative contributions of gases and aerosols to wet deposition.
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Helene Angot, Carlo Barbante, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Flor Arcega-Cabrera, Warren Cairns, Sara Comero, María del Carmen Diéguez, Aurélien Dommergue, Ralf Ebinghaus, Xin Bin Feng, Xuewu Fu, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Ulla Hageström, Katarina Hansson, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Casper Labuschagne, Olivier Magand, Lynwill Martin, Nikolay Mashyanov, Thumeka Mkololo, John Munthe, Vladimir Obolkin, Martha Ramirez Islas, Fabrizio Sena, Vernon Somerset, Pia Spandow, Massimiliano Vardè, Chavon Walters, Ingvar Wängberg, Andreas Weigelt, Xu Yang, and Hui Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 2689–2708,Short summary
The results on total mercury (THg) wet deposition flux obtained within the GMOS network have been presented and discussed to understand the atmospheric Hg cycling and its seasonal depositional patterns over the 2011–2015 period. The data set provides new insight into baseline concentrations of THg concentrations in precipitation particularly in regions where wet deposition and atmospheric Hg species were not investigated before, opening the way for additional measurements and modeling studies.
Francesco De Simone, Paulo Artaxo, Mariantonia Bencardino, Sergio Cinnirella, Francesco Carbone, Francesco D'Amore, Aurélien Dommergue, Xin Bin Feng, Christian N. Gencarelli, Ian M. Hedgecock, Matthew S. Landis, Francesca Sprovieri, Noriuki Suzuki, Ingvar Wängberg, and Nicola Pirrone
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1881–1899,Short summary
Biomass burning (BB) releases of Hg, usually considered to be Hg(0), are a significant global source of atmospheric Hg. However there is experimental evidence that a fraction of this Hg is bound to particulate matter, Hg(P). This modelling study shows how increasing fractions of Hg(P) reduce the availability of Hg to the global pool, raising Hg exposure for those regions characterized by high BB, with implications for the sub-Arctic and also rice-growing areas in South-East Asia.
Xiaohong Xu, Yanyin Liao, Irene Cheng, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 1381–1400,Short summary
This study addresses two issues related to source–receptor analysis of speciated atmospheric mercury: (1) comparing PMF and PCA and (2) testing different approaches in data selection for PMF modeling.
L. Paige Wright, Leiming Zhang, and Frank J. Marsik
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13399–13416,Short summary
The current knowledge concerning mercury dry deposition is reviewed, including dry deposition algorithms used in chemical transport models and at monitoring sites, measurement methods and studies for quantifying dry deposition of oxidized mercury, and measurement studies of litterfall and throughfall mercury. Over all the regions, dry deposition, estimated as the sum of litterfall and throughfall minus open-field wet deposition, is more dominant than wet deposition for Hg deposition.
Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Che-Jen Lin, Lihai Shang, Yiping Zhang, Xinbin Feng, and Cynthia Lin
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 13131–13148,
Huiting Mao, Irene Cheng, and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12897–12924,Short summary
Understanding of spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric speciated mercury can advance our knowledge of mercury cycling in various environments. This review summarized spatiotemporal variations of TGM/GEM, GOM, and PBM in environments including oceans, continents, high elevation, the free troposphere, and low to high latitudes. Remaining questions/issues and recommendations were provided for future research.
Xuewu Fu, Wei Zhu, Hui Zhang, Jonas Sommar, Ben Yu, Xu Yang, Xun Wang, Che-Jen Lin, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 12861–12873,
Francesca Sprovieri, Nicola Pirrone, Mariantonia Bencardino, Francesco D'Amore, Francesco Carbone, Sergio Cinnirella, Valentino Mannarino, Matthew Landis, Ralf Ebinghaus, Andreas Weigelt, Ernst-Günther Brunke, Casper Labuschagne, Lynwill Martin, John Munthe, Ingvar Wängberg, Paulo Artaxo, Fernando Morais, Henrique de Melo Jorge Barbosa, Joel Brito, Warren Cairns, Carlo Barbante, María del Carmen Diéguez, Patricia Elizabeth Garcia, Aurélien Dommergue, Helene Angot, Olivier Magand, Henrik Skov, Milena Horvat, Jože Kotnik, Katie Alana Read, Luis Mendes Neves, Bernd Manfred Gawlik, Fabrizio Sena, Nikolay Mashyanov, Vladimir Obolkin, Dennis Wip, Xin Bin Feng, Hui Zhang, Xuewu Fu, Ramesh Ramachandran, Daniel Cossa, Joël Knoery, Nicolas Marusczak, Michelle Nerentorp, and Claus Norstrom
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11915–11935,Short summary
This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded within the GMOS global network analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. The over-arching beneﬁt of this coordinated Hg monitoring network would clearly be the production of high-quality measurement datasets on a global scale useful in developing and validating models on different spatial and temporal scales.
Xuewu Fu, Xu Yang, Xiaofang Lang, Jun Zhou, Hui Zhang, Ben Yu, Haiyu Yan, Che-Jen Lin, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11547–11562,
Xiaohong Yao and Leiming Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11465–11475,Short summary
Atmospheric NH3 plays an important role in forming secondary aerosols and has a direct impact on sensitive ecosystems. This study aims to study its long-term variation and find that the long-term trend can be affected by climate change as well as other anthropogenic factors, depending on sites. A large percentage increase of atmospheric NH3 at remote American sites is surprising and may cause a potential threat to sensitive ecosystems in the future.
Xun Wang, Che-Jen Lin, Wei Yuan, Jonas Sommar, Wei Zhu, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 11125–11143,Short summary
We developed a mechanistic model for estimating the emission of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) from natural surfaces in China. The development implements recent advancements in the understanding of air–soil and air–foliage exchange of Hg0 and redox chemistry in soil and on surfaces, incorporates the effects of soil characteristics and landuse changes by agricultural activities, and is examined through a systematic set of sensitivity simulations.
Xiaodong Zhang, Tao Huang, Leiming Zhang, Yanjie Shen, Yuan Zhao, Hong Gao, Xiaoxuan Mao, Chenhui Jia, and Jianmin Ma
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 6949–6960,Short summary
This paper assesses long-term trend of biogenic isoprene emissions in the Three-North Shelter Forest Program, also known as "the Green Great Wall", the largest artificial afforestation in the human history. Results show that the TNRSF has altered the long-term emission trend in north China from a decreasing to an increasing trend from 1982 to 2010. Isoprene emission fluxes have increased in many places of the TNRSF over the last 3 decades due to the growing trees and vegetation coverage.
Xuewu Fu, Nicolas Marusczak, Lars-Eric Heimbürger, Bastien Sauvage, François Gheusi, Eric M. Prestbo, and Jeroen E. Sonke
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 5623–5639,
Lei Zhao, Christopher W. N Anderson, Guangle Qiu, Bo Meng, Dingyong Wang, and Xinbin Feng
Biogeosciences, 13, 2429–2440,
Wei Zhu, Che-Jen Lin, Xun Wang, Jonas Sommar, Xuewu Fu, and Xinbin Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 4451–4480,Short summary
Reliable quantification of air-surfaces flux of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) is crucial for understanding Hg global biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review on the state of science in the atmosphere-surface exchange of elemental Hg. We compiled an up-to-date global observational flux database and discuss the implication of flux data on global Hg budget. The knowledge gap and research needs for future measurements and modeling efforts were discussed.
Jonas Sommar, Wei Zhu, Lihai Shang, Che-Jen Lin, and Xinbin Feng
Biogeosciences, 13, 2029–2049,Short summary
A micrometeorological method (REA) has been implemented to assess the role of cereal crop fields in the North China Plain as a source or sink of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) during the course of a full year. In combination with chamber measurements under the canopy, the above-canopy REA measurements provided evidence for a balance between Hg0 ground emissions and uptake of Hg0 by the crop foliage, with net emissions prevailing from the ecosystem during the majority of a year.
Lei Zhang, Shuxiao Wang, Qingru Wu, Fengyang Wang, Che-Jen Lin, Leiming Zhang, Mulin Hui, Mei Yang, Haitao Su, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 16, 2417–2433,
C. G. Nolte, K. W. Appel, J. T. Kelly, P. V. Bhave, K. M. Fahey, J. L. Collett Jr., L. Zhang, and J. O. Young
Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 2877–2892,Short summary
This study is the most comprehensive evaluation of CMAQ inorganic aerosol size-composition distributions conducted to date. We compare two methods of inferring PM2.5 concentrations from the model: (1) based on the sum of the masses in the fine aerosol modes, as is most commonly done in CMAQ model evaluation; and (2) computed using the simulated size distributions. Differences are generally less than 1 microgram/m3, and are largest over the eastern USA during the summer.
X. W. Fu, H. Zhang, B. Yu, X. Wang, C.-J. Lin, and X. B. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 9455–9476,
I. Cheng, X. Xu, and L. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7877–7895,Short summary
Current knowledge of receptor-based studies using speciated atmospheric mercury is reviewed and recommendations for future research needs are provided.
Z. Y. Wu, L. Zhang, X. M. Wang, and J. W. Munger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 7487–7496,Short summary
In this study, we have developed a modified micrometeorological gradient method (MGM), although based on existing micrometeorological theory, to estimate O3 dry deposition fluxes over a forest canopy using concentration gradients between a level above and a level below the canopy top. The new method provides an alternative approach in monitoring/estimating long-term deposition fluxes of similar pollutants over tall canopies and is expected to be useful for the scientific community.
W. Zhu, J. Sommar, C.-J. Lin, and X. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 5359–5376,Short summary
Bias and uncertainty in Hg flux measured by micrometeorological methods (MM) and dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) are assessed from two field inter-comparison campaigns. DFC flux bias follows a diurnal cycle due to modified temperature and radiation balance inside the chamber. The precision in concentration difference measurements poses critical constraint on obtaining a larger fraction of significant MM flux. Asynchronous sampling impairs flux accuracy under varying atmospheric Hg concentration.
L. Zhang, I. Cheng, D. Muir, and J.-P. Charland
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1421–1434,Short summary
This study analyzed air and precipitation concentrations of 43 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) collected in the Athabasca oil sands region. A database has been built for the parameter scavenging ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the concentration of PACs in precipitation to that in air. A better understanding of the potential differences between gas and particulate scavenging and between snow and rain scavenging has been achieved.
X. W. Fu, H. Zhang, C.-J. Lin, X. B. Feng, L. X. Zhou, and S. X. Fang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 1013–1028,Short summary
This paper is the first to report correlation slopes of GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/CO2, and CO/CO2 for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia, and applied the values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The estimated Hg0 emissions for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using GEM/CO and GEM/CO2 correlation slopes are in the ranges of 1071-1187, 340-470, 125, and 54-90t, respectively.
H. Zhang, X. W. Fu, C.-J. Lin, X. Wang, and X. B. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 653–665,
W. Zhu, J. Sommar, C.-J. Lin, and X. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 685–702,Short summary
Mercury vapor fluxes measured by the micrometeorological (MM) and dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) methods were compared. Distinct temporal trends existed between MM and DFCs fluxes; the novel chamber method provided net cumulative flux on a level with those derived by MM methods. Statistical analysis indicated that the medians of turbulent fluxes estimated by three MM techniques were not significantly different. Recommendations are given regarding the deployment of Hg flux quantification methods.
J. Tao, J. Gao, L. Zhang, R. Zhang, H. Che, Z. Zhang, Z. Lin, J. Jing, J. Cao, and S.-C. Hsu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 8679–8699,
Z. J. Lin, Z. S. Zhang, L. Zhang, J. Tao, R. J. Zhang, J. J. Cao, S. J. Fan, and Y. H. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7631–7644,
X. Wang, C.-J. Lin, and X. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 6273–6287,
D. Wen, L. Zhang, J. C. Lin, R. Vet, and M. D. Moran
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1037–1050,
X. Wang, L. Zhang, and M. D. Moran
Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 799–819,
L. Zhang and Z. He
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 3729–3737,
X. H. Yao and L. Zhang
Biogeosciences, 10, 7913–7925,
S. Chen, X. Qiu, L. Zhang, F. Yang, and P. Blanchard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 11287–11293,
L. Zhang, X. Wang, M. D. Moran, and J. Feng
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 10005–10025,
I. Cheng, L. Zhang, P. Blanchard, J. Dalziel, and R. Tordon
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6031–6048,
G. Kos, A. Ryzhkov, A. Dastoor, J. Narayan, A. Steffen, P. A. Ariya, and L. Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 4839–4863,
D. Wen, J. C. Lin, L. Zhang, R. Vet, and M. D. Moran
Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 327–344,
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Subject: Gases | Research Activity: Field Measurements | Altitude Range: Troposphere | Science Focus: Chemistry (chemical composition and reactions)Source apportionment of VOCs, IVOCs and SVOCs by positive matrix factorization in suburban Livermore, CaliforniaMeasurement report: Intra- and interannual variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds during 2018–2020 in Zhengzhou, central ChinaFormation and impacts of nitryl chloride in Pearl River DeltaMultidecadal increases in global tropospheric ozone derived from ozonesonde and surface site observations: can models reproduce ozone trends?What caused ozone pollution during the 2022 Shanghai lockdown? Insights from ground and satellite observationsAmmonium adduct chemical ionization to investigate anthropogenic oxygenated gas-phase organic compounds in urban airAtmospheric biogenic volatile organic compounds in the Alaskan Arctic tundra: constraints from measurements at Toolik Field StationAre dense networks of low-cost nodes really useful for monitoring air pollution? A case study in StaffordshireTechnical note: Northern midlatitude baseline ozone – long-term changes and the COVID-19 impactQuantifying the importance of vehicle ammonia emissions in an urban area of northeastern USA utilizing nitrogen isotopesSeasonal variation in nitryl chloride and its relation to gas-phase precursors during the JULIAC campaign in GermanyRadical chemistry in the Pearl River Delta: observations and modeling of OH and HO2 radicals in Shenzhen in 2018Reconciling the total carbon budget for boreal forest wildfire emissions using airborne observationsSummer variability of the atmospheric NO2 : NO ratio at Dome C on the East Antarctic PlateauMeasurement report: Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) pollution in urban Beijing: characteristics, sources, and implications for pollution controlMass spectrometric measurements of ambient ions and estimation of gaseous sulfuric acid in the free troposphere and lowermost stratosphere during the CAFE-EU/BLUESKY campaignSpringtime nitrogen oxides and tropospheric ozone in Svalbard: results from the measurement station networkMeasurement report: Observations of long-lived volatile organic compounds from the 2019–2020 Australian wildfires during the COALA campaignComposition and reactivity of volatile organic compounds in the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley of CaliforniaAnalysis of regional CO2 contributions at the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch by means of atmospheric transport simulations and δ13CVariations and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban region: insights from measurements on a tall towerTropical peat fire emissions: 2019 field measurements in Sumatra and Borneo and synthesis with previous studiesSulfuric acid in the Amazon basin: measurements and evaluation of existing sulfuric acid proxiesSeasonal variation in oxygenated organic molecules in urban Beijing and their contribution to secondary organic aerosolOxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as significant but varied contributors to VOC emissions from vehiclesThe impacts of wildfires on ozone production and boundary layer dynamics in California's Central ValleyDistribution of hydrogen peroxide over Europe during the BLUESKY aircraft campaignEddy covariance measurements highlight sources of nitrogen oxide emissions missing from inventories for central LondonBudget of nitrous acid (HONO) at an urban site in the fall season of Guangzhou, ChinaLong-term trend of ozone pollution in China during 2014–2020: distinct seasonal and spatial characteristics and ozone sensitivityInvestigation of new particle formation mechanisms and aerosol processes at Marambio Station, Antarctic PeninsulaFundamental Oxidation Processes in the Remote Marine Atmosphere Investigated Using the NO-NO2-O3 Photostationary StateMeasurement report: Variations in surface SO2 and NOx mixing ratios from 2004 to 2016 at a background site in the North China PlainFate of the nitrate radical at the summit of a semi-rural mountain site in Germany assessed with direct reactivity measurementsSpatiotemporal variations of the δ(O2 ∕ N2), CO2 and δ(APO) in the troposphere over the western North PacificOH and HO2 radical chemistry at a suburban site during the EXPLORE-YRD campaign in 2018Towards reconstructing the Arctic atmospheric methane history over the 20th century: measurement and modelling results for the North Greenland Ice Core Project firnAtmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian OceanJoint occurrence of heatwaves and ozone pollution and increased health risks in Beijing, China: role of synoptic weather pattern and urbanizationUsing atmospheric trace gas vertical profiles to evaluate model fluxes: a case study of Arctic-CAP observations and GEOS simulations for the ABoVE domainAn evaluation of new particle formation events in Helsinki during a Baltic Sea cyanobacterial summer bloomOceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide and methanethiol and their contribution to sulfur dioxide production in the marine atmosphereAn investigation into the chemistry of HONO in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in BermudaEmission factors and evolution of SO2 measured from biomass burning in wild and agricultural firesTropospheric ozone production and chemical regime analysis during the COVID-19 lockdown over EuropeUnexpected high frequency of nocturnal surface ozone enhancement events over China: Characteristics and mechanismsOverview: On the transport and transformation of pollutants in the outflow of major population centres – observational data from the EMeRGe European intensive operational period in summer 2017Interannual variability of terpenoid emissions in an alpine cityObservations and modelling of glyoxal in the tropical Atlantic marine boundary layerTop-down and bottom-up estimates of anthropogenic methyl bromide emissions from eastern China
Rebecca A. Wernis, Nathan M. Kreisberg, Robert J. Weber, Greg T. Drozd, and Allen H. Goldstein
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14987–15019,Short summary
We measured volatile and intermediate-volatility gases and semivolatile gas- and particle-phase compounds in the atmosphere during an 11 d period in a Bay Area suburb. We separated compounds based on variability in time to arrive at 13 distinct sources. Some compounds emitted from plants are found in greater quantities as fragrance compounds in consumer products. The wide volatility range of these measurements enables the construction of more complete source profiles.
Shijie Yu, Shenbo Wang, Ruixin Xu, Dong Zhang, Meng Zhang, Fangcheng Su, Xuan Lu, Xiao Li, Ruiqin Zhang, and Lingling Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14859–14878,Short summary
In this study, the hourly data of 57 VOC species were collected during 2018–2020 at an urban site in Zhengzhou, China. The research of concentrations, source apportionment, and atmospheric environmental implications clearly elucidated the differences in major reactants observed in different seasons and years. Therefore, the control strategy should focus on key species and sources among interannual and seasonal variations. The results can provide references to develop control strategies.
Haichao Wang, Bin Yuan, E Zheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Jie Wang, Keding Lu, Chenshuo Ye, Lei Yang, Shan Huang, Weiwei Hu, Suxia Yang, Yuwen Peng, Jipeng Qi, Sihang Wang, Xianjun He, Yubin Chen, Tiange Li, Wenjie Wang, Yibo Huangfu, Xiaobing Li, Mingfu Cai, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14837–14858,Short summary
We present intensive field measurement of ClNO2 in the Pearl River Delta in 2019. Large variation in the level, formation, and atmospheric impacts of ClNO2 was found in different air masses. ClNO2 formation was limited by the particulate chloride (Cl−) and aerosol surface area. Our results reveal that Cl− originated from various anthropogenic emissions rather than sea sources and show minor contribution to the O3 pollution and photochemistry.
Amy Christiansen, Loretta J. Mickley, Junhua Liu, Luke D. Oman, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14751–14782,Short summary
Understanding tropospheric ozone trends is crucial for accurate predictions of future air quality and climate, but drivers of trends are not well understood. We analyze global tropospheric ozone trends since 1980 using ozonesonde and surface measurements, and we evaluate two models for their ability to reproduce trends. We find observational evidence of increasing tropospheric ozone, but models underestimate these increases. This hinders our ability to estimate ozone radiative forcing.
Yue Tan and Tao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14455–14466,Short summary
We present a timely analysis of the effects of the recent lockdown in Shanghai on ground-level ozone (O3). Despite a huge reduction in human activity, O3 concentrations frequently exceeded the O3 air quality standard during the 2-month lockdown, implying that future emission reductions similar to those that occurred during the lockdown will not be sufficient to eliminate O3 pollution in many urban areas without the imposition of additional VOC controls or substantial decreases in NOx emissions.
Peeyush Khare, Jordan E. Krechmer, Jo E. Machesky, Tori Hass-Mitchell, Cong Cao, Junqi Wang, Francesca Majluf, Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker, Sonja Malek, Will Wang, Karl Seltzer, Havala O. T. Pye, Roisin Commane, Brian C. McDonald, Ricardo Toledo-Crow, John E. Mak, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14377–14399,Short summary
Ammonium adduct chemical ionization is used to examine the atmospheric abundances of oxygenated volatile organic compounds associated with emissions from volatile chemical products, which are now key contributors of reactive precursors to ozone and secondary organic aerosols in urban areas. The application of this valuable measurement approach in densely populated New York City enables the evaluation of emissions inventories and thus the role these oxygenated compounds play in urban air quality.
Vanessa Selimovic, Damien Ketcherside, Sreelekha Chaliyakunnel, Catherine Wielgasz, Wade Permar, Hélène Angot, Dylan B. Millet, Alan Fried, Detlev Helmig, and Lu Hu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 14037–14058,Short summary
Arctic warming has led to an increase in plants that emit gases in response to stress, but how these gases affect regional chemistry is largely unknown due to lack of observational data. Here we present the most comprehensive gas-phase measurements for this area to date and compare them to predictions from a global transport model. We report 78 gas-phase species and investigate their importance to atmospheric chemistry in the area, with broader implications for similar plant types.
Louise Bøge Frederickson, Ruta Sidaraviciute, Johan Albrecht Schmidt, Ole Hertel, and Matthew Stanley Johnson
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13949–13965,Short summary
Low-cost sensors see additional pollution that is not seen with traditional regional air quality monitoring stations. This additional local pollution is sufficient to cause exceedance of the World Health Organization exposure thresholds. Analysis shows that a significant amount of the NO2 pollution we observe is local, mainly due to road traffic. This article demonstrates how networks of nodes containing low-cost pollution sensors can powerfully extend existing monitoring programmes.
David D. Parrish, Richard G. Derwent, Ian C. Faloona, and Charles A. Mims
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13423–13430,Short summary
Accounting for the continuing long-term decrease of pollution ozone and the large 2020 Arctic stratospheric ozone depletion event improves estimates of background ozone changes caused by COVID-19-related emission reductions; they are smaller than reported earlier. Cooperative, international emission control efforts aimed at maximizing the ongoing decrease in hemisphere-wide background ozone may be the most effective approach to improving ozone pollution in northern midlatitude countries.
Wendell W. Walters, Madeline Karod, Emma Willcocks, Bok H. Baek, Danielle E. Blum, and Meredith G. Hastings
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13431–13448,Short summary
Atmospheric ammonia and its products are a significant source of urban haze and nitrogen deposition. We have investigated the seasonal source contributions to a mid-sized city in the northeastern US megalopolis utilizing geospatial statistical analysis and novel isotopic constraints, which indicate that vehicle emissions were significant components of the urban-reduced nitrogen budget. Reducing vehicle ammonia emissions should be considered to improve ecosystems and human health.
Zhaofeng Tan, Hendrik Fuchs, Andreas Hofzumahaus, William J. Bloss, Birger Bohn, Changmin Cho, Thorsten Hohaus, Frank Holland, Chandrakiran Lakshmisha, Lu Liu, Paul S. Monks, Anna Novelli, Doreen Niether, Franz Rohrer, Ralf Tillmann, Thalassa S. E. Valkenburg, Vaishali Vardhan, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Andreas Wahner, and Roberto Sommariva
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 13137–13152,Short summary
During the 2019 JULIAC campaign, ClNO2 was measured at a rural site in Germany in different seasons. The highest ClNO2 level was 1.6 ppbv in September. ClNO2 production was more sensitive to the availability of NO2 than O3. The average ClNO2 production efficiency was up to 18 % in February and September and down to 3 % in December. These numbers are at the high end of the values reported in the literature, indicating the importance of ClNO2 chemistry in rural environments in midwestern Europe.
Xinping Yang, Keding Lu, Xuefei Ma, Yue Gao, Zhaofeng Tan, Haichao Wang, Xiaorui Chen, Xin Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Lingyan He, Mengxue Tang, Bo Zhu, Shiyi Chen, Huabin Dong, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12525–12542,Short summary
We present the OH and HO2 radical observations at the Shenzhen site (Pearl River Delta, China) in the autumn of 2018. The diurnal maxima were 4.5 × 106 cm−3 for OH and 4.2 × 108 cm−3 for HO2 (including an estimated interference of 23 %–28 % from RO2 radicals during the daytime). The OH underestimation was identified again, and it was attributable to the missing OH sources. HO2 heterogeneous uptake, ROx sources and sinks, and the atmospheric oxidation capacity were evaluated as well.
Katherine L. Hayden, Shao-Meng Li, John Liggio, Michael J. Wheeler, Jeremy J. B. Wentzell, Amy Leithead, Peter Brickell, Richard L. Mittermeier, Zachary Oldham, Cristian M. Mihele, Ralf M. Staebler, Samar G. Moussa, Andrea Darlington, Mengistu Wolde, Daniel Thompson, Jack Chen, Debora Griffin, Ellen Eckert, Jenna C. Ditto, Megan He, and Drew R. Gentner
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12493–12523,Short summary
In this study, airborne measurements provided the most detailed characterization, to date, of boreal forest wildfire emissions. Measurements showed a large diversity of air pollutants expanding the volatility range typically reported. A large portion of organic species was unidentified, likely comprised of complex organic compounds. Aircraft-derived emissions improve wildfire chemical speciation and can support reliable model predictions of pollution from boreal forest wildfires.
Albane Barbero, Roberto Grilli, Markus M. Frey, Camille Blouzon, Detlev Helmig, Nicolas Caillon, and Joël Savarino
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 12025–12054,Short summary
The high reactivity of the summer Antarctic boundary layer results in part from the emissions of nitrogen oxides produced during photo-denitrification of the snowpack, but its underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. The results of this study suggest that more NO2 is produced from the snowpack early in the photolytic season, possibly due to stronger UV irradiance caused by a smaller solar zenith angle near the solstice.
Lulu Cui, Di Wu, Shuxiao Wang, Qingcheng Xu, Ruolan Hu, and Jiming Hao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11931–11944,Short summary
A 1-year campaign was conducted to characterize VOCs at a Beijing urban site during different episodes. VOCs from fuel evaporation and diesel exhaust, particularly toluene, xylenes, trans-2-butene, acrolein, methyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, 1-butene, and 1-hexene, were the main contributors. VOCs from diesel exhaust as well as coal and biomass combustion were found to be the dominant contributors for SOAFP, particularly the VOC species toluene, 1-hexene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and styrene.
Marcel Zauner-Wieczorek, Martin Heinritzi, Manuel Granzin, Timo Keber, Andreas Kürten, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, and Joachim Curtius
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11781–11794,Short summary
We present measurements of ambient ions in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe in spring 2020. We observed nitrate and hydrogen sulfate, amongst others. From their ratio, the number concentrations of gaseous sulfuric acid were inferred. Nitrate increased towards the stratosphere, whilst sulfuric acid was slightly decreased there. The average values for sulfuric acid were 1.9 to 7.8 × 105 cm-3. Protonated pyridine was identified in an altitude range of 4.6 to 8.5 km.
Alena Dekhtyareva, Mark Hermanson, Anna Nikulina, Ove Hermansen, Tove Svendby, Kim Holmén, and Rune Grand Graversen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11631–11656,Short summary
Despite decades of industrial activity in Svalbard, there is no continuous air pollution monitoring in the region’s settlements except Ny-Ålesund. The NOx and O3 observations from the three-station network have been compared for the first time in this study. It has been shown how the large-scale weather regimes control the synoptic meteorological conditions and determine the atmospheric long-range transport pathways and efficiency of local air pollution dispersion.
Asher P. Mouat, Clare Paton-Walsh, Jack B. Simmons, Jhonathan Ramirez-Gamboa, David W. T. Griffith, and Jennifer Kaiser
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 11033–11047,Short summary
We examine emissions of volatile organic compounds from 2020 wildfires in forested regions of Australia (AU). We find that biomass burning in temperate regions of the US and AU emit similar species in similar proportion, both in natural and lab settings. This suggests studies of wildfires in one region may be used to help improve air quality models in other parts of the world. We observe time series of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. Last, we look at which compounds contribute most to OH reactivity.
Shang Liu, Barbara Barletta, Rebecca S. Hornbrook, Alan Fried, Jeff Peischl, Simone Meinardi, Matthew Coggon, Aaron Lamplugh, Jessica B. Gilman, Georgios I. Gkatzelis, Carsten Warneke, Eric C. Apel, Alan J. Hills, Ilann Bourgeois, James Walega, Petter Weibring, Dirk Richter, Toshihiro Kuwayama, Michael FitzGibbon, and Donald Blake
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10937–10954,Short summary
California’s ozone persistently exceeds the air quality standards. We studied the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that produce ozone over the most polluted regions in California using aircraft measurements. We find that the oxygenated VOCs have the highest ozone formation potential. Spatially, biogenic VOCs are important during high ozone episodes in the South Coast Air Basin, while dairy emissions may be critical for ozone production in San Joaquin Valley.
Simone M. Pieber, Béla Tuzson, Stephan Henne, Ute Karstens, Christoph Gerbig, Frank-Thomas Koch, Dominik Brunner, Martin Steinbacher, and Lukas Emmenegger
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10721–10749,Short summary
Understanding regional greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere is a prerequisite to mitigate climate change. In this study, we investigated the regional contributions of carbon dioxide (CO2) at the location of the high Alpine observatory Jungfraujoch (JFJ, Switzerland, 3580 m a.s.l.). To this purpose, we combined receptor-oriented atmospheric transport simulations for CO2 concentration in the period 2009–2017 with stable carbon isotope (δ13C–CO2) information.
Xiao-Bing Li, Bin Yuan, Sihang Wang, Chunlin Wang, Jing Lan, Zhijie Liu, Yongxin Song, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Chenglei Pei, Peng Cheng, Suxia Yang, Jipeng Qi, Caihong Wu, Shan Huang, Yingchang You, Ming Chang, Huadan Zheng, Wenda Yang, Xuemei Wang, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10567–10587,Short summary
High-time-resolution measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made using an online mass spectrometer at a 600 m tall tower in urban region. Compositions, temporal variations, and sources of VOCs were quantitatively investigated in this study. We find that VOC measurements in urban regions aloft could better characterize source characteristics of anthropogenic emissions. Our results could provide important implications in making future strategies for control of VOCs.
Robert J. Yokelson, Bambang H. Saharjo, Chelsea E. Stockwell, Erianto I. Putra, Thilina Jayarathne, Acep Akbar, Israr Albar, Donald R. Blake, Laura L. B. Graham, Agus Kurniawan, Simone Meinardi, Diah Ningrum, Ati D. Nurhayati, Asmadi Saad, Niken Sakuntaladewi, Eko Setianto, Isobel J. Simpson, Elizabeth A. Stone, Sigit Sutikno, Andri Thomas, Kevin C. Ryan, and Mark A. Cochrane
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10173–10194,Short summary
Fire plus non-fire GHG emissions associated with draining peatlands are the largest per area of any land use change considered by the IPCC. To characterize average and variability for tropical peat fire emissions, highly mobile smoke sampling teams were deployed across four Indonesian provinces to explore an extended interannual, climatic, and spatial range. Large adjustments to IPCC-recommended emissions are suggested. Lab data bolster an extensive emissions database for tropical peat fires.
Deanna C. Myers, Saewung Kim, Steven Sjostedt, Alex B. Guenther, Roger Seco, Oscar Vega Bustillos, Julio Tota, Rodrigo A. F. Souza, and James N. Smith
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10061–10076,Short summary
We present the first measurements of gas-phase sulfuric acid from the Amazon basin and evaluate the efficacy of existing sulfuric acid parameterizations in this understudied region. Sulfuric acid is produced during the daytime and nighttime, though current proxies underestimate nighttime production. These results illustrate the need for better parameterizations of sulfuric acid and its precursors that are informed by measurements across a broad range of locations.
Yishuo Guo, Chao Yan, Yuliang Liu, Xiaohui Qiao, Feixue Zheng, Ying Zhang, Ying Zhou, Chang Li, Xiaolong Fan, Zhuohui Lin, Zemin Feng, Yusheng Zhang, Penggang Zheng, Linhui Tian, Wei Nie, Zhe Wang, Dandan Huang, Kaspar R. Daellenbach, Lei Yao, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Jingkun Jiang, Yongchun Liu, Veli-Matti Kerminen, and Markku Kulmala
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 10077–10097,Short summary
Gaseous oxygenated organic molecules (OOMs) are able to form atmospheric aerosols, which will impact on human health and climate change. Here, we find that OOMs in urban Beijing are dominated by anthropogenic sources, i.e. aromatic (29 %–41 %) and aliphatic (26 %–41 %) OOMs. They are also the main contributors to the condensational growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Therefore, the restriction on anthropogenic VOCs is crucial for the reduction of SOAs and haze formation.
Sihang Wang, Bin Yuan, Caihong Wu, Chaomin Wang, Tiange Li, Xianjun He, Yibo Huangfu, Jipeng Qi, Xiao-Bing Li, Qing'e Sha, Manni Zhu, Shengrong Lou, Hongli Wang, Thomas Karl, Martin Graus, Zibing Yuan, and Min Shao
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9703–9720,Short summary
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from vehicles are measured using online mass spectrometers. Differences between gasoline and diesel vehicles are observed with higher emission factors of most oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and heavier aromatics from diesel vehicles. A higher aromatics / toluene ratio could provide good indicators to distinguish emissions from both vehicle types. We show that OVOCs account for significant contributions to VOC emissions from vehicles, especially diesel vehicles.
Keming Pan and Ian C. Faloona
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9681–9702,Short summary
This work represents a unique analysis of 10 existing air quality network sites and meteorological sites, two AmeriFlux sites, and a radio acoustic sounding system in the Central Valley of California during five consecutive fire seasons, June through September, from 2016 to 2020. We find that the ozone production rate increases by ~ 50 % during wildfire influenced periods. Wildfire smoke also decreases the heat flux by 30 % and results in 12 % lower mixed-layer height.
Zaneta T. Hamryszczak, Andrea Pozzer, Florian Obersteiner, Birger Bohn, Benedikt Steil, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9483–9497,Short summary
Hydrogen peroxide plays a pivotal role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. Together with organic hydroperoxides, it forms a reservoir for peroxy radicals, which are known to be the key contributors to the self-cleaning processes of the atmosphere. Hydroperoxides were measured over Europe during the BLUESKY campaign in May–June 2020. The paper gives an overview of the distribution of the species in the troposphere and investigates the impact of wet scavenging and deposition on the budget of H2O2.
Will S. Drysdale, Adam R. Vaughan, Freya A. Squires, Sam J. Cliff, Stefan Metzger, David Durden, Natchaya Pingintha-Durden, Carole Helfter, Eiko Nemitz, C. Sue B. Grimmond, Janet Barlow, Sean Beevers, Gregor Stewart, David Dajnak, Ruth M. Purvis, and James D. Lee
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 9413–9433,Short summary
Measurements of NOx emissions are important for a good understanding of air quality. While there are many direct measurements of NOx concentration, there are very few measurements of its emission. Measurements of emissions provide constraints on emissions inventories and air quality models. This article presents measurements of NOx emission from the BT Tower in central London in 2017 and compares them with inventories, finding that they underestimate by a factor of ∼1.48.
Yihang Yu, Peng Cheng, Huirong Li, Wenda Yang, Baobin Han, Wei Song, Weiwei Hu, Xinming Wang, Bin Yuan, Min Shao, Zhijiong Huang, Zhen Li, Junyu Zheng, Haichao Wang, and Xiaofang Yu
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8951–8971,Short summary
We have investigated the budget of HONO at an urban site in Guangzhou. Budget and comprehensive uncertainty analysis suggest that at such locations as ours, HONO direct emissions and NO + OH can become comparable or even surpass other HONO sources that typically receive greater attention and interest, such as the NO2 heterogeneous source and the unknown daytime photolytic source. Our findings emphasize the need to reduce the uncertainties of both conventional and novel HONO sources and sinks.
Wenjie Wang, David D. Parrish, Siwen Wang, Fengxia Bao, Ruijing Ni, Xin Li, Suding Yang, Hongli Wang, Yafang Cheng, and Hang Su
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8935–8949,Short summary
Tropospheric ozone is an air pollutant that is detrimental to human health, vegetation and ecosystem productivity. A comprehensive characterisation of the spatial and temporal distribution of tropospheric ozone is critical to our understanding of these issues. Here we summarise this distribution over China from the available observational records to the extent possible. This study provides insights into efficient future ozone control strategies in China.
Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Lubna Dada, Eija Asmi, Janne Lampilahti, Tommy Chan, Jonathan E. Ferrara, Gustavo E. Copes, German Pérez-Fogwill, Luis Barreira, Minna Aurela, Douglas R. Worsnop, Tuija Jokinen, and Mikko Sipilä
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 8417–8437,Short summary
Understanding how aerosols form is crucial for correctly modeling the climate and improving future predictions. This work provides extensive analysis of aerosol particles and their precursors at Marambio Station, Antarctic Peninsula. We show that sulfuric acid, ammonia, and dimethylamine are key contributors to the frequent new particle formation events observed at the site. We discuss nucleation mechanisms and highlight the need for targeted measurement to fully understand these processes.
Simone T. Andersen, Beth S. Nelson, Katie A. Read, Shalini Punjabi, Luis Neves, Matthew J. Rowlinson, James Hopkins, Tomás Sherwen, Lisa K. Whalley, James D. Lee, and Lucy J. Carpenter
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
The cycling of NO and NO2 is important to understand to be able to predict O3 concentrations in the atmosphere. We have used long-term measurements from the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory together with model outputs to investigate the cycling of nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in very clean marine air. This study shows that we understand the processes occurring in very clean air, but with small amounts of pollution in the air known chemistry cannot explain what is observed.
Xueli Liu, Liang Ran, Weili Lin, Xiaobin Xu, Zhiqiang Ma, Fan Dong, Di He, Liyan Zhou, Qingfeng Shi, and Yao Wang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7071–7085,Short summary
Significant decreases in annual mean NOx from 2011 to 2016 and SO2 from 2008 to 2016 confirm the effectiveness of relevant control measures on the reduction in NOx and SO2 emissions in the North China Plain (NCP). NOx at SDZ had a weaker influence than SO2 on the emission reduction in Beijing and other areas in the NCP. An increase in the number of motor vehicles and weak traffic restrictions have caused vehicle emissions of NOx, which indicates that NOx emission control should be strengthened.
Patrick Dewald, Clara M. Nussbaumer, Jan Schuladen, Akima Ringsdorf, Achim Edtbauer, Horst Fischer, Jonathan Williams, Jos Lelieveld, and John N. Crowley
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7051–7069,Short summary
We measured the gas-phase reactivity of the NO3 radical on the summit (825 m a.s.l.) of a semi-rural mountain in southwestern Germany in July 2021. The impact of VOC-induced NO3 losses (mostly monoterpenes) competing with a loss by reaction with NO and photolysis throughout the diel cycle was estimated. Besides chemistry, boundary layer dynamics and plant-physiological processes presumably have a great impact on our observations, which were compared to previous NO3 measurements at the same site.
Shigeyuki Ishidoya, Kazuhiro Tsuboi, Yosuke Niwa, Hidekazu Matsueda, Shohei Murayama, Kentaro Ishijima, and Kazuyuki Saito
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6953–6970,Short summary
The atmospheric O2 / N2 ratio and CO2 concentration over the western North Pacific are presented. We found significant modification of the seasonal APO cycle in the middle troposphere due to the interhemispheric mixing of air. APO driven by the net marine biological activities indicated annual sea–air O2 flux during El Niño. Terrestrial biospheric and oceanic CO2 uptakes during 2012–2019 were estimated to be 1.8 and 2.8 Pg C a−1, respectively.
Xuefei Ma, Zhaofeng Tan, Keding Lu, Xinping Yang, Xiaorui Chen, Haichao Wang, Shiyi Chen, Xin Fang, Shule Li, Xin Li, Jingwei Liu, Ying Liu, Shengrong Lou, Wanyi Qiu, Hongli Wang, Limin Zeng, and Yuanhang Zhang
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 7005–7028,Short summary
This paper presents the first OH and HO2 radical observations made in the Yangtze River Delta in China, and strong oxidation capacity is discovered based on direct measurements. The impacts of new OH regeneration mechanisms, monoterpene oxidation, and HO2 uptake processes are examined and discussed. The sources and the factors to sustain such strong oxidation are the key to understanding the ozone pollution formed in this area.
Taku Umezawa, Satoshi Sugawara, Kenji Kawamura, Ikumi Oyabu, Stephen J. Andrews, Takuya Saito, Shuji Aoki, and Takakiyo Nakazawa
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6899–6917,Short summary
Greenhouse gas methane in the Arctic atmosphere has not been accurately reported for 1900–1980 from either direct observations or ice core reconstructions. By using trace gas data from firn (compacted snow layers above ice sheet), air samples at two Greenland sites, and a firn air transport model, this study suggests a likely range of the Arctic methane reconstruction for the 20th century. Atmospheric scenarios from two previous studies are also evaluated for consistency with the firn data sets.
Susann Tegtmeier, Christa Marandino, Yue Jia, Birgit Quack, and Anoop S. Mahajan
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6625–6676,Short summary
In the atmosphere over the Indian Ocean, intense anthropogenic pollution from Southeast Asia mixes with pristine oceanic air. During the winter monsoon, high pollution levels are regularly observed over the entire northern Indian Ocean, while during the summer monsoon, clean air dominates. Here, we review current progress in detecting and understanding atmospheric gas-phase composition over the Indian Ocean and its impacts on the upper atmosphere, oceanic biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems.
Lian Zong, Yuanjian Yang, Haiyun Xia, Meng Gao, Zhaobin Sun, Zuofang Zheng, Xianxiang Li, Guicai Ning, Yubin Li, and Simone Lolli
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6523–6538,Short summary
Heatwaves (HWs) paired with higher ozone (O3) concentration at surface level pose a serious threat to human health. Taking Beijing as an example, three unfavorable synoptic weather patterns were identified to dominate the compound HW and O3 pollution events. Under the synergistic stress of HWs and O3 pollution, public mortality risk increased, and synoptic patterns and urbanization enhanced the compound risk of events in Beijing by 33.09 % and 18.95 %, respectively.
Colm Sweeney, Abhishek Chatterjee, Sonja Wolter, Kathryn McKain, Robert Bogue, Stephen Conley, Tim Newberger, Lei Hu, Lesley Ott, Benjamin Poulter, Luke Schiferl, Brad Weir, Zhen Zhang, and Charles E. Miller
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6347–6364,Short summary
The Arctic Carbon Atmospheric Profiles (Arctic-CAP) project demonstrates the utility of aircraft profiles for independent evaluation of model-derived emissions and uptake of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and CO from land and ocean. Comparison with the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) modeling system suggests that fluxes of CO2 are very consistent with observations, while those of CH4 have some regional and seasonal biases, and that CO comparison is complicated by transport errors.
Roseline C. Thakur, Lubna Dada, Lisa J. Beck, Lauriane L. J. Quéléver, Tommy Chan, Marjan Marbouti, Xu-Cheng He, Carlton Xavier, Juha Sulo, Janne Lampilahti, Markus Lampimäki, Yee Jun Tham, Nina Sarnela, Katrianne Lehtipalo, Alf Norkko, Markku Kulmala, Mikko Sipilä, and Tuija Jokinen
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6365–6391,Short summary
Every year intense cyanobacterial and macroalgal blooms occur in the Baltic Sea and in the coastal areas surrounding Helsinki, yet no studies have addressed the impact of biogenic emissions from these blooms on gas vapor concentrations, which in turn could influence new particle formation. This is the first study of its kind to address the chemistry driving new particle formation (NPF) during a bloom period in this region, highlighting the role of biogenic sulfuric acid and iodic acid.
Gordon A. Novak, Delaney B. Kilgour, Christopher M. Jernigan, Michael P. Vermeuel, and Timothy H. Bertram
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6309–6325,Short summary
We describe field measurements of the mixing ratio and oceanic emission flux of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methanethiol (MeSH) from a coastal ocean site. DMS is known to impact aerosol formation and growth in the marine atmosphere, influencing cloud formation and climate. Measurements of MeSH, which is produced by the same oceanic source as DMS, are rare. We show that MeSH emissions are large and must be measured alongside DMS to understand marine sulfur chemistry and aerosol formation.
Yuting Zhu, Youfeng Wang, Xianliang Zhou, Yasin F. Elshorbany, Chunxiang Ye, Matthew Hayden, and Andrew J. Peters
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6327–6346,Short summary
The daytime chemistry of nitrous acid (HONO), which plays an important role in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere, is not well understood. In this work, we report new field measurement results of HONO and the relevant parameters in the marine boundary layer at Tudor Hill Marine Atmospheric Observatory in Bermuda. We evaluate the daytime HONO budgets in air masses under different types of interaction with the island and examine the strengths of different HONO formation and loss mechanisms.
Pamela Rickly, Hongyu Guo, Pedro Campuzano-Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Glenn M. Wolfe, Ryan Bennett, Ilann Bourgeois, John D. Crounse, Jack E. Dibb, Joshua P. DiGangi, Glenn S. Diskin, Maximilian Dollner, Emily M. Gargulinski, Samuel R. Hall, Hannah S. Halliday, Thomas F. Hanisco, Reem A. Hannun, Jin Liao, Richard Moore, Benjamin A. Nault, John B. Nowak, Claire E. Robinson, Thomas Ryerson, Kevin J. Sanchez, Manuel Schöberl, Amber J. Soja, Jason M. St. Clair, Kenneth L. Thornhill, Kirk Ullmann, Paul O. Wennberg, Bernadett Weinzierl, Elizabeth B. Wiggins, Edward L. Winstead, and Andrew W. Rollins
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
Biomass burning sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission factors range from 0.27–1.1 g kg-1 C. Biomass burning SO2 can quickly form sulfate and organosulfur, but these pathways are dependent on liquid water content and pH. Hydroxymethanesulfonate (HMS) appears to be directly emitted from some fire sources, but is not the sole contributor to the organosulfur signal. It is shown that HMS and organosulfur chemistry may be an important S(IV) reservoir with the fate dependent on the surrounding conditions.
Clara M. Nussbaumer, Andrea Pozzer, Ivan Tadic, Lenard Röder, Florian Obersteiner, Hartwig Harder, Jos Lelieveld, and Horst Fischer
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 6151–6165,Short summary
The European COVID-19 lockdowns have significantly reduced the emission of primary pollutants such as NOx, which impacts the tropospheric photochemical processes and the abundance of O3. In this study, we present how the lockdowns have affected tropospheric trace gases and ozone production based on in situ observations and modeling simulations. We additionally show that the chemical regime shifted from a transition point to a NOx limitation in the upper troposphere.
Cheng He, Xiao Lu, Haolin Wang, Haichao Wang, Yan Li, Guowen He, Yuanping He, Yurun Wang, Youlang Zhang, Yiming Liu, Qi Fan, and Shaojia Fan
Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.,
Revised manuscript accepted for ACPShort summary
We report that nocturnal ozone enhancement (NOE) events are observed at a high annual frequency of 41 % over 800 sites over China in 2014–2019, about 50 % larger than that over Europe and US. High daytime ozone provides rich ozone source in the nighttime residual layer, determining the overall high frequency of NOE events in China, and then the enhanced atmospheric mixing triggers NOE events by allowing the ozone-rich air in the residual layer to be mixed into the nighttime boundary layer.
M. Dolores Andrés Hernández, Andreas Hilboll, Helmut Ziereis, Eric Förster, Ovid O. Krüger, Katharina Kaiser, Johannes Schneider, Francesca Barnaba, Mihalis Vrekoussis, Jörg Schmidt, Heidi Huntrieser, Anne-Marlene Blechschmidt, Midhun George, Vladyslav Nenakhov, Theresa Harlass, Bruna A. Holanda, Jennifer Wolf, Lisa Eirenschmalz, Marc Krebsbach, Mira L. Pöhlker, Anna B. Kalisz Hedegaard, Linlu Mei, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Yangzhuoran Liu, Ralf Koppmann, Hans Schlager, Birger Bohn, Ulrich Schumann, Andreas Richter, Benjamin Schreiner, Daniel Sauer, Robert Baumann, Mariano Mertens, Patrick Jöckel, Markus Kilian, Greta Stratmann, Christopher Pöhlker, Monica Campanelli, Marco Pandolfi, Michael Sicard, José L. Gómez-Amo, Manuel Pujadas, Katja Bigge, Flora Kluge, Anja Schwarz, Nikos Daskalakis, David Walter, Andreas Zahn, Ulrich Pöschl, Harald Bönisch, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Platt, and John P. Burrows
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5877–5924,Short summary
EMeRGe provides a unique set of in situ and remote sensing airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol particles along selected flight routes in the lower troposphere over Europe. The interpretation uses also complementary collocated ground-based and satellite measurements. The collected data help to improve the current understanding of the complex spatial distribution of trace gases and aerosol particles resulting from mixing, transport, and transformation of pollution plumes over Europe.
Lisa Kaser, Arianna Peron, Martin Graus, Marcus Striednig, Georg Wohlfahrt, Stanislav Juráň, and Thomas Karl
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5603–5618,Short summary
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g., terpenoids) play an essential role in atmospheric chemistry. Urban greening activities need to consider the ozone- and aerosol-forming potential of these compounds released from vegetation. NMVOC emissions in urban environments are complex, and the biogenic component remains poorly quantified. For summer conditions biogenic emissions dominate terpene emissions and heat waves can significantly modulate urban biogenic terpenoid emissions.
Hannah Walker, Daniel Stone, Trevor Ingham, Sina Hackenberg, Danny Cryer, Shalini Punjabi, Katie Read, James Lee, Lisa Whalley, Dominick V. Spracklen, Lucy J. Carpenter, Steve R. Arnold, and Dwayne E. Heard
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5535–5557,Short summary
Glyoxal is a ubiquitous reactive organic compound in the atmosphere, which may form organic aerosol and impact the atmosphere's oxidising capacity. There are limited measurements of glyoxal's abundance in the remote marine atmosphere. We made new measurements of glyoxal using a highly sensitive technique over two 4-week periods in the tropical Atlantic atmosphere. We show that daytime measurements are mostly consistent with our chemical understanding but a potential missing source at night.
Haklim Choi, Mi-Kyung Park, Paul J. Fraser, Hyeri Park, Sohyeon Geum, Jens Mühle, Jooil Kim, Ian Porter, Peter K. Salameh, Christina M. Harth, Bronwyn L. Dunse, Paul B. Krummel, Ray F. Weiss, Simon O'Doherty, Dickon Young, and Sunyoung Park
Atmos. Chem. Phys., 22, 5157–5173,Short summary
We observed 12-year continuous CH3Br pollution signals at Gosan and estimated anthropogenic CH3Br emissions in eastern China. The analysis revealed a significant discrepancy between top-down estimates and the bottom-up emissions from the fumigation usage reported to the United Nations Environment Programme, likely due to unreported or inaccurately reported fumigation usage. This result provides information to monitor international compliance with the Montreal Protocol.
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Our observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at the Waliguan GAW Baseline Observatory show that concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and particulate bound mercury (PBM) were elevated compared to the Northern Hemisphere background. We propose that the major sources of GEM and PBM were mainly related to anthropogenic emissions and desert dust sources. This study highlights that dust-related sources played an important role in the variations of PBM in the Tibetan Plateau.
Our observations of speciated atmospheric mercury at the Waliguan GAW Baseline Observatory show...